Sample records for brownfields

  1. Brownfields Site Information (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  2. Brownfields Grants Information (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes all types of information regarding Brownfields grant programs that subsidize/support Brownfield cleanup. This includes EPA's Brownfields Program...

  3. ACRES - Brownfields Properties (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,...

  4. US EPA Brownfields Grants (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer provides point locations for Brownfields Grants as derived from the Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) database. Locations were derived from Cleanups in My...

  5. Brownfields New Markets Tax Credits (United States)

    This Brownfi elds Solutions factsheet is intended for brownfields stakeholders interested in how the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program can be used as a financing mechanism in brownfields cleanup and redevelopment.

  6. Preventive Indicators for Creating Brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burinskienė


    Full Text Available Although the problem of brownfields in urban territories is successfully limited, it is a negative phenomenon of a sustainable city. Moreover, the number of recently created brownfield territories has become higher than that of the regenerated ones. Such territories reduce the quality of the social and economic setting of a city as well as visually and physically affect the life quality of city residents. Unfortunately, methods for the revitalization of brownfield land have been applied to deal with the consequences of the problem rather than to limit the problem itself. The authors of the article have investigated the aspects to be avoided to not create brownfields. The indicators that enable predicting the probability of a territory becoming a brownfield have been analyzed in this paper. Countries develop and exist under different social and economic conditions. Therefore, there is no uniform and universally accepted system of indicators for brownfield prevention that can be applied in any country or city. The authors have attempted to implement a recently developed idea of indicators for prevention under Lithuanian conditions and have selected those facilitating the identification of brownfields with an aim of identifying the most significant ones warning about the potential harm from the creation of brownfields in Lithuania. The selected indicators have been grouped, taking into account social, economic, natural, building and infrastructure settings of the city and ranked by a group of experts in urban planning. The established hierarchy of indicators in the groups of urban setting has allowed the authors to select the most significant preventive indicators for brownfields. The created system of indicators could be applied in practice as a basis for monitoring pertinent data and tracking their change.

  7. Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool to support effective brownfield regeneration. (United States)

    Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Klusáček, Petr; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea; Frantál, Bohumil; Martinát, Standa; Kunc, Josef; Osman, Robert; Bartke, Stephan


    In the last decade, the regeneration of derelict or underused sites, fully or partly located in urban areas (or so called "brownfields"), has become more common, since free developable land (or so called "greenfields") has more and more become a scare and, hence, more expensive resource, especially in densely populated areas. Although the regeneration of brownfield sites can offer development potentials, the complexity of these sites requires considerable efforts to successfully complete their revitalization projects and the proper selection of promising sites is a pre-requisite to efficiently allocate the limited financial resources. The identification and analysis of success factors for brownfield sites regeneration can support investors and decision makers in selecting those sites which are the most advantageous for successful regeneration. The objective of this paper is to present the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool (TBPT), developed as a web-based solution to assist stakeholders responsible for wider territories or clusters of brownfield sites (portfolios) to identify which brownfield sites should be preferably considered for redevelopment or further investigation. The prioritization approach is based on a set of success factors properly identified through a systematic stakeholder engagement procedure. Within the TBPT these success factors are integrated by means of a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology, which includes stakeholders' requalification objectives and perspectives related to the brownfield regeneration process and takes into account the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social and environmental dimensions). The tool has been applied to the South Moravia case study (Czech Republic), considering two different requalification objectives identified by local stakeholders, namely the selection of suitable locations for the development of a shopping centre and a solar power plant, respectively. The application of the TBPT to

  8. Brownfields and Land Revitalization Programmatic Information (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains resources provided by EPA's Brownfields and Land Revitalization program that can be used for the assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment of...

  9. National Brownfields Conference 2015 Summary Documents (United States)

    The agenda for the local government roundtable, the town hall summary, and the Urban Waters presentation delivered by Mike Shapiro are here attached. All relate to this event, the National Brownfields Conference held in Chicago, IL on September 2, 2015.

  10. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Properties, National Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Properties as part of the CIMC web service, although the data are generally more broadly applicable. Brownfields are...

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - MDC_Brownfield (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Brownfield Areas are contiguous areas of one or more brownfield sites, some of which may not be contaminated, and which has been designated by a local government by...

  12. Talented Employees in the Field of Brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidová Marcela


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at bringing information on one of the important terms for successful redevelopment, recovery and operation of brownfields – efficient people, employees. Not only brownfields, but generally all organizations that want to be competitive and successful, want to outperform their present rivals and considerably increase their added value have to pay attention to talent management. The article is concerned, on the basis of available theoretical information and the existing practical experience, at describing three particular processes of talents management (their identification, development and retention which are necessary for the successful use of talent. The purpose of the article is providing recommendation how to help operators of brownfields identify and retain highly talented employees, build on their strong points, reward their success, provide them with a chance to make progress, and increase their overall efficiency.

  13. 76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative...: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB Control Number: 2506-0153. Description of the need for the Information and proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is authorized...

  14. Brownfield Grant Site Points, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Brownfields Program provides direct funding for brownfields assessment, cleanup, revolving loans, and environmental job training. To facilitate the leveraging...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA - APRIL 2012 (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This data set contains Brownfield Boundaries. Brownfields are defined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) as abandoned, idled, or underused...

  16. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtović


    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  17. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtovic


    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  18. Brownfield redevelopment: a hidden opportunity for conservation biology (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jeffery M. Levengood; Alaka Wali; David Soucek; Douglas F. Stotz


    Brownfields - lands that are idle due to concerns about contamination - are often prominent features of urban areas. Conservation in an urbanizing world must take brownfields into consideration because regions of heavy industry can harbor areas of ecological significance. The Calumet region of northwest Indiana and northeast Illinois is one such place, where the...

  19. A GIS connection between brownfield sites, transportation and economic development. (United States)


    "This report outlines the design and development of a web-based data distribution system for brownfield site redevelopment in Toledo-Lucas County, Ohio. The system is designed to advance smart growth initiatives by creating the link between transport...

  20. Brownfield Sites, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,...

  1. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions, National Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions as part of the CIMC web service. The data represent polygonal boundaries that show different types...

  2. Preliminary study of phytoremediation of brownfield soil contaminated by PAHs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Rezek, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    599-600, DEC 1 (2017), s. 572-580 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brownfield * Energy plants * Phytoremediation * Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  3. Brownfield redevelopment as a measure for climate changes mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizler Jasna


    Full Text Available This paper explores brownfield renewal as a measure of sustainable land use. The aim was to highlight the brownfield redevelopment as a strategy for mitigation of negative effects of climate changes. Emphasis was put on innovative concepts in brownfield redevelopment, which involve land recycling, application of ecological and sustainable solutions. Main case studies are from Austria. Their analysis and evaluation show which concepts and strategies are used in successful redevelopment projects, and which strategies give the best results. This shows that brownfield renewal can have positive effects on regulation and mitigation of climate changes. Finally, guidelines for climate changes accountable and redevelopment will be derived. Research methodology is qualitative and combined, comprising of data analysis, case studies (field work, interviews with relevant actors, analysis of case studies and evaluation according to previously defined criteria, synthesis of results and generalisation and interpretation of results.

  4. Toward Sustainable Brownfield Redevelopment Using Life-Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chen


    Full Text Available The redevelopment of brownfields has become an important issue, as the number of contaminated sites has been increasing. However, a comprehensive regulatory framework is lacking that includes urban planning and a sustainability plan at the national level to support brownfield redevelopment in Taiwan. Few studies have explored sustainable management objectives to reduce the environmental impact of increasing economic value of the proliferating redeveloped brownfields. This study proposes a feasible definition for “brownfield” in Taiwan and analyzes the remediation goals to enable their inclusion in future land-use categories for urban planning. In order to rank the various options for brownfield development by sustainability, this study evaluates the external costs and benefits based on the environmental impact. Finally, the brownfield sustainability index (BSI was developed to determine the feasibility of sustainable redevelopment relevant to the different land reuse scenarios. For the selected study site, the option of green land with solar energy (ground P-Si panels was determined to be the best choice compared with the commercial, residential, and industrial scenarios. This study provides a framework for planning brownfield assessment strategies to address the current soil and groundwater remediation and land use policy issues in Taiwan.

  5. 77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative...) 2009 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI... by HUD. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants...

  6. 77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative... (FLY) 2010 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative... available by HUD. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants...

  7. Targeted selection of brownfields from portfolios for sustainable regeneration: User experiences from five cases testing the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool. (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Martinát, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Pizzol, Lisa; Alexandrescu, Filip; Frantál, Bohumil; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex


    Prioritizing brownfields for redevelopment in real estate portfolios can contribute to more sustainable regeneration and land management. Owners of large real estate and brownfield portfolios are challenged to allocate their limited resources to the development of the most critical or promising sites, in terms of time and cost efficiency. Authorities worried about the negative impacts of brownfields - in particular in the case of potential contamination - on the environment and society also need to prioritize their resources to those brownfields that most urgently deserve attention and intervention. Yet, numerous factors have to be considered for prioritizing actions, in particular when adhering to sustainability principles. Several multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approaches and tools have been suggested in order to support these actors in managing their brownfield portfolios. Based on lessons learned from the literature on success factors, sustainability assessment and MCDA approaches, researchers from a recent EU project have developed the web-based Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool (TBPT). It facilitates assessment and prioritization of a portfolio of sites on the basis of the probability of successful and sustainable regeneration or according to individually specified objectives. This paper introduces the challenges of brownfield portfolio management in general and reports about the application of the TBPT in five cases: practical test-uses by two large institutional land owners from Germany, a local and a regional administrative body from the Czech Republic, and an expert from a national environmental authority from Romania. Based on literature requirements for sustainability assessment tools and on the end-users' feedbacks from the practical tests, we discuss the TBPT's strengths and weaknesses in order to inform and give recommendations for future development of prioritization tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land. (United States)

    French, Christopher J; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Putwain, Philip D


    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phyto-stabilization) to these less mobile contaminants.

  9. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L. [HDR Engineering Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)


    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  10. Brownfields and Urban Agriculture: Interim Guidelines for Safe Gardening Practices (United States)

    This document is a condensation of the input of experts from the government, the nonprofit sector, and academia who gathered to outline the range of issues which need to be addressed in order to safely grow food on former brownfield sites.

  11. Brownfield sites – between abandonment and redevelopment case study: Craiova city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Popescu


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of Brownfield sites in Craiova City. The brownfield sites are of primary importance because they do not only influence the natural environment but also have socio-economic influences on the city in broad meaning: problems in attracting investors, decreasing the attractiveness of real estate properties, the increased rate of unemployment or the consumption of greenfields. Despite this, there is a lack or insufficient information among the decision makers. The general urban plan of Craiova City does not identify the existence of any brownfield site. Moreover, the official planning papers developed by the local authorities (such as The Local Development Strategy and the Integrated Plan for Urban Development make no references to the brownfield sites. In this respect, the first part of the papers addresses the concept of brownfield and also identifies and maps the types of brownfields in Craiova. Based on specific and relevant case studies, the second part is critically examining the evolution patterns of the brownfield sites within the last decades. Specific management solutions for the reuse and redevelopment of the brownfield sites are also put forward. The paper addresses primarily the and use planners, in order to provide them with a better understanding of what brownfield site are, their nature, scale and patterns.

  12. Effect of the Existence of Brownfields on Selected Item Expenditure of Municipal Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endel Stanislav


    Full Text Available The existence of brownfields in an area results in a number of problems. Among others, economic problems are often mentioned. They are mainly connected with negative influence on urban economics, i.e. the total cost of construction and operation of the city. These increased costs are then naturally reflected in the budgets of municipalities burdened by the existence of brownfields. This paper presents the individual items of municipal budgets, which can be influenced by the existence of brownfields, and then examines on a practical example of six Czech towns whether any functional dependence can be found between these items and a number of brownfields in the municipalities.

  13. Evaluation of brownfields - on example of the South Bohemian region


    Zuzana Dvořáková Líšková; Eva Cudlínová; Petr Dvořák; Miloslav Lapka


    Regeneration of brownfields in developed countries is perceived as a complex process of changes of the entire society and landscape. It does not include only various social, economic and ecological aspects, but also the entire look and management of the area. Methods or tools for regeneration of landscape are used for territorially various areas, and thus it is necessary to judge this issue globally in all relations. The objective of this research was to apply the German model evaluation of b...

  14. 76 FR 17662 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant Application AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION...: Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant Application. OMB Approval Number: 2506-0153. Form...

  15. Institutional determinants of brownfield formation in Chinese cities and urban villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/354319329; van Oort, F.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Geertman, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924; Lin, Y.L.


    Brownfields are spatial manifestations of previous economic activities, and their redevelopment may contribute to a more sustainable urban land-use in the rapidly urbanising environment of post-reform China. Owing to China's unique institutional background, two types of brownfields can be


    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: or phone 1-800-490-...

  17. Influence of Brownfield Conversion on Evaluating Real Estate and Implemeting the Possibilites of Urban Brownfields in Lithuanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Bielinskas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of brownfield in Lithuania. The paper overviews Lithuanian and foreign experience of integrating the introduced areas into the urban framework based on social, economic, ecological and cultural contextuality. The main problem, on Lithuanian scale, is the absence of an official definition of urban brownfield. The legal framework in Lithuania does not contain any provisions to be processed. The article is aimed at identifying potential threats to the areas in respect of criteria for urban brownfields, and, according to this review, at revealing possible uses of this land. One of the most effective ways of urban sustainable development is the conversion of former military, industrial and other land accepted as the legacy of the Soviet regime. The authors have established a causal relationship resulting in the emergence of the urban areas of wilderness and developed guidance on using them. The authors have analysed and evaluated the existing real estate developers and current trends towards opportunities for private and public partnership (PPP in Lithuania. Although PPP is widespread in most of European countries, it is a rare phenomenon in Lithuania, and has no deep-rooted tradition of this kind of investment in urban infrastructure; however, evaluation is one of the most potential ways to revitalize abandoned urban territories. Based on practices of foreign countries, the authors have identified PPP as a priority.

  18. Earth Science Instruction Using Brownfields in the Virtual Classroom (United States)

    Bower, P. M.; Liddicoat, J. C.


    Geophysical methods of defining contaminant plumes from brownfields are taught in lecture and laboratory using Brownfield Action (BA) that is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation in which undergraduate students explore and solve problems in geohydrology. In the U.S., BA is recognized nationally as an innovative curriculum and simulation that has been developed by Peter Bower at Barnard College in collaboration with Columbia University's Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. Brownfields are former industrial sites that have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites when reclaimed. As part of assessing the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA contains a narrative element that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams must construct a detailed narrative from diverse forms of information, including socio-historical and a scientific dataset comprised of over 2,000,000 data points. BA forces the students to act on their perceptions of the interlocking realms of knowledge, theory and practical experience, providing an opportunity for them to gain valuable practice at tackling the complexity and ambiguity of a large-scale, interdisciplinary investigation of groundwater contamination and environmental forensics.

  19. Transport Infrastructure in the Process of Cataloguing Brownfields (United States)

    Kramářová, Zuzana


    To begin with, the identification and follow-up revitalisation of brownfields raises a burning issue in territorial planning as well as in construction engineering. This phenomenon occurs not only in the Czech Republic and Europe, but also world-wide experts conduct its careful investigation. These issues may be divided into several areas. First, it is identifying and cataloguing single territorial localities; next, it means a complex process of locality revitalisation. As a matter of fact, legislative framework represents a separate area, which is actually highly specific in individual countries in accordance with the existing law, norms and regulations (it concerns mainly territorial planning and territory segmentation into appropriate administrative units). Legislative base of the Czech Republic was analysed in an article at WMCAUS in 2016. The solution of individual identification and following cataloguing of brownfields is worked out by Form of Regional Studies within the Legislation of the Czech Republic. Due to huge the scale of issues to be tackled, their content is only loosely defined in regard to Building Act and its implementing regulations, e.g. examining the layout of future construction in the area, locating architecturally or otherwise interesting objects, transport or technical infrastructure management, tourism, socially excluded localities etc. Legislative base does not exist, there is no common method for identifying and cataloguing brownfields. Therefore, individual catalogue lists are subject to customer’s requirements. All the same, the relevant information which the database contains may be always examined. One of them is part about transport infrastructure. The information may be divided into three subareas – information on transport accessibility of the locality, information on the actual infrastructure in the locality and information on the transport accessibility of human resources.


    This guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically pulp and paper mills sites. The document helps users to understan...

  1. Brownfields Recover Your Resources - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects (United States)

    This document provides background information on how the sustainable reuse of brownfield properties includes efforts to reduce the environmental impact by reusing and recycling materials generated during building construction, demolition, or renovation.

  2. 76 FR 2905 - FY2011 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FY2011 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of the availability of funds. SUMMARY: EPA's Office of...

  3. An integrative methodology to improve brownfield redevelopment planning in Chinese cities: A case study of Futian, Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, F.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Kuffer, M.; Zhan, Q.


    Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant (USEPA, 2002). In recent years, there have been a rising number of brownfield redevelopment practices in

  4. Designing sustainable and economically attractive brownfield revitalization options using an integrated assessment model. (United States)

    Schädler, S; Morio, M; Bartke, S; Rohr-Zänker, R; Finkel, M


    We describe the development of an integrated assessment model which evaluates redevelopment options of large contaminated brownfields and we present the application of the model in a case study. Aiming to support efficient and sustainable revitalization and communication between stakeholders, the presented assessment model integrates three pinnacles of brownfield revitalization: (i) subsurface remediation and site preparation costs, (ii) market-oriented economic appraisal, and (iii) the expected contribution of planned future land use to sustainable community and regional development. For the assessment, focus is set on the early stage of the brownfield redevelopment process, which is characterized by limited data availability and by flexibility in land use planning and development scope. At this stage, revealing the consequences of adjustments and alterations in planning options can foster efficiency in communication between the involved parties and thereby facilitates the brownfield revitalization process. Results from the case-study application indicate that the integrated assessment provides help in the identification of land use options beneficial in both a sustainable and an economical sense. For the study site it is shown on one hand that brownfield redevelopment is not automatically in line with sustainable regional development, and on the other hand it is demonstrated that additional contributions to sustainability are not intrinsically tied to increased costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building. (United States)

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas


    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will

  6. Destiny of Urban Brownfields: Spatial Patterns and Perceived Consequences of Post-Socialistic Deindustrialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef KUNC


    Full Text Available Compared to Western European or North American countries with developed market economies, the formation and acceptance of brownfields in post-socialist countries was delayed by approximately 30 years. For the Central European and partly Eastern European countries, the fall of the Iron Curtain and the transition after 1989 from a planned and state-controlled economy towards a market economy was unique for its time consistency. Yet, it was also specific for the distinct statuses of main sectors of national economy of individual countries, which got hugely manifested during the formation of spatial and functional connections concerning the problems of brownfields of all types (post-industrial, post-agricultural, post-military etc.. In the Czech Republic, there is a long history of industry; from the middle of the 19th century (the boom of the Industrial Revolution, it was regarded the most industrially developed country of Central and Eastern Europe. The massive deindustrialization of the 1990s caused increased concentrations of brownfield localities, with the local people and public administration becoming more familiar with them, and it also led to initial efforts for their systematic regeneration. The cities of Brno and Ostrava (Czech Republic, as well as other big cities in the Central European area, are typical examples for their finished intensive process of deindustrialization. Yet, regarding their economic preferences, and thus the existence of brownfields, they are highly distinct – in Brno there are more textile and engineering companies together with military and agricultural facilities; in Ostrava abandoned coal mining and metallurgical industry sites prevail. From the perspective of humangeographical methods and approaches, this contribution deals both with the functional-spatial consequences of brownfield existence in urban space, as well as with the results of research focused on the perception of the given issues by the residents

  7. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project (United States)

    Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas


    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. Methodological note: data for this life-cycle assessment were obtained from project reports, construction blueprints and utility bills.

  8. Assessing Success Factors of Brownfields Regeneration: International and Inter-stakeholder Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Kunc, Josef; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav

    44E, 44E (2015), s. 91-107 ISSN 2247-8310 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * success factors * stakeholders perception Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  9. Brownfield regeneration from the perspective of residents: Place circumstances versus character of respondents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, S.; Navrátil, J.; Pícha, K.; Turečková, K.; Klusáček, Petr


    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), s. 71-92 ISSN 1821-2506 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-26934S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * regeneration * perception Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  10. Assessing the effect of publicly assisted brownfield redevelopment on surrounding property values (United States)

    Christopher A. De Sousa; Changson Wu; Lynne M. Westphal


    This study measures and compares the impact of publicly assisted brownfield redevelopment on nearby residential property values in Milwaukee and Minneapolis. It also examines the influence of land use, neighborhood characteristics, and other redevelopment factors on this impact. The research approach incorporates a hedonic method to quantify nearby property value...

  11. Negotiation issues in forming public–private partnerships for brownfield redevelopment: Applying a game theoretical experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glumac, B.; Han, Q.; Schaefer, W.; Krabben, E. van der


    The redevelopment of a brownfield can provide a range of societal, environmental but also economic benefits for a number of entities. In the Netherlands (and elsewhere), public–private partnerships are common practice for such projects, because of two main reasons. First, limitations to public

  12. Assessment of the suitability of trees for brownfields reuse in the post-mining landscape (United States)

    Mec, J.; Lokajickova, B.; Sotkova, N.; Svehlakova, H.; Stalmachova, B.


    The post-mining landscape of Upper Silesian is deterioration of the original landscape caused by underground coal mining. There are huge ecosystems changes, which have been reclaimed by nature-friendly procedures. The aim of the work is to evaluate the suitability of selected trees for reuse of brownfields in this landscape and proposals for reclamation in the interest areas of Upper Silesian.

  13. Brownfield dilemmas in the transformation of post-communist cities: a case study of Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Duží


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the procedures of urban brownfield solutions, with a focus on the environmental and cultural-historical aspects. The paper explores the dilemmas of brownfield regeneration and redevelopment. These processes are placed in the wider perspective of multi – transformation processes of post-communist cities. We compared two former industrial zones – Karolina and the Lower Area of Vítkovice in the city of Ostrava – where we illustrated the key factors influencing their transformation. These case studies point to a unique example of urban industrial brownfields concentrated within the area around the city centre, surrounded by residential zones. These brownfields also reveal the scope of the problem, as they are connected not only with the urban structure, but also with environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects. To research the issue in depth, we mostly used a qualitative approach to examine perceptions and to frame the brownfield issue. We partly applied frame analysis, a narrative approach and we also used research techniques such as document content analysis, and in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders who are involved in the remediation of brownfields and their subsequent re-use (N₌15. We researched how stakeholders perceive and frame the problem and which solutions they prefer. Moreover, having made a comparison of the state of affairs between 2001 and 2012, we presented a deeper insight into the topic. We found quite a wide range of opinions toward the brownfields issue and its solutions. The main issues were related to people striving to find the identity of the city and the tension between the old and the new: looking for the direction of future development and the face of the city of Ostrava. We identified location, level of environmental degradation and social-economic conditions as the main factors that influence the brownfield issue.

  14. Analysis of professors' perceptions towards institutional redevelopment of brownfield sites in Alabama (United States)

    King, Berkley Nathaniel, Jr.

    This study was conducted to analyze professors' perceptions on the institutional redevelopment of brownfield sites into usable greenspaces. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2016) refers to brownfields as sites, (either facility or land) under public law § 107-118 (H.R. 2869), which are contaminated with a substance that is classified as a hazard or a pollutant. Usable greenspaces, however, are open spaces or any open piece of land that is undeveloped, has no buildings or other built structures, and is accessible to the public (EPA, 2015). Open green spaces provide recreational areas for residents and help to enhance the beauty and environmental quality of neighborhoods (EPA, 2015). In addition, in a study conducted by Dadvand et al. (2015), exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health among elementary school children, and this exposure, according to Dadvand et al., could also influence cognitive development. Because of the institutional context provided in these articles and other research studies, a sequential mixed-methods study was conducted that investigated the perceptions of professors towards the redevelopment of brownfields near their campuses. This study provided demographics of forty-two college and university professors employed at two institutions in the state of Alabama, a southeastern region of the United States. Survey questions were structured to analyze qualitative data. The secondary method of analysis utilized descriptive statistics to measure the most important indicators that influences professors' perceptions. The collection of quantitative data was adapted from an instrument designed by Wernstedt, Crooks, & Hersh (2003). Findings from the study showed that professors are knowledgeable and aware of the sociological and economic challenges in low income communities where brownfields are geographically located. Pseudonyms are used for the three universities which were contacted. Findings also

  15. Is FDI Beneficial for Development in any Case: an Empirical Comparison between Greenfield and Brownfield Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Sarıalioğlu HAYALI


    Full Text Available In literature, the “quality” of FDI rather than its “quantity” was started to be focused on in order to be beneficial for economic development. One of the indicators of FDI’s “quality” is accepted as its “mode of entry”, greenfield or brownfield investments. The paper argues that greenfield investment is more useful for development in order to have its direct positive impact through investment. The paper empirically investigates this by a cross-section data analysis. The main findings support this argument. Findings also back the argument that brownfield can be beneficial for development in the long-run in relation with human capital development.

  16. Lead accumulation and association with Fe on Typha latifolia root from an urban brownfield site. (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Wu, Meiyin; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Zhu, Qingzhi; Zhang, Kewei; Liu, Chang-Jun; Tappero, Ryan


    Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence and X-ray absorption near-edge microstructure spectroscopy techniques were applied to Typha latifolia (cattail) root sections and rhizosphere soils collected from a brownfield site in New Jersey to investigate lead (Pb) accumulation in T. latifolia roots and the role of iron (Fe) plaque in controlling Pb uptake. We found that Pb and Fe spatial distribution patterns in the root tissues are similar with both metals present at high concentrations mainly in the epidermis and at low concentrations in the vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), and the major Pb and Fe species in T. latifolia root are Pb(II) and Fe(III) regardless of concentration levels. The sequestration of Pb by T. latifolia roots suggests a potential low-cost remediation method (phytostabilization) to manage Pb-contaminated sediments for brownfield remediation while performing wetland rehabilitation.

  17. Isotope composition of Cd, Ca and Mg in the Brownfield chondrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Barnes, I.L.; Moore, L.J.; Gramlich, J.W. (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (USA))


    The isotopic composition of cadmium, calcium and magnesium in the Brownfield chondrite have been measured. The measurements on cadmium show that this element is isotopically fractionated with the heavier isotopes relatively enriched to the extent of 0.27% per mass unit. This confirms earlier reports by ROSMAN and DE LAETER (1976, 1978). Calcium and magnesium show no evidence of isotope fractionation, indicating that the process responsible for fractionating cadmium dose not seem to have affected these more refractory elements.

  18. Destiny of Urban Brownfields: Spatial Patterns and Perceived Consequences of Post-Socialistic Deindustrialization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, J.; Martinát, Stanislav; Tonev, P.; Frantál, Bohumil

    41E, February (2014), s. 109-128 ISSN 1842-2845 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * perception * residents * city of Brno * city of Ostrava Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2014,%20MARTINAT,%20TONEV,%20FRANTAL.pdf

  19. [Health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in residential communities built on brownfields]. (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Ma, Jian-Hua; Li, Xin-Ning; Liu, De-Xin; Li, Yi-Meng


    Nine residential communities which were built on different brownfields in a city of Henan Province were chosen to investigate the health risks of heavy metals (As, Hg, Cd, and Pb) in surface soils. Concentrations of soil heavy metals were measured according to the methods described in the national standard. Based on the health risk models recommended by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks of soil heavy metals were assessed. The results showed that compared with the original brownfields, the heavy metal concentrations in soils and their health risks in residential communities built on brownfields were significantly improved, and the concentrations and health risks of soil heavy metals in these communities were all higher than those in non-brownfield residential communities. The HQ and HI values of soil heavy metals in all the residential communities were lower than 1, which indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk in these communities. Meanwhile, the values of CR and TCR were slightly higher than the standard suggested by the US EPA, indicating that slight carcinogenic risks in the communities, but these values were lower than the lenient standard proposed by some experts. The HI value of the four metals for children was exactly seven times higher than that for adults. The contribution rate of HQ(As) to HI was about 75%, CR(AS) to TCR was about 80%, and therefore arsenic was the crucial factor for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk in the residential communities of the city.

  20. Allocating risk capital for a brownfields redevelopment project under hydrogeological and financial uncertainty. (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth; Kim, Taehee


    In this study, we defined risk capital as the contingency fee or insurance premium that a brownfields redeveloper needs to set aside from the sale of each house in case they need to repurchase it at a later date because the indoor air has been detrimentally affected by subsurface contamination. The likelihood that indoor air concentrations will exceed a regulatory level subject to subsurface heterogeneity and source zone location uncertainty is simulated by a physics-based hydrogeological model using Monte Carlo realizations, yielding the probability of failure. The cost of failure is the future value of the house indexed to the stochastic US National Housing index. The risk capital is essentially the probability of failure times the cost of failure with a surcharge to compensate the developer against hydrogeological and financial uncertainty, with the surcharge acting as safety loading reflecting the developers' level of risk aversion. We review five methodologies taken from the actuarial and financial literature to price the risk capital for a highly stylized brownfield redevelopment project, with each method specifically adapted to accommodate our notion of the probability of failure. The objective of this paper is to develop an actuarially consistent approach for combining the hydrogeological and financial uncertainty into a contingency fee that the brownfields developer should reserve (i.e. the risk capital) in order to hedge their risk exposure during the project. Results indicate that the price of the risk capital is much more sensitive to hydrogeological rather than financial uncertainty. We use the Capital Asset Pricing Model to estimate the risk-adjusted discount rate to depreciate all costs to present value for the brownfield redevelopment project. A key outcome of this work is that the presentation of our risk capital valuation methodology is sufficiently generalized for application to a wide variety of engineering projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  1. Under-utilisation of organic wastes during brownfield regeneration to community woodland: tackling the barriers. (United States)

    Ashwood, Francis E; Doick, Kieron J; Atkinson, Gail E; Chenoweth, Jonathan


    The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams.

  2. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan


    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  3. Sticks and Stones: The Impact of the Definitions of Brownfield in Policies on Socio-Economic Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Tang


    Full Text Available Many countries encourage brownfield regeneration as a means of sustainable development but define “brownfield” differently. Specifically, the definitions of brownfield in the regeneration policies of countries with higher population densities usually promote recycling land that is previously developed, whether or not there is chemical contamination. Further, the de facto definition of brownfield used by the UK government focuses on previously developed land that is unused or underused. The ANOVA in this study revealed that local authorities in England (n = 296 with higher percentages of derelict and vacant land tended to be more deprived based on the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation, which evaluate deprivation from the aspects of income, employment, health, education, housing, crime, and living environment. However, the percentage of previously developed land in use but with further development potential had no significant effect on the deprivation conditions. The Blair-Brown Government (1997~2010 encouraged more than 60% of new dwellings to be established on the previously developed land in England. The analyses in this study showed that this target, combined with the definition of brownfield in the policy, may have facilitated higher densities of residential development on previously developed land but without addressing the deprivation problems. These observations indicate that a definition of brownfield in regeneration policies should focus on previously developed land that is now vacant or derelict if land recycling is to contribute to sustainable communities.

  4. Sustainable revitalization of brownfield lands – possibilities of interim utilization in the form of urban community gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorján Anna


    Full Text Available Our PhD researches include brownfield revitalization,1 the application of the methods of interim utilizations on greeneries,2 and the formation background and potential of community gardens.3 We compared our systems of criteria in hope of extensive research conclusions. In order to trace the urban development possibilities in Budapest, we analysed brownfield revitalizations where the interim utilizations included allotment gardens, too. We concluded that such developments are likely to create environmental and social added value. Early results of the valorization process are important by themselves, but the perpetuation of interim land utilization holds even greater values.

  5. Improving surface-subsurface water budgeting using high resolution satellite imagery applied on a brownfield. (United States)

    Dujardin, J; Batelaan, O; Canters, F; Boel, S; Anibas, C; Bronders, J


    The estimation of surface-subsurface water interactions is complex and highly variable in space and time. It is even more complex when it has to be estimated in urban areas, because of the complex patterns of the land-cover in these areas. In this research a modeling approach with integrated remote sensing analysis has been developed for estimating water fluxes in urban environments. The methodology was developed with the aim to simulate fluxes of contaminants from polluted sites. Groundwater pollution in urban environments is linked to patterns of land use and hence it is essential to characterize the land cover in a detail. An object-oriented classification approach applied on high-resolution satellite data has been adopted. To assign the image objects to one of the land-cover classes a multiple layer perceptron approach was adopted (Kappa of 0.86). Groundwater recharge has been simulated using the spatially distributed WetSpass model and the subsurface water flow using MODFLOW in order to identify and budget water fluxes. The developed methodology is applied to a brownfield case site in Vilvoorde, Brussels (Belgium). The obtained land use map has a strong impact on the groundwater recharge, resulting in a high spatial variability. Simulated groundwater fluxes from brownfield to the receiving River Zenne were independently verified by measurements and simulation of groundwater-surface water interaction based on thermal gradients in the river bed. It is concluded that in order to better quantify total fluxes of contaminants from brownfields in the groundwater, remote sensing imagery can be operationally integrated in a modeling procedure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  7. Actor networks and the construction of applicable knowledge: the case of the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexandrescu, F.; Klusáček, Petr; Bartke, S.; Osman, Robert; Frantál, Bohumil; Martinát, Stanislav; Kunc, Josef; Pizzol, L.; Zabeo, A.; Giubilato, E.; Critto, A.; Bleicher, A.


    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2017), s. 1323-1334 ISSN 1618-954X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-26934S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : actor network theory * applicable knowledge * brownfield prioritization * four moments of translation * end-users Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2016

  8. Targeted selection of brownfields from portfolios for sustainable regeneration: User experiences from five cases testing the Timbre\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartke, S.; Martinát, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Pizzol, L.; Alexandrescu, F.; Frantál, Bohumil; Critto, A.; Zabeo, A.


    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2016), s. 94-107 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * prioritisation * sustainability Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  9. Sustainable urban development in a city affected by heavy industry and mining? Case study of brownfields in Karvina, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, S.; Dvořák, Petr; Frantál, B.; Klusáček, P.; Kunc, J.; Navrátil, J.; Osman, R.; Turečková, K.; Reed, M.


    Roč. 118, April 2016 (2016), s. 78-87 ISSN 0959-6526 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * human geography * spatial analysis Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  10. EPA Awards $800,000 in Brownfields Grants to Assess Properties in Montgomery Countys Norristown, Pottstown Areas for Redevelopment (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (Sept. 9, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of $800,000 in brownfields grants: $400,000 to the Municipality of Norristown and $400,000 to the Montgomery County Redevelopment Authority. The fundin

  11. Final Technical Report, City of Brockton Solar Brightfield: Deploying a Solar Array on a Brockton Brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Lori


    The City of Brockton, Massachusetts sought to install New England’s largest solar array at a remediated brownfield site on Grove Street. The 425-kilowatt solar photovoltaic array – or “Brightfield” – was installed in an urban park setting along with interpretive displays to maximize the educational opportunities. The “Brightfield” project included 1,395 310-Watt solar panels connected in “strings” that span the otherwise unusable 3.7-acre site. The project demonstrated that it is both technically and economically feasible to install utility scale solar photovoltaics on a capped landfill site. The US Department of Energy conceived the Brightfields program in 2000, and Brockton’s Brightfield is the largest such installation nationwide. Brockton’s project demonstrated that while it was both technically and economically feasible to perform such a project, the implementation was extremely challenging due to the state policy barriers, difficulty obtaining grant funding, and level of sophistication required to perform the financing and secure required state approvals. This demonstration project can be used as a model for other communities that wish to implement “Brownfields to Brightfields” projects; 2) implementing utility scale solar creates economies of scale that can help to decrease costs of photovoltaics; 3) the project is an aesthetic, environmental, educational and economic asset for the City of Brockton.

  12. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)


    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  13. Bending Priorities: a Study in Policy Framing. State of Michigan’s Brownfield Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HULA


    Full Text Available This paper explores the political process bywhich the state of Michigan successfully crafted andimplemented such a brownfield initiative. Althoughthe primary focus here is on the experience of asingle state, the lessons to be learned from thiscase have national and international implicationsbecause Michigan is a leader in brownfieldprograms. The paper begins with a review of thegeneral policy context in which state brownfieldpolicy is made. Particular attention is given tothe widespread dissatisfaction of a variety ofstakeholders with long dominant federal programsin the area of environmental cleanups. The secondsection outlines a number of fundamental legislativeand administrative changes that have beenimplemented in Michigan environmental policyover the past decade. Section three reviews thebroad literature on issue framing and considershow it might help identify the specific mechanismsby which the innovative brownfield program wasadopted. The final section provides an informal testof elements of the issue-framing model by exploringin some detail the convergence of public opinionwith key elements of the innovative policy, andwhether there was any significant shift in publicopinion over time.

  14. Brownfield Action III - Modular use of hydrogeology instruction in the virtual classroom (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.


    Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative

  15. Soil metal concentrations and vegetative assemblage structure in an urban brownfield. (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank J; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick


    Anthropogenic sources of toxic elements have had serious ecological and human health impacts. Analysis of the soil samples from a brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, USA, showed that arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium exist at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Accumulation and translocation features were characterized for the dominant plant species of four vegetative assemblages. The trees Betula populifolia and Populus deltoides were found to be accumulating Zn in leaf tissue at extremely high levels. B. populifolia, P. deltoides and Rhus copallinum accumulated Cr primarily in the root tissue. A comparison of soil metal maps and vegetative assemblage maps indicates that areas of increasing total soil metal load were dominated by successional northern hardwoods while semi-emergent marshes consisting mostly of endemic species were restricted primarily to areas of low soil metal load.

  16. The influence of compost addition on the water repellency of brownfield soils (United States)

    Whelan, Amii; Kechavarzi, Cedric; Sakrabani, Ruben; Coulon, Frederic; Simmons, Robert; Wu, Guozhong


    Compost application to brownfield sites, which can facilitate the stabilisation and remediation of contaminants whilst providing adequate conditions for plant growth, is seen as an opportunity to divert biodegradable wastes from landfill and put degraded land back into productive use. However, although compost application is thought to improve soil hydraulic functioning, there is a lack of information on the impact of large amounts of compost on soil water repellency. Water repellency in soils is attributed to the accumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds released as root exudates, fungal and microbial by-products and decomposition of organic matter. It has also been shown that brownfield soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants can exhibit strong water repellency, preventing the rapid infiltration of water and leading potentially to surface run off and erosion of contaminated soil. However, hydrophobic organic contaminants are known to become sequestrated by partitioning into organic matter or diffusing into nano- and micropores, making them less available over time (ageing). The effect of large amounts of organic matter addition through compost application on the water repellency of soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants requires further investigation. We characterised the influence of compost addition on water repellency in the laboratory by measuring the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT), sorptivity and water repellency index through infiltration experiments on soil samples amended with two composts made with contrasting feedstocks (green waste and predominantly meat waste). The treatments consisted of a sandy loam, a clay loam and a sandy loam contaminated with diesel fuel and aged for 3 years, which were amended with the two composts at a rate equivalent to 750t/ha. In addition core samples collected from a brownfield site, amended with compost at three different rates (250, 500 and 750t/ha) in 2007, were

  17. Recuperación paisajística de vertederos de basura: un ejemplo de brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caceres Cortez Ana Tereza


    Full Text Available Los vertederos de basuras y los basureros que cierran sus actividades son llamados brownfields; tienen necesidad de mantenimiento debido al potencial de contaminación que presentan. Tras su cierre, deben tener un proyecto de revitalización y de reintegración al paisaje que beneficie al ambiente y a la comunidad cercana. Nuestra investigación se enfoca en las experiencias que se han dado en el Brasil, con el objetivo de mostrar las diversas metodologías de siembra de aquellas especies de plantas que mejor se adaptan a este ambiente, teniendo en cuenta lo estrecho de la capa de la tierra y las células subsecuentes con basura orgánica e inorgánica.

  18. Recuperación paisajística de vertederos de basura: un ejemplo de brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Caceres Cortez


    Full Text Available Los vertederos de basuras y los basureros que cierran sus actividades son llamados brownfields; tienen necesidad de mantenimiento debido al potencial de contaminación que presentan. Tras su cierre, deben tener un proyecto de revitalización y de reintegración al paisaje que beneficie al ambiente y a la comunidad cercana. Nuestra investigación se enfoca en las experiencias que se han dado en el Brasil, con el objetivo de mostrar las diversas metodologías de siembra de aquellas especies de plantas que mejor se adaptan a este ambiente, teniendo en cuenta lo estrecho de la capa de la tierra y las células subsecuentes con basura orgánica e inorgánica.

  19. Soil metal concentrations and vegetative assemblage structure in an urban brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States)], E-mail:; Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Radiology, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, P. O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, P. O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School, P. O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)


    Anthropogenic sources of toxic elements have had serious ecological and human health impacts. Analysis of the soil samples from a brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, USA, showed that arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium exist at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Accumulation and translocation features were characterized for the dominant plant species of four vegetative assemblages. The trees Betula populifolia and Populus deltoides were found to be accumulating Zn in leaf tissue at extremely high levels. B. populifolia, P. deltoides and Rhus copallinum accumulated Cr primarily in the root tissue. A comparison of soil metal maps and vegetative assemblage maps indicates that areas of increasing total soil metal load were dominated by successional northern hardwoods while semi-emergent marshes consisting mostly of endemic species were restricted primarily to areas of low soil metal load. - The study yields insight into the impact of metal contaminates soils on vegetative assemblage structure and development.

  20. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail:; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Esquinas, N.; Fernández-Braña, A.; Afif, E.


    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. - Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts 20-ha brownfield • As and Pb highest soil pollutants • Forensic study reveals main waste and spills. • Comprehensive study of pyrite ashes (multi-point source of pollution) • Co-occurrence of PAH also linked to pyrite ashes.

  1. Role of Sports Facilities in the Process of Revitalization of Brownfields (United States)

    Taraszkiewicz, Karolina; Nyka, Lucyna


    The paper gives an evidence that building a large sports facility can generate beneficial urban space transformation and a significant improvement in the dilapidated urban areas. On the basis of theoretical investigations and case studies it can be proved that sports facilities introduced to urban brownfields could be considered one of the best known large scale revitalization methods. Large urban spaces surrounding sport facilities such as stadiums and other sports arenas create excellent conditions for designing additional recreational function, such as parks and other green areas. Since sports venues are very often located on brownfields and post-industrial spaces, there are usually well related with canals, rivers and other water routes or reservoirs. Such spaces become attractors for large groups of people. This, in effect initiate the process of introducing housing estates to the area and gradually the development of multifunctional urban structure. As research shows such process of favourable urban transformation could be based on implementing several important preconditions. One of the most significant one is the formation of the new communication infrastructure, which links newly formed territories with the well-structured urban core. Well planned program of the new sports facilities is also a very important factor. As research shows multifunctional large sports venues may function in the city as a new kind of public space that stimulates new genres of social relations, offers entertainment and free time activities, not necessarily related with sport. This finally leads to the creation of new jobs and more general improvement of a widely understood image of the district, growing appreciation for the emerging new location and consequently new investments in the neighbouring areas. The research gives new evidence to the ongoing discussion on the drawbacks and benefits of placing stadiums and sports arenas in the urban core.

  2. Active learning in forensic science using Brownfield Action in a traditional or hybrid course in earth, environmental, or engineering sciences (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat (2), J.


    Brownfield Action (BA - is a web-based, interactive, three-dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collaboratively to explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA is being used in the United States at 10 colleges and universities in earth, environmental, or engineering sciences undergraduate and graduate courses. As a semester-long activity or done in modular form for specific topics, BA encourages active learning that requires attention to detail, intuition, and positive interaction between peers that results in Phase 1 and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments. Besides use in higher education courses, BA also can be adapted for instruction to local, state, and federal governmental employees, and employees in industry where brownfields need to be investigated or require remediation.

  3. Trying to Smart-In-Up and Cleanup Our Act by Linking Regional Growth Planning, Brownfields Remediation, and Urban Infill in Southern Ontario Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher De Sousa


    Full Text Available The reuse of brownfields as locations for urban intensification has become a core strategy in government sustainability efforts aimed at remediating pollution, curbing sprawl and prioritizing renewal, regeneration, and retrofitting. In Ontario, Canada’s most populous, industrialized, and brownfield-laden province, a suite of progressive policies and programs have been introduced to not only facilitate the assessment and remediation of the brownfields supply, but to also steer development demand away from peripheral greenfields and towards urban brownfields in a manner that considers a wider regional perspective. This article examines the character and extent of brownfields infill development that has taken place in three Ontario cities (Toronto, Waterloo, and Kingston since the provincial policy shift in the early 2000s. Using property assessment data and cleanup records, the research finds that redevelopment activity has been extensive in both scale and character, particularly in Toronto where the real estate market has been strong. While the results are promising in terms of government efforts to promote smarter growth that builds “in and up” instead of out, they also reveal that government could be doing more to facilitate redevelopment and influence its sustainability character, particularly in weaker markets.

  4. Photosynthesis and aboveground carbon allocation of two co-occurring poplar species in an urban brownfield. (United States)

    Radwanski, Diane; Gallagher, Frank; Vanderklein, Dirk W; Schäfer, Karina V R


    Phytoremediation, a technique used to reclaim heavy metal-contaminated soils, requires an understanding of plant physiological responses to heavy metals. However, the majority of studies documenting heavy metal impact on plant functioning have been performed in laboratory or greenhouse settings. We predicted that increased soil heavy metal concentrations reduce photosynthesis and biomass production in trees growing in metal contaminated soil in a naturally re-vegetated urban brownfield. Leaf gas exchange, leaf carbon and nitrogen concentration, and tree biomass were recorded and compared for Populus deltoides and Populus tremuloides growing in an urban brownfield. The CO 2 compensation point (CCP) differed significantly between soil metal concentrations and species, with P. deltoides displaying a greater CCP and P. tremuloides displaying a lower CCP as soil metal concentration increased, despite no changes in dark respiration for either species. In terms of biomass, only total branch weight (TBW) and leaf area (LA) differed significantly between soil metal concentrations, though the difference was largely attributable to variation in diameter at breast height (DBH). Furthermore, TBW and LA values for P. deltoides did not decrease with increasing soil metal concentration. Soil metal concentration, thus, had minimal effect on the relationship between tree age and DBH, and no effect on relationships of tree age and height or LA, respectively. Significant differences between soil metal concentrations and species were found for δ 15 N (isotopic nitrogen ratio) while leaf nitrogen content (% N) also differed significantly between species. Long-term water use efficiency derived from carbon isotope analysis (iWUE isotope ) differed significantly between trees grown on different soil metal concentrations and a significant species-metal concentration interaction was detected indicating that the two study species responded differentially to the soil metal concentrations

  5. Conserving biodiversity that matters: practitioners' perspectives on brownfield development and urban nature conservation in London. (United States)

    Harrison, Carolyn; Davies, Gail


    Policies designed to conserve sites of nature conservation importance are an important aspect of city planning in the UK. London has led the way in putting in place a spatial hierarchy of sites of nature conservation importance designed to protect wildlife habitats from development. Some wasteland habitats associated with derelict and vacant land receive protection in this way but development pressure on these so-called 'brownfield sites' is high and is likely to continue. This paper examines how conservation professionals in the private, public and voluntary sectors are responding to the threats of biodiversity loss and opportunities for habitat creation posed by re-development of brownfield sites. The study draws on in-depth interviews conducted with conservation professionals and the practices employed by ecological advisers employed by developers seeking to re-develop wasteland sites. It finds that practitioners are negotiating their role in the re-development process in different ways. Key issues relate to the role of ecological science in codifying wasteland habitats, uncertainties about how best to evaluate the conservation importance of such sites and the strategies and tactics employed by different practitioners as they seek to mobilise a range of knowledges and practices to secure ecologically sensitive proposals. Scientific knowledge about wasteland habitats has not stabilised in ways that can consistently inform conservation policy and practice. As a result biodiversity issues of wasteland sites are often discounted in the re-development process. Investment in studies of the basic ecology of urban wastelands could provide a firmer scientific foundation on which conservation policies could build. At the same time, many conservation professionals involved in urban re-development are struggling to promote a pro-active approach to secure environmentally sensitive development. The knowledge and co-operation networks being mobilised to support this approach

  6. Spontaneous plant colonization of brownfield soil and sludges and effects on substrate properties and pollutants mobility (United States)

    Rocco, Claudia; Agrelli, Diana; Gonzalez, Maria Isabel; Mingo, Antonio; Motti, Riccardo; Stinca, Adriano; Coppola, Ida; Adamo, Paola


    This work was done on brownfield soil and sludges from a dismantled steel plant, moderately polluted by heavy metals (mainly Pb and Zn), 1) to analyzed the effects of substrate properties and environmental conditions on spontaneous vegetation; 2) to assess changes in the chemical properties of soils and sludges, with particular reference to the mobility and bioavailability of pollutants, induced by spontaneous plants revegetation. From 2006 to 2011, spontaneous plant colonization was monitored in the presence or absence of acidic peat both inside the degraded brownfield site and after transferal into a nearby Oak Park environment. During the five experimental years the vegetation growth was monitored using phytosociological method and data analyzed statistically. Both substrates, before and after plant growth, were analyzed for main chemical properties. Metals mobility and bioavailability was assessed using single (H2O; DTPA) and sequential extractions (EU-BCR). At the end of the experiment, plant ability to uptake metal was evaluated on selected species. Overall, 57 plant species grew healthily on the substrates. The combination of soil and sludges with peat resulted in an effective revegetation with a sensible increasing of plants biomass. Most of the species were found in the park (91%), showing plant colonization was mainly affected by the immediate environment rather than by substrate properties. Furthermore, after the five years, the substrate properties (pH, O.C.) were slightly affected by plant growth and, although metal pollutants in both substrates are characterized by low water solubility and DTPA availability, after plants growth an increase (even if not significant) of rhizospheric Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn solubility in H2O was detected. Metals speciation indicated a low risk of Pb and Zn mobility being either largely trapped in the mineralogical structure of oxides and silicates and occluded in easily reducible manganese or iron oxides. Restricted metal

  7. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.


    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  8. Assessment of rainwater use and greywater reuse in high-rise buildings in a brownfield site. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Grant, Andrew; Sharma, Ashok; Chen, Donghui; Chen, Liang


    This study describes the use of rainwater and greywater (originated from bathroom only) for provision of non-contact indoor and outdoor use in high-rise buildings. A brownfield development site in Box Hill suburb of Melbourne was selected as case study site for this investigation. The performance of alternative servicing options was compared with conventional water supply, stormwater and wastewater servicing. A water balance model UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality) was applied to determine storage capacities and to evaluate the percentage reduction in water supplying, stormwater run-off and wastewater disposal, as well as volumes of rainwater use and greywater reuse. In this study, the impact of variation in collection area (600 m(2) and 900 m(2)) and appliance discharge volumes was examined. A number of demand management options were also investigated. The results of this study indicate greywater reuse is more suited than rainwater use for this development because of the steady, constant supply of greywater compared to the highly fluctuating, storm-event supply of rainwater and the high population density creating comparatively large volumes of greywater.

  9. Applying a multi-criteria genetic algorithm framework for brownfield reuse optimization: improving redevelopment options based on stakeholder preferences. (United States)

    Morio, Maximilian; Schädler, Sebastian; Finkel, Michael


    The reuse of underused or abandoned contaminated land, so-called brownfields, is increasingly seen as an important means for reducing the consumption of land and natural resources. Many existing decision support systems are not appropriate because they focus mainly on economic aspects, while neglecting sustainability issues. To fill this gap, we present a framework for spatially explicit, integrated planning and assessment of brownfield redevelopment options. A multi-criteria genetic algorithm allows us to determine optimal land use configurations with respect to assessment criteria and given constraints on the composition of land use classes, according to, e.g., stakeholder preferences. Assessment criteria include sustainability indicators as well as economic aspects, including remediation costs and land value. The framework is applied to a case study of a former military site near Potsdam, Germany. Emphasis is placed on the trade-off between possibly conflicting objectives (e.g., economic goals versus the need for sustainable development in the regional context of the brownfield site), which may represent different perspectives of involved stakeholders. The economic analysis reveals the trade-off between the increase in land value due to reuse and the costs for remediation required to make reuse possible. We identify various reuse options, which perform similarly well although they exhibit different land use patterns. High-cost high-value options dominated by residential land use and low-cost low-value options with less sensitive land use types may perform equally well economically. The results of the integrated analysis show that the quantitative integration of sustainability may change optimal land use patterns considerably. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available From Brownfield to Greenfield. Major Ecological Imbalances in Baia Mare. Săsar Mine Reclamation and Reconversion. This article is an extract of a more exhaustive study of the Săsar mine based on a multi-level approach of the environmental degradation caused by the long-lasting activities of the mining industry in the city of Baia Mare and the reconversion methods of the underutilized and contaminated properties into green spaces. The presence of brownfields in this city is a matter of great concern to the administrative bodies due to insufficient and ineffective measures for environmental protection, precarious expertise and lack of initiative to regenerate former mining sites. Furthermore, the industrial pillars refuse to get involved and take responsibility for the problems many of them have caused despite state efforts to ease liability fears. But viable projects and solid action are indispensable for overcoming this hurdle. As such, this work is an attempt to cover these exact issues as follows: after setting on the legal framework and the fundamental regulatory considerations, the vulnerability of the enviroment will be assesed in order to determine the level of pollution in the area surrounding the Săsar mine. Then the premises for a cultural landscape reconversion will be established through direct field observations and interpretations, the examination of scholarly studies and the use of GIS tools and social data. This project will try to offer a coherent transformational model of a brownfield area into a useful space for the community and the environment in compliance with the economic purposes.

  11. BALANCE 4P - Balancing decisions for urban brownfield redevelopment : Technical report of the BALANCE 4P project of the SNOWMAN Network coordinated call IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norrman, J.; Volchko, Y.; Maring, L; Hooimeijer, F.L.; Broekx, S.; Garcao, R.; Beames, A.; Kain, J.H.; Ivarsson, M.; Touchant, K.


    Land take as a result of urbanization is one of the major soil threats in Europe. One of the key measures to prevent further urban sprawl and additional land take, is redevelopment of urban brownfields: underused urban areas with, in many cases, soil and groundwater pollution. The latter issue can

  12. Brownfields to green fields: Realising wider benefits from practical contaminant phytomanagement strategies. (United States)

    Cundy, A B; Bardos, R P; Puschenreiter, M; Mench, M; Bert, V; Friesl-Hanl, W; Müller, I; Li, X N; Weyens, N; Witters, N; Vangronsveld, J


    Gentle remediation options (GROs) are risk management strategies or technologies involving plant (phyto-), fungi (myco-), and/or bacteria-based methods that result in a net gain (or at least no gross reduction) in soil function as well as effective risk management. GRO strategies can be customised along contaminant linkages, and can generate a range of wider economic, environmental and societal benefits in contaminated land management (and in brownfields management more widely). The application of GROs as practical on-site remedial solutions is still limited however, particularly in Europe and at trace element (typically metal and metalloid) contaminated sites. This paper discusses challenges to the practical adoption of GROs in contaminated land management, and outlines the decision support tools and best practice guidance developed in the European Commission FP7-funded GREENLAND project aimed at overcoming these challenges. The GREENLAND guidance promotes a refocus from phytoremediation to wider GROs- or phyto-management based approaches which place realisation of wider benefits at the core of site design, and where gentle remediation technologies can be applied as part of integrated, mixed, site risk management solutions or as part of "holding strategies" for vacant sites. The combination of GROs with renewables, both in terms of biomass generation but also with green technologies such as wind and solar power, can provide a range of economic and other benefits and can potentially support the return of low-level contaminated sites to productive usage, while combining GROs with urban design and landscape architecture, and integrating GRO strategies with sustainable urban drainage systems and community gardens/parkland (particularly for health and leisure benefits), has large potential for triggering GRO application and in realising wider benefits in urban and suburban systems. Quantifying these wider benefits and value (above standard economic returns) will be

  13. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter


    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  14. Bioavailability of trace metals in brownfield soils in an urban area in the UK. (United States)

    Thums, Catherine R; Farago, Margaret E; Thornton, Iain


    Thirty-two brownfield sites from the city of Wolverhampton were selected from those with a former industrial use, wasteland or areas adjacent to industrial processes. Samples (<2 mm powdered soil fraction) were analysed, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 20 elements. Loss on ignition and pH were also determined. A five-step chemical sequential extraction technique was carried out. Single leach extraction with 0.12 M hydrochloric acid of Pb, Cu and Zn in soil was determined as a first approximation of the bioavailability in the human stomach. Some of the sites were found to have high concentrations of the potentially toxic elements Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. The partitioning of metals showed a high variability, however a number of trends were determined. The majority of Zn was partitioned into the least chemically stable phases (steps 1, 2 and 3). The majority of Cu was associated with the organic phase (step 4) and the majority of Ni was fractionated into the residue phase (step 5). The majority of Pb was associated with the residue fraction (step 5) followed by Fe-Mn oxide fraction (step 3). The variability reflects the heterogeneous and complex nature of metal speciation in urban soils with varied historic histories. There was a strong inverse linear relationship between the metals Ni, Zn and Pb in the readily exchangeable phase (step 1) and soil pH, significant at P < 0.01 level. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the partitioning of Cu, Ni and Zn into step 4 (the organic phase) in soils with a higher organic carbon content (estimated by loss on ignition). Copper was highly partitioned into step 4 as it has a strong association with organics in soil but this phase was not important for the partitioning of Ni or Zn. The fractionation of Ni, Cu and Zn increased significantly in step 3 when the total metal concentration increases (P < 0.01). The Fe-Mn oxide fraction becomes more important in soils elevated in these

  15. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail: [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Esquinas, N.; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Menéndez-Aguado, J.M. [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Sierra, C. [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil (Ecuador)


    Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts As–Hg brownfields. • As- and Hg-rich waste analyzed in a paradigmatic study site. • Co-ocurrence of a complex speciation of As and Hg, and organic pollution (PAHs). • Arsenolite was determined to be the main source of risk at the site. • Unexpected Hg organo-compounds found. - Abstract: The abandonment of Hg–As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg–As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses.

  16. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China. (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming


    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.

  17. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site. (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Changjun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan


    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a "brownfield" site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May-September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Comparison of risk-based decision-support systems for brownfield site rehabilitation: DESYRE and SADA applied to a Romanian case study. (United States)

    Stezar, I C; Pizzol, L; Critto, A; Ozunu, A; Marcomini, A


    Brownfield rehabilitation is an essential step for sustainable land-use planning and management in the European Union. In brownfield regeneration processes, the legacy contamination plays a significant role, firstly because of the persistent contaminants in soil or groundwater which extends the existing hazards and risks well into the future; and secondly, problems from historical contamination are often more difficult to manage than contamination caused by new activities. Due to the complexity associated with the management of brownfield site rehabilitation, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed to support problem holders and stakeholders in the decision-making process encompassing all phases of the rehabilitation. This paper presents a comparative study between two DSSs, namely SADA (Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance) and DESYRE (Decision Support System for the Requalification of Contaminated Sites), with the main objective of showing the benefits of using DSSs to introduce and process data and then to disseminate results to different stakeholders involved in the decision-making process. For this purpose, a former car manufacturing plant located in the Brasov area, Central Romania, contaminated chiefly by heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons, has been selected as a case study to apply the two examined DSSs. Major results presented here concern the analysis of the functionalities of the two DSSs in order to identify similarities, differences and complementarities and, thus, to provide an indication of the most suitable integration options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk assessment and interpretation of heavy metal contaminated soils on an urban brownfield site in New York metropolitan area. (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank; Deng, Yang; Wu, Meiyin; Feng, Huan


    In this study, soil samples were collected at 22 sites in Liberty State Park, New Jersey, in 2005, for metal enrichment and potential ecological risk assessment. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) showed that enrichment levels of trace metals followed an order of Cu > Pb > Zn > As > Cr > Hg while the potential ecological risk factor ([Formula: see text]) indicated that the potential ecological risk of the metals was in the order of Cu > Pb > As > Hg > Zn > Cr. Among these 22 sites, this investigation identified 9 sites at moderate ecological risk, 3 sites at considerable ecological risk, and 4 sites at high ecological risk according to the potential ecological risk index (RI). Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) of soil metal concentrations separated the study sites into four groups, which are supported by the significant difference in RI values. Geographically, three regions in the Liberty State Park brownfield site were determined based on the CA results and RI values. Subarea 1 had low ecological risk while subareas 2 and 3 had a greater potential for ecological risk. Significant correlations of Pb with Cr and Zn were observed in subareas 2 and 3, respectively. This study shows that statistical approaches coupled with a risk assessment index provide a more comprehensive interpretation of land contamination than a single approach in support of planning land redevelopment.

  20. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield. (United States)

    Gallego, J R; Esquinas, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Sierra, C


    The abandonment of Hg-As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg-As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using risk maps to link land value damage and risk as basis of flexible risk management for brownfield redevelopment. (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ma, Hwong-wen


    Brownfield redevelopment involves numerous uncertain financial risks associated with market demand and land value. To reduce the uncertainty of the specific impact of land value and social costs, this study develops small-scale risk maps to determine the relationship between population risk (PR) and damaged land value (DLV) to facilitate flexible land reutilisation plans. This study used the spatial variability of exposure parameters in each village to develop the contaminated site-specific risk maps. In view of the combination of risk and cost, risk level that most affected land use was mainly 1.00×10(-6) to 1.00×10(-5) in this study area. Village 2 showed the potential for cost-effective conversion with contaminated land development. If the risk of remediation target was set at 5.00×10(-6), the DLV could be reduced by NT$15,005 million for the land developer. The land developer will consider the net benefit by quantifying the trade-off between the changes of land value and the cost of human health. In this study, small-scale risk maps can illuminate the economic incentive potential for contaminated site redevelopment through the adjustment of land value damage and human health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao


    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618—1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  3. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools. (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram


    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  4. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail:; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)


    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  5. Urban Brownfields in Estonia: Scope, Consequences and Redevelopment Barriers as Perceived by Local Governments/ Urbánní brownfieldy v Estonsku: rozsah, dopady a revitalizační bariéry z pohledu městských samospráv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintěra Jiří


    Full Text Available Povědomí o problematice brownfields je v Estonsku slabé, dodnes pro ně neexistuje žádný konkrétní oficiální termín. Cílem této práce je prozkoumat zájem městských samospráv o regeneraci brownfields a analyzovat rozsah, dopady a bariéry rozvoje urbánních brownfields v Estonsku ve vnímání a hodnocení místních samospráv. Vnímaná důležitost negativních dopadů brownfields je spíše než množstvím a rozlohou brownfields ve městech ovlivněna přítomností dalších negativních socioekonomických jevů jako lokální nezaměstnanost či úbytek populace. Podle samospráv obcí představují kromě ekonomických faktorů hlavní překážky regenerace městských brownfields v Estonsku jednak nedostatek znalostí možných nástrojů k podpoře regenerace brownfields ze strany statní správy a samosprávy a také široce rozšířený názor, že regenerace brownfields má být záležitostí soukromého sektoru.

  6. Transformation of an Industrial Brownfield into an Ecological Buffer for Michigan’s Only Ramsar Wetland of International Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Norwood


    Full Text Available The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge spans 77 km along the Detroit River and western Lake Erie, and is the only unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System that is international. A key unit of the refuge is the 166-ha Humbug Marsh that represents the last kilometer of natural shoreline on the U.S. mainland of the river and Michigan’s only “Wetland of International Importance” designated under the 1971 International Ramsar Convention. Adjacent to Humbug Marsh is an 18-ha former industrial manufacturing site (now called the Refuge Gateway that is being remediated and restored as an ecological buffer for Humbug Marsh and the future home of the refuge’s visitor center. Restoration and redevelopment activities have included: cleanup and capping of contaminated lands; daylighting a creek (i.e., deliberately exposing the flow of a creek that was historically placed underground in a culvert and constructing a retention pond and emergent wetland to treat storm water prior to discharge to the Detroit River; restoring coastal wetland, riparian buffer, and upland habitats; and constructing two roads, hiking/biking trails, and a kayak/canoe landing to offer wildlife-compatible public uses that allow visitors to experience this internationally-recognized natural resource. This project has been described as transformational for the region by restoring an industrial brownfield into high quality wildlife habitat that expands the ecological buffer of a Ramsar site. Specific restoration targets for the site include: achieving a net gain of 6.5 ha of wetlands in a river that has lost 97% of its coastal wetlands to development; restoring 10.1 ha of upland buffer habitat; treating invasive Phragmites along 4 km of shoreline; and treatment of invasive plant species in 20.2 ha of upland habitats in Humbug Marsh. Further, the Refuge Gateway is being restored as a model of environmental sustainability for nearly seven million

  7. Use of Nitrogen Budgets and N2 Flux Measurements to Estimate the Role of Denitrification in Brownfield Stormwater Wetlands (United States)

    Palta, M. M.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S.


    Wetlands are constructed or restored in urban and agricultural areas to reduce inorganic nitrogen (N) contamination of surface water runoff. Few studies, however, have examined the performance of unrestored but highly impacted wetlands within an urban context. These wetlands tend to be the primary recipient of nitrate (NO3-)-enriched storm and rainwater due to their ubiquity in low-lying portions of the urban landscape. Wetland studies anticipate high rates of NO3- removal via the microbial process of denitrification when labile carbon (C) and NO3- are high and O2 is low. The ability to quantify and predict the role of denitrification within particular systems is limited, however, and denitrification estimates are compromised by our inability to accurately measure N2 flux. In this study, we calculated loading rates of inorganic N and used measurements of N2/Ar, O2/Ar, and NO3- flux in sediments to generate inorganic N budgets for brownfield stormwater wetland sites. Loading of inorganic N via rain and stormwater ranged from 4-533 mg N/m2/d, and large amounts of NH4+ were additionally created from mineralization of decomposing organic matter, leading to high fluxes of NH4+ out of sediment into water (2-117 mg N/m2/d). Hydrology was a strong driving force of N2 flux; lowering of the water table allowed surface sediments to oxidize, leading to production of NO3-, which fueled N2 production lower in the sediment profile. Overall, the wetlands are denitrifying NO3- at a rate of around 620-2,580 μg N/m2/day. Flux of NO3- out of sediments was higher in some cases (630-1,900 μg N/m2/day), likely due to plant uptake. These wetlands appeared to be serving as a sink for NO3-, but were net sources of NH4+; periodic drainage of the wetlands to promote oxidation of NH4+ may be a strategy for promoting higher inorganic nitrogen removal from these sites.

  8. No perfect tools: trade-offs of sustainability principles and user requirements in designing support tools for land-use decisions between greenfields and brownfields. (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Schwarze, Reimund


    The EU Soil Thematic Strategy calls for the application of sustainability concepts and methods as part of an integrated policy to prevent soil degradation and to increase the re-use of brownfields. Although certain general principles have been proposed for the evaluation of sustainable development, the practical application of sustainability assessment tools (SATs) is contingent on the actual requirements of tool users, e.g. planners or investors, to pick up such instruments in actual decision making. We examine the normative sustainability principles that need to be taken into account in order to make sound land-use decisions between new development on greenfield sites and the regeneration of brownfields - and relate these principles to empirically observed user requirements and the properties of available SATs. In this way we provide an overview of approaches to sustainability assessment. Three stylized approaches, represented in each case by a typical tool selected from the literature, are presented and contrasted with (1) the norm-oriented Bellagio sustainability principles and (2) the requirements of three different stakeholder groups: decision makers, scientists/experts and representatives of the general public. The paper disentangles some of the inevitable trade-offs involved in seeking to implement sustainable land-use planning, i.e. between norm orientation and holism, broad participation and effective communication. It concludes with the controversial assessment that there are no perfect tools and that to be meaningful the user requirements of decision makers must take precedence over those of other interest groups in the design of SATs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey. (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank J; Pechmann, Ildiko; Bogden, John D; Grabosky, Jason; Weis, Peddrick


    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG-Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load.

  10. Distribution of heavy metals and metalloids in bulk and particle size fractions of soils from coal-mine brownfield and implications on human health. (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Chunjing; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Xiangyu; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Xing, Yuxin


    Heavy metals (HMs) and metalloids migrate into their surroundings, thus increasing environmental risks and threatening human health. Current studies on coal-mine brownfields, however, have not thoroughly investigated soil-associated HMs and metalloids produced by coal mining. Therefore, this study explored the spatial and particle fraction distribution and human health implications of HMs and metalloids. The soil-associated HMs and metalloids are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Scandium (Sc), Titanium (Ti) and Zinc (Zn). Results showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni were enriched in bulk soils. Cadmium, Cu and Pb from anthropogenic source were mainly found at entrance roadsides and in sites closest to coal mines. HMs and metalloids primarily accumulated in fine fractions (<1, 1-5, and 5-10 μm). Moreover, HM and metalloid loadings substantially accumulated in the 75-250 μm and 250-1000 μm fractions. Most fine soil fractions showed moderate to strong potential ecological risks, whereas all the coarse particle fractions (50-75, 75-250, and 250-1000 μm) presented slight potential ecological risk. Exposure to soil-associated HMs and metalloids mainly occurred via ingestion. The total non-carcinogenic risks to children and adults fell below the safe level of 1, whereas the total carcinogenic risks to these individuals were higher than that of the maximum acceptable level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1 × 10 -4). The total carcinogenic risk was mainly contributed by Cd and Ni through ingestion and dermal access. Therefore, hygiene and food security in areas should be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. US EPA Region 4 Brownfields (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places...

  12. Brownfields Tabor Commons Green Jobs Training Program (United States)

    This training curriculum is designed to inform entry level tradeswomen about the green job opportunities in areas such as deconstruction, weatherization, eco or solar roofing, stormwater systems and more.

  13. Brownfields/IGD: EF_ACRES (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_ACRES is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  14. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSIntersected (Brownfield) - Version 1.1 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  15. Using phytotechnologies to remediate brownfields, landfills, and other urban areas (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny Jr.; Jill Zalesny


    Urban areas requiring remedial work has prompted the use of phytotechnologies to improve water quality, soil health, and biodiversity, as well as to achieve sustainable social and economic goals. Phytotechnologies directly use plants to clean up contaminated groundwater, soil, and sediment.

  16. Brownfields Recommendations for Sustainable Site Design — Green Landscape Plan (United States)

    The assessment of conditions contained in this report focuses on site-specific environmental and soil conditions that might affect recommendations related to sustainable landscaping and site design, stormwater management, and stormwater reuse.

  17. EPA Selects Lawrence, Mass. Group for Brownfields Job Training Grant (United States)

    Today, EPA announced that the Merrimack Valley Workforce Investment Board, of Lawrence, Mass., was one of 14 organizations nationwide selected to receive funding to operate environmental job training programs for local unemployed residents.

  18. Market-Smart Deconstruction and Material Recovery at Brownfield Sites: How to Identify and Reuse Existing Materials Found at Brownfield Sites (United States)


    if it: • was built between 1955-1978 and has ceilings that are bumpy, as if coated with cottage cheese or popcorn • was built between 1940-1955 and...hardware is preferred. Single glazed, multi-lite double hung sashes are frequently sold as decorative or craft items and converted to other products

  19. Safety of gardening on lead- and arsenic-contaminated urban brownfields. (United States)

    Defoe, Phillip P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Benedict, Christopher; Martin, Sabine


    Elevated levels of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are not uncommon for urban soils. Test plots were established at urban gardens in Tacoma and Seattle, WA. The Tacoma site was contaminated with Pb (51-312 mg kg) and As (39-146 mg kg), and the Seattle site had high Pb soil concentrations ranging from 506 to 2022 mg kg and As concentrations of tomatoes) and the bioaccessibility of soil Pb and As were evaluated. Food-chain transfer of Pb and As were evaluated by measuring plant Pb and As concentrations after kitchen-style washing, a laboratory cleaning procedure, or peeling. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement. Tacoma site treatments included a Class A biosolids mix (TAGRO) with dolomite, and soil at the Seattle site was amended with Cedar-Grove compost (CGC) plus dolomite. TAGRO amendment diluted soil Pb by 10 to 23% and As by 12 to 25% at the Tacoma site, and CGC + dolomite resulted in 20 to 50% dilution in soil Pb at the Seattle site. Both amendments reduced Pb concentrations in vegetables by 50 to 71%, and As reductions ranged from 46 to 80%. At the Tacoma site, Pb concentrations (dry weight basis) in carrots, lettuce, and tomatoes ranged from 8.89 to 25.0, from 0.37 to 3.83, and from 0.54 to 1.24 mg kg, respectively. Plant As concentrations were below 703 μg kg (dry weight) for the vegetables and followed the order lettuce > carrot > tomato. Food-chain transfer of Pb and As in vegetables grown in contaminated urban soils were reduced by laboratory cleaning. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Our House of Little Rock, Ark. Recognized for Excellence in Brownfields Redevelopment (United States)

    DALLAS - (Sept. 4, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently congratulated Our House for the redevelopment of a boiler plant associated with the former Little Rock Veterans Administration Hospital. The project participants were recentl

  1. Collaborative urban design, a promising approach to brownfield recovery – FRUNZE 35, Kiev UA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Caser


    Full Text Available This paper describes an outstandingly innovative pilot project of collaborative urban design and integrated planning. 16 experts (architects, urbanists, geographers and economists underwent a professionally designed and facilitated consensus construction process and developed a common project proposal for the reconversion and re-vitalization of Frunze 35, an abandoned industrial site in Kiev (Ukraine. In five days of intense work a multi-sectorial socio-economic and a multi-scale spatial approach led to a project proposal, that focused on history and heritage, activities, architecture, link to the surroundings and a feasible management model for Frunze 35. This experience is transferrable to collaborative urban planning all over Europe, whenever an effective participation and involvement of stakeholders, users and other interested actors are in demand.

  2. Monetising the impacts of waste incinerators sited on brownfield land using the hedonic pricing method. (United States)

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Serafini, Jan; Glen, John; Angus, Andrew


    In England and Wales planning regulations require local governments to treat waste near its source. This policy principle alongside regional self-sufficiency and the logistical advantages of minimising distances for waste treatment mean that energy from waste incinerators have been built close to, or even within urban conurbations. There is a clear policy and research need to balance the benefits of energy production from waste incinerators against the negative externalities experienced by local residents. However, the monetary costs of nuisance emissions from incinerators are not immediately apparent. This study uses the Hedonic Pricing Method to estimate the monetary value of impacts associated with three incinerators in England. Once operational, the impact of the incinerators on local house prices ranged from approximately 0.4% to 1.3% of the mean house price for the respective areas. Each of the incinerators studied had been sited on previously industrialised land to minimise overall impact. To an extent this was achieved and results support the effectiveness of spatial planning strategies to reduce the impact on residents. However, negative impacts occurred in areas further afield from the incinerator, suggesting that more can be done to minimise the impacts of incinerators. The results also suggest that in some case the incinerator increased the value of houses within a specified distance of incinerators under specific circumstances, which requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Introduction to the Cost of Engineering and Institutional Controls at Brownfield Properties (United States)

    This fact sheet introduces and explores the costs of site cleanup and, where cleanup leaves site contamination that restricts reuse, outlines the engineering and institutional controls and their monitoring and maintenance costs over a longer time frame.

  4. Brownfields Samoa Peninsula Project: Phase I Sustainable Site Analysis Final Report (United States)

    This report provides an analysis and scoring using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Neighborhood Development Rating System, and the Land and Natural Development Code in order to assess the proposed redevelopment a master plan.

  5. Brownfield management opportunities to reduce the back pressure effects on the gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Dan-Paul


    Full Text Available Gas mature fields are associated with challenges to optimize the hydrocarbon flow from reservoir to the sales point in a cost effective manner due to declining well productivity. Laslau Mare field is a mature gas field in Transylvanian basin (Mures County developed in 1970s and is producing∼99% methane with low water-gas ratio. As any brown field, the state of depleted reservoir will generate several constraints for gas flow from formation to surface facilities and further to delivery point. During the exploitation has been observed that the operation conditions are facing with unstable pressure in the system due to low demand. Therefore, the back pressure effect will affect the wells in terms of inability to unload the bottomhole accumulated liquids and the reservoir will suffer a higher pressure drawdown. The best fit-for-purpose solution to overcome the above challenges is represented by installation of group compressor. Laslau Mare field has 3 group compressors running and shows positive results, especially when external pressure fluctuates continuously. This paper explain the challenges seen in 2016 in Laslau Mare field with back pressure effects and how the compression overcome them, and also other solutions that should be considered to optimize the well production.

  6. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas. (United States)

    Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J


    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning.

  7. Brownfields Davis Bacon for Cleanup Grants: Petroleum for Non-Profit Entities (United States)

    Terms & conditions specify how Recipients will assist EPA in meeting its Davis Bacon responsibilities when DB applies to EPA awards of financial assistance under the Recovery Act or any other statute which makes DB applicable to EPA financial assistance.

  8. Brownfields Davis Bacon for Cleanup Grants: Hazardous Substances for Non-Profit Entities (United States)

    The following terms and conditions specify how Recipients will assist EPA in meeting its Davis Bacon (DB) responsibilities when DB applies to EPA awards of financial assistance under any other statute which makes DB applicable to EPA financial assistance.

  9. Brownfield, TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  10. Brownfields City of Houston Solar Project: Solar Power Analysis and Design Specifications (United States)

    This document details the scope of work elements completed in support of this project, as well as recommendations for next steps towards solar project development and power purchase agreement negotiation and finalization.

  11. The enhancement of dismissed military barracks, a method for brownfield recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pellegrini


    Full Text Available The enhancement of dismissed military barracks is a big problem in Friuli Venezia Giulia region. The changed geo-politic conditions caused the abandonment of the numerous structures and the transfer of their property from State to Region and then to local municipalities. The regional government has not defined guidelines for their re-use and the work for the Patussi barracks, done to produce a re-use program, became a case study to explore possible strategies of intervention and the right method to adopt in order to give technical support to local governments. The paper describes the analysis, the scenarios, the proposal produced for the case-study.

  12. Attention oilheat marketers: Turn brownfields into greenbacks using property tax reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airst, R.L. [American Land Recycling Corp., Exton, PA (United States)


    A readily available, yet sorely under-utilized, means of enhancing the cash flow of properties burdened with environmental contamination or compliance costs is property tax abatement. Unfortunately, too many oil dealers unknowingly accept the fact that their contaminated properties are presently being taxed as though they were clean. Dealers can also participate in state programs which encourage landowners to cleanup and rehabilitate contaminated sites. Some of these legislative initiatives offer economic and tax incentives which allow owners to revitalize their properties without being fully taxed on any increase in value. Practical guidance is given on how fueloil suppliers can obtain property tax reductions which reflect the economic impact of any prevailing environmental problems. Fueloil companies who lease property can also benefit from property tax reductions. Many commercial leases call for the tenant to pay the property taxes. Tenant/suppliers with this type of obligation benefit when the property taxes are reduced.

  13. Disposal options for polluted plants grown on heavy metal contaminated brownfield lands - A review. (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin


    Reducing or preventing damage caused by environmental pollution is a significant goal nowadays. Phytoextraction, as remediation technique is widely used, but during the process, the heavy metal content of the biomass grown on these sites special treatment and disposal techniques are required, for example liquid extraction, direct disposal, composting, and combustion. These processes are discussed in this review in economical and environmental aspects. The following main properties are analyzed: form and harmful element content of remains, utilization of the main and byproducts, affect to the environment during the treatment and disposal. The thermal treatment (combustion, gasification) of contaminated biomass provides a promising alternative disposal option, because the energy production affects the rate of return, and the harmful elements are riched in a small amount of solid remains depending on the ash content of the plant (1-2%). The biomass combustion technology is a wildely used energy production process in residential and industrial scale, but the ordinary biomass firing systems are not suited to burn this type of fuel without environmental risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gliniak


    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an area of 1 km2 and is a natural link between the two large settlements in the southern part of Krakow, namely Kurdwanów and Borek Fałęcki. The developed landscape concept is based on a detailed analysis of the physicochemical substrate and the conditions necessary for the foundation of buildings and civil engineering. In the research phase, the technical and natural inventory was made, and a detailed review of the literature in the field of land use with similar properties was performed. The designing process was guided by the information contained in the available planning documents and the needs of the local community, which presented in the literature of other scientists. As a result of the research, the concept of omni-zoning area landfills was established. The main assumptions are based on the concept of the nineteenth-century idea of the garden city, consisting in dividing the area into 6 main thematic areas, i.e. parks, which are described in detail in the article. The main functions (leisure and recreation have been supplemented with historical and touristic elements.

  15. Frişã, brownfield or paraginã – dilemmas and reasonings for a comprehensive concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CHIRIȚĂ


    Full Text Available The article originates in an empiric research blocked at the level of theory. The present work deals with two types of arguments: semantic and case-based, questioning the adoption of a neologism: the concept of “frişa1”. Although the domain aimed at is geography,the new term could be transferred towards all research domains that have in common the phenomenon represented by abandoned fields and buildings, that is urbanism and planning, sociology, economy, ecology, culture, defense, etc. Methodologically speaking, there had been three stages. After the semantic analysis of the main terms in French, English and Romanian, we identified the theoretical grounds of the phenomenon they designate. In order to have a proper view upon the present day perception of the phenomenon we looked for information both in the research field and in that of economy, politics and local administration. Our personal survey can be added to these sources and one can say that they all allowed the selection of case study examples that can support the authors’ intention.The source of confusion that inevitably appears in the context of the present article is due to the difficulty in choosing a truly solid concept that could the best choice among all the other Romanian subject-versions. We need to adopt a unifying concept to define all these phenomena presented only as a succession of examples. Although they are apparently different manifestations, they are ultimately focusing upon the same thing: a material understructure that is not used and thus becomes degraded. We may speak about the simultaneity of these phenomena and therefore we could establish a certain typology, which is another stage in our preoccupations with this new, yet not exclusively unifying concept.

  16. EPA awards $500,000 brownfields grant to Clark County, Nevada, for the Maryland Parkway High Capacity Transit Corridor (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today that Clark County, Nev., in collaboration with the City of Las Vegas and the Regional Transportation Commission, will receive $500,000 in federal grant funds to support the rev

  17. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test. (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E


    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  18. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.


    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  19. New Mexico Clean Energy Initiatives (United States)

    This presentation addresses New Mexico oil and gas development, brownfields, mining development, renewable energy development, renewable resources, renewable standards, solar opportunities, climate change, and energy efficiency.

  20. Attracting Private Investment to Contaminated Properties: The Value of Public Interventions (United States)

    Wernstedt, Kris; Meyer, Peter B.; Alberini, Anna


    We employ a mail survey of private developers that uses conjoint choice experiments and Likert-scaled attitudinal questions to examine preferences for policy instruments and incentives intended to encourage brownfield cleanup and redevelopment. Our analysis suggests that developers judge public hearing requirements at brownfield redevelopments…

  1. US-German Cooperation For Further Development Of Decision Support Systems For Sustainable Contaminated Site Revitalization - Berlin, Germany, Sept. 24, 2008. (United States)

    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic) is a web-based decision support tool developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields and Land Revital...


    SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools -electronic) is a web-based decision support tool being developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and...

  3. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  4. 75 FR 53689 - Creation of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 “Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training... (United States)


    ... other environmental media outside the traditional scope of just brownfields. As a result of this... comments on the new FY2011 Application Guidelines through this Federal Register notice, which includes the...

  5. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics (United States)

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  6. Multiseam design procedures.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hill, RW


    Full Text Available . Brownfield developments are preferred to Greenfield developments since capital costs are usually less. Considerable research has been conducted into multiseam mining in other countries especially the USA. Several methods have been used to identify the factors...

  7. A streamlined risk screening method for managing reutilization of abandoned factories in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chen


    Full Text Available An integrated management strategy that considers the competing relationships between land values and associated risks in the process of land-use conversion is needed to assess and manage the reutilization of brownfields. However, the often large number of individual brownfields renders it difficult to conduct a completed risk assessment for all sites, and a streamlined risk screening method would facilitate prioritization of the redevelopment of those factories. This methodology takes into account the spatial heterogeneity of contaminated lands and produces risk mapping that compiles complex risk-related information. Using abandoned factories in Taiwan as a case study, the method considers 40 points (50% accumulated probability as the threshold of acceptable risk. Emergency risk should be over 90% of accumulated probability. For the sustainability of brownfield reutilization in Taiwan, this research uses a risk matrix to identify the low, middle, and high risk for brownfield reutilization. It can indicate zones with a high risk level or low economic incentive as areas of concern for future decision making. In Taiwan, high-risk sites with high incentive account for only 21.3% of the sites. In contrast, the sites with the lowest incentive and low risk account for 57.6% of the sites. To avoid failure in the brownfield market, three strategies are suggested: (1 flexible land management with urban planning is a feasible option for protecting the receptor's health; (2 the government could provide the tool or brownfield funds to reduce the uncertainty of investment risk; and (3 risk monitoring and management can reduce the possible pitfalls associated with brownfield reutilization.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Patrimoniul provenit din fostele baze militare trecute în circuit civil între realitate şi uitare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbu


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the survey of the architectural heritage represented by the military brownfields in Romania transferred in public property within the implementation of the Project “From Army to Entrepreneurship” within the South-East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme aimed at supporting the conversion of military brownfields into business support centres or business incubators. The advantages and disadvantages of taking advantage of these heritage pieces, their deficient privatization, the lack of transparency in their taking-over by various stakeholders and the necessity to raise the awareness of the public local administration bodies are emphasized.

  11. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities. (United States)

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce


    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  12. EPA provides $145K to the Cut Bank Area Chamber of Commerce to advance the cleanup and revitalization of the Public Drug Building (United States)

    (Denver, Colo. - May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has awarded the Cut Bank Area Chamber of Commerce $145K in Brownfields grant funding to clean up and redevelop the Public Drug Building on Main Street in Cut Bank, Montana. Today

  13. Optimal planning of integrated multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beuzekom, I.; Gibescu, M.; Pinson, Pierre


    and sustainability goals for 2030 and 2045. Optimal green- and brownfield designs for a district's future integrated energy system are compared using a one-step, as well as a two-step planning approach. As expected, the greenfield designs are more cost efficient, as their results are not constrained by the existing...

  14. The Impact of Levant Basin Oil and Natural Gas Discoveries on Lebanese-Israeli Relations (United States)


    Timothy R. Klett, Mickael E. Brownfield, Janet K. Pitman, Troy A. Cook, and Marilyn E. Tennyson , “Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources...K. Pitman, Troy A. Cook, and Marilyn E. Tennyson . “Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern

  15. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. 78 FR 26269 - Connect America Fund; High-Cost Universal Service Support (United States)


    ... modeled network architecture. The Commission indicated that the Bureau's ``ultimate choice of a greenfield or brownfield model, the modeled architecture, and the costs and inputs of that model should ensure... forward-looking incentives to invest. A forward-looking approach to cost modeling does not ask whether or...

  17. Implementing joint ambitions for redevelopment involving cultural heritage: a comparative case study of cooperation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarveld, Marlijn; Smit, Marnix; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.


    Urban redevelopment projects at brownfield sites are challenging, especially when heritage conservation needs to be integrated into urban development plans. In these processes, close cooperation between various actors is essential to develop and implement plans. However, many projects seem to fail

  18. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144 Section 9.144 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mexico; Texas” 1954, revised 1973. (2) “Brownfield, Texas; New Mexico” 1954, revised 1973. (3) “Hobbs...


    By 2005, U.S. EPA and its state, tribal and local partners must assess, reduce, and/or control the risk to human health and the environment at more than 374,000 contaminated Superfund, RCRA, underground storage tank (UST), brownfield and oil sites. U.S. EPA is currently developi...


    By 2005, U.S. EPA and its state, tribal and local partners must assess, reduce, and/or control the risk to human health and the environment at more than 374,000 contaminated Superfund, RCRA, underground storage tank (UST), brownfield and oil sites. U.S. EPA is currently developi...

  1. Brazilian urban porosity : Treat or threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Pessoa, I.; Tasan-Kok, M.T.; Korthals Altes, W.K.


    Urban areas have spatial discontinuities, such as disconnected neighbourhoods, brownfield areas and leftover places. They can be captured by the metaphor of urban porosity. This paper aims to highlight the potential social consequences of urban porosity by creating a ‘porosity index’. The authors

  2. 40 CFR 33.103 - What do the terms in this part mean? (United States)


    ... economy through payment of taxes or use of American products, materials or labor. Construction means..., Compensation and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. 9604. Good faith efforts means the race and/or gender neutral..., and the Brownfields Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund Program. Services means a contractor's labor, time or...

  3. Combating land degradation: the potential of soil reconversion (United States)

    Tobias, Silvia; Conen, Franz; Duss, Adrian; Wenzel, Leonore; Buser, Christine; Alewell, Christine


    Land degradation is usually not seen as a major problem in industrialised countries, although continuous soil sealing for human settlements and infrastructure entails the loss of agricultural land, landscape fragmentation and the loss of natural habitats. In many European countries, land-take on greenfields is unbowed, while, at the same time, there is a considerable number of unused brownfields, like abandoned rail yards and industrial or military sites. In addition, many new by-pass roads have been constructed to take up the volume of traffic and unburden the towns and villages from traffic emissions, but the old roads are rarely downgraded or reconverted and risk being used as shortcuts. Today the sealed area exceeds the requirements of the current generation and contributes to degraded land with heavily disturbed soil-borne ecosystem services. Soil reconversion, i.e. replacing a sealed surface with soil to restore ecosystem services, could mitigate this unsustainable trend that restricts the options of future generations. This contribution discusses the potential and challenges of soil reconversion to reduce net soil loss. The expanses of brownfield area vary between countries, whereas the rate of new soil sealing is still high in most countries and soil reconversion should be considered more. Our research revealed that the current techniques enable successful restoration of agricultural soils and pioneer habitats on site. However, reconverting single small areas can hardly mitigate landscape fragmentation at a regional scale. The same principle prevails as for soil sealing, but in the inverse way: the benefit of soil reconversion may appear small for single cases, but in the sum soil reconversion might be effective. Today, many brownfield areas stay sealed because of economic and political reasons, or because the potential benefit from restoring ecosystem services at these brownfield sites is not known. We developed a mapping approach to assess the potential

  4. Adaptation Problems of the Post Industrial Heritage on the Example of Selected Objects of Bydgoszcz


    Pszczółkowski Michał


    Post-industrial architecture was until recently regarded as devoid of value and importance due to obsolescence, but this awareness has been a clear change in recent years. The old factories become full-fledged cultural heritage, as evidenced by the inclusion of buildings and complexes of this type in the register of monuments and protected by their conservator. More and more often, therefore, one undertakes revitalization of degraded brownfield sites, and within these treatments - conversion ...

  5. Assessment of the mass of pollutant in a soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents.


    Gautier, Jeanne


    The scarcity of housing has led more and more developers to turn to the conversion of former industrial areas into residential areas. Brownfield redevelopment involves the cleanup of contaminated soil to eliminate any health or environmental risk. The quantification of the amount of pollutant in soil is essential to carry out an efficient remediation. It involves sampling and analyzing the soil to determine the concentration of pollutant at a finite number of locations. It is therefore necess...

  6. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  7. Developing Resilient Urban Waterfronts: Integrating Adaptation into Urban Development and Management


    van Veelen, P.C.; Deppisch, Sonja


    There is a growing attention for integrating climate change adaptation into policies, strategies and decision-making processes (e.g. mainstreaming). This paper explores to what extent climate adaptation can be integrated into processes of urban development and change, based on case study research in the Rotterdam waterfront area (Feijenoord). In this research “adaptation opportunities” are identified, by mapping all planned spatial investments in brownfield development, urban renovation, and ...

  8. Advanced Micro Grid Energy Management Coupled with Integrated Volt/VAR Control for Improved Energy Efficiency, Energy Security, and Power Quality at DoD Installations (United States)


    Smart inverters) can dynamically inject +/- VARs to smooth or adjust building level voltage. may be integrated into future solar inverters can...Capacitor Application Issues, Eaton Corporation, Thomas Bloomberg, Daniel Carnovale, whitepaper on * the cost of smart inverters can...ESTCP) funded project. Table 9. Cost Model for Adding an EVR to a Brownfield Site. Cost Element Data Tracked Estimated Cost CapEx Quotes for

  9. The regeneration of a naval city: Portsmouth


    Farrelly, Lorraine; Lemes, Fabiano


    This paper analyses the urban regeneration in Portsmouth, a naval city on the south coast of UK, focusing on the roles of private and public sectors in the development of a complex mixed-use site. Gunwharf Quays was a brownfield, disused naval storage area, on the sea edge, previously inaccessible, which has been transformed with the creation of housing, shopping office, leisure equipments and public space. This scheme has had enormous impact regionally, transforming the identity of Portsmout...

  10. Sustainable Confined Disposal Facilities for Long-term Management of Dredged Material (United States)


    properties or facilitate biodegradation of contaminants, and an area for composting may also be desirable. Thus, separation processes themselves compete for...beneficial use  Urban areas have great potential for beneficial use  Brownfield reclamation promising as a beneficial use  Topsoil and fertilizer ...reportedly difficult due to “back and forth” changes in the source of CDF construction funds (construction general vs . opera- tion and maintenance

  11. The Obstacle of Remigration Due to the Lack of Revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Spatial differences have become an obstacle for Hungarian competiveness. In addition, the use or little use of brownfields has even more deepened regional inequalities. In our opinion, the lack of brownfields revitalisation and lack of opportunities forced population to migrate. Circular migration would be a solution to decrease regional inequalities. However, the non-revitalisation of rust areas prevents implementation of the process. Circular migration means that the labour force emigrates from the region, but it comes back later and then they use their competent, acquired knowledge (which they got somewhere else successfully to their investments. This process is not fulfilled, as the non-revitalised brownfields are attractive neither for population, nor for investors. Our research is based on 263 questionnaires. The major question groups of the questionnaires are: expectations regarding the labour market, assessment of home environment and related expectations, the history and structure of labour relations, employment-related information, potential employees, interpersonal social capital, income use plans, value system structures. All in all, the rust fields’ revitalisation is essential to keep the workforce and population. Our research aims to contribute to a complex revitalization strategy, which should have a significant role in the retention of labour, and its repatriation.

  12. Adaptation Problems of the Post Industrial Heritage on the Example of Selected Objects of Bydgoszcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pszczółkowski Michał


    Full Text Available Post-industrial architecture was until recently regarded as devoid of value and importance due to obsolescence, but this awareness has been a clear change in recent years. The old factories become full-fledged cultural heritage, as evidenced by the inclusion of buildings and complexes of this type in the register of monuments and protected by their conservator. More and more often, therefore, one undertakes revitalization of degraded brownfield sites, and within these treatments - conversion works. Specific issues and problems related to the adaptation of industrial facilities are discussed in the article on the basis of selected examples, completed in recent years in Bydgoszcz.

  13. Adaptation Problems of the Post Industrial Heritage on the Example of Selected Objects of Bydgoszcz (United States)

    Pszczółkowski, Michał


    Post-industrial architecture was until recently regarded as devoid of value and importance due to obsolescence, but this awareness has been a clear change in recent years. The old factories become full-fledged cultural heritage, as evidenced by the inclusion of buildings and complexes of this type in the register of monuments and protected by their conservator. More and more often, therefore, one undertakes revitalization of degraded brownfield sites, and within these treatments - conversion works. Specific issues and problems related to the adaptation of industrial facilities are discussed in the article on the basis of selected examples, completed in recent years in Bydgoszcz.

  14. REVIEW OF ‘TERRAIN VAGUE: INTERSTICES AT THE EDGE OF THE PALE’ By Manuela Mariani and Patrick Barron (editors. London & New York, Routledge, 2014, 256 pages, ISBN 978-0415827683

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katharina Grichting


    This book Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale – edited by the architect Manuela Mariani and the professor of English Patrick Barron - seeks to expand on Sola-Morales ideas and to present the terrain vague through a taxonomy of urban empty spaces presented by the authors in the introduction – derelict lands, brownfields, voids, loose spaces, heterotopias, dead zones, urban wilds, counter-sites. The book aims to collectively refine this notion as a central concept of urban planning and design, architecture, landscape architecture, film studies, cultural geography, literature, photography, and cultural studies, looking at possible positive alternatives to the negative images projected into them.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysoun Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and globalization make the move toward Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC a must. Achieving successful transformation towards SSCs constitutes a significant challenge for policy makers. One area that is not well covered in the literature is the application of SSCs in specific regions, such as the Arab region. This paper draws upon examples of SSCs initiatives and existing SSC transformation frameworks to more fully articulate the challenges of achieving successful SSC projects across the Arab region. One of the interesting emergent themes is the emergence of two main approaches to SSCs transformation, Brownfield and Greenfield approaches

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.


    The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Post-industrial landscapes in the Czech Republic – A GIS assisted search for present state. Using additional datasets on industrial areas in CORINE, brownfields, human-made landforms, undermined sites, open air mining sites, contaminated sites and industrial architectural heritage, 128 examples of postindustrial landscapes (PILs were identified on the Czech territory. All the adopted data sets were preprocessed for the GIS mapping procedure. These PILs were subdued to the genetic classification. One- to four-word-names were applied to describe individual PIL types. Their geographic distribution was analyzed in the Czech Republic and their location compared with selected natural landscape features.

  18. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu


    to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we provide conceptual frameworks that may aid investors to adapt their strategies to emerging economy contexts. MNEs...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...

  19. he role of waterfront areas for the historical city and the urban territory. Regeneration experiences in England and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Cuturi


    Full Text Available Several considerable processes of urban regeneration, carried out in the last decades, have particularly concerned brownfield areas, along sea, rivers and canals.Some operations, run in the wake of European policies for urban areas or programmes related to cultural and sport events, have actually contributed to the renaissance and vitality of territories in decline.Nevertheless, in a period of deep economic crisis and unemployment, urgent environmental emergencies, multiplicity and diversity of social instances, there is a real need for approaches more and more consistent with objectives of both physical/environmental and socio-economic regeneration.English and French experiences of waterfront regeneration are interesting, in different ways, in relation to the process activation/implementation (partnership organisational structure, private/public investment ratio, duration, as to enterprises, employment and innovation (office, retail and leisure space, enterprise localization, cultural attractions and urban design, with regard to local communities, services and cultural heritage (increase of population and local employment, accessibility to housing and integrated services, mobility and transport, conservation and valorisation of buildings and sites of architectural or historic interest, involvement and participation to local planning processes, as to the use of resources and pollution reduction (energy management, building recovery and brownfield regeneration, etc..

  20. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra


    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  1. The role of stakeholder attitudes in managing contaminated sites: survey of Romanian stakeholder awareness. (United States)

    Stezar, I C; Ozunu, A; Barry, D L


    The past decade has seen substantial policy effort directed at promoting the reclamation and reuse of urban brownfield or potentially contaminated land. This paper is based on the results of a survey regarding the role of stakeholder attitudes in managing contaminated sites at the Romanian level. Findings indicate that effective policies and programmes need to be framed within an understanding of the different needs of national development. While different perceptions were identified in regard to the meanings of several concepts and terms used in this field, important aspects related to the need for developing a correctly ranked and coordinated decision-making process were also identified. Additional findings indicate gaps in the legal mechanisms intended to promote brownfield rehabilitation in the course of redevelopment. At the same time, the survey respondents suggested several recommendations such as the necessity of developing a risk assessment to establish the level and extent of contamination that can endanger human health and the environmental integrity on a site and also the need for greater compatibility between land-use planning processes and environmental legislation related to contaminated site management. The paper presents general conclusions engaging all the recommendations drawn from the survey questionnaire as well as from the general current situation in Romania.

  2. Management of Stakeholders in Urban Regeneration Projects. Case Study: Baia-Mare, Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina M. Rădulescu


    Full Text Available The process of regeneration of abandoned areas or deteriorated structures in the cities of Romania has become a strategy of urban-integrated development. Conversions and/or regeneration of facilities in the form of assets, with different destinations, are part of the new trend of urban regeneration and a strategy used to attract investment capital. The disappearance of mining industry sites in Maramures County, Romania, has allowed the expansion and planning of new spaces for public use and/or semipublic, and most cities have opened new development perspectives. The study is based on empirical research conducted on the brownfields of Baia-Mare City. This research investigates how stakeholders of an urban regeneration project can be more actively involved in the decision-making processes with regard to the strategic elements of the renewal project of Cuprom, as a former mining industry area. This research contributes to the development of the investigation of new types of knowledge of stakeholder analysis and improves the available practices for stakeholder salience. Social networks created and consolidated by stakeholders of an urban regeneration project are the object of analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of the equilibrium between project management and grant of resources and capital. This paper studies the salience of stakeholders of the SEPA-CUPROM project from Baia-Mare using the social networking approach. Visualization by graphical methods of social networking analysis is a useful instrument in the decision-making process of brownfield projects as part of sustainable strategies in Romania.

  3. Industrial Wasteland as Faced with Contemporary Landscape Architects’ Challenges (United States)

    Tubielewicz-Michalczuk, Malwina


    The following article describes the problem of regeneration of industrial wasteland. It is illustrated with examples selected form various design projects created by outstanding contemporary landscape architects. It also shows how a correctly planned and performed project concerning regeneration of derelict industrial sites serves multiple functions, i. e. it serves as recreational zone as well as activates people. Moreover, it significantly enhances environmental value of a given area as well as stimulates emergence of innovative landscape investments. The paper presents innovative compositional arrangements used in creating projects concerning brownfields; balanced proportions of spatial elements, the possibility of approaching the area from different levels and perspectives and, also, the possibility of engaging fully with nature by physical contact with it.

  4. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky (United States)

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  5. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juchimiuk Justyna


    Full Text Available Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields, ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  6. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island (United States)

    Juchimiuk, Justyna


    Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields), ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  7. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch. (United States)

    Clemente, Rafael; Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Lepp, Nicholas W


    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (approximately 900, 200 and 500 mg kg(-1), respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment. (United States)

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C


    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Urban empty spaces and derelict infrastructures. An opportunity for the classification of state assets on the territory

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    Piero Pedrocco


    Full Text Available Marked by brownfield areas, the contemporary city looks like an untidy scenery, without boundaries, signed by buildings often no more useful for the original functional needs. Urban empty spaces penetrate into the neighbourhoods, without any formal logic, in a crescendo sometimes difficult to deal with. The process of starting from the classification of derelict  State assets, in the perspective of their valorisation, turns out as a description at the basis of the project. This issue opens a wide reflection, under both descriptive and planning points of view, though it is now in a dynamic evolution and therefore uncertain. Our methodology, based on the evaluation of specific characteristics and indicators, addresses us to possibilities of effective regeneration interventions, but that is not enough; subsequently multi-objectives analyses should be used in order to develop wider decision-making dialectics about regeneration, avoiding choices made case by case.

  10. Hybrid suburbia: New research perspectives in France and Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Florian


    Full Text Available Geographical research on French and US suburbia has concentrated in recent decades on urban sprawl and concomitant processes of devaluation and exclusion. In the case of the French banlieues, with their much-publicised urban riots, this particular analytic focus has become overwhelming, with resultant loss to other developments and perspectives. However, certain districts in the first (or inner ring of both French and US suburbia are currently showing distinct urbanisation tendencies in planning and architecture, evident in the new usage of brownfield sites and the ongoing demolition, replacement, and rededication of the older building core. Such processes induce population changes, e.g. the displacement of lower in favour of higher income groups. Overall, they result in an architectonic, social and cultural heterogeneity that escapes the specificity of received categories and merits the term hybridisation. The article describes and compares these processes as exemplified in Greater Paris and San Diego (Southern California.

  11. The Conversion and Sustainable Use of Alumina Refinery Residues: Global Solution Examples (United States)

    Fergusson, Lee

    This paper introduces current industry best practice for the conversion of alumina refinery residues (or "red mud") from hazardous waste to benign, inert material. The paper will examine four neutralization methods and Basecon Technology, a sustainable conversion process. The paper will consider ways through which this converted material can be combined and processed for sustainable applications in the treatment of hazardous waste streams (such as industrial wastewater and sludges, biosolids, and CCA wastes), contaminated brownfield sites, and mine site wastes. Recent discoveries and applications, such as the successful treatment of high levels of radium in drinking water in the USA, will also be discussed. Examples of global solutions and their technical merits will be assessed.

  12. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull


    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  13. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.


    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  14. Effects of ammonium salts on oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Pilinszky


    Full Text Available Oleaster (Russian olive, Elaeagnus angustifolia trees are highly tolerant against a variety of abiotic stresses (water, temperature, salt, and other chemicals. Therefore, they can be used for rehabilitation of contaminated and/or low quality soils (brownfields, dump sites, wastelands, etc.. In order to study responses of oleaster to environmental stress in vivo and in vitro, we successfully sterilized and initiated its callus cultures, regenerated shoots and roots and finally whole plants from the callus. Application of ammonium (in the form of sulfate salt to the regenerated plantlets at concentrations higher than 10 mg L-1 inhibited root growth, reduced the leaf chlorophyll content and the activity of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. At the same time, it induced activities of the stress marker enzyme glutathione S-transferase in the root and shoot tissues of the plant.

  15. Proceedings of GeoHalifax 2009 : the 62. Canadian geotechnical conference and 10. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.; Fenton, G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada); Taylor, B. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Ferguson, G. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)


    More than 500 delegates from industry, government, universities and research centres attended this conference to exchange professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The conference also highlighted recent geoenvironmental achievements. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: soil mechanics; soil mechanics and brownfields; foundation engineering; landslide and slopes engineering; rock mechanics; risk assessment; reliability-based design; geoenvironmental issues; transportation geotechniques; marine geotechniques and geohazards; non-textbook soils and waste soils; covers and liners; instrumentation; harbour and shoreline geotechniques; geosynthetic mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) systems; cold regions and climate change; computer applications; regional hydrogeology; groundwater-surface water interaction; well hydraulics; radioactive waste management; groundwater sustainability; source water protection; mine waters; field techniques in hydrogeology; and hydrogeology of fractured rocks. The conference featured more than 230 presentations, of which 37 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Cultural Identity of the Industrial Heritage in Gdansk (United States)

    Szymański, Tomasz


    Since its inception, urbanized area passes a number of changes, caused by demands of its inhabitants. Industrial heritage, including historic architecture at the brownfields, that’s more and more present in the centres of our cities, is one of the most important components of the identity. The development of civilization causes the phenomenon of spatial and functional transformations. Revitalization of the areas recently occupied by the industry, provides a unique opportunity to rediscover their values. Increasingly, however, it uses the terms “wasteland” or “brownfields”. Land use by industry is associated only with its “predatory” use, destruction, devastation. However, we can venture to say, that the existing industrial use of the land, “civilized” them. Current developments have restored a public access to the “new” urban space. At these areas preserved quite a lot valuable architectural objects. That can be seen, unfortunately, tend to forget the fact of complexity, multithreaded value areas and facilities. Analyzed causes of the risks, ways to prevent adverse transformations, methods of developing action plans to re-create the industrial architecture - are still discussed. Industrial heritage, particularly architecture, is one of the important components of the material culture that specify identity of the city of Gdansk. It provides with no doubt about its distinctiveness and originality in relation to other cities and regions. Revitalization projects are at the same time the most effective way to protect and preserve the cultural identity of the brownfield facilities. Examples of such transformations are most relevant to Gdansk and also beginning to be more and more visible. Areas of the main activities of revitalization in Gdansk, are the area of the former Imperial Shipyard and the Ołowianka Island are still and only the beginning of the necessary changes. Old industrial plants and technical facilities should be subject of the

  17. Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils? (United States)

    Davin, Marie; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali; Lognay, Georges; Colinet, Gilles; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g-1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of risk modeling tools and a case study for human health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in contaminated groundwater. (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qian, Linbo; Yan, Jingchun; Liu, Rongqin; Du, Yihua; Chen, Mengfang


    In order to promote the risk-based strategy in the investigation, assessment, and remediation of Chinese brownfield sites, the Health and Environmental Risk Assessment (HERA) software was developed. It is vital to validate the HERA model and compare the inter-model differences of HERA model against other available risk assessment tools. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between the Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Tool Kit and the HERA model by evaluating the health risk of organic contaminated groundwater sources for a chemical works in China for the first time. Consequently, the HERA and RBCA models yielded the identical results for Site-Specific Assessment Criteria (SSAC) under the commercial redevelopment. However, the HERA estimated more conservative and stringent SSACs under the residential scenario based on the different exposure calculations. The inhalation of indoor vapors was the most predominated exposure pathway for all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined using the RBCA and HERA models. According to the HERA model, inhalation of chloroform may cause the highest unacceptable carcinogenic risk at 2.31 × 10(-3) under the residential scenario. Therefore, it is recommended that a risk-based remedial strategy be developed to ensure the safe and sustainable redevelopment of the site.

  19. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.


    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  20. High intensity magnetic separation for the clean-up of a site polluted by lead metallurgy. (United States)

    Sierra, C; Martínez, J; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Gallego, J R


    The industrial history in the district of Linares (Spain) has had a severe impact on soil quality. Here we examined soil contaminated by lead and other heavy metals in "La Cruz" site, a brownfield affected by metallurgical residues. Initially, the presence of contaminants mainly associated with the presence of lead slag fragments mixed with the soil was evaluated. The subsequent analysis showed a quasi-uniform distribution of the pollution irrespective of the grain-size fractions. This study was accompanied by a characterization of the lead slag behavior under the presence of a magnetic field. Two main magnetic components were detected: first a ferromagnetic and/or ferrimagnetic contribution, second a paramagnetic and/or antiferromagnetic one. It was also established that the slag was composed mainly of lead spherules and iron oxides embedded in a silicate matrix. Under these conditions, the capacity of magnetic separation to remove pollutants was examined. Therefore, two high intensity magnetic separators (dry and wet devices, respectively) were used. Dry separation proved to be successful at decontaminating soil in the first stages of a soil washing plant. In contrast, wet separation was found effective as a post-process for the finer fractions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset (United States)

    This web feature service consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are available in the FRS individual feature layers. The layers comprise the FRS major program databases, including:Assessment Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) : brownfields sites ; Air Facility System (AFS) : stationary sources of air pollution ; Air Quality System (AQS) : ambient air pollution data from monitoring stations; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) : schools data on Indian land; Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) facilities; Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS) : market-based air pollution control programs; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) : hazardous waste sites; Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) : integrated enforcement and compliance information; National Compliance Database (NCDB) : Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of ICIS : NPDES surface water permits; Radiation Information Database (RADINFO) : radiation and radioactivity facilities; RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) : best available air pollution technology requirements; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo) : tracks generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of haz

  2. Urban Agriculture, Commons and Urban Policies: Scaling up Local Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo


    Full Text Available May urban agriculture be the cornerstone that helps reconfigure more sustainable cities and if so, under which conditions? And if so, what type of urban agriculture? Such are the two issues underlying this article. Why not counteracting urban sprawl by fostering what could be called “rural sprawl”, by introducing nature and rural characteristics such as farming within the city, in its interstitial areas and wastelands? In this perspective, urban agriculture becomes a common good, bringing people together and reshaping the whole urban fabric that would eventually propose a radical remaking of the urban. Urban agriculture lends particularly well to long-lasting urban policies, especially those turning environmental “bads”—such as brownfields and wastelands—into environmental “goods” and urban amenities. Urban agriculture in interstitial abandoned urban areas may be one of cities’ main seedbeds of creative innovation. It is all about the right to decide and the power to create, renewing and deepening what Henri Lefebvre called The Right to the City.

  3. The valorisation of abandoned railway yards. The case of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mussinelli


    Full Text Available Milan’s urban growth was heavily influenced by the structure of the rail network for transporting goods and people. The great railway yards that used to service the industrial system have now lost their raison d'être after the relocation of industrial plants and the tertiary sector dynamics took over the city. These have become large abandoned brownfields or soon to be abandoned, totaling over 1,300,000 square meters, located mainly along the urban belt surrounding the city walls, often in densely built environments. Since 2005 these areas were the subject of several agreements between the City of Milan, State Railways SpA (FS and the Lombardy Region, to examine various scenarios and the feasibility of their conversion, as confirmed in the draft of the new Territorial Government Plan (PGT, which identifies the Areas of Urban Transformation. Scenarios and assumptions that, in the current revision of the PGT, must approach the strategic role of this rich heritage from an environmental regeneration and valorization perspective extended to urban and metropolitan scales.

  4. The impact of foreign direct investment on the unemployment rate in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandar


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Republic of Serbia in the period of transition from a planned economy with special social, political and economic conditions towards an open economy through the inflow of FDI and their impact on the unemployment rate. Creating the conditions for an inflow of FDI started in order to increase the employment rate. Since 2000, most FDI had entered the sector of non-tradeable goods which led towards increasing unemployment. That has had negative effects on Serbia from the development viewpoint, since the country needs FDI in the sector of non-tradeable goods, as they encourage productivity, technological progress and employment. Foreign investors in Serbia were primarily interested in profiting from the privatization (brownfield investments of former state-owned companies which led to the rationalization of the privatized companies through redundancies. The benefits that Serbia has had from the inflow of FDI are significant transfers of technology and enhancement of competition on the local market. On the other hand, negative effect is increase of the unemployment rate at the national level.

  5. Slope Reinforcement with the Utilization of the Coal Waste Anthropogenic Material (United States)

    Gwóźdź-Lasoń, Monika


    The protection of the environment, including waste management, is one of the pillars of the policy of the Europe. The application which is presented in that paper tries to show a trans-disciplinary way to design geotechnical constructions – slope stability analysis. The generally accepted principles that the author presents are numerous modelling patterns of earth retaining walls as slope stabilization system. The paper constitutes an attempt to summarise and generalise earlier researches which involved FEM numeric procedures and the Z_Soil package. The design of anthropogenic soil used as a material for reinforced earth retaining walls, are not only of commercial but of environmental importance as well and consistent with the concept of sustainable development and the need to redevelop brownfield. This paper tries to show conceptual and empirical modelling approaches to slope stability system used in anthropogenic soil formation such as heaps, resulting from mining, with a special focus on urban areas of South of Poland and perspectives of anthropogenic materials application in geotechnical engineering are discussed.

  6. Selenium and molybdenum removal from contaminated mill process effluent: Cameco Key Lake Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, A.; Zheng, J.; Moldovan, B.; Ko, K.; Jarvi, J.; Saruchera, T.; Bergbusch, P.; Paulsen, K.; Tremblay, M.; Bharadwaj, B., E-mail: [Cameco Corp., Key Lake Operation, SK (Canada)


    The mill effluent treatment, Bulk Neutralization circuit in the Cameco Key Lake Operation was modified in 2008 to enhance the removal efficiency of selenium (Se) and molybdenum (Mo) from the mill process water. This modification was completed in part due to increased knowledge of the effects these elements have on biota. In addition, legacy effects from the historical operation of the Key Lake mill in regards to Se and Mo were shown to have an effect on the regional biota in the downstream receptors. This was a challenging initiative as there was no off the shelf technology available and the removal process had to be incorporated into an existing (brownfield) process. These modifications have resulted in significant reduction in the concentration of these elements in the mill effluent. The removal efficiency for Se and Mo has increased to 85% and 96%, respectively. As a result, concentrations of Se and Mo are now consistently less than 0.02 mg/L and 0.6 mg/L. This paper will provide detail on the hydrometallurgical removal mechanisms and process modifications required in the Key Lake effluent treatment circuit to remove these elements to trace levels. (author)

  7. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Remediation of metal contaminated soil with mineral-amended composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwijnen, Rene van [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, Abir [University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Moffat, Andy J. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Johns, Mike L. [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Ouki, Sabeha K. [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    This study examined the use of two composts derived from green waste and sewage sludge, amended with minerals (clinoptilolite or bentonite), for the remediation of metal-contaminated brownfield sites to transform them into greenspace. Soils contaminated with high or low levels of metals were mixed with the mineral-enhanced composts at different ratios and assessed by leaching tests, biomass production and metal accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The results showed that the green waste compost reduced the leaching of Cd and Zn up to 48% whereas the composted sewage sludge doubled the leachate concentration of Zn. However, the same soil amended with composted sewage sludge showed an efficient reduction in plant concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn by up to 80%. The results suggest that metal immobilisation and bioavailability are governed by the formation of complexes between the metals and organic matter. The amendment with minerals had only limited effects. - Composts can increase or decrease the bioavailability of metals in soil.

  9. A Framework for Multifunctional Green Infrastructure Investment in Camden, NJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zidar


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a decision-support framework for planning Green Infrastructure (GI systems that maximize urban ecosystem services in Camden, NJ. Seven key ecosystem services are evaluated (urban agriculture expansion, combined sewer overflow reduction, heat island reduction, flooding reduction, capacity building/green jobs expansion, fitness expansion, and stress reduction, to produce a normalized value for each service for each drainage sub-basin within the city. Gaps in ecosystem services are then mapped and utilized to geographically prioritize different kinds of multifunctional GI. Conceptual designs are developed for four site typologies: parks, schools, vacant lots, and brownfield sites. For one demonstration site, additional analysis is presented on urban engagement, life cycle cost reduction, and new sources of funding. What results is an integrated, long-term vision where multifunctional GI systems can be readily customized to meet multiple needs within urban communities. This study provides a portable and replicable framework for leveraging the regulatory requirement to manage stormwater to meet broader urban revitalization goals, all through a decentralized network of green infrastructure assets.

  10. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu


    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  11. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi


    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  12. Industry, environment and health through 200 years in Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Ian; Hodgson, Rob; Lawson, Nigel [School of Geography, University of Manchester, Mansfield Cooper Building, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)


    The Manchester urban area evolved rapidly in the early 19th century from a series of small towns to a major industrial conurbation with huge material flows and worldwide trade connections. A combination of the availability of nearby coalfields, canals, and free trade, which encouraged entrepreneurial enterprise, made Manchester into the 'shock' city of the industrial revolution. Rapid nucleated urban growth associated with industrialisation throughout the 19th century involved an exponential growth in materials transfers and in waste flows. The 20th century suburban dispersal of residential and industrial growth led to further increase in the impact of the urban metabolism, especially in terms of mass: distance of materials movement. The current post-industrial phase in Greater Manchester has to cope with the environmental and social legacies of its industrial past and with growing per capita materials consumption and increases in number of households despite a nearly static population of around 2.5 million. Changes in material flows, land usage and river morphology in Greater Manchester over the past 200 years have reflected changing technologies, industry, economics, social expectations and environmental legislation. Manchester had the first passenger railway, the first inter-basin domestic water transfer in the UK, the first urban smokeless zones and was part of a pioneering land reclamation partnership in the 1970s. Even so, the environmental legacy of industrial material flows constantly presents new challenges, from the cost of reclaiming contaminated brownfield sites to finding destinations for today's urban waste.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.

  14. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan


    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  15. Ready for more-than-human? Measuring urban residents’ willingness to coexist with animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph D. D. Rupprecht


    Full Text Available In the context of rapid urbanisation, geographers are calling for embracing non-humans as urban co-inhabitants. But if animals and plants are seen as ‘out of place’, sharing urban space can lead to wildlife conflicts. We therefore need to better understand residents’ willingness to coexist if we are to work towards more-than-human cities. This study quantitatively compared residents’ preferences toward sharing their neighbourhood, as well as perceptions of belonging across urban green space in two geographically and culturally distinct cities: Brisbane, Australia, and Sapporo, Japan. Results suggest that geographical and cultural context alongside educational attainment and age influenced respondents’ willingness to coexist, but not sex and income. Mapping respondents’ preferences for animals in their neighbourhood revealed four groups of animals along two axes – global-local and wanted-unwanted. These arose from the way animals contested the human notions of control over urban space. As spaces where animals belong in cities, most respondents chose informal green space (e.g. vacant lots, brownfields after forests and bushland. Drawing upon recent theoretical and empirical research on liminal urban spaces, I argue that such informal green space can offer ‘provisional arrangements’ which allow for conciliatory engagements with non-humans. I thus propose informal green spaces as territories of encounter – a possible path towards more-than-human cities. Finally, I discuss some implications for planning and management of interspecies interactions.

  16. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant. (United States)

    Foucault, Yann; Durand, Marie-José; Tack, Karine; Schreck, Eva; Geret, Florence; Leveque, Thibaut; Pradere, Philippe; Goix, Sylvaine; Dumat, Camille


    With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE concentrations and leaching tests. In this study, the ecotoxicity of leachates from MTE polluted soils sampled from an industrial site recycling lead-acid batteries were evaluated by using both modified Escherichia coli strains with luminescence modulated by metals and normalized Daphnia magna and Alivibrio fischeri bioassays. The results were clearly related to the type of microorganisms (crustacean, different strains of bacteria) whose sensitivity varied. Ecotoxicity was also different according to sample location on the site, total concentrations and physico-chemical properties of each soil. For comparison, standard leaching tests were also performed. Potentially phytoavailable fraction of MTE in soils and physico-chemical measures were finally performed in order to highlight the mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the use of a panel of microorganisms is suitable for hazard classification of polluted soils. In addition, calculated eco-scores permit to rank the polluted soils according to their potentially of dangerousness. Influence of soil and MTE characteristics on MTE mobility and ecotoxicity was also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK. (United States)

    Gregory, A S; Ritz, K; McGrath, S P; Quinton, J N; Goulding, K W T; Jones, R J A; Harris, J A; Bol, R; Wallace, P; Pilgrim, E S; Whitmore, A P


    National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity. A decline in soil organic matter principally affects soil biological and microbiological properties, but also impacts on soil physical properties because of the link with soil structure. Soil contamination affects soil chemical properties, affecting nutrient availability and degrading microbial properties, whilst soil compaction degrades the soil pore network. Soil sealing removes the link between the soil and most of the 'spheres', significantly affecting hydrological and microbial functions, and soils on re-developed brownfield sites are typically degraded in most soil properties. Having synthesized the literature on the impact on soil properties, we discuss potential subsequent impacts on the important soil functions, including food and fibre production, storage of water and C, support for biodiversity, and protection of cultural and archaeological heritage. Looking forward, we suggest a twin approach of field-based monitoring supported by controlled laboratory experimentation to improve our mechanistic understanding of soils. This would enable us to better predict future impacts of degradation processes, including climate change, on soil properties and functions so that we may manage soil resources sustainably.

  18. Is phytoremediation a sustainable and reliable approach to clean-up contaminated water and soil in Alpine areas? (United States)

    Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul; Comino, Elena; Plata, Nadia; Khalvati, Mohammadali


    Phytoremediation does exploit natural plant physiological processes and can be used to decontaminate agricultural soils, industrial sites, brownfields, sediments and water containing inorganic and organic pollutants or to improve food chain safety by phytostabilisation of toxic elements. It is a low-cost and environment friendly technology targetting removal, degradation or immobilisation of contaminants. The aim of the present review is to highlight some recent advances in phytoremediation in the Alpine context. Case studies are presented where phytoremediation has been or can be successfully applied in Alpine areas to: (1) clean-up industrial wastewater containing sulphonated aromatic xenobiotics released by dye and textile industries; (2) remediate agricultural soils polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons; (3) improve food chain safety in soils contaminated with toxic trace elements (As, Co, Cr and Pb); and (4) treat soils impacted by modern agricultural activities with a special emphasis on phosphate fertilisation. Worlwide, including in Alpine areas, the controlled use of appropriate plants is destined to play a major role for remediation and restoration of polluted and degraded ecosystems, monitoring and assessment of environmental quality, prevention of landscape degradation and immobilisation of trace elements. Phytotechnologies do already offer promising approaches towards environmental remediation, human health, food safety and sustainable development for the 21st century in Alpine areas and elsewhere all over the world.

  19. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Coffman, Reid


    More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards) of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA), and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C), LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system. PMID:28773734

  20. Improved slant drilling well for in situ remediation of groundwater and soil at contaminated sites. (United States)

    Furukawa, Yasuhide; Mukai, Kazuhiro; Ohmura, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takeshi


    Soil contamination has become a crucial issue in urban redevelopment. Japan has many contaminated sites on which manufacturing has been conducted over several decades. Site holders are now under pressure to manage chemical contamination; however, the use of heavy machinery is difficult in remedial operations on restricted sites, especially where there are still working factories. The slant well is a potentially useful technique in such settings, but its use is technically challenging because of the need for high drilling accuracy and the difficulty in sealing the slanted bores. In this study, we investigated an improved technique for slant drilling that can be used around existing structures to treat contaminated soil and groundwater. A key to this novel approach was the use of water-swelling materials as sealants. Research at a test site investigated the accuracy of drilling. Tracer tests were also conducted using sodium chloride and urea. The improved slant borings showed a deviation of less than 2% from the target bore. The spread of the two tracers at different depths was demonstrated. The proposed technique provides a useful approach to the treatment of brownfield sites in countries where in situ remediation has not yet been undertaken.

  1. Integrated planning and spatial evaluation of megasite remediation and reuse options (United States)

    Schädler, Sebastian; Morio, Maximilian; Bartke, Stephan; Finkel, Michael


    Redevelopment of large contaminated brownfields (megasites) is often hampered by a lack of communication and harmonization among diverse stakeholders with potentially conflicting interests. Decision support is required to provide integrative yet transparent evaluation of often complex spatial information to stakeholders with different areas of expertise. It is considered crucial for successful redevelopment to identify a shared vision of how the respective contaminated site could be remediated and redeveloped. We describe a framework of assessment methods and models that analyzes and visualizes site- and land use-specific spatial information at the screening level, with the aim to support the derivation of recommendable land use layouts and to initiate further and more detailed planning. The framework integrates a GIS-based identification of areas to be remediated, an estimation of associated clean-up costs, a spatially explicit market value appraisal, and an assessment of the planned future land use's contribution to sustainable urban and regional development. Case study results show that derived options are potentially favorable in both a sustainability and an economic sense and that iterative re-planning is facilitated by the evaluation and visualization of economic, ecological and socio-economic aspects. The framework supports an efficient early judgment about whether and how abandoned land may be assigned a sustainable and marketable land use.

  2. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Marta


    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In the Ruhr area there are 104 spoil tips of different origins (mine tips, slag heaps, rubbish dumps, sizes and shapes (from conical heaps, through table mountains shaped tips and intentionally shaped for landscape tips, to major tips and state of preservation. The research has shown that it is possible to use the majority of these spoil tips in the Ruhr area (87 of them as leisure facilities as they have been changed into green areas, parks, playgrounds, locations for sports activities and tourist attractions after their restoration. Furthermore, they are mostly accessible free of charge and may serve a wide range of people – from locals to visitors, from children to senior citizens etc., regardless of their income. As such they may mitigate the socio-economic polarisation tendencies in the region.

  3. Overview of the performances of PMMA-SI-POF communication systems (United States)

    Straullu, Stefano; Abrate, Silvio


    Poly-Methyl-MethAcrilate based optical fibers with Step-Index profile and 1 mm core diameter (PMMA-SI-POF) are widely deployed in automobile infotainment systems thanks to the MOST standards that adopt them as the preferred physical medium. However, thanks to their mechanical robustness and tolerance and their ease of installation, they make a suitable medium for local networking. Unfortunately, their good mechanical characteristics have to be paid in terms of performances, since PMMA-SI-POF based systems are severely limited in both bandwidth and attenuation. We will present a review of the best research results that have been obtained at the different speeds that are defined by the Ethernet standard: 10 Mb/s, 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s, showing that PMMA-SI-POF can easily overcome copper performances while being smaller, cheaper, easier to install in brownfield environment. To date, the following results have been obtained: 425 m at 10 Mb/s, 275 m at 100 Mb/s and 75 m at 1 Gb/s; these results have been obtained with commercial eye-safe components, and we believe that overcoming them requires in most cases the development of a new class of components. An overview of the different modulation formats that have been adopted, the most suitable equalization techniques and the best affordable components will be given. In the end, an overview of the current commercial systems performances and the road standardization procedures are taking will be given.

  4. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle


    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  5. Fuzzification of continuous-value spatial evidence for mineral prospectivity mapping (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahyar; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.


    Complexities of geological processes portrayed as certain feature in a map (e.g., faults) are natural sources of uncertainties in decision-making for exploration of mineral deposits. Besides natural sources of uncertainties, knowledge-driven (e.g., fuzzy logic) mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is also plagued and incurs further uncertainty in subjective judgment of analyst when there is no reliable proven value of evidential scores corresponding to relative importance of geological features that can directly be measured. In this regard, analysts apply expert opinion to assess relative importance of spatial evidences as meaningful decision support. This paper aims for fuzzification of continuous spatial data used as proxy evidence to facilitate and to support fuzzy MPM to generate exploration target areas for further examination of undiscovered deposits. In addition, this paper proposes to adapt the concept of expected value to further improve fuzzy logic MPM because the analysis of uncertain variables can be presented in terms of their expected value. The proposed modified expected value approach to MPM is not only a multi-criteria approach but it also treats uncertainty of geological processes a depicted by maps or spatial data in term of biased weighting more realistically in comparison with classified evidential maps because fuzzy membership scores are defined continuously whereby, for example, there is no need to categorize distances from evidential features to proximity classes using arbitrary intervals. The proposed continuous weighting approach and then integrating the weighted evidence layers by using modified expected value function, described in this paper can be used efficiently in either greenfields or brownfields.

  6. Heavy metal leaching and environmental risk from the use of compost-like output as an energy crop growth substrate. (United States)

    Page, K; Harbottle, M J; Cleall, P J; Hutchings, T R


    Conversion of productive agricultural land towards growth of energy crops has become increasingly controversial. Closed landfill sites represent significant areas of brownfield land, which have potential for the establishment of energy crops. Increasingly composts are now being produced from the degradable fraction of mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and are commonly referred to as Compost-Like-Output (CLO). However, leaching of heavy metal and other elements due to the use of CLO as soil amendment has the potential to pose a risk to the wider environment as a diffuse pollution source if not managed correctly. Salix viminalis and Eucalyptus nitens were grown at 5 different CLO application rates (equivalent to 250, 1000, 3000, 6000, 1,0000 kg N/Ha) with weekly leachate analysis to assess the solubility of heavy metals and the potential release into the environment. The change in plant total dry mass suggested 3,000 kgN/Ha as the optimum application rate for both species. Weekly leachate analysis identified excess soluble ions within the first 4 weeks, with heavy metals concentrations exceeding water quality limits at the higher application rates (>3,000 kg N/Ha). Heavy metal uptake and accumulation within each species was also investigated; S. viminalis accumulated greater levels of heavy metals than E. nitens with a general trend of metal accumulation in root>stem>leaf material. Heavy metal leaching from soils amended with CLO has the potential to occur at neutral and slightly alkaline pH levels as a result of the high buffering capacity of CLO. The use of CLO at application rates of greater than 250 kg N/Ha may be limited to sites with leachate collection and containment systems, not solely for the heavy metal leaching but also excess nitrogen leaching. Alternatively lower application rates are required but will also limit biomass production. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Spatial Optimization of Future Urban Development with Regards to Climate Risk and Sustainability Objectives. (United States)

    Caparros-Midwood, Daniel; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard


    Future development in cities needs to manage increasing populations, climate-related risks, and sustainable development objectives such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Planners therefore face a challenge of multidimensional, spatial optimization in order to balance potential tradeoffs and maximize synergies between risks and other objectives. To address this, a spatial optimization framework has been developed. This uses a spatially implemented genetic algorithm to generate a set of Pareto-optimal results that provide planners with the best set of trade-off spatial plans for six risk and sustainability objectives: (i) minimize heat risks, (ii) minimize flooding risks, (iii) minimize transport travel costs to minimize associated emissions, (iv) maximize brownfield development, (v) minimize urban sprawl, and (vi) prevent development of greenspace. The framework is applied to Greater London (U.K.) and shown to generate spatial development strategies that are optimal for specific objectives and differ significantly from the existing development strategies. In addition, the analysis reveals tradeoffs between different risks as well as between risk and sustainability objectives. While increases in heat or flood risk can be avoided, there are no strategies that do not increase at least one of these. Tradeoffs between risk and other sustainability objectives can be more severe, for example, minimizing heat risk is only possible if future development is allowed to sprawl significantly. The results highlight the importance of spatial structure in modulating risks and other sustainability objectives. However, not all planning objectives are suited to quantified optimization and so the results should form part of an evidence base to improve the delivery of risk and sustainability management in future urban development. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Adaptive Planning for Resilient Coastal Waterfronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christiaan van Veelen


    The method follows three basic steps: (1 assessing the spatial and timely synchronisation of adaptation measures with planned urban development projects and public and private infrastructure maintenance investments; (2 assessing the institutional and financial barriers to be removed in order to mainstream climate adaptation measures in these urban development processes, and (3 assessing what opportunities derived from urban development are able to ‘break through’ the path dependencies that lock-in more sustainable adaptive paths. The method is based on mapping all planned spatial investments in brownfield development, urban renovation, and maintenance projects of public and private infrastructure and assets and by assessing the effectiveness of prevailing policies. Using design research, new opportunities for adaptation are explored and assessed. The urban dynamics based adaptation pathways method is tested at two waterfront areas in Rotterdam (Feijenoord and New York (Red Hook. Both cases show that identifying intervention opportunities and potential transitional interventions is helpful in selecting and assessing adaptive pathways. Moreover, it helps to identify legal or financial arrangements that are needed to unlock the potential of adaptation paths. One of the key findings of the case study research is that in high density urban conditions there is limited potential to build resilience from household redevelopment or renovation, even when new complementary policies and regulative instruments that support buildinglevel resilience would be developed. District-wide flood protection is effective in terms of flood risk, but requires large-scale transformations of the waterfront zone to seize opportunities to develop integrated protection at low costs. This strategy, however, needs new governance structures and financial arrangements to redistribute costs and benefits fairly among stakeholders.

  9. Informal urban green-space: comparison of quantity and characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan. (United States)

    Rupprecht, Christoph D D; Byrne, Jason A


    Informal urban green-space (IGS) such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS) dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2%) and gaps (19.2%) were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research.

  10. Aesthetic Cartography (United States)

    Toland, Alexandra


    Art theorists, Carole Gray and Heather Delday (2010) pose the question, "What might be known through creative practice that could not be known by any other means?" As a visual artist with a doctorate degree in environmental planning from the TU-Berlin's Department of Soil Protection, I have long considered this question in my work and over the years contributed an active voice to discussions on research, education, and public engagement with soil and art and soil and culture in Germany and around the world. After presenting many other examples of artists' work at international scientific symposia, I would like to present examples of some of my own artistic practice with soil mapping and soil protection issues at the 2017 EGU. In combining methods of visual art, landscape analysis, and soil mapping, I have developed a practice called Aesthetic Cartography that employs sculptural techniques, object-making, installation and performance, printing and graphic design, as well as site analysis, data mining, and map reading and interpretation. Given my background in participatory planning practices, I also integrate small-group dialogic processes in the creation and implementation of my works. The projects making up the body of works in Aesthetic Cartography are mainly focused on urban issues, including: soil sealing, inner-city watershed management, creative brownfield use, rubble substrates and leachates, foraging and urban agriculture, and envisioning sustainable cities of the future. In the session SSS1.4 - Soil, Art, and Culture I will summarize project goals, materials and methods, venues and public contexts, elements of collaboration and participation, as well as target audiences involved in several projects of the Aesthetic Cartography series. The aim of the presentation is not to give a comprehensive answer to Gray and Delday's question above, but rather to share personal insights from a professional practice that merges artistic and scientific approaches to soil

  11. Sustainable Construction for Urban Infill Development Using Engineered Massive Wood Panel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann


    Full Text Available Prefabricated engineered solid wood panel construction systems can sequester and store CO2. Modular cross-laminated timber (CLT, also called cross-lam panels form the basis of low-carbon, engineered construction systems using solid wood panels that can be used to build residential infill developments of 10 storeys or higher. Multi-apartment buildings of 4 to 10 storeys constructed entirely in timber, such as recently in Europe, are innovative, but their social and cultural acceptance in Australia and North America is at this stage still uncertain. Future commercial utilisation is only possible if there is a user acceptance. The author is part of a research team that aims to study two problems: first models of urban infill; then focus on how the use of the CLT systems can play an important role in facilitating a more livable city with better models of infill housing. Wood is an important contemporary building resource due to its low embodied energy and unique attributes. The potential of prefabricated engineered solid wood panel systems, such as CLT, as a sustainable building material and system is only just being realised around the globe. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, solid wood panel construction offers the opportunity of carbon engineering, to turn buildings into ‘carbon sinks’. Thus some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction can be turned around with CLT construction on brownfield sites.

  12. Biodiversity in urban habitat patches. (United States)

    Angold, P G; Sadler, J P; Hill, M O; Pullin, A; Rushton, S; Austin, K; Small, E; Wood, B; Wadsworth, R; Sanderson, R; Thompson, K


    biodiversity by slowing the pace of redevelopment and by not hurrying to tidy up and redevelop brownfield sites.

  13. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  14. Revitalization and ITS Impact on Public. Space Organization A Case Study of Manchester in UK, Lyon in France and Łódź in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kazimierczak


    Full Text Available Process of deindustrialization of downtowns in most of well-developed Western European countries has been undertaken since 1960’s while in post-socialist countries just from last 25 years, after political and economic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe.  As far as urban structure is concerned, a new type of inner-city sites has appeared as a consequence of the collapse of industrial activities in second half of 20th century.  In vast majority of cases newly developed morhological units (e.g. run-down post-industrial have been unavailable to the public. As a reult, “classical” public space organization of European cities has been significantly changed. However, revitalization of post-industrial urban areas creates opportunities to reorganize public space according to current inhabitants and other urban space users’ needs. All transitions undertaken as a part of re-developement of brownfields sites are focused on impovements in physical and functional dimension of urban space quality to increase the standard of living condition. According to the concept of smat cities it is relaeted to “smart living” in sustainable urban environment. As a matter of fact, post-socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe where interval of central planning was present in second half of 20th century and “classical” capitalist cites of Western Europe represent different patterns of public space transitions due to distinct historical development process of central space. In the paper a comparative study of Manchester, Lyon and Łódź is presented. The aim of the research is to indicate the reorganization of historically shaped public space structre in central space of analyzed cities after revitalization of post-industrial urban areas and new central space creation.

  15. The soil busters: The Flemish soil remediation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dries, V.; Camp, E.v.; Dyck, E.v. [OVAM, Mechelen (BL); d' Haene, S.; Haghebaert, F.; Fiers, H.; Ide, G. [OVB, Antwerpen (BL); Diels, L.; Vos, G.d. [VITO, Mol (BL); Janssens, P.; Gevaerts, W. [VEB, Antwerpen (Netherlands)


    Fortunately there are still inquisitive people, such as 'The Soilbusters', a group of young people who love to root up the soil searching for 'unusual' things. They collect or exchange these items.. or try to sell them to the right man or woman. You will find them at wastelands, road works, excavations for new buildings, diggings for sewer systems,.. During one of their searches, these youngsters encounter an overturned tanker. In the soil they not only find traces of oil, but also a mysterious symbol as well as a 'treasure map'. And so begins their quest leading them from an industrial zone to a brownfield and a residential area on a dumping ground. Four cases, which together make up a sample card of the soil problems in Flanders and how they are dealt with. The findings of these Soilbusters refer to be historical background and raise questions such as: What is or was the purpose or function of this land? What kind of pollution is involved? What is the historical cause of the problem? What does the law say and what is done about it today - by OVAM? For each case develops a game of questions and answers between the soilbusters and a panel of experts. A rather unusual but fascinating and reallife image, which is very enlightening. You will find that the Flemish approach is characterised by a clear distinction between research and implementation, which is translated into a pragmatic approach and quality guarantees. Based on specific cases, you will conclude that soil sanitation and soil management technologies in Flanders are extremely advanced. And you will be happy to find that we are more than willing to share our knowledge with you. (orig.)

  16. Sustainability policy and effects on practices in the remediation field (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.


    Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economy. However, historical industrial operations have caused a huge stockpile of contaminated land that is only slowly being remediated. After several decades of clean-up efforts, there are still an estimated 294,000 contaminated sites in the US and over 300,000 hectares of potentially contaminated land in the UK. It is imperative to develop technical solutions as well as socioeconomic and political instruments to achieve sustainable restoration of contaminated land. The inclusion of sustainability in decision making provides an opportunity to integrate a wide range of considerations: risk control, brownfield regeneration, carbon footprint, water footprint, renewable energy, etc. This study explores the behavior patterns and driving forces behind sustainable practices in remediation, aiming at advancing our understanding of the fundamental relationships among changing natural and manipulated geological environments, sustainability, and technology choices. A large-scale survey is being conducted in the US and UK to study behaviour and decision making issues from a stakeholder perspective. Historically stakeholder theories have been extensively applied to study organization management issues in the academia. This study intends to apply stakeholder theories to engineering practice and sustainability science studies. Pilot test results found that sustainability considerations are widely adopted and in a wide variety of ways. Site owners and regulators are found to be most influential in the decision making process. There is no lack of incentives to adopt sustainability practices, but various factors, such as lack of resources and cost considerations, are still considered impeding factors. At the time of the 2012 AGU meeting, further results from the survey will be available.

  17. Urban Agriculture: Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Mancebo


    Full Text Available Urban agricultural projects have been mushrooming since the end of the twentieth century, reshaping urban landscapes and even the whole urban fabric, experimenting with alternatives to the traditional urban life, sometimes creating new commons, and bringing people together. Within a city, farmers, gardeners, and their neighbors share more than just fence lines. Cities already have a huge potential for farming. Three examples can be observed in very different cities around the World: Singapore, is fully self-reliant in meat, Bamako is self-sufficient in vegetables, and in Berlin there are 80,000 community gardens on communal land and 16,000 more people are on a waiting-list [1]. And this is just the beginning; in many cities new unbuilt areas emerge in the wake of deindustrialization (derelict lands, wastelands, brownfields, etc., or as a consequence of urban shrinking due to aging populations (as in Japan or Germany, or of emigration (as in some African mid-sized cities. These new areas are a wonderful opportunity for urban agriculture. In Detroit, thousands hectares of urban land have been given over to unemployed workers for food growing. In Britain, urban agriculture has been promoted on wastelands of 20 cities by their various councils [2]. Urban agriculture is gradually becoming a planning policy option. In Delft, the planners of the city already combine urban agriculture with several other land uses in their planning documents; in Paris, an inclusive local land development plan protects agricultural landscapes [3,4]. Urban agriculture is neither—or no more—the short-lived remnant of a rural culture nor the hipsters' latest futile craze.

  18. Assessment of complex environmental health problems: framing the structures and structuring the frameworks. (United States)

    Knol, Anne B; Briggs, David J; Lebret, Erik


    Many environmental risks are multi-faceted and their health consequences can be far-ranging in both time and space. It can be a challenging task to develop informed policies for such risks. Integrated environmental health impact assessment aims to support policy by assessing environmental health effects in ways that take into account the complexities and uncertainties involved. For such assessment to be successful, a clear and agreed conceptual framework is needed, which defines the issue under consideration and sets out the principles on which the assessment is based. Conceptual frameworks facilitate involvement of stakeholders, support harmonized discussions, help to make assumptions explicit, and provide a framework for data analysis and interpretation. Various conceptual frameworks have been developed for different purposes, but as yet no clear taxonomy exists. We propose a three-level taxonomy of conceptual frameworks for use in environmental health impact assessment. At the first level of the taxonomy, structural frameworks show the wide context of the issues at hand. At the second level, relational frameworks describe how the assessment variables are causally related. At the third level, this causal structure is translated into an operational model, which serves as a basis for analysis. The different types of frameworks are complementary and all play a role in the assessment process. The taxonomy is illustrated using a hypothetical assessment of urban brownfield development for residential uses. We suggest that a better understanding of types of conceptual frameworks and their potential roles in the different phases of assessment will contribute to more informed assessments and policies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills: Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Myers, Perry A; Millsap, Daniel; Regnier, Tamsen B; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj


    The Empire Mine, together with other mines in the Grass Valley mining district, produced at least 21.3 million troy ounces (663 tonnes) of gold (Au) during the 1850s through the 1950s, making it the most productive hardrock Au mining district in California history (Clark 1970). The Empire Mine State Historic Park (Empire Mine SHP or EMSHP), established in 1975, provides the public with an opportunity to see many well-preserved features of the historic mining and mineral processing operations (CDPR 2014a).A legacy of Au mining at Empire Mine and elsewhere is contamination of mine wastes and associated soils, surface waters, and groundwaters with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and other metals. At EMSHP, As has been the principal contaminant of concern and the focus of extensive remediation efforts over the past several years by the State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and Newmont USA, Ltd. In addition, the site is the main focus of a multidisciplinary research project on As bioavailability and bioaccessibility led by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Brownfields Program.This chapter was prepared as a guide for a field trip to EMSHP held on June 14, 2014, in conjunction with a short course on “Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology of Arsenic” held in Nevada City, California on June 15–16, 2014. This guide contains background information on geological setting, mining history, and environmental history at EMSHP and other historical Au mining districts in the Sierra Nevada, followed by descriptions of the field trip stops.

  20. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermont, G., E-mail: [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)


    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 {mu}m. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (< 20 {mu}m) caused a flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (> 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 {mu}m) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  1. The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon: How Its Effects Can Influence Environmental Decision Making in Your Community (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Quattrochi, Dale; Stasiak, Elizabeth


    Reinvestment in urban centers is breathing new life into neighborhoods that have been languishing as a result of explosive suburban development over the past several decades. In cities all over the country, adaptive reuse, brownfields redevelopment, transforming urban landscapes, economies, and quality of life. However, the way in which this development occurs has the potential to exacerbate the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, an existing problem in many areas and one which poses a threat to the long-term sustainability and environmental quality of cities. The UHI phenomenon is rooted in the science of how the land covers respond to solar heating and can adversely effect the environment. This phenomenon is responsible for urban centers having higher air temperatures and poorer air quality than suburban areas. In addition, the UHI phenomenon causes metrological occurrences, degrades water quality, increases energy demands, poses threats to public health and contributes to global warming. While the name of the phenomenon implies that is solely an urban issue, research has shown that the effects of the UHI are becoming prevalent in suburbs, as well. The UHI phenomenon can plague regions - urban centers and their suburbs. Furthermore, heat islands have been found to exist in both city centers and suburban communities. As suburban areas increasingly develop using land covers and building materials common to urban areas, they are inheriting urban problems - such as heat islands. In this way, it may be necessary for non-urban communities to engage in heat island mitigation. The good news is that through education and planning, the effects of the UHI phenomenon can be prevented and mitigated. Heat islands are more a product of urban design rather than the density of development. Therefore, cities can continue to grow and develop without exacerbating the UHI by employing sustainable development strategies.

  2. Does the creative economy provide a sustainable urban form?: Some European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica


    Full Text Available Three urban redevelopment projects recently undertaken in Europe-Ria 2000 in Bilbao, Spain; Emscher Park in Germany; and Gasometer in Vienna, Austria, are presented and discussed in the paper. All three innovate on three independent levels culture, economy and urban organization, and provide high quality places to assist their cities and regions to cope with a global competitive environment. All three were also designed to represent the best of the sustainable practice in Europe at the time. In the same time, the basic philosophy of all three is deeply rooted in creative economies and elaborate their basis principles. The paper explores their design solution in order to identify the points where creative industries and sustainability meet, and investigates if, and to what extent, they comply with the principles of sustainability. Urban design and physical space are in focus, while other areas are considered as long as they contribute to the design, or reflect a credo that architecture and urban design are among those that play a central role in building cities' reputation and character. The author argues that all three materialized some of the basic principles of sustainability, by elaborating ideas of genius loci and the relationship between identity and locality. Emscher Park has been the most successful in demonstrating how the Brownfield site and devastated area could be transformed into the cultural landscape. Ria 2000 brought in a new interpretation of balance between the man made and natural environments. Gasometer has been least successful, and rather its solutions go after the traditional redevelopment paradigm.

  3. Mapping urban revitalization: using GIS spatial analysis to evaluate a new housing policy. (United States)

    Perkins, Douglas D; Larsen, Courtney; Brown, Barbara B


    This longitudinal, multimethod study uses geographical information system (GIS) software to evaluate the community-wide impact of a neighborhood revitalization project. Unsystematic visual examination and analysis of GIS maps are offered as a complementary tool to quantitative analysis and one that is much more compelling, meaningful, and effective in presentation to community and nonscientific professional audiences. The centerpiece of the intervention was the development of a new, middle-class housing subdivision in an area that was declining physically and economically. This represents three major urban/housing policy directions: (1) the emphasis on home ownership for working-class families, (2) the deconcentration of poverty through development of mixed-income neighborhoods, and (3) the clean up and redevelopment of contaminated, former industrial brownfields. Resident survey responses, objective environmental assessment observations, and building permit data were collected, geocoded at the address level, and aggregated to the block level on 60 street blocks in the older neighborhoods surrounding the new housing in two waves: during site clearing and housing construction (Time 1: 1993-95) and three years post-completion (Time 2: 1998-99). Variables mapped include (a) Time 1-2 change in self-reported home repairs and improvements, (b) change in the assessed physical condition of yards and exteriors of 925 individual residential properties, (c) change in residents' home pride, and (d) a city archive of building permits at Time 2. Physical conditions improved overall in the neighborhood, but spatial analysis of the maps suggest that the spillover effects, if any, of the new housing were geographically limited and included unintended negative psychological consequences. Results argue for greater use of GIS and the street block level in community research and of psychological and behavioral variables in planning research and decisions.

  4. Radon and its decay product activities in the magmatic area and the adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tchorz


    Full Text Available In the magmatic area of Sudetes covering the Karkonosze granite and adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin a study of atmospheric radon activity was performed by means of SSNTD Kodak LR-115. The study was completed by gamma spectrometric survey of eU and eTh determined by gamma activity of radon decay products 214Bi and 208Tl respectively. In the case of the western part of the Karkonosze granite area the radon decay products activity in the granitic basement was found to be as high as 343 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 496 Bq/kg for 208Tl respectively. Atmospheric radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 track detector at the height of 1.5 m was found as high as 70 Bq/m3 in the regions, where no mining activities took place. However in the eastern part of the granitic massif in the proximity of abandoned uranium mine atmospheric radon content was found to be 6000 Bq/m3. In the case of sedimentary basin where sedimentary sequence of Carboniferous rocks has been penetrated by younger gases and fluids of volcanic origin uranium mineralization developed. The region known from its CO2 outburst during coal mining activity is characterized by good ventilation of the uranium enriched geological basement resulting in increased atmospheric radon activity being in average 72 Bq/m3. In the vicinity of coal mine tailing an increase up to 125 Bq/m3 can be observed. Seasonal variations of atmospheric radon content are influenced in agricultural areas by cyclic cultivation works (plough on soils of increased uranium content and in the case of post-industrial brownfields varying rates of radon exhalation from tailings due to different meteorological conditions.

  5. The Impact of Thermal Remediation on Soil Rehabilitation (United States)

    Pape, Andrew; Switzer, Christine; Knapp, Charles


    In an effort to restore the social and economic value of brownfield sites contaminated by hazardous organic liquids, many new remediation techniques involving the use of elevated temperatures to desorb and extract or destroy these contaminants have been developed. These approaches are typically applied to heavily contaminated soils to effect substantial source removal from the subsurface. These processes operate over a range of temperatures from just above ambient to in excess of 1000˚C depending on technology choice and contaminant type. To facilitate the successful rehabilitation of treated soils for agriculture, biomass production, or habitat enrichment the effects of high temperatures on the ability of soil to support biological activity needs to be understood. Four soils were treated with high temperatures or artificially contaminated and subjected to a smouldering treatment (600-1100°C) in this investigation. Subsequent chemical analysis, plant growth trials and microbial analysis were used to characterise the impacts of these processes on soil geochemistry, plant health, and potential for recovery. Decreases were found in levels of carbon (>250˚C), nitrogen (>500˚C) and phosphorus (1000˚C) with intermediate temperatures having variable affects on bio-available levels. Macro and micro nutrients such as potassium, calcium, zinc and copper also showed changes with general trends towards reduced bioavailability at higher temperatures. Above 500°C, cation exchange capacity and phosphate adsorption were lowered indicating that nutrient retention will be a problem in some treated soils. In addition, these temperatures reduced the content of clay sized particles changing the texture of the soils. These changes had a statistically significant impact on plant growth with moderate growth reductions occurring at 250°C and 500°C. Above 750°C, growth was extremely limited and soils treated at these temperatures would need major restorative efforts. Microbial re

  6. Evolution of iron minerals in a 100years-old Technosol. Consequences on Zn mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coussy, Samuel; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bataillard, Philippe; Khodja, Hicham; Maubec, Nicolas; Faure, Pierre; Schwartz, Christophe; Dagois, Robin (BRGM- France); (CNRS-UMR)


    The prediction of the long term trace element mobility in anthropogenic soils would be a way to anticipate land management and should help in reusing slightly contaminated materials. In the present study, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status evolution was investigated in a 100-year old Technosol. The site of investigation is an old brownfield located in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) which has not been reshaped since the beginning of the last century. The whole soil profile was sampled as a function of depth, and trace elements mobility at each depth was determined by batch leaching test. A specific focus on Fe and Zn status was carried out by bulk analyses, such as selective dissolution, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Fe and Zn status in the profile samples was also studied using laterally resolved techniques such as μ-particle induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and μ-Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (μ-RBS). The results indicate that (i) Fe is mainly under Fe(III) form, except a minor contribution of Fe(II) in the deeper samples, (ii) some Fe species inherited from the past have been weathered and secondary minerals are constituted of metal-bearing sulphates and Fe (hydr)oxides, (iii) ferrihydrite is formed during pedogenesis (iv) 20 to 30% more Fe (hydr)oxides are present in the surface than in depth and (v) Zn has tetrahedral coordination and is sorbed to phases of increasing crystallinity when depth increases. Zn-bearing phases identified in the present study are: complex Fe, Mn, Zn sulphides, sulphates, organic matter, and ferrihydrite. Soil formation on such material does not induce a dramatic increase of Zn solubility since efficient scavengers are concomitantly formed in the system. However, Technosols are highly heterogeneous and widely differ from one place to another. The behavior examined in this study is not generic and will depend on the type of Technosol and on the secondary minerals formed as well as on

  7. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine (United States)

    Cheung, David J.

    reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

  8. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J


    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing green building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2's most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a cafe and river vistas for miles of New York City's skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects, selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy

  9. The expansion of coal mining in the depression areas – a way to development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Martinát


    Full Text Available The coal has been mined in the Karviná area for more than 150 years. During the course of time mining areas were continuously extended at the expense of the settled areas. At the beginnings the mining was limited, but later, namely under conditions of centrally planned economy in the period between 1950s and 1980s, it was heavily intensified. Then, as a result of economic restructuring of the Czech Republic mining was reduced in the region to be re-developed in the last decade again. The expansion of coal mining has been continuously affecting the socio-economic structure of local population (huge working immigration, industrialisation, construction of mass housing for miners – miners dormitories, later housing estates etc., displacement of settlements, surrounding landscape (subsidence of terrain, undermining, hydrological changes and formation of artificial lakes, occurrence of plenty of post-mining brownfields after the reduction of mining etc., but also contemporary outward, image and socio-spatial structure of cities (dominance housing in housing estates, effects of communists spatial urban planning etc.. Currently, negotiations about expansion of coal mining are in progress in this region, namely the city parts of Karviná (Staré Město and Orlová (Výhoda should be affected. In the introductory parts of this paper social, economical and environmental aspects of coal mining on the development of regions and connected problems are discussed and both cities are shortly presented. The questionnaire survey focused on perceptions of after-mining renewal and potential expansion of mining in the area of cities of Karviná and Orlová was conducted (n=1000. As the most important predictor that influences perception of mining and renewal, employment in mining companies has been identified. The higher education respondents achieved, the higher level of opposition against mining was manifested. The correlation was also found between the level of

  10. Biochar as a sorbent for chlorinated hydrocarbons - sorption and extraction experiments in single and bi-solute systems (United States)

    Schreiter, Inga J.; Wefer-Roehl, Annette; Graber, Ellen R.; Schüth, Christoph


    Biochar (BC) is increasingly deemed a potential sorbent for contaminants in soil and water remediation, and brownfield restoration. In this study, sorption and extraction experiments were performed to assess the potential of three different BCs to sorb and retain the chlorinated hydrocarbons trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). BCs studied were produced from wood chips, grain husk, and cattle manure at 450 °C. A commercially available activated carbon (AC) served as a reference. The sorption behaviour was studied in batch experiments in single solute and bi-solute systems. Resulting isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model. To assess the desorption behaviour, a five-step extraction scheme (water at 40°C, water at 80°C, methanol at 50°C, toluene at 50°C, and n-hexane at 50°) was developed, utilizing Accelerated Solvent Extraction. Isotherms revealed distinct differences in sorption behaviour depending on BC feedstock. Sorption capacity ranked as follows: wood chip BC > grain husk BC > cattle manure BC for both contaminants. This sequence could be attributable to an increasing specific surface area, an increasing amount of carbon, and a decreasing ash content of the sorbents. It is noteworthy that all three BCs were more effective in adsorbing TCE, which is surprising, given the higher logKow of PCE. The reverse was observed for the AC. Here, sorption is purely driven by the hydrophobicity of the compound rather than sorbent properties. In bi-solute experiments, PCE sorbed as good as or stronger than TCE, yet the total mass of sorbed compounds increased slightly. In contrast, AC showed a significant decrease of TCE sorption and no significant changes in the total mass sorbed. Extraction experiments revealed that for all BCs a large fraction of the contaminants could not be readily desorbed. In all cases, water remobilized < 5 % of the total contaminant mass and up to 70 % could not be extracted by any of the solvents. The findings suggest

  11. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences (United States)

    Turrin, M.


    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers ( How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides

  12. A regional approach to the environmental risk assessment in the Campania region (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto


    Environmental risk assessment and analysis has a crucial role for guaranteeing the safety of the population, especially in intensive urbanized and industrialized areas, such as the Campania region (Italy). In Italy, since 2006, the human health risk assessment has become mandatory for contaminated soil and waters at contaminated sites. While traditional risk assessment procedures are usually run at site specific level (brownfields), with this work we would like to introduce a freshly developed method to assess risks at regional level by means of GIS, considering the hazard due to the presence in the environment of a contaminated media, the land use variability and the actual distribution of the population. 3535 top soils were collected across the whole Campania region (Italy) with a sampling density of 1 sample/4 km2. Samples were analyzed at ACME Analytical Lab. Ltd (Vancouver, Canada), to determine the concentration of 52 elements, with a combined methods of ICP-MS and ICP-ES following an aqua regia digestion. After a detailed statistical data analysis and geochemical mapping, we reclassified the interpolated maps of some potentially toxic elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn), in accordance with the Italian environmental law (D.Lgs 152/2006), on the base of the trigger and action limits (CSC) for human safety established by this latter. The obtained maps were summed up in the GIS environment in order to get a cumulative map of the potential hazard for the topsoils of Campania region. Considering that environmental risk for the population is strongly influenced by the exposure pathways followed by contaminants to reach the human target, in the case of Campania region we evaluated as relevant pathways both the soil/dust and food ingestion. Furthermore to consider the influence of the land use in the onset of the risk, each land use type was associated with a specific value of a Land Use Risk Coefficient (LURC) which is also dependent on

  13. Urban Planning Aspects of Museum Quarters as an Architectural Medium for Creative Cities (United States)

    Kochergina, Ekaterina


    Since the second half of the 20th century, urban environment has experienced significant transformation. Splash of interactivity, bottom-up initiations with development of creative sector of city economy and participatory planning, irretrievably changed the attitude to the urban medium. One of the most intensively growing field – creative industry – provided cities with numerous cultural clusters, which boosted urban economic development and social cohesion. Supported in many cases by gentrification and revitalization, these processes brought renovation of brownfield and more comprehensive approaches to urban design. Understanding of the economic benefits made city managers start an active promotion of creative clusters and their intensive integration into urban life, involving the main museums and cultural institutions. Thus, a new type of cultural clusters – Museum Quarter - appeared. Holding the position of cultural flagman in the historical heart of the city, Museum Quarters (MQs) pretend to take on an important role both in urban planning structure and in social life. Furthermore, such role usually has strong influence on the surrounding districts, in a positive or negative way. Although basic principles are still applied for all types of cultural districts, the phenomena of “Museum Quarters” due to the complexity of planning, operating and maintenance issues, stepped far above basic cultural clusters, requiring substantially new attitude to the planning of such urban entities. Five clusters were chosen for this study: MQs in Vienna, Berlin, Amsterdam, Copenhagen and the currently developing project in Budapest. The main purpose of this paper is to elaborate the principles for the practical implementation of Museum Quarters by the definition and classification of their specific urban planning aspects. The complexity of target object – Museum Quarter - and its multi-level relationships with the whole city, require from the research interdisciplinary

  14. Investigating automated depth modelling of archaeo-magnetic datasets (United States)

    Cheyney, Samuel; Hill, Ian; Linford, Neil; Leech, Christopher


    . When combined with the use of methods such as downwards continuation, Euler deconvolution and pseudo-gravity transformations, which can reveal information concerning depth and susceptibility parameters, a rapidly obtained initial model may be devised allowing subsequent inversion of data to be achieved more efficiently and with increased confidence in the final result. The long-term objective is to devise a procedure which will lead to models of the 3D subsurface materials with minimal user control, and short computing time, however retaining confidence in the final result. Such methods would be applicable to a variety of other near-surface magnetic data, such as brownfield sites.

  15. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch


    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  16. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.


    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  17. The Neglected Exactness (United States)

    Endom, Joerg


    Having a look into geophysical text books, you will find for all the described methods detailed lists of good practice. The variety of annotations specifies how to perform a reliable, trusty and plausible geophysical survey. Much space is used for considerations about all the necessary parameters like target depth, contrast, frequency, sampling, resolution and many other boundary conditions that account for a high quality report. But you will find rather fewer comments on locating and positioning. It seems to be self-evident in times of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) and high performance laser total stations that positioning is a solved issue. This seems to apply for all geophysical methods that operate at walking speed or slower and for typical geoscientific or environmental investigation sites like brownfields, wasteland or archaeological spots, usually of nearly rectangular size. Using of measuring tapes, ropes and ranging poles here is also good practice. In civil engineering applications we observe lots of rectangular shaped inspection areas too but we as well get many linear structures like elongated bridge decks, dikes, railway tracks, runways and roads. Surveying of an archaeological place of 60 m by 82 m width requires a different positioning technology than surveying 5000 m along a highway although both sites have the same areal extent of around 5000 m2. If we furthermore take into account that during the last years GPR evolved into one of the fastest investigation methods in geophysics, survey speed becomes an important item. While examining railway tracks or roads today it is common to make use of these high speed capabilities. GPR services are typically performed at speeds of 80 km/h or even with higher velocities. Standard positioning methods do not longer apply to this problem. With speeds of more than 22 m/sec the internal latency of surveying systems gets quite relevant and even the effect of rounding within survey wheel systems is not

  18. The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education: Bringing awareness of the geosciences to minorities in Detroit MI (United States)

    Nalepa, N. A.; Murray, K. S.; Napieralski, J. A.


    According to recent studies, more than 40% of students within the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) drop out and only 21% graduate within 4 years. In an attempt to improve these statistics, The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education was developed by the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) and funded by two grants from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) OEDG Program. The Geosciences Institute, a collaboration between the UM-D, DPS, and local corporations, aims to generate awareness of the geosciences to middle school students, facilitate an enthusiastic learning environment, encourage underrepresented minorities to stay in school, and consider the geosciences as a viable career option. This is accomplished by involving their teachers, UM-D faculty and students, and local geoscience professionals in community-based research problems relevant to SE Michigan. Students use the geosciences as a tool in which they are actively participating in research that is in their backyards. Through a mixture of field trips, participation, and demonstrational activities the students become aware of local environmental and social problems and how a background in the geosciences can prepare them. As part of the Geosciences Institute, students participate in three ongoing research projects with UM-D faculty: (1) build, install, and monitor groundwater wells along the Lower Rouge River, (2) collect soil samples from and mapping brownfields in SW Detroit, and (3) learn basic GPS and GIS skills to map local natural resources. The students also work with faculty on creating video diaries that record ideas, experiences, and impressions throughout the Institute, including during fieldtrips, modules, research, and editing. Finally, small teams of students collaborate to design and print a poster that summarizes their experience in the Institute. The Geosciences Institute concludes with a ceremony that celebrates student efforts (posters and videos) and involves school

  19. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.


    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the

  20. A combined hydrochemical - isotopic approach for assessing the regional pollution of an alluvial aquifer in a urbanized environment (United States)

    Gesels, Julie; Orban, Philippe; Popescu, Cristina; Knöller, Kay; Brouyère, Serge


    The alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is contaminated at regional scale in the urbanized and industrialized area of Liège in Belgium with different types of contaminants, in particular inorganics such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. The sources of those contaminants are numerous: brownfields, urban waste water, subsurface acid mine drainage from former coal mines, atmospheric deposits related to pollutants emissions in the atmosphere... Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium are both typical pollutants of the aquifer and tracers of the possible pollution sources. According to the European legislation on water, groundwater resources should reach a good quality status before 2015. However, an exemption can be obtained if it may be unfeasible or unreasonably expensive to achieve good status. In this case, groundwater quality objectives and management plans can be adapted to these specific conditions. To obtain such an exemption for the Meuse alluvial aquifer, it is required to demonstrate that the poor qualitative status is caused by acid mine drainage, or by widespread historical atmospheric deposition from industries, and not by recent anthropogenic contamination from the urban and industrial context. In this context, a detailed hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater has been performed, with the aim of determining the origin of the inorganic contaminations and the main processes contributing to poor groundwater quality. A large hydrochemical sampling campaign was performed, based on 71 selected representative sampling locations, to better characterize the different vectors (end-members) of contamination of the alluvial aquifer and their respective contribution to groundwater contamination in the area. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major and minor compounds and metallic trace elements. The analyses also include stable isotopes in water, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, boron and strontium. Different hydrogeochemical approaches are combined to

  1. Impacts of Climate Change at Watershed Scale: Creating an Ecological Basis for "Smart Growth" and Economic Development in the Post-industrial Lehigh Valley of Eastern PA (United States)

    Holland, B.; Felzer, B.; Pazzaglia, F.; Sahagian, D.


    As modeling of global climate change matures and regional projections regarding regional variability become viable, the scales of climate impact analysis and regional decision-making begin to converge. This convergence provides a critical new challenge for both the climate modeling and policy communities- "How can projected climate change insights at watershed scale most effectively inform decisions regarding land use, zoning, and growth management?" This issue is particularly critical in regions that were formerly heavily industrialized and developed, and that are now finding new avenues for economic growth in the wake of massive clear-cutting, mining, and heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Lehigh Valley is a watershed defining a single ecosystem that contains 800,000 people, 321 square miles of croplands and 95 square miles of urban areas, with the remainder of the watershed at various successional stages after massive forest clear-cutting of the last two centuries. Many of the industries that fueled the industrial revolution were based in the Lehigh Valley, and their development came at an environmental cost that was not then recognized, but that left a legacy of mine-scarred lands, acid mine drained streams, soil and water contamination, and a derelict industrial infrastructure that state and local governments have only recently begun to address. Before these institutions can plan for redevelopment of brownfields, regional planning for housing and commercial development, and preservation of forested and agricultural lands, it is first necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology, productivity, and other ecosystems functions, and to provide this information to decision-makers responsible for environmentally sustainable development and regional planning. "Smart Growth" has become a catch phrase for regional development that is sensitive to social, economic, political, and historical goals, as well as ecological

  2. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.


    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  3. Development of a 3D Potential Field Forward Modelling System in Python (United States)

    Cole, P.


    The collection of potential field data has long been a standard part of geophysical exploration. Specifically, airborne magnetic data is collected routinely in any brown-fields area, because of the low cost and fast acquisition rate compared to other geophysical techniques. However, the interpretation of such data can be a daunting task, especially when 3D models are becoming more necessary. The current trend in modelling software is to follow either the modelling of individual profiles, which are then "joined" up into 3D sections, or to model in a full 3D using polygonal based models (Singh and Guptasarma, 2001). Unfortunately, both techniques have disadvantages. When modelling in 2.5D the impact of other profiles is not truly available on your current profile being modelled, and vice versa. The problem is not present in 3D, but 3D polygonal models, while being easy to construct the initial model, are not as easy to make fast changes to. In some cases, the entire model must be recreated from scratch. The ability to easily change a model is the very basis of forward modelling. With this is mind, the objective of the project was to: 1) Develop software which was truly modelling in 3D 2) Create a system which would allow the rapid changing of the 3D model, without the need to recreate the model. The solution was to adopt a voxel based approach, rather than a polygonal approach. The solution for a cube (Blakely 1996) was used to calculate potential field for each voxel. The voxels are then summed over the entire volume. The language used was python, because of its huge capacity for scientific development. It enables full 3D visualisation as well as complex mathematical routines. Some properties worth noting are: 1) Although 200 rows by 200 columns by 200 layers would imply 8 million calculations, in reality, since the calculation for adjacent voxels produces the same result, only 200 calculations are necessary. 2) Changes to susceptibility and density do not affect

  4. Soil bioindicators as a usefull tools for land management and spatial planning processes: a case-study of prioritization of contaminated soil remediation (United States)

    Grand, Cécile; Pauget, Benjamin; Villenave, Cécile; Le Guédard, Marina; Piron, Denis; Nau, Jean-François; Pérès, Guénola


    on the structuring of the soils. The results from 14 measurement points demonstrated the relatively low average transfers towards the plants and soil fauna although the transfers can be changing a lot in relation to heterogeneity of soil contamination. Results obtained from other bioindicators (nematodes, earthworms and bacterial biomass) showed that the different soils are on average of good biological quality and can benefit from a diversity and abundance of communities of soil organisms. The data obtained in this program underline that these tools can be used to evaluate soil functions (habitat for biodiversity, soil capacity to store contaminants, etc.) and, consequently, the services that the soil can give to humans. Moreover, these biological tools allowed to assess the biological quality of soils and their compatibility with the soil use and the necessity of soil remediation (excavation of hot-spots, surface cover etc ..).Taking into account not only the behavior of soil contaminants but also the environmental factors that influence the biological functioning of the soil, these tools can be useful for land management of large-scale sites and for brownfield conquest.

  5. Investigation of Multi-Criteria Decision Consistency: A Triplex Approach to Optimal Oilfield Portfolio Investment Decisions (United States)

    Qaradaghi, Mohammed

    techniques that can provide more flexibility and inclusiveness in the decision making process, such as Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. However, it can be observed that the MCDM literature: 1) is primarily focused on suggesting certain MCDM techniques to specific problems without providing sufficient evidence for their selection, 2) is inadequate in addressing MCDM in E&P portfolio selection and prioritization compared with other fields, and 3) does not address prioritizing brownfields (i.e., developed oilfields). This research study aims at addressing the above drawbacks through combining three MCDM methods (i.e., AHP, PROMETHEE and TOPSIS) into a single decision making tool that can support optimal oilfield portfolio investment decisions by helping determine the share of each oilfield of the total development resources allocated. Selecting these methods is reinforced by a pre-deployment and post-deployment validation framework. In addition, this study proposes a two-dimensional consistency test to verify the output coherence or prioritization stability of the MCDM methods in comparison with an intuitive approach. Nine scenarios representing all possible outcomes of the internal and external consistency tests are further proposed to reach a conclusion. The methodology is applied to a case study of six major oilfields in Iraq to generate percentage shares of each oilfield of a total production target that is in line with Iraq's aspiration to increase oil production. However, the methodology is intended to be applicable to other E&P portfolio investment prioritization scenarios by taking the specific contextual characteristics into consideration.

  6. Identifying the role of historical anthropogenic activities on urban soils: geochemical impact and city scale mapping (United States)

    Le Guern, Cecile; Baudouin, Vivien; Conil, Pierre


    Recently, European cities have faced several changes including deindustrialization and population increase. To limit urban sprawl, urban densification is preferred. It conducts to (re)develop available areas such as brownfields. Although these areas can be attractive for housing due to their location (in proximity to the city centre or to a riverside), their soils and subsoils are often contaminated. They are therefore potentially harmful for human health and the environment, and potentially costly to remediate. Currently, in case of contamination suspicion, depth geochemical characterization of urban soil and subsoil are carried out at site scale. Nevertheless, large redevelopment project occur at quarter to city scale. It appears therefore useful to acquire the preliminary knowledge on the structure and quality of soil and subsoils, as well as on the potential sources of contamination at quarter to city scale. In the frame of the Ile de Nantes (France) redevelopment project, we considered more particularly anthropogenic deposits and former industrial activities as main sources of contamination linked to human activities. To face the low traceability of the use of anthropogenic deposits and the lack of synthesis of former industrial activities, we carried out a historical study, synthetizing the information spread in numerous archive documents to spatialize the extent of the deposits and of the former activities. In addition we developed a typology of made grounds according to their contamination potential to build a 3D geological model with a geochemical coherence. In this frame, we valorized existing borehole descriptions coming mainly from pollution diagnosis and geotechnical studies. We also developed a methodology to define urban baseline compatibility levels using the existing analytical data at depth from pollution diagnosis. These data were previously gathered in a local geodatabase towards with borehole descriptions (more than 2000 borehole descriptions

  7. A Review of Attitudes towards Sharing Geotechnical Data and the use of Geospatial Data Portals in Hong Kong and the U.K.: Lessons for Europe. (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.


    Reusing existing subsurface data can greatly cut the time and financial costs of site investigations, and reduce uncertainty regarding ground conditions that can result in delays and overspend. In Hong Kong SAR it is common practice for consultancies to deposit records in the form of factual and interpretive reports, borehole logs and laboratory test data with the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) who make this information openly available to access for future investigative works. In addition to these deposits, other datasets available at GEO include, amongst others, landslide records, aerial photographs and as-built records. These archives are the first source of information about development sites in Hong Kong and no investigation takes place without a thorough desk study. Increasingly these data are digital, and can be accessed through a GIS-based online portal. In the U.K. the British Geological Survey (BGS) acts as a custodian for geoscience data deposited by the public and private sectors on a voluntary basis, and encourages organisations to make their data publicly available through the BGS online data portals. The facility to deposit digital data via the BGS website has recently been launched and should increase uptake of data sharing in the U.K. as it becomes easier for users to batch upload records digitally. Issues regarding data ownership and confidentiality are being overcome by the establishment, in some cities, of knowledge exchange networks where members who sign up to view data are expected under the terms of membership to deposit data. This has received backing from local government in some areas. The U.K. may not have the density of existing data that Hong Kong has but as knowledge exchange gathers momentum the BGS datasets are expected to grow rapidly. In Europe there appears to be a reluctance to share data. However, escalating demand for land, greater redevelopment of brownfield sites and an ever-growing need to ensure future construction

  8. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.


    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  9. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, James Maner [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Haque, Imtiaz [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rigas, Nikolaos [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    WTDTF in the SCE&G Energy Innovation Center at the new Facility in North Charleston, SC, USA. Before the eGRID was completed, it was recognized that the ability to test solar farm equipment was but a small step away thru the addition of enhanced equipment to provide for DC testing. In yet another expansion/success, a 2.5 MW rectifier system was designed and implemented by Clemson staff to enhance the Center’s capabilities. The program required over 250,000 man-hours of on-site construction labor reworking the brownfield facility on the former Navy Base, clearly satisfying one of the major goals of the Reinvestment Act. This was done while winning numerous awards for design and construction of the facility, including the Top US Project for 2014 from the Trade Journal Engineering News Record. The project was a major collaborative developmental activity managed by Clemson University staff that involved the DOE and many partners and organizations.

  10. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth (United States)

    Hipkin, Roger


    extending to distant parts of the globe must be combined with international collaboration. ` `Little g' revisited' illustrates how a global picture of the Earth's gravity field is being created by supplementing such ground-based measurements with remote-sensing from satellites. Satellites now form the main source of information about `The Earth's main magnetic field', the consequence of a vast dynamo within the molten iron core. For such global problems of the deep interior, the impossibility of making direct observations is absolute but cost can often be an equally strict limitation for much geophysical work. While we could in principle look for oil reservoirs or shallow regions where poison has contaminated the ground by digging it all up or drilling, this would be economically prohibitive. `Investigating brownfield sites with electrical resistivity' illustrates that, for the geophysicist, investigating the Earth's core and mapping subsurface chemical pollutants are aspects of the same problem - using basic physics to find out about the Earth's inaccessible interior. Editor's note. In this bumper issue of Physics Education we also have a trio of articles about absolutely nothing, showing that there is more to nothing than might be apparent to the casual eye!

  11. Adaptive Planning for Resilient Coastal Waterfronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christiaan van Veelen


    sustainable adaptive paths. The method is based on mapping all planned spatial investments in brownfield development, urban renovation, and maintenance projects of public and private infrastructure and assets and by assessing the effectiveness of prevailing policies. Using design research, new opportunities for adaptation are explored and assessed. The urban dynamics based adaptation pathways method is tested at two waterfront areas in Rotterdam (Feijenoord and New York (Red Hook. Both cases show that identifying intervention opportunities and potential transitional interventions is helpful in selecting and assessing adaptive pathways. Moreover, it helps to identify legal or financial arrangements that are needed to unlock the potential of adaptation paths. One of the key findings of the case study research is that in high density urban conditions there is limited potential to build resilience from household redevelopment or renovation, even when new complementary policies and regulative instruments that support buildinglevel resilience would be developed. District-wide flood protection is effective in terms of flood risk, but requires large-scale transformations of the waterfront zone to seize opportunities to develop integrated protection at low costs. This strategy, however, needs new governance structures and financial arrangements to redistribute costs and benefits fairly among stakeholders.

  12. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.


    periods. Much more challenging is the geographic mapping of impacts that these emissions will cause, given the many point and mobile sources of air pollutants over the entire transportation life cycle. Integration of LCA with high-resolution data sets is an active area of model development (Mutel and Hellweg 2009) and will provide site- and population-specific information for impacts ranging from water quality to biodiversity to human respiratory health. Another complex challenge in modeling environmental impacts of transportation (and cities in general) is the long run, interdependent relationship between transportation technologies and urban form. LCA modeling has tended to assume a fixed pattern of settlements and demand for mobility and then examined changes to a particular technology or practice within the transportation system, such as electric or hybrid vehicles or improved pavement materials. New transit options or other travel demand management strategies might induce mode switching or reduced trips, but the overall pattern of where people live and work is generally assumed in these models to be constant in the short run. In contrast, the automobile has been influencing land-use patterns for a century, and it is the resulting geographic structure that determines the baseline need for transportation, and thus drives the use of material and energy resources used in transportation systems (Kunstler 1994). We have seen that cities with high population densities tend to have lower tailpipe emissions from transportation (Kennedy et al 2009). Recent studies have modeled how changes in urban land-use or zoning changes the geographic structure of transportation demand and then used LCA to determine the environmental benefits of such policies. For example, Mashayekh et al (2012) summarized travel demand reductions projected from several studies of compact, smart growth, and brownfield in-fill development strategies to find benefits ranging up to 75% reductions in life