Sample records for brownfields

  1. Brownfields Site Information (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  2. Brownfield Sites (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,...

  3. Brownfields Grants Information (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes all types of information regarding Brownfields grant programs that subsidize/support Brownfield cleanup. This includes EPA's Brownfields Program...

  4. ACRES - Brownfields Properties (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,...

  5. Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool to support effective brownfield regeneration. (United States)

    Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Klusáček, Petr; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea; Frantál, Bohumil; Martinát, Standa; Kunc, Josef; Osman, Robert; Bartke, Stephan


    In the last decade, the regeneration of derelict or underused sites, fully or partly located in urban areas (or so called "brownfields"), has become more common, since free developable land (or so called "greenfields") has more and more become a scare and, hence, more expensive resource, especially in densely populated areas. Although the regeneration of brownfield sites can offer development potentials, the complexity of these sites requires considerable efforts to successfully complete their revitalization projects and the proper selection of promising sites is a pre-requisite to efficiently allocate the limited financial resources. The identification and analysis of success factors for brownfield sites regeneration can support investors and decision makers in selecting those sites which are the most advantageous for successful regeneration. The objective of this paper is to present the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool (TBPT), developed as a web-based solution to assist stakeholders responsible for wider territories or clusters of brownfield sites (portfolios) to identify which brownfield sites should be preferably considered for redevelopment or further investigation. The prioritization approach is based on a set of success factors properly identified through a systematic stakeholder engagement procedure. Within the TBPT these success factors are integrated by means of a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology, which includes stakeholders' requalification objectives and perspectives related to the brownfield regeneration process and takes into account the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social and environmental dimensions). The tool has been applied to the South Moravia case study (Czech Republic), considering two different requalification objectives identified by local stakeholders, namely the selection of suitable locations for the development of a shopping centre and a solar power plant, respectively. The application of the TBPT to

  6. City of Chicago Brownfield case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.J. [City of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Environment; Anderson, S.W.; Albano, J.M. [Black and Veatch Waste Science, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)


    Dealing with complex environmental issues frequently inhibits redevelopment of industrial sites in urban settings. In 1993, the City of Chicago (City) Department of Planning and Development, Department of Buildings, and Mayor`s Office joined the Department of Environment to investigate reuse of former industrial/commercial properties (brownfields) suspected of environmental or industrial contamination. The collective result is the Brownfield Program, a three-pronged initiative: Brownfield Pilot Program, Brownfield Forum, and Brownfield Research. Black and Veatch Waste Science, Inc. (Waste Science) carried the Brownfield Program forward by performing a Phase 1 environmental site assessment for the City on one of five pilot sites. Waste Science subsequently completed a Phase 2 environmental site assessment and Phase 3 site remediation at the site. Waste oil and PCB-contaminated soil was removed.

  7. Sustainable urban development on Brownfield sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The purpose of this essay is to critically discuss sustainable urban development on Brownfield sites in United Kingdom. It will start with description of background of Brownfield. Then, it will move on to introduce how the issue of sustainable brownfield regeneration is addressed in the UK. The overview of sustainable brownfield redevelopment in UK will be presented, followed by analyzing the example of Connaught square in this part. After that, it will take Hafen city to be the case study. It will examine the strategies about economic, social and environment sustainability; discuss how to transfer these ideas into reality. Finally, this paper will close with gives some recommendations on brownfiled redevelopment in UK.

  8. Brownfields and Land Revitalization Programmatic Information (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains resources provided by EPA's Brownfields and Land Revitalization program that can be used for the assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment of...

  9. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Properties, National Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Properties as part of the CIMC web service, although the data are generally more broadly applicable. Brownfields are...

  10. Land Use and Land Cover - BROWNFIELDS_IDEM_IN: Brownfield Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BROWNFIELDS_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains brownfield locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Environmental Management,...

  11. Talented Employees in the Field of Brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidová Marcela


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at bringing information on one of the important terms for successful redevelopment, recovery and operation of brownfields – efficient people, employees. Not only brownfields, but generally all organizations that want to be competitive and successful, want to outperform their present rivals and considerably increase their added value have to pay attention to talent management. The article is concerned, on the basis of available theoretical information and the existing practical experience, at describing three particular processes of talents management (their identification, development and retention which are necessary for the successful use of talent. The purpose of the article is providing recommendation how to help operators of brownfields identify and retain highly talented employees, build on their strong points, reward their success, provide them with a chance to make progress, and increase their overall efficiency.

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA - APRIL 2012 (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains Brownfield Boundaries. Brownfields are defined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) as abandoned, idled, or underused...

  13. Gauging the brownfield land supply in England


    K. Williams; Sinnett, D.; Miner, P.; Carmichael, L.


    This paper reports on the findings of a study that aimed to help fill the information gap left by the loss of the National Land Use Database – and asked ‘Is there enough brownfield land in England to meet housing needs?’

  14. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtovic


    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  15. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtović


    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  16. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions, National Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions as part of the CIMC web service. The data represent polygonal boundaries that show different types...

  17. Toward Sustainable Brownfield Redevelopment Using Life-Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chen


    Full Text Available The redevelopment of brownfields has become an important issue, as the number of contaminated sites has been increasing. However, a comprehensive regulatory framework is lacking that includes urban planning and a sustainability plan at the national level to support brownfield redevelopment in Taiwan. Few studies have explored sustainable management objectives to reduce the environmental impact of increasing economic value of the proliferating redeveloped brownfields. This study proposes a feasible definition for “brownfield” in Taiwan and analyzes the remediation goals to enable their inclusion in future land-use categories for urban planning. In order to rank the various options for brownfield development by sustainability, this study evaluates the external costs and benefits based on the environmental impact. Finally, the brownfield sustainability index (BSI was developed to determine the feasibility of sustainable redevelopment relevant to the different land reuse scenarios. For the selected study site, the option of green land with solar energy (ground P-Si panels was determined to be the best choice compared with the commercial, residential, and industrial scenarios. This study provides a framework for planning brownfield assessment strategies to address the current soil and groundwater remediation and land use policy issues in Taiwan.

  18. Brownfield Redevelopment Toward Sustainable Urban Land Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Kang; GUAN Him


    Brownfield redevelopment is a new urban land use strategy to pursue the ideal of sustainable development. It relieves environmental pressure and resolves the glaring contradiction between urban land idleness and urban sprawl. It addresses issues of urban land use and farmland protection in China. This paper compares brownfield with greenfield, and defines brownfield and its redevelopment. It elaborates general and special government policies for this sustainable land use strategy in the context of China. General policies contain two aspects: clarifying brownfield redevelopment's priority in Chinese urban planning and land use and setting a general quantitative redevelopment target. The extent of the government's special policies, which aim at coordinating three factors in the redevelopment process, namely governments, developers and users, are divided into five areas: statistics and categorization, assessment and remediation, financial supports and tax incentives, environmental and legal liability, and publicity and guidance. The paper concludes the major functions of different levels of Chinese government in the redevelopment process, i.e. making general strategy, formulating legislation, specifying regulations and technical standards, estimating and categorizing brownfield sites, drawing up brownfield planning, providing information and financial support, guiding developers, publicizing the strategy to the public, and checking reuse results.

  19. Anvil Mountain Site, Silverton CO: Technical Memorandum - Energy Efficiency for Affordable Housing at a Brownfield Redevelopment (United States)

    This document illustrates how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Brownfields Program empowers states, communities, and other stakeholders to work together to prevent, assess, safely clean up, and sustainably reuse brownfields.

  20. A systems approach to assess the redevelopment options for urban brownfield sites


    Leney, Anthony D.


    The problem addressed is: How can an appropriate redevelopment option for an urban brownfield site be determined? A systems-based approach, Brownfield REMIT/RESPONSE (BRR), to assess the impact of brownfield redevelopment on the surrounding urban area has been developed. This utilises REMIT/RESPONSE combined with urban theory to develop a dynamic model of the generic impact of brownfield redevelopment that when combined with site-specific information can be used to identify and compare th...


    This document provides brownfields planners with an overview of the technical methods that can be used to achieve successful site assessment and cleanup which are two key components of the brownfields redevelopment process. No two brownfields sites are identical and planners will...

  2. Targeted selection of brownfields from portfolios for sustainable regeneration: User experiences from five cases testing the Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool. (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Martinát, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Pizzol, Lisa; Alexandrescu, Filip; Frantál, Bohumil; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex


    Prioritizing brownfields for redevelopment in real estate portfolios can contribute to more sustainable regeneration and land management. Owners of large real estate and brownfield portfolios are challenged to allocate their limited resources to the development of the most critical or promising sites, in terms of time and cost efficiency. Authorities worried about the negative impacts of brownfields - in particular in the case of potential contamination - on the environment and society also need to prioritize their resources to those brownfields that most urgently deserve attention and intervention. Yet, numerous factors have to be considered for prioritizing actions, in particular when adhering to sustainability principles. Several multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approaches and tools have been suggested in order to support these actors in managing their brownfield portfolios. Based on lessons learned from the literature on success factors, sustainability assessment and MCDA approaches, researchers from a recent EU project have developed the web-based Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool (TBPT). It facilitates assessment and prioritization of a portfolio of sites on the basis of the probability of successful and sustainable regeneration or according to individually specified objectives. This paper introduces the challenges of brownfield portfolio management in general and reports about the application of the TBPT in five cases: practical test-uses by two large institutional land owners from Germany, a local and a regional administrative body from the Czech Republic, and an expert from a national environmental authority from Romania. Based on literature requirements for sustainability assessment tools and on the end-users' feedbacks from the practical tests, we discuss the TBPT's strengths and weaknesses in order to inform and give recommendations for future development of prioritization tools.

  3. Identification and ecological aspects of large-scale brownfields in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Branislav


    Full Text Available Large-scale brownfield sites are the most apparent brownfield category in the Republic of Srpska, and they are the most valuable asset when it comes to explaining this spatial phenomenon. Transition and armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina have caused, among other things, brownfield formation; a decline in industrial employment alongside a reduction in the size of the armed forced have further increased the number and total area of brownfields in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Their ecological characteristics, as in other transitional countries, are largely responsible for the definition of brownfields, but they are not the most significant barrier to the revitalization of largescale brownfield sites. The present paper will provide the methodology of large-scale brownfield identification as well as an accompanying distribution map of these sites in the Republic of Srpska.

  4. Brownfields and Urban Agriculture: Interim Guidelines for Safe Gardening Practices (United States)

    This document is a condensation of the input of experts from the government, the nonprofit sector, and academia who gathered to outline the range of issues which need to be addressed in order to safely grow food on former brownfield sites.

  5. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  6. 76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) (United States)


    ..., Economic Opportunity for Low & Very Low-Income Persons In Connection with Assisted Projects; Federal... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative...: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB Control Number: 2506-0153. Description of the need...


    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: or phone 1-800-490-...

  8. Influence of Brownfield Conversion on Evaluating Real Estate and Implemeting the Possibilites of Urban Brownfields in Lithuanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Bielinskas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of brownfield in Lithuania. The paper overviews Lithuanian and foreign experience of integrating the introduced areas into the urban framework based on social, economic, ecological and cultural contextuality. The main problem, on Lithuanian scale, is the absence of an official definition of urban brownfield. The legal framework in Lithuania does not contain any provisions to be processed. The article is aimed at identifying potential threats to the areas in respect of criteria for urban brownfields, and, according to this review, at revealing possible uses of this land. One of the most effective ways of urban sustainable development is the conversion of former military, industrial and other land accepted as the legacy of the Soviet regime. The authors have established a causal relationship resulting in the emergence of the urban areas of wilderness and developed guidance on using them. The authors have analysed and evaluated the existing real estate developers and current trends towards opportunities for private and public partnership (PPP in Lithuania. Although PPP is widespread in most of European countries, it is a rare phenomenon in Lithuania, and has no deep-rooted tradition of this kind of investment in urban infrastructure; however, evaluation is one of the most potential ways to revitalize abandoned urban territories. Based on practices of foreign countries, the authors have identified PPP as a priority.

  9. Earth Science Instruction Using Brownfields in the Virtual Classroom (United States)

    Bower, P. M.; Liddicoat, J. C.


    Geophysical methods of defining contaminant plumes from brownfields are taught in lecture and laboratory using Brownfield Action (BA) that is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation in which undergraduate students explore and solve problems in geohydrology. In the U.S., BA is recognized nationally as an innovative curriculum and simulation that has been developed by Peter Bower at Barnard College in collaboration with Columbia University's Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. Brownfields are former industrial sites that have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites when reclaimed. As part of assessing the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA contains a narrative element that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams must construct a detailed narrative from diverse forms of information, including socio-historical and a scientific dataset comprised of over 2,000,000 data points. BA forces the students to act on their perceptions of the interlocking realms of knowledge, theory and practical experience, providing an opportunity for them to gain valuable practice at tackling the complexity and ambiguity of a large-scale, interdisciplinary investigation of groundwater contamination and environmental forensics.

  10. An integrative methodology to improve brownfield redevelopment planning in Chinese cities: A case study of Futian, Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, F.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Kuffer, M.; Zhan, Q.


    Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant (USEPA, 2002). In recent years, there have been a rising number of brownfield redevelopment practices in Chinese

  11. Optimising value from the soft re-use of brownfield sites. (United States)

    Bardos, R Paul; Jones, Sarah; Stephenson, Ian; Menger, Pierre; Beumer, Victor; Neonato, Francesca; Maring, Linda; Ferber, Uwe; Track, Thomas; Wendler, Katja


    Soft re-use of brownfields describes intended temporary or final re-uses of brownfield sites which are not based on built constructions or infrastructure ('hard' re-use). Examples of soft re-uses include the creation of public green space. These are essentially uses where the soil is not sealed. Often the case for soft re-use of brownfields has not been easy to demonstrate in strictly financial terms. The purpose of this paper is to describe a value based approach to identify and optimise services provided by the restoration of brownfields to soft re-uses, on a permanent or interim basis. A 'Brownfield Opportunity Matrix' is suggested as means of identifying and discussing soft restoration opportunities. The use of 'sustainability linkages' is suggested as a means of understanding the sustainability of the services under consideration and providing a structure for the overall valuation of restoration work, for example as part of design or option appraisal processes, or to support the solicitation of interest in a project.

  12. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building. (United States)

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas


    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will

  13. Carbonation of stainless steel slag in the context of in situ Brownfield remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capobianco, O.; Costa, G.; Thuy, L.; Magliocco, E.; Hartog, Niels; Baciocchi, R.


    The main aim of this work was to assess the potential of in situ carbonation as a treatment to modify the properties of alkaline materials such as industrial soil in terms of leaching behaviour and mineralogy and to store the CO2 generated by specific treatments applied in the context of Brownfield

  14. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project (United States)

    Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas


    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. Methodological note: data for this life-cycle assessment were obtained from project reports, construction blueprints and utility bills.

  15. Hickory, N.C., Receives $200,000 EPA Brownfield Grants to Revitalize, Strengthen Local Economy (United States)

    ATLANTA - At a press conference in Huntington, W.Va., today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant to the City of Hickory, N.C., for reuse planning that includes residential an

  16. Analysis of professors' perceptions towards institutional redevelopment of brownfield sites in Alabama (United States)

    King, Berkley Nathaniel, Jr.

    This study was conducted to analyze professors' perceptions on the institutional redevelopment of brownfield sites into usable greenspaces. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2016) refers to brownfields as sites, (either facility or land) under public law § 107-118 (H.R. 2869), which are contaminated with a substance that is classified as a hazard or a pollutant. Usable greenspaces, however, are open spaces or any open piece of land that is undeveloped, has no buildings or other built structures, and is accessible to the public (EPA, 2015). Open green spaces provide recreational areas for residents and help to enhance the beauty and environmental quality of neighborhoods (EPA, 2015). In addition, in a study conducted by Dadvand et al. (2015), exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health among elementary school children, and this exposure, according to Dadvand et al., could also influence cognitive development. Because of the institutional context provided in these articles and other research studies, a sequential mixed-methods study was conducted that investigated the perceptions of professors towards the redevelopment of brownfields near their campuses. This study provided demographics of forty-two college and university professors employed at two institutions in the state of Alabama, a southeastern region of the United States. Survey questions were structured to analyze qualitative data. The secondary method of analysis utilized descriptive statistics to measure the most important indicators that influences professors' perceptions. The collection of quantitative data was adapted from an instrument designed by Wernstedt, Crooks, & Hersh (2003). Findings from the study showed that professors are knowledgeable and aware of the sociological and economic challenges in low income communities where brownfields are geographically located. Pseudonyms are used for the three universities which were contacted. Findings also

  17. Applying Agile Requirements Engineering Approach for Re-engineering & Changes in existing Brownfield Adaptive Systems


    Masood, Abdullah; Ali, M. Asim


    Requirements Engineering (RE) is a key activity in the development of software systems and is concerned with the identification of the goals of stakeholders and their elaboration into precise statements of desired services and behavior. The research describes an Agile Requirements Engineering approach for re-engineering & changes in existing Brownfield adaptive system. The approach has few modifications that can be used as a part of SCRUM development process for re-engineering & changes. The ...

  18. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan


    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  19. Sticks and Stones: The Impact of the Definitions of Brownfield in Policies on Socio-Economic Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Tang


    Full Text Available Many countries encourage brownfield regeneration as a means of sustainable development but define “brownfield” differently. Specifically, the definitions of brownfield in the regeneration policies of countries with higher population densities usually promote recycling land that is previously developed, whether or not there is chemical contamination. Further, the de facto definition of brownfield used by the UK government focuses on previously developed land that is unused or underused. The ANOVA in this study revealed that local authorities in England (n = 296 with higher percentages of derelict and vacant land tended to be more deprived based on the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation, which evaluate deprivation from the aspects of income, employment, health, education, housing, crime, and living environment. However, the percentage of previously developed land in use but with further development potential had no significant effect on the deprivation conditions. The Blair-Brown Government (1997~2010 encouraged more than 60% of new dwellings to be established on the previously developed land in England. The analyses in this study showed that this target, combined with the definition of brownfield in the policy, may have facilitated higher densities of residential development on previously developed land but without addressing the deprivation problems. These observations indicate that a definition of brownfield in regeneration policies should focus on previously developed land that is now vacant or derelict if land recycling is to contribute to sustainable communities.

  20. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  1. Bending Priorities: a Study in Policy Framing. State of Michigan’s Brownfield Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HULA


    Full Text Available This paper explores the political process bywhich the state of Michigan successfully crafted andimplemented such a brownfield initiative. Althoughthe primary focus here is on the experience of asingle state, the lessons to be learned from thiscase have national and international implicationsbecause Michigan is a leader in brownfieldprograms. The paper begins with a review of thegeneral policy context in which state brownfieldpolicy is made. Particular attention is given tothe widespread dissatisfaction of a variety ofstakeholders with long dominant federal programsin the area of environmental cleanups. The secondsection outlines a number of fundamental legislativeand administrative changes that have beenimplemented in Michigan environmental policyover the past decade. Section three reviews thebroad literature on issue framing and considershow it might help identify the specific mechanismsby which the innovative brownfield program wasadopted. The final section provides an informal testof elements of the issue-framing model by exploringin some detail the convergence of public opinionwith key elements of the innovative policy, andwhether there was any significant shift in publicopinion over time.

  2. Brownfield Action III - Modular use of hydrogeology instruction in the virtual classroom (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.


    Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative

  3. The influence of compost addition on the water repellency of brownfield soils (United States)

    Whelan, Amii; Kechavarzi, Cedric; Sakrabani, Ruben; Coulon, Frederic; Simmons, Robert; Wu, Guozhong


    Compost application to brownfield sites, which can facilitate the stabilisation and remediation of contaminants whilst providing adequate conditions for plant growth, is seen as an opportunity to divert biodegradable wastes from landfill and put degraded land back into productive use. However, although compost application is thought to improve soil hydraulic functioning, there is a lack of information on the impact of large amounts of compost on soil water repellency. Water repellency in soils is attributed to the accumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds released as root exudates, fungal and microbial by-products and decomposition of organic matter. It has also been shown that brownfield soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants can exhibit strong water repellency, preventing the rapid infiltration of water and leading potentially to surface run off and erosion of contaminated soil. However, hydrophobic organic contaminants are known to become sequestrated by partitioning into organic matter or diffusing into nano- and micropores, making them less available over time (ageing). The effect of large amounts of organic matter addition through compost application on the water repellency of soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants requires further investigation. We characterised the influence of compost addition on water repellency in the laboratory by measuring the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT), sorptivity and water repellency index through infiltration experiments on soil samples amended with two composts made with contrasting feedstocks (green waste and predominantly meat waste). The treatments consisted of a sandy loam, a clay loam and a sandy loam contaminated with diesel fuel and aged for 3 years, which were amended with the two composts at a rate equivalent to 750t/ha. In addition core samples collected from a brownfield site, amended with compost at three different rates (250, 500 and 750t/ha) in 2007, were


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar MORAR


    Full Text Available The post-Cold War conditions, following the collapse of the USSR, brought radical socio-economic changes in Central and Eastern Europe, including the process of military restructuring – a process of military relocation, which resulted in huge amounts of under-used land. Many regions are facing development dilemmas while experiencing demilitarization transformations, as the process has left behind in many cities large areas of abandoned and potentially contaminated tracts of land. The paper deals with the multitude of military brownfields redevelopment benefits, explaining the case of the city of Oradea (Romania which implemented effective land restoration through (redevelopment projects in order to address the considerable contemporary demand for new lands to sustain the residential, commercial and other socio-economic needs. The cultural-historical context of the former military constructions has to be mentioned, as the involved heritage buildings have a special architecture, being a direct result of the military development process under the historical influences.

  5. Recuperación paisajística de vertederos de basura: un ejemplo de brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Caceres Cortez


    Full Text Available Los vertederos de basuras y los basureros que cierran sus actividades son llamados brownfields; tienen necesidad de mantenimiento debido al potencial de contaminación que presentan. Tras su cierre, deben tener un proyecto de revitalización y de reintegración al paisaje que beneficie al ambiente y a la comunidad cercana. Nuestra investigación se enfoca en las experiencias que se han dado en el Brasil, con el objetivo de mostrar las diversas metodologías de siembra de aquellas especies de plantas que mejor se adaptan a este ambiente, teniendo en cuenta lo estrecho de la capa de la tierra y las células subsecuentes con basura orgánica e inorgánica.

  6. Recuperación paisajística de vertederos de basura: un ejemplo de brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caceres Cortez Ana Tereza


    Full Text Available Los vertederos de basuras y los basureros que cierran sus actividades son llamados brownfields; tienen necesidad de mantenimiento debido al potencial de contaminación que presentan. Tras su cierre, deben tener un proyecto de revitalización y de reintegración al paisaje que beneficie al ambiente y a la comunidad cercana. Nuestra investigación se enfoca en las experiencias que se han dado en el Brasil, con el objetivo de mostrar las diversas metodologías de siembra de aquellas especies de plantas que mejor se adaptan a este ambiente, teniendo en cuenta lo estrecho de la capa de la tierra y las células subsecuentes con basura orgánica e inorgánica.

  7. 国外棕地研究进展%The Research Progress of Brownfield in Foreign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖龙; 侯景新; 刘晓霞; 李开宇; 肖叶甜


    “棕地”一词最早出现在英国的规划文献中,20世纪90年代初开始成为美国官方用语。近年,棕地问题已成为了一个十分严肃的城市发展问题,交织了经济、社会、发展与环境保护的矛盾。为了推动棕地领域内的研究,在整理与分析国外相关文献资料的基础上,针对国外在棕地的定义、基本特征、分类、治理和开发价值评估、环境风险与责任、政策与法律法规、利益相关者及其关系以及棕地的治理与开发对策等方面的研究成果进行了述评。%The term “brownfield” first appeared in the British planning literature , and in the early 1990s, it became the official language of the United States .In recently , the problem of brownfield had become a very serious urban development issues , and it has interwoven the contradictions of economic , social development and environ-mental protection .Based on the collection and analysis of foreign literature , the paper reviews for the definition and characteristics, classification, valuation of governance and development , environmental risks and responsibilities , policies and laws and regulations , stakeholders and their relationships , and the governance and development coun-termeasures of brownfield research in foreign .

  8. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail:; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Esquinas, N.; Fernández-Braña, A.; Afif, E.


    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. - Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts 20-ha brownfield • As and Pb highest soil pollutants • Forensic study reveals main waste and spills. • Comprehensive study of pyrite ashes (multi-point source of pollution) • Co-occurrence of PAH also linked to pyrite ashes.

  9. Active learning in forensic science using Brownfield Action in a traditional or hybrid course in earth, environmental, or engineering sciences (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat (2), J.


    Brownfield Action (BA - is a web-based, interactive, three-dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collaboratively to explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA is being used in the United States at 10 colleges and universities in earth, environmental, or engineering sciences undergraduate and graduate courses. As a semester-long activity or done in modular form for specific topics, BA encourages active learning that requires attention to detail, intuition, and positive interaction between peers that results in Phase 1 and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments. Besides use in higher education courses, BA also can be adapted for instruction to local, state, and federal governmental employees, and employees in industry where brownfields need to be investigated or require remediation.

  10. Impact of dust filter installation in ironworks and construction on brownfield area on the toxic metal concentration in street and house dust (Celje, Slovenia). (United States)

    Zibret, Gorazd


    This article presents the impact of the ecological investment in ironworks (dust filter installation) and construction works at a highly contaminated brownfield site on the chemical composition of household dust (HD) and street sediment (SS) in Celje, Slovenia. The evaluation is based on two sampling campaigns: the first was undertaken 1 month before the ecological investment became operational and the second 3 years later. The results show that dust filter installations reduced the content of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, W and Zn on average by 58% in HD and by 51% in SS. No reduction was observed at sampling points in the upwind direction from the ironworks. By contrast, the impact of the construction works on the highly contaminated brownfield site was detected by a significant increase (on average by 37%) of elements connected to the brownfield contamination in SS. Such increase was not detected in HD.

  11. Assessment of rainwater use and greywater reuse in high-rise buildings in a brownfield site. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Grant, Andrew; Sharma, Ashok; Chen, Donghui; Chen, Liang


    This study describes the use of rainwater and greywater (originated from bathroom only) for provision of non-contact indoor and outdoor use in high-rise buildings. A brownfield development site in Box Hill suburb of Melbourne was selected as case study site for this investigation. The performance of alternative servicing options was compared with conventional water supply, stormwater and wastewater servicing. A water balance model UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality) was applied to determine storage capacities and to evaluate the percentage reduction in water supplying, stormwater run-off and wastewater disposal, as well as volumes of rainwater use and greywater reuse. In this study, the impact of variation in collection area (600 m(2) and 900 m(2)) and appliance discharge volumes was examined. A number of demand management options were also investigated. The results of this study indicate greywater reuse is more suited than rainwater use for this development because of the steady, constant supply of greywater compared to the highly fluctuating, storm-event supply of rainwater and the high population density creating comparatively large volumes of greywater.

  12. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.


    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available From Brownfield to Greenfield. Major Ecological Imbalances in Baia Mare. Săsar Mine Reclamation and Reconversion. This article is an extract of a more exhaustive study of the Săsar mine based on a multi-level approach of the environmental degradation caused by the long-lasting activities of the mining industry in the city of Baia Mare and the reconversion methods of the underutilized and contaminated properties into green spaces. The presence of brownfields in this city is a matter of great concern to the administrative bodies due to insufficient and ineffective measures for environmental protection, precarious expertise and lack of initiative to regenerate former mining sites. Furthermore, the industrial pillars refuse to get involved and take responsibility for the problems many of them have caused despite state efforts to ease liability fears. But viable projects and solid action are indispensable for overcoming this hurdle. As such, this work is an attempt to cover these exact issues as follows: after setting on the legal framework and the fundamental regulatory considerations, the vulnerability of the enviroment will be assesed in order to determine the level of pollution in the area surrounding the Săsar mine. Then the premises for a cultural landscape reconversion will be established through direct field observations and interpretations, the examination of scholarly studies and the use of GIS tools and social data. This project will try to offer a coherent transformational model of a brownfield area into a useful space for the community and the environment in compliance with the economic purposes.

  14. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter


    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  15. Integration of the subsurface and the surface sectors for a more holistic approach for sustainable redevelopment of urban brownfields. (United States)

    Norrman, Jenny; Volchko, Yevheniya; Hooimeijer, Fransje; Maring, Linda; Kain, Jaan-Henrik; Bardos, Paul; Broekx, Steven; Beames, Alistair; Rosén, Lars


    This paper presents a holistic approach to sustainable urban brownfield redevelopment where specific focus is put on the integration of a multitude of subsurface qualities in the early phases of the urban redevelopment process, i.e. in the initiative and plan phases. Achieving sustainability in brownfield redevelopment projects may be constrained by a failure of engagement between two key expert constituencies: urban planners/designers and subsurface engineers, leading to missed opportunities and unintended outcomes in the plan realisation phase. A more integrated approach delivers greater benefits. Three case studies in the Netherlands, Belgium and Sweden were used to test different sustainability assessment instruments in terms of the possibility for knowledge exchange between the subsurface and the surface sectors and in terms of cooperative learning among experts and stakeholders. Based on the lessons learned from the case studies, a generic decision process framework is suggested that supports holistic decision making. The suggested framework focuses on stakeholder involvement, communication, knowledge exchange and learning and provides an inventory of instruments that can support these processes.

  16. Geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Cornue, David B.; Ursic, James R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environmental Operations, Inc., assisted in the characterization of the geology, hydrology, and water quality at a Brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois. The investigation was designed to determine if metals and organic compounds historically used in industrial operations at the site resulted in a threat to the water resources in the area. The hydraulic units of concern in the study area are the upper semiconfining unit, the sand aquifer, and the lower semiconfining unit. The upper semiconfining unit ranges from about 1 to 19 feet in thickness and is composed of silt-and clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 7.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. The sand aquifer is composed of a 1 to 5.5 foot thick sand deposit and is considered the primary pathway for ground-water flow and contaminant migration from beneath the study area. The geometric mean of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand aquifer was calculated to be 1.8 feet per day. The direction of flow in the sand aquifer is to the east, south, and west, away from a ground-water ridge that underlies the center of the site. Ground-water velocity through the sand aquifer ranges from 7.3 ? 10-2 to 2.7 ? 10-1 feet per day. The lower semiconfining unit is composed of sandy silt-and-clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. Volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water beneath the study area. Pesticide compounds were detected in ground water in the western part of the study area. Partial or complete degradation of some of the volatile organic and pesticide compounds is occurring in the soils and ground water beneath the study area. Concentrations of most of the metals and major cations in the ground water show some variation within the study area and may be affected by the presence of a source area, pH, oxidation

  17. Brownfield site investigation: a new technology for the detection of large objects based on passive seismic monitoring (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Aspray, T. J.; Grojean, Q.; Steirou, E.


    In assessing brownfield sites for redevelopment, intrusive investigations are carried out to assess contamination, geology and hydrogeology. Such investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment, which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they provide information for discrete sample ';windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), and have been applied to brownfield sites. Their ability in detecting pollution e.g. buried canisters, is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. This study is focused on the use, for the first time, of short period seismometers as an alternative, non-intrusive, passive seismic method to detect the presence of objects buried under the ground surface even when on-site conditions are not favourable. We used five low detection threshold seismometers with a flat response within the frequency range 1 - 80 Hz. We conducted experiments both in the lab and in the field. Three series of lab experiments were conducted in sand, under controlled conditions, using ambient noise as the only source of generating seismic waves. Results revealed that there is a distinct difference in the amplitude of the power density spectra of the recorded signals in cases where objects e.g. concrete block, polystyrene block, wood, were present. To validate these results in field scale, we conducted a series of experiments that took place in Heriot-Watt University campus on a field for which we had information for the subsurface from an electromagnetic survey. We used the same monitoring equipment to try and detect the presence of a 6m long PVC pipe buried 0.5m below the ground surface. Results were consistent with those obtained from lab experiments. This supports our initial hypothesis on the

  18. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site. (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Changjun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan


    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a "brownfield" site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May-September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.

  19. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield. (United States)

    Gallego, J R; Esquinas, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Sierra, C


    The abandonment of Hg-As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg-As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses.

  20. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao


    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618—1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  1. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools. (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram


    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  2. 国外棕地价值评估的方法与实践综述%Summary and Review of Foreign Methods and Practice for Brownfield Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 李影; 李娟


    在我国日益推进的城市化进程中,土地污染问题日益凸显,污染对于土地造成的价值损失也越来越引起人们的关注.因此,在土地的价值评估中如何纳入环境因素成为当前亟待解决的技术问题.而国外的棕地(即污染土地)价值评估起步较早,实践较为丰富,本文在参考大量外文文献的基础上,结合国外评估师的实践经验,对主要的国外棕地价值评估方法进行系统梳理总结,并针对市场比较法、收益还原法、成本逼近法和内涵定价法等四种不同方法的具体实践应用,筛选出有代表性的国外案例进行探讨,以期为国内的棕地价值评估提供方法与实践的参考.在此基础上,本文也就学术界的争论对棕地价值评估方法中的污名、清理期间和风险评估等三个方面的问题进行了总结和讨论,提出棕地价值评估对我国四个方面的启示和借鉴:重视环境因素,为促进和激励土地环境整治提供依据;出台相关政策,加强土地用途转换过程中的环境风险评估;公开环境数据,为棕地价值评估提供数据支撑;积累和借鉴经验,提高评估结果的准确性.%In the process of urbanization, land contamination becomes an increasingly prominent problem, and the loss of land value caused by contamination has aroused more and more concern. Therefore, the urgent problem is how to take the environmental factors into the valuation of the land. In terms of this issue, some foreign research has an early start and more practice. Based on the review of considerable foreign literature and the practical experience of appraiser abroad, this paper summarized the four main methods of brownfield valuation and discussed some typical cases in order to provide some references for domestic brownfield valuation methods and practices. As well, the author hopes that the analyses can bring some enlightenment for domestic brownfield assessment. On this basis, the paper has

  3. Transformation of an Industrial Brownfield into an Ecological Buffer for Michigan’s Only Ramsar Wetland of International Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Norwood


    Full Text Available The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge spans 77 km along the Detroit River and western Lake Erie, and is the only unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System that is international. A key unit of the refuge is the 166-ha Humbug Marsh that represents the last kilometer of natural shoreline on the U.S. mainland of the river and Michigan’s only “Wetland of International Importance” designated under the 1971 International Ramsar Convention. Adjacent to Humbug Marsh is an 18-ha former industrial manufacturing site (now called the Refuge Gateway that is being remediated and restored as an ecological buffer for Humbug Marsh and the future home of the refuge’s visitor center. Restoration and redevelopment activities have included: cleanup and capping of contaminated lands; daylighting a creek (i.e., deliberately exposing the flow of a creek that was historically placed underground in a culvert and constructing a retention pond and emergent wetland to treat storm water prior to discharge to the Detroit River; restoring coastal wetland, riparian buffer, and upland habitats; and constructing two roads, hiking/biking trails, and a kayak/canoe landing to offer wildlife-compatible public uses that allow visitors to experience this internationally-recognized natural resource. This project has been described as transformational for the region by restoring an industrial brownfield into high quality wildlife habitat that expands the ecological buffer of a Ramsar site. Specific restoration targets for the site include: achieving a net gain of 6.5 ha of wetlands in a river that has lost 97% of its coastal wetlands to development; restoring 10.1 ha of upland buffer habitat; treating invasive Phragmites along 4 km of shoreline; and treatment of invasive plant species in 20.2 ha of upland habitats in Humbug Marsh. Further, the Refuge Gateway is being restored as a model of environmental sustainability for nearly seven million

  4. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the groundwater system behavior to support Brownfield regeneration of Hunedoara (Romania) former steel production site (United States)

    Gogu, R.; Gaitanaru, D.; Ciugulea, O.; Boukhemacha, M. A.; Bica, I.


    Located in the Western part of Romania, the study area is the Hunedoara former steel industry site. The current contamination status of the subsurface shows a real threat due to the contribution of more than 100 years of steel production, ironworks operations, coke products generation, and recovery of recycling materials. Analyses performed in 2007 indicated high contaminations with heavy metals like copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, and chromium. As the contamination of the soil and groundwater severe, brownfield regeneration of this site is essential for a sustainable land management. Intelligent remediation techniques with regard to phytoremediation and soil washing with recycled solutions could be applied. However, these techniques could be correctly chosen and applied if a reliable image of the hydrological, geological, hydrogeological, pedological settings exits and after a deep understanding of the contamination mechanisms. As consequence the development of a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model for this area is compulsory. Hunedoara County has a complex geological structure, made by crystalline-Mesozoic units belonging to Southern Carpathians and by sedimentary-volcanic units of Western Carpathians. The site area is shaped by the presence of alluvial deposits from the Superior Holocene. From the lithologic point of view, covered by a thick layer of clay a sandy formation is located at depths bellow 10 m. The two strata are covering an extended carbonate media. The main aquifer is represented by a groundwater body located under the clay layer. The groundwater table of the superficial aquifer is located at about 10 m depth. The one layer groundwater flow model simulating aquifer behavior covers about 1,2 km2. Its conceptual model relies on a 3D geological model made by using 7 accurate geological cross-sections of the studied domain. Detailed geological data was provided by direct-push core sampling correlated with the penetration time and with

  5. The Financing Mode of Brownfield Redevelopment in the U.S. and the Enlightenment to China%美国棕地再开发的融资模式及其对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵沁娜; 戴亚素; 范利军


    The externality of brownfield redevelopment determines that only by establishing reasonable financing model can its development process be effectively promoted. In this paper, taking the U.S. for example, where the financing mechanism and mode is relatively mature, the brownfield redevelopment financing mode of the U.S. government is analyzed thoroughly. Combined with the situation of China, it is pointed out that the government's regulation and guidance is the power of achieving the financing of brownfield redevelopment; moderately expanding tax administrative privileges of the local government is helpful for innovation of the financing Brownfield redevelopment, public-private partnerships can broaden the sources of the money effectively and multiple stakeholders' cooperation can promote the brownfield redevelopment. The author expects that experience and enlightenment can be the reference of the financing of brownfield redevelopment in China.%棕地再开发的外部性决定了只有建立合理的融资模式才能有效地推动其开发进程。本文以融资机制和模式比较成熟的美国为例,深入剖析了美国政府的棕地再开发融资模式。结合我国国情,提出政府调控和引导是实现棕地再开发融资的重要动力、适度扩大地方政府的税收管理权限有助于棕地再开发融资方式创新、公私合作可以有效拓宽棕地再开发资金的来源渠道、多元利益方通力协作可以推动棕地再开发的成功实现等启示,希望这些经验和启示为我国棕地再开发融资提供借鉴。

  6. Stakeholder-Based Risk Research of Brownfield Redevelopment Projects%基于利益相关者的棕地再开发项目风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏; 桂琪琪; 朱煜明


    运用利益相关者理论对棕地再开发项目的利益相关者进行界定和分类,对主要社会利益相关者在项目中面临的主要风险进行分析,并提出相应的管理措施,形成一个基于利益相关者合作模式的棕地再开发项目风险管理机制.%This paper defines and classifies the stakeholders of brownfield redevelopment projects with stakeholder theory, analyses the main social stakeholders' risks in detail and proposes corresponding management measures. It forms a stakeholder-based cooperation model of brownfield redevelopment projects risk management mechanism.

  7. Distribution of heavy metals and metalloids in bulk and particle size fractions of soils from coal-mine brownfield and implications on human health. (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Chunjing; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Xiangyu; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Xing, Yuxin


    Heavy metals (HMs) and metalloids migrate into their surroundings, thus increasing environmental risks and threatening human health. Current studies on coal-mine brownfields, however, have not thoroughly investigated soil-associated HMs and metalloids produced by coal mining. Therefore, this study explored the spatial and particle fraction distribution and human health implications of HMs and metalloids. The soil-associated HMs and metalloids are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Scandium (Sc), Titanium (Ti) and Zinc (Zn). Results showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni were enriched in bulk soils. Cadmium, Cu and Pb from anthropogenic source were mainly found at entrance roadsides and in sites closest to coal mines. HMs and metalloids primarily accumulated in fine fractions (Protection Agency (USEPA, 1 × 10 (-4)). The total carcinogenic risk was mainly contributed by Cd and Ni through ingestion and dermal access. Therefore, hygiene and food security in areas should be emphasized.

  8. US EPA Region 4 Brownfields (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places...

  9. 基于生命周期理论的无锡市锡山区棕(褐)地再利用环境风险综合评价%Environment Risk Comprehensive Assessment on the Reuse of Brownfield Based on Life-cycle Theory in Xishan District, Wuxi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华; 赵晶


    研究目的:以生命周期理论为基础,建立定量评价棕(褐)地再利用环境风险的评价体系与方法,并以无锡市锡山区为例验证其有效性。研究方法:系统分析法、层次分析法和灰色评价法。研究结果:(1)棕(褐)地再利用全生命周期可划分为确认准备、控制治理、维护监管三大阶段,各阶段包含政策法律风险、经济风险、组织风险、污染风险等8个要素;(2)锡山区棕(褐)地再利用环境风险处于中等水平,由于棕(褐)地的污染性、复杂性,仍应对棕(褐)地环境风险进行必要的控制。研究结论:运用层次分析法和灰色评价法对棕(褐)地再利用进行环境风险综合评价具有一定的价值与可操作性。%The purpose of this paper is to establish a complete appraisal system and comprehensively assess the environment risk of reuse of brownfield according to life cycle theory taking Xishan District as an example. Methods employed include system analysis, analytic hierarchy process and grey evaluation method. The result shows that 1 ) the life cycle of brownfield reuse can be divided into three stages, which are the confirmation and preparation stage, the control and treatment stage, the maintenance and supervision stage. It further includes eight elements, such as policy and legal risk, economic risk, organizational risk, pollution risk, etc. 2) the assessed result of environmental risk in Xishan district is at the medium level. Additionally, due to the pollution and complexity of brownfield, it is necessary to control the risk. The paper concluded that the environment risk comprehensive assessment of brownfield reuse has high scientific and practical value by using analytic hierarchy process and grey evaluation method.

  10. The Analysis of City Brownfield Reuse Conflict Based on Game Theory%基于博弈论的褐色土地再利用冲突解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈红; 谢红彬


    In the process of brownfield reuse, based on the ratio-nal strategy selection of these four major stakeholders, polluting enterprises, local governments, developers and community residents, using the classic model of game theory to analysis the conflict of them, dissect the real reason of conflict of these stakeholders and put forward counter measures. They are establish brown land appraisal recognition uniform standard, make pollution responsibility identification laws and regulations, forming brown land pollution information management mechanism, support brown land pollution treatment technology innovation and create brown land pollution management incentive mechanism.%以褐色土地再利用过程中污染企业、地方政府、开发商和社区居民四类主要利益相关者的“理性”策略选择为依据,运用博弈论经典模型对褐色土地再利用冲突进行解析,剖析各利益相关者之间冲突形成的现实原因,提出解决冲突的对策措施。即建立褐色土地鉴定识别统一标准、制定污染治理责任认定法律法规、形成褐色土地污染信息管理机制、支持褐色土地污染治理技术创新以及创建褐色土地污染治理激励机制。

  11. Characteristics of PCBs in a Capacitor Storage Site and an Industrial Brownfield%废弃电容器封存点及旧工业场地多氯联苯的污染特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴水平; 印红玲; 刘碧莲; 王新红; 洪丽玉


    研究了四川资阳机车厂废弃电力电容器封存点与旧工业场地土壤与降尘中28种多氯联苯(PCBs)的污染水平与组成特征.电容器封存山洞未封闭洞口处土壤中PCBs含量最高,28种PCBs的总含量(ΣPCBs)达227 502 ng.g-1,铸铁车间窗台降尘中也有高残留的PCBs,ΣPCBs在10μg.g-1以上,封存点和铸铁车间样品中PCBs单体含量之间均存在显著的正相关关系(P〈0.01).高污染样品中PCBs的同族体分布均以四氯代PCBs为最高,其次为三氯代PCBs和五氯代PCBs.与封存点土壤相比,铸铁车间样品中高氯代PCBs的贡献更大.12种类二英PCBs的毒性当量(TEQ)介于75.43~24 027 pg.g-1之间,远大于电子垃圾拆解区土壤,但普遍都以PCB126的毒性当量贡献占绝对优势.%The levels and congener patterns of 28 PCBs compounds were investigated in soil and dust fallout collected in a capacitor storage site and an industrial brownfield,respectively in Sichuan Ziyang Locomotive Factory.The highest concentration of the total PCBs(PCBs=227 502 ng·g-1) was found in soil collected from the front gate(unsealed) of the capacitor storage tunnel.Very high levels of PCBs,exceed 10 μg·g-1,were also found in the dust collected from the window sill of an iron foundry.There were significant positive correlations(P0.01) among PCB congener concentration in the storage site and the iron foundry samples.The major contribution to the total content of PCBs in the high contaminated samples was tetrachlorinated biphenyls,followed by tri-and penta-chlorinated biphenyls.Hexa-and higher chlorinated biphenyls contributed more to PCBs in the iron foundry than those in the storage site.The total toxicity equivalents(TEQ) of 12 dioxin-like congeners varied in the range of 75.43-24 027 pg·g-1 and were much higher than those in soils of e-waste recycling sites.However,PCB126 contribute the most to the TEQ in most cases.

  12. Brownfields/IGD: EF_ACRES (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_ACRES is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  13. Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mill Projects (United States)

    This report focuses on mills -- former textile, wood, paper, iron, and steel mills. The report describes the challenges and opportunities of mill sites with case studies highlighting some of the most creative solutions from across the country.

  14. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSIntersected (Brownfield) - Version 1.1 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  15. Brownfields Environmental Insurance and Risk Management Tools Glossary of Terms (United States)

    This document provides a list of terms that are typically used by the environmental insurance industry, transactional specialists, and other parties involved in using environmental insurance or risk management tools.

  16. Market-Smart Deconstruction and Material Recovery at Brownfield Sites: How to Identify and Reuse Existing Materials Found at Brownfield Sites (United States)


    steel siding materials can be recycled as scrap. Flashing & Sheet Metal Recyclable Galvanized and coated steel , stainless steel , and aluminum...separated. Ductwork Recyclable Galvanized steel and stainless steel ductwork can be recycled as scrap. Remove insulation. Fans Reusable Ventilation...Exterior poles can be removed and reused. Recyclable Steel and aluminum poles and bracket arms can be recycled as scrap. Aluminum is a valuable

  17. 76 FR 2905 - FY2011 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees (United States)


    ... number/ E-mail EPA Region 1, Diane Kelley, CT, ME, MA, NH, One Congress Street, . RI... (212) 637-3260, Fax (212) 637-4360. EPA Region 3, Tom Stolle, DE, DC, MD, PA, 1650 Arch Street, . VA, WV. Mail Code 3HS51, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, Phone (215) 814- 3129,...

  18. 78 FR 23245 - FY2013 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees (United States)


    ... funding. Regional Contacts Region States Address/phone no./email EPA Region 1, Diane Kelley, CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT. 5 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02109-3912, . Phone (617) 918-1424... York, NY 10007, . Phone (212) 637-3964 Fax (212) 637-3083. EPA Region 3, Tom...

  19. 77 FR 16030 - FY2012 Supplemental Funding for Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (RLF) Grantees (United States)


    ... funding. Regional Contacts Region & states Address/Phone number/Email EPA Region 1, Diane Kelley, CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT..... One Congress Street, Suite 1100, Boston, . MA 02114-2023... Region 3, Tom Stolle, DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV..... 1650 Arch Street, Mail Code 3HS51,...

  20. Brownfield, TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)...

  1. Cadastral PLSS Standardized Data - PLSSSecond Division (Brownfield) - Version 1.1 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class is part of the Cadastral National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) CADNSDI publication data set for rectangular and non-rectangular Public Land...

  2. Disposal options for polluted plants grown on heavy metal contaminated brownfield lands - A review. (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin


    Reducing or preventing damage caused by environmental pollution is a significant goal nowadays. Phytoextraction, as remediation technique is widely used, but during the process, the heavy metal content of the biomass grown on these sites special treatment and disposal techniques are required, for example liquid extraction, direct disposal, composting, and combustion. These processes are discussed in this review in economical and environmental aspects. The following main properties are analyzed: form and harmful element content of remains, utilization of the main and byproducts, affect to the environment during the treatment and disposal. The thermal treatment (combustion, gasification) of contaminated biomass provides a promising alternative disposal option, because the energy production affects the rate of return, and the harmful elements are riched in a small amount of solid remains depending on the ash content of the plant (1-2%). The biomass combustion technology is a wildely used energy production process in residential and industrial scale, but the ordinary biomass firing systems are not suited to burn this type of fuel without environmental risk.

  3. Collaborative urban design, a promising approach to brownfield recovery – FRUNZE 35, Kiev UA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Caser


    Full Text Available This paper describes an outstandingly innovative pilot project of collaborative urban design and integrated planning. 16 experts (architects, urbanists, geographers and economists underwent a professionally designed and facilitated consensus construction process and developed a common project proposal for the reconversion and re-vitalization of Frunze 35, an abandoned industrial site in Kiev (Ukraine. In five days of intense work a multi-sectorial socio-economic and a multi-scale spatial approach led to a project proposal, that focused on history and heritage, activities, architecture, link to the surroundings and a feasible management model for Frunze 35. This experience is transferrable to collaborative urban planning all over Europe, whenever an effective participation and involvement of stakeholders, users and other interested actors are in demand.

  4. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas. (United States)

    Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J


    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning.

  5. Harmony Park: A Decision Case on Gardening on a Brownfield Site (United States)

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Attanayake, Chammi; Martin, Sabine; Thien, Steven J.


    In March of 2009, Mr. John Holloway and his neighbors in the Harmony Park district of Kansas City, MO, were excited to begin gardening on a vacant city lot in their neighborhood. The neighborhood, like many in urban areas, had once been residential interspersed with small establishments including restaurants, shops, and businesses such as auto…

  6. The enhancement of dismissed military barracks, a method for brownfield recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pellegrini


    Full Text Available The enhancement of dismissed military barracks is a big problem in Friuli Venezia Giulia region. The changed geo-politic conditions caused the abandonment of the numerous structures and the transfer of their property from State to Region and then to local municipalities. The regional government has not defined guidelines for their re-use and the work for the Patussi barracks, done to produce a re-use program, became a case study to explore possible strategies of intervention and the right method to adopt in order to give technical support to local governments. The paper describes the analysis, the scenarios, the proposal produced for the case-study.

  7. Brownfield, TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. Monetising the impacts of waste incinerators sited on brownfield land using the hedonic pricing method. (United States)

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Serafini, Jan; Glen, John; Angus, Andrew


    In England and Wales planning regulations require local governments to treat waste near its source. This policy principle alongside regional self-sufficiency and the logistical advantages of minimising distances for waste treatment mean that energy from waste incinerators have been built close to, or even within urban conurbations. There is a clear policy and research need to balance the benefits of energy production from waste incinerators against the negative externalities experienced by local residents. However, the monetary costs of nuisance emissions from incinerators are not immediately apparent. This study uses the Hedonic Pricing Method to estimate the monetary value of impacts associated with three incinerators in England. Once operational, the impact of the incinerators on local house prices ranged from approximately 0.4% to 1.3% of the mean house price for the respective areas. Each of the incinerators studied had been sited on previously industrialised land to minimise overall impact. To an extent this was achieved and results support the effectiveness of spatial planning strategies to reduce the impact on residents. However, negative impacts occurred in areas further afield from the incinerator, suggesting that more can be done to minimise the impacts of incinerators. The results also suggest that in some case the incinerator increased the value of houses within a specified distance of incinerators under specific circumstances, which requires further investigation.

  9. BALANCE 4P: Balancing decisions for urban brownfield regeneration – people, planet, profit and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Tummers, L.


    Urban designers are not used to taking the subsurface into a holistic perspective on spatial development. Nevertheless, the subsurface accommodates numerous functions crucial to urban life, such as infrastructure, carry capacity, heat, water, etc.. Moreover, it also carries the natural system crucia

  10. Frişã, brownfield or paraginã – dilemmas and reasonings for a comprehensive concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CHIRIȚĂ


    Full Text Available The article originates in an empiric research blocked at the level of theory. The present work deals with two types of arguments: semantic and case-based, questioning the adoption of a neologism: the concept of “frişa1”. Although the domain aimed at is geography,the new term could be transferred towards all research domains that have in common the phenomenon represented by abandoned fields and buildings, that is urbanism and planning, sociology, economy, ecology, culture, defense, etc. Methodologically speaking, there had been three stages. After the semantic analysis of the main terms in French, English and Romanian, we identified the theoretical grounds of the phenomenon they designate. In order to have a proper view upon the present day perception of the phenomenon we looked for information both in the research field and in that of economy, politics and local administration. Our personal survey can be added to these sources and one can say that they all allowed the selection of case study examples that can support the authors’ intention.The source of confusion that inevitably appears in the context of the present article is due to the difficulty in choosing a truly solid concept that could the best choice among all the other Romanian subject-versions. We need to adopt a unifying concept to define all these phenomena presented only as a succession of examples. Although they are apparently different manifestations, they are ultimately focusing upon the same thing: a material understructure that is not used and thus becomes degraded. We may speak about the simultaneity of these phenomena and therefore we could establish a certain typology, which is another stage in our preoccupations with this new, yet not exclusively unifying concept.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gliniak


    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an area of 1 km2 and is a natural link between the two large settlements in the southern part of Krakow, namely Kurdwanów and Borek Fałęcki. The developed landscape concept is based on a detailed analysis of the physicochemical substrate and the conditions necessary for the foundation of buildings and civil engineering. In the research phase, the technical and natural inventory was made, and a detailed review of the literature in the field of land use with similar properties was performed. The designing process was guided by the information contained in the available planning documents and the needs of the local community, which presented in the literature of other scientists. As a result of the research, the concept of omni-zoning area landfills was established. The main assumptions are based on the concept of the nineteenth-century idea of the garden city, consisting in dividing the area into 6 main thematic areas, i.e. parks, which are described in detail in the article. The main functions (leisure and recreation have been supplemented with historical and touristic elements.

  12. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test. (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E


    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species.

  13. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.


    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  14. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich


    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy consumption for building heating increases and for cooling — slightly decreases. For the conditions of the northern region of Tajikistan, the recommended optimal thickness of the air gap with ventilation is 60 mm.

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment, Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Impact Assessment dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described...

  16. From Brownfield to Wetland-Vegetation Restoration Plan for Kaohsiung Jhong-Dou Wetland Park%自棕地到湿地——高雄中都湿地公园植群复育计划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖荣一; (日)堀込宪二; 郭城孟; 郭中端


    高雄市政府为贯彻“高雄市都会型湿地生态廊道串连计划”,定于2010年完成开辟高雄市内9处与市区紧邻的湿地公园,作为动植物生态可自由迁移于都会区内的“带状湿地生态廊道”.中都湿地公园即是此计划完成的最后一处湿地工程.高雄的生态系丰富多样,其中包含森林生态系的热带季雨林、海洋生态系的海岸林以及河口生态系的红树林.中都显地公园内规划各类植群的生长环境,期望复育成功后可诱发其所属生态系.本湿地公园完工后建议高雄市政府拟订公园内动物及植群监测计划,记录中都湿地的生态变迁,说明高雄在全球地理位置上所占的重要生态地位,并制定植群维护管理计划,使中都湿地公园可持续兼具生态及景观休憩机能.%The Kaohsiung City Government plans to set up nine urban wetland parks by 2010 as part of its implementation of "The Kaohsiung Urban Wetlands Eco-corridor Connection Project", which aims to build a belt of wetland ecological corridors allowing animal and plant life to migrate freely within the urban areas. The Jhong-Dou Wetland Park is the final wetland construction for the current project. The eco-system of Kaohsiung is very rich and diverse, which includes the tropical rainforest eco-system, the coastal forest of marine eco-system, and the mangrove forest of estuary eco-system. Different type of environments were planned out for different plants to grow in Jhong-dou Wetland Park, hoping the rehabilitation of each plant would induce and bring out its own ecosystem. Monitoring and recording both animals and plants in the park were highly recommended for the future by the City Government. By recording the changes of the eco-system in the wetland park, it would be easy to understand the importance of Kauhsoung from the perspective of global ecology. In order to sustain the ecological system and the landscape recreation purpose of Jhong-dou Wetland Park, the City Government should have a special maintenance plan for the park vegetation.

  17. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  18. 76 FR 35461 - Notice of Web Availability: Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for HUD's Fiscal Year (FY) 2011... (United States)


    ... facilitate the exchange of successful strategies, lessons learned, emerging tools and public engagement... FY2010 and FY2011 HUD Sustainable Communities Regional Planning and Community Challenge grant recipients... recipients and Brownfield Area Wide Planning grant recipients (collectively --Sustainable...

  19. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.


    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  20. 棕地地下水污染修复技术筛选方法研究——以某废弃化工厂污染场地为例%Screening process of brownfield site groundwater remedial technologies:a case study of an abandoned chemical factory contaminated site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 王明玉; 韩占涛; 张敏; 刘丽雅


    科学合理的地下水污染修复技术筛选方法对于有效修复受污染地下水体、节约修复工程成本、保护地下水资源、维护生态系统安全和人体健康具有重要意义.以某化工厂遗址早期排污渗坑为目标污染源,在结合水文地质勘查和地下水人体健康风险评价的基础上确定场地受污染地下水修复目标污染物,根据污染物迁移性、降解性、人体健康风险等指标及抽出处理、化学修复、生物修复、渗透反应格栅等地下水污染修复技术特点,使用偏好顺序结构评估法(PROMETHEE)进行修复技术筛选.结果显示,该场地地下水中主要污染物为1,2-二氯乙烷、1,4-二氯苯等有机污染物,其中1,2-二氯乙烷在呼吸吸入条件下的最大致癌风险达9.54×10-7.化学清除、监测自然衰减等四项技术适用于该场地地下水1,2-二氯乙烷修复,化学清除法综合排序分值最高,而在成本优先控制条件下,监测自然衰减技术更为适宜.研究对于我国场地地下水污染调查评估及修复工作具有积极的参考意义.%Scientific and reasonable screening method of groundwater pollution remediation technologies is of great importance to efficient remediate the polluted groundwater,saving remediation program cost and groundwater resource and ecology and human health protection.Considered as a target pollution source,hydrological survey combined with groundwater pollution human health risk were conducted in a discarded chemical factory site with a drain contamination pool,and PROMETHEE method was used to screen efficient technologies for local groundwater pollution remediation based on pollutants characteristics such as migration,degradation and human health risk,and technologies applicability analysis among pump & treat,chemical reduction,bioremediation and permeable reactive barriers,etc.Study results suggested that local groundwater was polluted by organic pollutants such as 1,2-DCA and 1,4-DCB,the largest cancerigenic risk of 1,2-DCA through inhaled ingestion was about 9.54 × 10-7.Chemical reduction,monitored natural attenuation,bioremediation and air sparging were considered to be suitable technologies for remediation of local groundwater 1,2-DCA pollution.The total ranking score of chemical reduction was the highest while monitored natural attenuation had a highest ranking score considering cost control.This study had a positive reference meaning for field investigation and assessment and remediation of groundwater pollution in China.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities. (United States)

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce


    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  4. Urban geochemical mapping : essential information for redevelopment


    Fordyce, Fiona; Ferguson, Alex; Shaw, Richard; Baldock, John


    Cost-effective fit-for-purpose redevelopment of brownfield sites requires both regional and local information on the physical and chemical states of the near-surface environment. The BGS G-BASE programme is providing baseline/benchmark geochemical data for both rural and urban areas based on the collection of stream sediment, stream water and soil samples.

  5. 75 FR 69992 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund... (United States)


    .../brownfields . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response... tribes establishing this element may find useful information on public participation on EPA's community... communities, communities with a health risk related to exposure to hazardous waste or other public...

  6. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE: DOD Needs to Determine and Use the Most Economical Building Materials and Methods When Acquiring New Permanent Facilities (United States)


    Build a Barracks at Fort Bliss, Texas Source: GAO. Note: Photographs beginning with top left: modular-constructed units on transportation trailer ...moving units from trailers , barracks foundation ready for unit placement, assembled units before exterior finishing, exterior of nearly connectivity 5 Brownfield redevelopment 1 Alternative transportation—public transportation access 6 Alternative transportation— bicycle storage


    This document provides a detailed report about a field study conducted by EQM/URS on behalf of EPA/NRMRL to characterize the subsurface contamination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a Brownfield commercial site. The TRIAD approach was implemented to characterize the exten...

  9. 40 CFR 63.307 - Standards for bypass/bleeder stacks. (United States)


    ... install a bypass/bleeder stack flare system that is capable of controlling 120 percent of the normal gas... emissions shall not be vented to the atmosphere through bypass/bleeder stacks, except through the flare... operator of a brownfield coke oven battery or a padup rebuild shall install such a flare system...

  10. Urban Gardens as Sustainable Reuse - Considerations and Current Resources for Evaluating an Urban Gardens Site, In: SMARTe 2011, EPA/600/C-10/007 (United States)

    Urban gardening and agriculture is of increasing interest as a land revitalization option for interim as well as long term use, and is receiving increased attention, funding, and promotiion under EPA's Brownfields land redevelopment efforts. A broad range of state and local gove...

  11. The Irony of Year-Round Schools: Mexican Migrant Resistance in a California Community during the Civil Rights Era. (United States)

    Donato, Ruben


    Examines the politics of year-round education in Brownfield, California, in the 1970s. Findings showed that Mexican Americans challenged the proposed 45-15 plan because they were excluded from the decision-making process and because the plan conflicted with migrant workers' employment patterns. Formal mechanisms must be activated to guard all…


    Soil samples from the GenCorp Lawrence Brownfields site were analyzed with a commercial semi-quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a methanol shake extraction. Many of the soil samples were extremely oily, with total petroleum hydrocarbon levels up to 240...

  13. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application. (United States)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Riby, Philip; Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Lepp, Nicholas W


    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils.

  14. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany)


    Chmielewska Marta; Otto Marius


    The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees) and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In...

  15. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  16. Applied Mineralogy: A Critical Review and 5-Year Plan for Its Strategic Use within Teck


    Nichola Ann McKay


    A strategic business case analysis and five-year plan are presented here for the Teck Applied Mineralogy group in Trail, British Columbia. Applied mineralogy is a key technical competency for Teck Resources that adds value in the fields of process mineralogy supporting optimization at the mining operations, and in ore characterization supporting evaluation of greenfield and brownfield properties. This 2016-2020 business plan for the applied mineralogy group is cognisant of the current mining ...

  17. Summary of Available Guidance and Best Practices for Determining Suitability of Dredged Material for Beneficial Uses (United States)


    process at the bench and pilot scales was demonstrated. A batch rotary kiln was used for a pilot-scale manufacture. X-ray diffraction analysis and...landfill, cover at Superfund or brownfield sites, beach nourishment, compost and topsoil manufacture, restricted fill, unrestricted fill, asphalt or cement ...Dalton et al. (2004) evaluates the use of dredged material as a feedstock in the conventional manufacture of Portland cement . The efficacy of the

  18. Military Review. September-October 2010 (United States)


    U.S. Ambassador to Colombia William R. Brownfield after his arrival in Bogota , Colombia, 14 April 2010. U.S. bases and therefore permit an increased... river support stations and a new coast guard service.12 Despite President Chavez’s attempts to distort the truth, Colombia’s procurement and expenditures...of relative calm, there are concerns about a resurgent SLgrowing in power and influence inHuallaga and theValley of theApurimac and Ene Rivers

  19. 2. Symposium environmental geotechnics. Papers; 2. Symposium Umweltgeotechnik. Konferenzband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapperich, H. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik]|[Kompetenz-Zentrum fuer interdisziplinaeres Flaechenrecycling CIF e.V., Freiberg (ED); Katzenbach, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Geotechnike e.V., Essen (Germany); Witt, K.J. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany); Griessl, D. (eds.) [Verein Freiberger Geotechniker e.V. (Germany)


    The 2nd symposium of the chapter section 'Environmental Geotechnics' of DGGT follows the event in Weimar 2003 and focuses on the central topics of Landfill - Contaminated Sites - Brownfields. The stream 'Waste management - Waste Site technology' discusses legal requirements and technical alternatives, especially in view of many upcoming closures of landfill sites and associated surface sealing, as well as technical reports of case studies and developments. The contribution 'Ultimate storage of radioactive waste' illustrates the wider dimensions to geotechnical questions. Between the streams of 'Remediation Techniques' and 'Land Recycling/Land Management' a panel discussion 'From Brownfield Remediation to Land Management' is taking place. The aim is to discuss the way forward and the need to take up the opportunity for future town planning as well as the design of conversion sites and expansive former mining areas. Representatives of authorities involved and project participants have submitted their statements in advance to the following question: 1.) status of remediation - research and practice 2.) what practical significance is attributed to different remediation techniques for the remediation of brownfields? 3.) modern town planning/redevelopment of former mining areas - spatial planning - real estate economy - financing models for redeveloping land - which parameters/instruments work? (orig.)

  20. Incorporating Climate and Regional Setting into Realistic-Efficacious End States for Contaminated Sites - 15386

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Environmental Stewardship Directorate; Denham, Miles [Environmental Stewardship Directorate; Eddy-Dilek, Carol [Environmental Stewardship Directorate; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Legacy Management; Kautsky, Mark [U.S. Department of Energy, Legacy Management


    Hydrological and geochemical controls in arid environments (many mining and milling sites) work together to limit the size of groundwater plumes and can extend plume flushing times Incorporation of these concepts may support formulation of alternative end states At several DOE-LM sites, such as Mound, land and facilities have been transferred to the local community for transitioning to beneficial reuse and development. Some of the DOE-LM UMTRCA sites appear to be good candidate for brownfield reuse and serve as a resource for future employment and ongoing benefit to stakeholders and Native American Nations.

  1. Adaptation Problems of the Post Industrial Heritage on the Example of Selected Objects of Bydgoszcz (United States)

    Pszczółkowski, Michał


    Post-industrial architecture was until recently regarded as devoid of value and importance due to obsolescence, but this awareness has been a clear change in recent years. The old factories become full-fledged cultural heritage, as evidenced by the inclusion of buildings and complexes of this type in the register of monuments and protected by their conservator. More and more often, therefore, one undertakes revitalization of degraded brownfield sites, and within these treatments - conversion works. Specific issues and problems related to the adaptation of industrial facilities are discussed in the article on the basis of selected examples, completed in recent years in Bydgoszcz.

  2. Models and Practices in the Motor Vehicle Industry – contrasting cases from the Portuguese experience



    This paper presents and discusses two case studies in the Portuguese motor vehicle industry – Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (SCOID), a ‘Brownfield site’ with minority Toyota ownership; and Autoeuropa, a ‘Greenfield site’ wholly owned by Volkswagen. Basically, it considers the scope for the meaningful application of ‘Japanese’ organisational methods in these contexts, focusing on the human factor – i.e. as close as possible to the actors on the shop floor. After providing some in...

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.


    The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  4. Management of Stakeholders in Urban Regeneration Projects. Case Study: Baia-Mare, Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina M. Rădulescu


    Full Text Available The process of regeneration of abandoned areas or deteriorated structures in the cities of Romania has become a strategy of urban-integrated development. Conversions and/or regeneration of facilities in the form of assets, with different destinations, are part of the new trend of urban regeneration and a strategy used to attract investment capital. The disappearance of mining industry sites in Maramures County, Romania, has allowed the expansion and planning of new spaces for public use and/or semipublic, and most cities have opened new development perspectives. The study is based on empirical research conducted on the brownfields of Baia-Mare City. This research investigates how stakeholders of an urban regeneration project can be more actively involved in the decision-making processes with regard to the strategic elements of the renewal project of Cuprom, as a former mining industry area. This research contributes to the development of the investigation of new types of knowledge of stakeholder analysis and improves the available practices for stakeholder salience. Social networks created and consolidated by stakeholders of an urban regeneration project are the object of analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of the equilibrium between project management and grant of resources and capital. This paper studies the salience of stakeholders of the SEPA-CUPROM project from Baia-Mare using the social networking approach. Visualization by graphical methods of social networking analysis is a useful instrument in the decision-making process of brownfield projects as part of sustainable strategies in Romania.

  5. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Jeffrey L., E-mail: [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Olszewska, Dorota [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)


    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects. - Research highlights: > An A horizon has developed in these urban soils after only 12 years of pedogenesis. > Iron and cement artifacts have undergone accelerated weathering due to deicing salts. > One soil is contaminated by lead derived from weathered paint. > Artifact weathering can have ameliorating effects on urban soils contaminated by heavy metals. - Weathering of artifacts can have ameliorating effects on heavy metal-polluted soils at brownfield sites.

  6. he role of waterfront areas for the historical city and the urban territory. Regeneration experiences in England and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Cuturi


    Full Text Available Several considerable processes of urban regeneration, carried out in the last decades, have particularly concerned brownfield areas, along sea, rivers and canals.Some operations, run in the wake of European policies for urban areas or programmes related to cultural and sport events, have actually contributed to the renaissance and vitality of territories in decline.Nevertheless, in a period of deep economic crisis and unemployment, urgent environmental emergencies, multiplicity and diversity of social instances, there is a real need for approaches more and more consistent with objectives of both physical/environmental and socio-economic regeneration.English and French experiences of waterfront regeneration are interesting, in different ways, in relation to the process activation/implementation (partnership organisational structure, private/public investment ratio, duration, as to enterprises, employment and innovation (office, retail and leisure space, enterprise localization, cultural attractions and urban design, with regard to local communities, services and cultural heritage (increase of population and local employment, accessibility to housing and integrated services, mobility and transport, conservation and valorisation of buildings and sites of architectural or historic interest, involvement and participation to local planning processes, as to the use of resources and pollution reduction (energy management, building recovery and brownfield regeneration, etc..

  7. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)


    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  8. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend

  9. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch. (United States)

    Clemente, Rafael; Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Lepp, Nicholas W


    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (approximately 900, 200 and 500 mg kg(-1), respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils.

  10. Risk security and soil loss mitigation: the EU case study of the Sufalnet Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rigillo


    Full Text Available Former and abandoned landfills represent a good opportunity for producing new impervious surfaces for the urban environment, contrasting soil loss (specially the agricultural one and improving the recovery of brownfield. From such perspective, landfill redevelopment could be intended as the beginning of a new life cycle for the site, corresponding to a kick off action for achieving environmental and socio-economic development. This is the purpose of the Sufalnet Project (Sustainable Use of Former and Abandoned Landfill that defines a new approach for landfill redevelopment in form of model strategy by which reducing both the risk of the project failure and of the environmental pollution. Model strategy acts as cultural device for managing redevelop- ment process and its complexity.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.


    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on brownfield sites in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All of the assessed sites are landfills. The sites were assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.119/kWh and incentives offered by Puerto Rico and by the serving utility, PREPA. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  12. Urban empty spaces and derelict infrastructures. An opportunity for the classification of state assets on the territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Pedrocco


    Full Text Available Marked by brownfield areas, the contemporary city looks like an untidy scenery, without boundaries, signed by buildings often no more useful for the original functional needs. Urban empty spaces penetrate into the neighbourhoods, without any formal logic, in a crescendo sometimes difficult to deal with. The process of starting from the classification of derelict  State assets, in the perspective of their valorisation, turns out as a description at the basis of the project. This issue opens a wide reflection, under both descriptive and planning points of view, though it is now in a dynamic evolution and therefore uncertain. Our methodology, based on the evaluation of specific characteristics and indicators, addresses us to possibilities of effective regeneration interventions, but that is not enough; subsequently multi-objectives analyses should be used in order to develop wider decision-making dialectics about regeneration, avoiding choices made case by case.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.


    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former St. Marks Refinery in St. Marks, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.


    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site in St. Marks, Florida. The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.08/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Florida and from the two accessible utilities, Progress Energy and the City of Tallahassee. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the fixed-tilt thin film technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  15. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull


    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  16. Work Plan for a Limited CCC/USDA Investigation of the Current Carbon Tetrachloride Contamination in Groundwater at Navarre, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    During private well testing in 1990-1991, carbon tetrachloride was identified in the groundwater at several locations in the town of Navarre, Kansas, at levels exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 level and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L. Several subsequent investigations through 2006 evaluated the concentrations and distribution of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater. This work included the identification of the contaminant sources (Argonne 2007). The history of activities to address the contamination in soil and groundwater is summarized in Table 1.1. The most recent studies, conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), include a brownfields investigation initiated in 2013 (Phase I) and continuing in early 2014 (Phase II), as well as private well testing.

  17. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.


    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  18. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky (United States)

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  19. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island (United States)

    Juchimiuk, Justyna


    Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields), ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Djordjevic


    Full Text Available In recent years, Croatia was interesting to investors in attracting foreign direct investment. One of the objectives of this research was to deal with their negative effects. Most of invested capital was invested in brownfield investments, i.e. in taking over the ownership share of companies through privatization. Consequently, revenues were spent to settle financial debts and not on the growth and development of competitiveness. According to economic theory, foreign direct investments have a positive impact on the economic growth of the recipient country. This paper attempts to answer the question: ‘Is the economic theory confirmed in the Croatian case?’ The aim is to analyse the impact of foreign direct investments on the economic growth of Croatia in the period from 1999 to 2014. The paper analyses the impact that direct foreign investments had on the unemployment rate, GDP per capita and export using the model of linear regression.

  1. Proceedings of GeoHalifax 2009 : the 62. Canadian geotechnical conference and 10. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.; Fenton, G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada); Taylor, B. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Ferguson, G. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)


    More than 500 delegates from industry, government, universities and research centres attended this conference to exchange professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The conference also highlighted recent geoenvironmental achievements. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: soil mechanics; soil mechanics and brownfields; foundation engineering; landslide and slopes engineering; rock mechanics; risk assessment; reliability-based design; geoenvironmental issues; transportation geotechniques; marine geotechniques and geohazards; non-textbook soils and waste soils; covers and liners; instrumentation; harbour and shoreline geotechniques; geosynthetic mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) systems; cold regions and climate change; computer applications; regional hydrogeology; groundwater-surface water interaction; well hydraulics; radioactive waste management; groundwater sustainability; source water protection; mine waters; field techniques in hydrogeology; and hydrogeology of fractured rocks. The conference featured more than 230 presentations, of which 37 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Developing and validating a practical decision support tool (DST) for biomass selection on marginal land. (United States)

    Andersson-Sköld, Y; Bardos, P; Chalot, M; Bert, V; Crutu, G; Phanthavongsa, P; Delplanque, M; Track, T; Cundy, A B


    Marginal, often contaminated, sites exist in large areas across the world as a result of historic activities such as industry, transportation and mineral extraction. Remediation, or other improvements, of these sites is typically only considered for sites with high exploitation pressure and those posing the highest risks to human health or the environment. At the same time there is increasing competition for land resources for different needs such as biofuel production. Potentially some of this land requirement could be met by production of biomass on brownfield or other marginal land, thereby improving the land while applying the crop cultivation as part of an integrated management strategy. The design and decision making for such a strategy will be site specific. A decision support framework, the Rejuvenate DST (decision support tool) has been developed with the aim of supporting such site specific decision making. This tool is presented here, and has been tested by applying it to a number of case study sites. The consequent SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis is discussed and evaluated. The DST was found to be systematic, transparent, and applicable for diverse sites in France, Romania and Sweden, in addition to the sites to which it was applied through its development. The DST is regarded as especially useful if applied as a checklist in an iterative way throughout the decision process, from identifying potential crops to identifying knowledge gaps, working/non-working management strategies and potential risks. The DST also provides a structure promoting effective stakeholder engagement.

  3. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Marta


    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In the Ruhr area there are 104 spoil tips of different origins (mine tips, slag heaps, rubbish dumps, sizes and shapes (from conical heaps, through table mountains shaped tips and intentionally shaped for landscape tips, to major tips and state of preservation. The research has shown that it is possible to use the majority of these spoil tips in the Ruhr area (87 of them as leisure facilities as they have been changed into green areas, parks, playgrounds, locations for sports activities and tourist attractions after their restoration. Furthermore, they are mostly accessible free of charge and may serve a wide range of people – from locals to visitors, from children to senior citizens etc., regardless of their income. As such they may mitigate the socio-economic polarisation tendencies in the region.

  4. Proceedings of the 2010 international solidification-stabilization technology forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.B. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Resource Engineering; Hills, C.D. [Greenwich Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation] (eds.)


    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is remediation technology used to manage the risk associated with contaminated soils, wastes, and brownfield sites. Canada is now facing considerable challenges in ensuring that sites impacted by hydrocarbon contaminants are efficiently and effectively remediated. This forum was held to bring together leading researchers and practitioners in S/S remediation technology. Recent advances in research were presented, as well as new developments in the implementation of S/S technologies in the field, and methods of safely stabilizing and using potentially hazardous waste products. The conference was divided into the following 8 sessions: (1) stabilization/solidification of organics, (2) stabilization/solidification case studies, (3) stabilization/solidification of metals, (4) performance assessment, (5) mining applications, (6) new stabilization/solidification applications and approaches, (7) marine/coastal applications, and (8) stabilization/solidification amendments or alternatives. The forum featured 28 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., figs.

  5. Toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in soils posing environmental risk according to regulatory screening values. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Asensio, V; Zaldibar, B; Soto, M; Marigómez, I


    Toxicity profiles of two soils (a brownfield in Legazpi and an abandoned iron mine in Zugaztieta; Basque Country) contaminated with several metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu in Legazpi; Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in Zugaztieta) and petroleum hydrocarbons (in Legazpi) were determined using a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Investigated soils exceeded screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe). Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with a selected set of test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates, as well as with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. The sensitivity of the test species and the toxicity endpoints varied depending on the soil. It was concluded that whilst Zugaztieta soil showed very little or no toxicity, Legazpi soil was toxic according to almost all the toxicity tests (solid phase Microtox, D. discoideum inhibition of fruiting body formation and developmental cycle solid phase assays, lettuce seed germination and root elongation test, earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests, D. discoideum cell viability and replication elutriate assays). Thus, albeit both soils had similar SVs, their ecotoxicological risk, and therefore the need for intervening, was different for each soil as unveiled after toxicity profiling based on multiple endpoint bioassays. Such a toxicity profiling approach is suitable to be applied for scenario-targeted soil risk assessment in those cases where applicable national/regional soil legislation based on SVs demands further toxicity assessment.

  6. Solubility analysis and disposal options of combustion residues from plants grown on contaminated mining area. (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin; Palotas, Arpad Bence


    Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is an excellent alternative for the partial replacement of fossil fuels in thermal and electric energy production. A new fuel type as biomass for energy utilisation includes ligneous plants with considerable heavy metal content. The combustion process must be controlled during the firing of significant quantities of contaminated biomass grown on brownfield lands. By implementing these measures, air pollution and further soil contamination caused by the disposal of the solid burning residue, the ash, can be prevented. For the test samples from ligneous plants grown on heavy metal-contaminated fields, an ore mine (already closed for 25 years) was chosen. With our focus on the determination of the heavy metal content, we have examined the composition of the soil, the biomass and the combustion by-products (ash, fly ash). Our results confirm that ash resulting from the combustion must be treated as toxic waste and its deposition must take place on hazardous waste disposal sites. Biomass of these characteristics can be burnt in special combustion facility that was equipped with means for the disposal of solid burning residues as well as air pollutants.

  7. High intensity magnetic separation for the clean-up of a site polluted by lead metallurgy. (United States)

    Sierra, C; Martínez, J; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Gallego, J R


    The industrial history in the district of Linares (Spain) has had a severe impact on soil quality. Here we examined soil contaminated by lead and other heavy metals in "La Cruz" site, a brownfield affected by metallurgical residues. Initially, the presence of contaminants mainly associated with the presence of lead slag fragments mixed with the soil was evaluated. The subsequent analysis showed a quasi-uniform distribution of the pollution irrespective of the grain-size fractions. This study was accompanied by a characterization of the lead slag behavior under the presence of a magnetic field. Two main magnetic components were detected: first a ferromagnetic and/or ferrimagnetic contribution, second a paramagnetic and/or antiferromagnetic one. It was also established that the slag was composed mainly of lead spherules and iron oxides embedded in a silicate matrix. Under these conditions, the capacity of magnetic separation to remove pollutants was examined. Therefore, two high intensity magnetic separators (dry and wet devices, respectively) were used. Dry separation proved to be successful at decontaminating soil in the first stages of a soil washing plant. In contrast, wet separation was found effective as a post-process for the finer fractions.

  8. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan


    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  9. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS | Science ... (United States)

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States. Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of surface and subsurface contaminant distributions hinders EPA's ability to make the best decisions on remediation options and to conduct the most effective cleanup efforts. To assist OSWER, NERL conducts research to improve their capability to more accurately, precisely, and efficiently characterize Superfund, RCRA, LUST, oil spills, and brownfield sites and to improve their risk-based decision making capabilities, research is being conducted on improving soil and sediment sampling techniques and improving the sampling and handling of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils, among the many research programs and tasks being performed at ESD-LV.Under this task, improved sampling approaches and devices will be developed for characterizing the concentration of VOCs in soils. Current approaches and devices used today can lose up to 99% of the VOCs present in the sample due inherent weaknesses in the device and improper/inadequate collection techniques. This error generally causes decision makers to markedly underestimate the soil VOC concentrations and, therefore, to greatly underestimate the ecological

  10. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant. (United States)

    Foucault, Yann; Durand, Marie-José; Tack, Karine; Schreck, Eva; Geret, Florence; Leveque, Thibaut; Pradere, Philippe; Goix, Sylvaine; Dumat, Camille


    With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE concentrations and leaching tests. In this study, the ecotoxicity of leachates from MTE polluted soils sampled from an industrial site recycling lead-acid batteries were evaluated by using both modified Escherichia coli strains with luminescence modulated by metals and normalized Daphnia magna and Alivibrio fischeri bioassays. The results were clearly related to the type of microorganisms (crustacean, different strains of bacteria) whose sensitivity varied. Ecotoxicity was also different according to sample location on the site, total concentrations and physico-chemical properties of each soil. For comparison, standard leaching tests were also performed. Potentially phytoavailable fraction of MTE in soils and physico-chemical measures were finally performed in order to highlight the mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the use of a panel of microorganisms is suitable for hazard classification of polluted soils. In addition, calculated eco-scores permit to rank the polluted soils according to their potentially of dangerousness. Influence of soil and MTE characteristics on MTE mobility and ecotoxicity was also highlighted.

  12. Book Review: Book review (United States)

    Wang, Christina Yan


    The world class Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits associated with the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) are quite unique on earth in the sense that the energy source and origin were triggered by a large meteorite impact event. The ore deposits in the SIC make up one of the largest Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit camps in the world and have now been mined for over 100 years. This is the first complete reference book that focuses entirely on the SIC and covers the fields of economic geology, petrology, geochemistry and geophysics. The purpose of this book is to explore the linkage between sulfide and silicate magmas generated by the 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact event and to unite an understanding of the process of crustal melt sheet evolution with the formation of the magmatic sulfide mineralization. The author, Peter Lightfoot, has been based in Sudbury for 25 years. As a top scientist on magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits and a Chief Geologist with the Brownfield Exploration group at Vale Base Metals, Peter has been positioned to develop and assemble the ideas presented in this book, which are perfectly balanced between industry and academia.

  13. A comparison of risk modeling tools and a case study for human health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in contaminated groundwater. (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qian, Linbo; Yan, Jingchun; Liu, Rongqin; Du, Yihua; Chen, Mengfang


    In order to promote the risk-based strategy in the investigation, assessment, and remediation of Chinese brownfield sites, the Health and Environmental Risk Assessment (HERA) software was developed. It is vital to validate the HERA model and compare the inter-model differences of HERA model against other available risk assessment tools. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between the Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Tool Kit and the HERA model by evaluating the health risk of organic contaminated groundwater sources for a chemical works in China for the first time. Consequently, the HERA and RBCA models yielded the identical results for Site-Specific Assessment Criteria (SSAC) under the commercial redevelopment. However, the HERA estimated more conservative and stringent SSACs under the residential scenario based on the different exposure calculations. The inhalation of indoor vapors was the most predominated exposure pathway for all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined using the RBCA and HERA models. According to the HERA model, inhalation of chloroform may cause the highest unacceptable carcinogenic risk at 2.31 × 10(-3) under the residential scenario. Therefore, it is recommended that a risk-based remedial strategy be developed to ensure the safe and sustainable redevelopment of the site.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.

  15. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study. (United States)

    Hubálek, Tomás; Vosáhlová, Simona; Matejů, Vít; Kovácová, Nora; Novotný, Cenek


    The ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. The initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. An amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 L of the bacterial preparation GEM-100 containing Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) CFU.mL(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. The concentration of TPHs in the soil decreased by 65.5% after bioremediation. Different organisms such as the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, terrestrial plants Sinapis alba, Lactuca sativa, and Hordeum vulgare, the water plant Lemna minor, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, and the crustacean Heterocypris incongruens were used for ecotoxicity evaluation. The highest toxicity was detected in the first period of bioremediation. However, certain toxic effects were detectable during the whole bioremediation process. The contact tests with plants, earthworms, and crustaceans were the most sensitive of all of the bioassays. Therefore, the contact tests performed directly on soil samples were shown to be a better tool for ecotoxicity evaluation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil than the tests performed on soil elutriates. The ecotoxicity measured by the responses of the tests did not always correlate with the decrease in TPH concentrations in the soil during bioremediation.

  16. Sustainability appraisal tools for soil and groundwater remediation: how is the choice of remediation alternative influenced by different sets of sustainability indicators and tool structures? (United States)

    Beames, Alistair; Broekx, Steven; Lookman, Richard; Touchant, Kaat; Seuntjens, Piet


    The state-of-the-science in sustainability assessment of soil and groundwater remediation is evaluated with the application of four decision support systems (DSSs) to a large-scale brownfield revitalization case study. The DSSs were used to perform sustainability appraisals of four technically feasible remediation alternatives proposed for the site. The first stage of the review compares the scope of each tool's sustainability indicators, how these indicators are measured and how the tools differ in terms of standardization and weighting procedures. The second stage of the review compares the outputs from the tools and determines the key factors that result in differing results between tools. The evaluation of indicator sets and tool structures explains why the tools generate differing results. Not all crucial impact areas, as identified by sustainable remediation forums, are thoroughly considered by the tools, particularly with regard to the social and economic aspects of sustainability. Variations in boundary conditions defined between technologies, produce distorted environmental impact results, especially when in-situ and ex-situ technologies are compared. The review draws attention to the need for end users to be aware of which aspects of sustainability are considered, how the aspects are measured and how all aspects are ultimately balanced in the evaluation of potential remediation strategies. Existing tools can be improved by considering different technologies within the same boundary conditions and by expanding indicator sets to include indicators deemed to be relevant by remediation forums.

  17. Integrated planning and spatial evaluation of megasite remediation and reuse options (United States)

    Schädler, Sebastian; Morio, Maximilian; Bartke, Stephan; Finkel, Michael


    Redevelopment of large contaminated brownfields (megasites) is often hampered by a lack of communication and harmonization among diverse stakeholders with potentially conflicting interests. Decision support is required to provide integrative yet transparent evaluation of often complex spatial information to stakeholders with different areas of expertise. It is considered crucial for successful redevelopment to identify a shared vision of how the respective contaminated site could be remediated and redeveloped. We describe a framework of assessment methods and models that analyzes and visualizes site- and land use-specific spatial information at the screening level, with the aim to support the derivation of recommendable land use layouts and to initiate further and more detailed planning. The framework integrates a GIS-based identification of areas to be remediated, an estimation of associated clean-up costs, a spatially explicit market value appraisal, and an assessment of the planned future land use's contribution to sustainable urban and regional development. Case study results show that derived options are potentially favorable in both a sustainability and an economic sense and that iterative re-planning is facilitated by the evaluation and visualization of economic, ecological and socio-economic aspects. The framework supports an efficient early judgment about whether and how abandoned land may be assigned a sustainable and marketable land use.

  18. In situ application of activated carbon and biochar to PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of mixing regime. (United States)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A


    The in situ use of carbon amendments such as activated carbon (AC) and biochar to minimize the bioavailability of organic contaminants is gaining in popularity. In the first in situ experiment conducted at a Canadian PCB-contaminated Brownfield site, GAC and two types of biochar were statistically equal at reducing PCB uptake into plants. PCB concentrations in Cucurbita pepo root tissue were reduced by 74%, 72% and 64%, with the addition of 2.8% GAC, Burt's biochar and BlueLeaf biochar, respectively. A complementary greenhouse study which included a bioaccumulation study of Eisenia fetida (earthworm), found mechanically mixing carbon amendments with PCB-contaminated soil (i.e. 24 h at 30 rpm) resulted in shoot, root and worm PCB concentrations 66%, 59% and 39% lower than in the manually mixed treatments (i.e. with a spade and bucket). Therefore, studies which mechanically mix carbon amendments with contaminated soil may over-estimate the short-term potential to reduce PCB bioavailability.

  19. Overview of the performances of PMMA-SI-POF communication systems (United States)

    Straullu, Stefano; Abrate, Silvio


    Poly-Methyl-MethAcrilate based optical fibers with Step-Index profile and 1 mm core diameter (PMMA-SI-POF) are widely deployed in automobile infotainment systems thanks to the MOST standards that adopt them as the preferred physical medium. However, thanks to their mechanical robustness and tolerance and their ease of installation, they make a suitable medium for local networking. Unfortunately, their good mechanical characteristics have to be paid in terms of performances, since PMMA-SI-POF based systems are severely limited in both bandwidth and attenuation. We will present a review of the best research results that have been obtained at the different speeds that are defined by the Ethernet standard: 10 Mb/s, 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s, showing that PMMA-SI-POF can easily overcome copper performances while being smaller, cheaper, easier to install in brownfield environment. To date, the following results have been obtained: 425 m at 10 Mb/s, 275 m at 100 Mb/s and 75 m at 1 Gb/s; these results have been obtained with commercial eye-safe components, and we believe that overcoming them requires in most cases the development of a new class of components. An overview of the different modulation formats that have been adopted, the most suitable equalization techniques and the best affordable components will be given. In the end, an overview of the current commercial systems performances and the road standardization procedures are taking will be given.

  20. Combined application of Triton X-100 and Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 inoculum for the improvement of lead phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in EDTA amended soil. (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Barbafieri, Meri; Lampis, Silvia; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria; Tassi, Eliana; Vallini, Giovanni


    The process of EDTA-assisted lead phytoextraction from the Bovisa (Milan, Italy) brownfield soil was optimized in microcosms vegetated with Brassica juncea. An autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002, was isolated from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown on the Pb-contaminated soil in presence of 2 mM EDTA. The strain was augmented (10(8) CFU g(-1) soil) in vegetated microcosms to stimulate B. juncea biomass production and, hence, its phytoextraction potential. Triton X-100 was also added to microcosms at 5 and 10 times the critical micelle concentration (cmc) to increase the permeability of root barriers to the EDTA-Pb complexes. Triton X-100 amendment determined an increase in Pb concentration within plant tissues. However it contextually exerted a phytotoxic effect. Sinorhizobium sp. Pb002 augmentation was crucial to plant survival in presence of both bioavailable lead and Triton X-100. The combination of the two treatments produced up to 56% increase in the efficiency of lead phytoextraction by B. juncea. The effects of these treatments on the structure of the soil bacterial community were evaluated by 16S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

  1. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu


    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  2. Integrated planning and spatial evaluation of megasite remediation and reuse options. (United States)

    Schädler, Sebastian; Morio, Maximilian; Bartke, Stephan; Finkel, Michael


    Redevelopment of large contaminated brownfields (megasites) is often hampered by a lack of communication and harmonization among diverse stakeholders with potentially conflicting interests. Decision support is required to provide integrative yet transparent evaluation of often complex spatial information to stakeholders with different areas of expertise. It is considered crucial for successful redevelopment to identify a shared vision of how the respective contaminated site could be remediated and redeveloped. We describe a framework of assessment methods and models that analyzes and visualizes site- and land use-specific spatial information at the screening level, with the aim to support the derivation of recommendable land use layouts and to initiate further and more detailed planning. The framework integrates a GIS-based identification of areas to be remediated, an estimation of associated clean-up costs, a spatially explicit market value appraisal, and an assessment of the planned future land use's contribution to sustainable urban and regional development. Case study results show that derived options are potentially favorable in both a sustainability and an economic sense and that iterative re-planning is facilitated by the evaluation and visualization of economic, ecological and socio-economic aspects. The framework supports an efficient early judgment about whether and how abandoned land may be assigned a sustainable and marketable land use.

  3. Integrating public health and community development to tackle neighborhood distress and promote well-being. (United States)

    Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel


    Recently there have been calls for public health to reconnect to urban planning in ways that emphasize the impact of place on health and that address fundamental causes of poor health, such as poverty, social inequality, and discrimination. Community developers have realized that poor health limits individuals' and communities' economic potential and have begun to integrate into their work such neighborhood health issues as access to fresh food and open space. In this article we review recent shifts in the community development field and give examples of programs that operate at the intersection of community development, public health, and civic engagement. For example, in Sacramento, California, the Building Healthy Communities program successfully promoted the creation of community gardens and bike paths and the redevelopment of brownfields. A major housing revitalization initiative in San Francisco, California, known as Sunnydale-Velasco, is transforming the city's largest public housing site into a mixed-income community that provides existing residents with new housing, infrastructure, services, and amenities. These examples and others illustrate the need to identify and make use of interdisciplinary approaches to ensure that all places are strong platforms for economic mobility, full democratic participation, and community health.

  4. Biofuels, land, and water: a systems approach to sustainability. (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Gayathri; Negri, M Cristina; Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Snyder, Seth W; Lafreniere, Lorraine


    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Industry, environment and health through 200 years in Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Ian; Hodgson, Rob; Lawson, Nigel [School of Geography, University of Manchester, Mansfield Cooper Building, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)


    The Manchester urban area evolved rapidly in the early 19th century from a series of small towns to a major industrial conurbation with huge material flows and worldwide trade connections. A combination of the availability of nearby coalfields, canals, and free trade, which encouraged entrepreneurial enterprise, made Manchester into the 'shock' city of the industrial revolution. Rapid nucleated urban growth associated with industrialisation throughout the 19th century involved an exponential growth in materials transfers and in waste flows. The 20th century suburban dispersal of residential and industrial growth led to further increase in the impact of the urban metabolism, especially in terms of mass: distance of materials movement. The current post-industrial phase in Greater Manchester has to cope with the environmental and social legacies of its industrial past and with growing per capita materials consumption and increases in number of households despite a nearly static population of around 2.5 million. Changes in material flows, land usage and river morphology in Greater Manchester over the past 200 years have reflected changing technologies, industry, economics, social expectations and environmental legislation. Manchester had the first passenger railway, the first inter-basin domestic water transfer in the UK, the first urban smokeless zones and was part of a pioneering land reclamation partnership in the 1970s. Even so, the environmental legacy of industrial material flows constantly presents new challenges, from the cost of reclaiming contaminated brownfield sites to finding destinations for today's urban waste.

  6. Application of receptor-specific risk distribution in the arsenic contaminated land management. (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ng, Shane; Wang, Gen-shuh; Ma, Hwong-wen


    Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk distribution to facilitate scenario analysis of contaminated land management. A contaminated site risk map model (ArcGIS for risk assessment and management, abbreviated as Arc-RAM) was constructed by combining the four major steps of risk assessment with Geographic Information Systems. Sampling of contaminated media, survey of exposure attributes, and modeling of multimedia transport were integrated to produce receptor group-specific maps that depicted the probabilistic spatial distribution of risks of various receptor groups. Flexible risk management schemes can then be developed and assessed. In this study, a risk management program that took into account the ratios of various land use types at specified risk levels was explored. A case study of arsenic contaminated land of 6.387 km(2) has found that for a risk value between 1.00E-05 and 1.00E-06, the proposed flexible risk management of agricultural land achieves improved utilization of land. Using this method, the investigated case can reduce costs related to compensation for farmland totaling approximately NTD 5.94 million annually.

  7. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle


    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  8. Fuzzification of continuous-value spatial evidence for mineral prospectivity mapping (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahyar; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.


    Complexities of geological processes portrayed as certain feature in a map (e.g., faults) are natural sources of uncertainties in decision-making for exploration of mineral deposits. Besides natural sources of uncertainties, knowledge-driven (e.g., fuzzy logic) mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is also plagued and incurs further uncertainty in subjective judgment of analyst when there is no reliable proven value of evidential scores corresponding to relative importance of geological features that can directly be measured. In this regard, analysts apply expert opinion to assess relative importance of spatial evidences as meaningful decision support. This paper aims for fuzzification of continuous spatial data used as proxy evidence to facilitate and to support fuzzy MPM to generate exploration target areas for further examination of undiscovered deposits. In addition, this paper proposes to adapt the concept of expected value to further improve fuzzy logic MPM because the analysis of uncertain variables can be presented in terms of their expected value. The proposed modified expected value approach to MPM is not only a multi-criteria approach but it also treats uncertainty of geological processes a depicted by maps or spatial data in term of biased weighting more realistically in comparison with classified evidential maps because fuzzy membership scores are defined continuously whereby, for example, there is no need to categorize distances from evidential features to proximity classes using arbitrary intervals. The proposed continuous weighting approach and then integrating the weighted evidence layers by using modified expected value function, described in this paper can be used efficiently in either greenfields or brownfields.

  9. Does the creative economy provide a sustainable urban form?: Some European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica


    Full Text Available Three urban redevelopment projects recently undertaken in Europe-Ria 2000 in Bilbao, Spain; Emscher Park in Germany; and Gasometer in Vienna, Austria, are presented and discussed in the paper. All three innovate on three independent levels culture, economy and urban organization, and provide high quality places to assist their cities and regions to cope with a global competitive environment. All three were also designed to represent the best of the sustainable practice in Europe at the time. In the same time, the basic philosophy of all three is deeply rooted in creative economies and elaborate their basis principles. The paper explores their design solution in order to identify the points where creative industries and sustainability meet, and investigates if, and to what extent, they comply with the principles of sustainability. Urban design and physical space are in focus, while other areas are considered as long as they contribute to the design, or reflect a credo that architecture and urban design are among those that play a central role in building cities' reputation and character. The author argues that all three materialized some of the basic principles of sustainability, by elaborating ideas of genius loci and the relationship between identity and locality. Emscher Park has been the most successful in demonstrating how the Brownfield site and devastated area could be transformed into the cultural landscape. Ria 2000 brought in a new interpretation of balance between the man made and natural environments. Gasometer has been least successful, and rather its solutions go after the traditional redevelopment paradigm.

  10. Sustainable Construction for Urban Infill Development Using Engineered Massive Wood Panel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann


    Full Text Available Prefabricated engineered solid wood panel construction systems can sequester and store CO2. Modular cross-laminated timber (CLT, also called cross-lam panels form the basis of low-carbon, engineered construction systems using solid wood panels that can be used to build residential infill developments of 10 storeys or higher. Multi-apartment buildings of 4 to 10 storeys constructed entirely in timber, such as recently in Europe, are innovative, but their social and cultural acceptance in Australia and North America is at this stage still uncertain. Future commercial utilisation is only possible if there is a user acceptance. The author is part of a research team that aims to study two problems: first models of urban infill; then focus on how the use of the CLT systems can play an important role in facilitating a more livable city with better models of infill housing. Wood is an important contemporary building resource due to its low embodied energy and unique attributes. The potential of prefabricated engineered solid wood panel systems, such as CLT, as a sustainable building material and system is only just being realised around the globe. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, solid wood panel construction offers the opportunity of carbon engineering, to turn buildings into ‘carbon sinks’. Thus some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction can be turned around with CLT construction on brownfield sites.

  11. Spatial Optimization of Future Urban Development with Regards to Climate Risk and Sustainability Objectives. (United States)

    Caparros-Midwood, Daniel; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard


    Future development in cities needs to manage increasing populations, climate-related risks, and sustainable development objectives such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Planners therefore face a challenge of multidimensional, spatial optimization in order to balance potential tradeoffs and maximize synergies between risks and other objectives. To address this, a spatial optimization framework has been developed. This uses a spatially implemented genetic algorithm to generate a set of Pareto-optimal results that provide planners with the best set of trade-off spatial plans for six risk and sustainability objectives: (i) minimize heat risks, (ii) minimize flooding risks, (iii) minimize transport travel costs to minimize associated emissions, (iv) maximize brownfield development, (v) minimize urban sprawl, and (vi) prevent development of greenspace. The framework is applied to Greater London (U.K.) and shown to generate spatial development strategies that are optimal for specific objectives and differ significantly from the existing development strategies. In addition, the analysis reveals tradeoffs between different risks as well as between risk and sustainability objectives. While increases in heat or flood risk can be avoided, there are no strategies that do not increase at least one of these. Tradeoffs between risk and other sustainability objectives can be more severe, for example, minimizing heat risk is only possible if future development is allowed to sprawl significantly. The results highlight the importance of spatial structure in modulating risks and other sustainability objectives. However, not all planning objectives are suited to quantified optimization and so the results should form part of an evidence base to improve the delivery of risk and sustainability management in future urban development.

  12. Radon and its decay product activities in the magmatic area and the adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tchorz


    Full Text Available In the magmatic area of Sudetes covering the Karkonosze granite and adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin a study of atmospheric radon activity was performed by means of SSNTD Kodak LR-115. The study was completed by gamma spectrometric survey of eU and eTh determined by gamma activity of radon decay products 214Bi and 208Tl respectively. In the case of the western part of the Karkonosze granite area the radon decay products activity in the granitic basement was found to be as high as 343 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 496 Bq/kg for 208Tl respectively. Atmospheric radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 track detector at the height of 1.5 m was found as high as 70 Bq/m3 in the regions, where no mining activities took place. However in the eastern part of the granitic massif in the proximity of abandoned uranium mine atmospheric radon content was found to be 6000 Bq/m3. In the case of sedimentary basin where sedimentary sequence of Carboniferous rocks has been penetrated by younger gases and fluids of volcanic origin uranium mineralization developed. The region known from its CO2 outburst during coal mining activity is characterized by good ventilation of the uranium enriched geological basement resulting in increased atmospheric radon activity being in average 72 Bq/m3. In the vicinity of coal mine tailing an increase up to 125 Bq/m3 can be observed. Seasonal variations of atmospheric radon content are influenced in agricultural areas by cyclic cultivation works (plough on soils of increased uranium content and in the case of post-industrial brownfields varying rates of radon exhalation from tailings due to different meteorological conditions.

  13. Informal urban green-space: comparison of quantity and characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan. (United States)

    Rupprecht, Christoph D D; Byrne, Jason A


    Informal urban green-space (IGS) such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS) dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2%) and gaps (19.2%) were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research.

  14. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voglar, Grega E. [RDA - Regional Development Agency Celje, Kidriceva ulica 25, 3000 Celje (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: {yields} We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. {yields} Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. {yields} We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm{sup -2} achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  15. Revitalization and ITS Impact on Public. Space Organization A Case Study of Manchester in UK, Lyon in France and Łódź in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kazimierczak


    Full Text Available Process of deindustrialization of downtowns in most of well-developed Western European countries has been undertaken since 1960’s while in post-socialist countries just from last 25 years, after political and economic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe.  As far as urban structure is concerned, a new type of inner-city sites has appeared as a consequence of the collapse of industrial activities in second half of 20th century.  In vast majority of cases newly developed morhological units (e.g. run-down post-industrial have been unavailable to the public. As a reult, “classical” public space organization of European cities has been significantly changed. However, revitalization of post-industrial urban areas creates opportunities to reorganize public space according to current inhabitants and other urban space users’ needs. All transitions undertaken as a part of re-developement of brownfields sites are focused on impovements in physical and functional dimension of urban space quality to increase the standard of living condition. According to the concept of smat cities it is relaeted to “smart living” in sustainable urban environment. As a matter of fact, post-socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe where interval of central planning was present in second half of 20th century and “classical” capitalist cites of Western Europe represent different patterns of public space transitions due to distinct historical development process of central space. In the paper a comparative study of Manchester, Lyon and Łódź is presented. The aim of the research is to indicate the reorganization of historically shaped public space structre in central space of analyzed cities after revitalization of post-industrial urban areas and new central space creation.

  16. Informal urban green-space: comparison of quantity and characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph D D Rupprecht

    Full Text Available Informal urban green-space (IGS such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2% and gaps (19.2% were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research.

  17. Chicago's ambition to be the greenest city in America : how has the private sector been engaged to stimulate green developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M. [City of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Chicago aims to become the greenest city in the United States. This paper discusses private sector engagement towards this goal, as well as the city's strategies in the creation of pilot projects, policies, practices and promotions. Projects include the construction of environmentally friendly public buildings such as libraries, fire houses and police stations, as well as the Chicago Center for Green Technology and the Ford Calumet Environmental Center. Details of construction techniques were examined, including solar water heating systems and the use of thermal collectors. Projected savings in heating and electrical usage were given. In addition, details of residential pilot projects were provided, including design competitions for healthier homes and the Green Bungalows project, which aims to renovate existing buildings to create greater energy efficiency. The creation of green markets was discussed, with details of the Brownfields Initiative and the West Pullman Business Park, a 200 acre site. Promotions and Initiatives instigated by the city were also examined, such as the Industrial Efficiency Program, which includes free energy and pollution audits for manufacturers, and the Corridor Program, currently targeted to 24 designated industrial companies. Various soil clean-up programs were examined, as well as city ordinances and conservation codes. The following future goals were presented: green certification for all contractors in Chicago; a phase out of permits for non-sustainable designs; and, a green design specifications guide for new projects. By 2020, the city hopes to have 60 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) accredited buildings, 250 installed solar thermal systems and 100 city facilities declared 'energy star' buildings. tabs., figs.

  18. The Thames Gateway: planning policy and flood risk scenarios (United States)

    Eldridge, Jillian; Horn, Diane


    future developments. Alternative planning approaches are also used to determine the potential risk faced under a range policy conditions, from using fewer brownfield sites to implementing PPS25 (Planning Policy Statement 25: Flood Risk and Development) to varying degrees. Building vulnerability is assessed for all scenarios using vulnerability curves, and insurance loss calculated for each scenario output. The flood model outputs for the study areas gives an initial indication of present flood risk. The results will be of use to planners and insurers in understanding future flood risk scenarios in urban regeneration areas.

  19. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.


    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  20. Phytoextraction of Cadmium-contaminated Soil by Short-rotation Coppice Willow%短轮伐期矮林柳对污染土壤中镉的修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖力; 汤春芳


    This paper reviews the phytoextraction of cadmium in soil using short -rotation coppice willow ai-ming to offer scientific support for phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soil .Studies show that Cd -pol-luted soil can be cleaned effectively by cultivating and harvesting the aboveground parts of some short -rota-tion coppice willow within a certain crop lifecycle .Cd uptake rates into Salix are high compared with other trace elements and plants .Effective phytoextraction would require:①selection of suitable contaminated soil;②repeated harvest prior to leaf fall;③final removal of the whole plant .Results suggest that willow is one of the environment friendly and economic materials for remediation of cadmium -contaminated soil,especially for agricultural soil and brownfield land .%在调研国内外柳树修复土壤镉污染文献的基础上,综述了短轮伐期矮林柳对土壤镉污染的提取情况,旨在为土壤重金属污染的植物修复提供科学依据。研究表明,种植某些短轮伐期矮林柳并收割其地上部分,在一定的生命周期内对土壤镉( Cd)污染治理效果较好。与其他重金属和物种相比,柳树地上部分生物量较大、Cd 的累积浓度较高,柳树对Cd的吸收量也较高。柳树对 Cd 的有效提取要求:①选择适合的污染土壤;②每年落叶之前反复收割其地上部分;③最后对整个植株(包括根以及地上茎)进行收割。结果表明,柳属植物是提取土壤中Cd的一种既环保又经济的植物修复材料,尤其适用于低 Cd污染的棕地和农田土壤修复。

  1. A regional approach to the environmental risk assessment in the Campania region (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto


    Environmental risk assessment and analysis has a crucial role for guaranteeing the safety of the population, especially in intensive urbanized and industrialized areas, such as the Campania region (Italy). In Italy, since 2006, the human health risk assessment has become mandatory for contaminated soil and waters at contaminated sites. While traditional risk assessment procedures are usually run at site specific level (brownfields), with this work we would like to introduce a freshly developed method to assess risks at regional level by means of GIS, considering the hazard due to the presence in the environment of a contaminated media, the land use variability and the actual distribution of the population. 3535 top soils were collected across the whole Campania region (Italy) with a sampling density of 1 sample/4 km2. Samples were analyzed at ACME Analytical Lab. Ltd (Vancouver, Canada), to determine the concentration of 52 elements, with a combined methods of ICP-MS and ICP-ES following an aqua regia digestion. After a detailed statistical data analysis and geochemical mapping, we reclassified the interpolated maps of some potentially toxic elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn), in accordance with the Italian environmental law (D.Lgs 152/2006), on the base of the trigger and action limits (CSC) for human safety established by this latter. The obtained maps were summed up in the GIS environment in order to get a cumulative map of the potential hazard for the topsoils of Campania region. Considering that environmental risk for the population is strongly influenced by the exposure pathways followed by contaminants to reach the human target, in the case of Campania region we evaluated as relevant pathways both the soil/dust and food ingestion. Furthermore to consider the influence of the land use in the onset of the risk, each land use type was associated with a specific value of a Land Use Risk Coefficient (LURC) which is also dependent on

  2. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch


    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  3. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J


    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing green building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2's most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a cafe and river vistas for miles of New York City's skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects, selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy

  4. The Neglected Exactness (United States)

    Endom, Joerg


    Having a look into geophysical text books, you will find for all the described methods detailed lists of good practice. The variety of annotations specifies how to perform a reliable, trusty and plausible geophysical survey. Much space is used for considerations about all the necessary parameters like target depth, contrast, frequency, sampling, resolution and many other boundary conditions that account for a high quality report. But you will find rather fewer comments on locating and positioning. It seems to be self-evident in times of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) and high performance laser total stations that positioning is a solved issue. This seems to apply for all geophysical methods that operate at walking speed or slower and for typical geoscientific or environmental investigation sites like brownfields, wasteland or archaeological spots, usually of nearly rectangular size. Using of measuring tapes, ropes and ranging poles here is also good practice. In civil engineering applications we observe lots of rectangular shaped inspection areas too but we as well get many linear structures like elongated bridge decks, dikes, railway tracks, runways and roads. Surveying of an archaeological place of 60 m by 82 m width requires a different positioning technology than surveying 5000 m along a highway although both sites have the same areal extent of around 5000 m2. If we furthermore take into account that during the last years GPR evolved into one of the fastest investigation methods in geophysics, survey speed becomes an important item. While examining railway tracks or roads today it is common to make use of these high speed capabilities. GPR services are typically performed at speeds of 80 km/h or even with higher velocities. Standard positioning methods do not longer apply to this problem. With speeds of more than 22 m/sec the internal latency of surveying systems gets quite relevant and even the effect of rounding within survey wheel systems is not

  5. The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education: Bringing awareness of the geosciences to minorities in Detroit MI (United States)

    Nalepa, N. A.; Murray, K. S.; Napieralski, J. A.


    According to recent studies, more than 40% of students within the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) drop out and only 21% graduate within 4 years. In an attempt to improve these statistics, The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education was developed by the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) and funded by two grants from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) OEDG Program. The Geosciences Institute, a collaboration between the UM-D, DPS, and local corporations, aims to generate awareness of the geosciences to middle school students, facilitate an enthusiastic learning environment, encourage underrepresented minorities to stay in school, and consider the geosciences as a viable career option. This is accomplished by involving their teachers, UM-D faculty and students, and local geoscience professionals in community-based research problems relevant to SE Michigan. Students use the geosciences as a tool in which they are actively participating in research that is in their backyards. Through a mixture of field trips, participation, and demonstrational activities the students become aware of local environmental and social problems and how a background in the geosciences can prepare them. As part of the Geosciences Institute, students participate in three ongoing research projects with UM-D faculty: (1) build, install, and monitor groundwater wells along the Lower Rouge River, (2) collect soil samples from and mapping brownfields in SW Detroit, and (3) learn basic GPS and GIS skills to map local natural resources. The students also work with faculty on creating video diaries that record ideas, experiences, and impressions throughout the Institute, including during fieldtrips, modules, research, and editing. Finally, small teams of students collaborate to design and print a poster that summarizes their experience in the Institute. The Geosciences Institute concludes with a ceremony that celebrates student efforts (posters and videos) and involves school

  6. Numerical Assessment of Indoor Air Exposure Risk from Subsurface NAPL Contamination under Hydrologic Uncertainties (United States)

    Unger, A.; Yu, S.


    Understanding the risk of indoor air exposure to residual contaminants in the subsurface following the redevelopment of contaminated land redevelopment project is a central issue at many brownfield sites. In this study, we examine various mechanisms controlling vapor phase intrusion into the indoor air of a typical residential dwelling from a NAPL source located below the water table, and consequently assess the indoor air exposure risk under multiple hydrologic uncertainties. For this purpose, a multi-phase multi-component numerical model, CompFlow Bio is used to simulate the evolution of a TCE source zone and dissolved plume in a variably saturated heterogeneous aquifer, along with the transport of dissolved TCE upwards through the capillary fringe with subsequent migration of TCE vapors in the vadose zone subject to barometric pressure fluctuations. The TCE vapors then enter the basement of the residential dwelling through a crack in the foundation slab, driven by a slight vacuum within the basement relative to the ambient atmosphere as well as the barometric pressure fluctuations. Hydrologic uncertainties affecting the indoor air concentration of TCE include the vacuum in the basement, the aperture of the crack in the foundation slab, the heterogeneous permeability field, the thickness of the capillary fringe, barometric fluctuations, recharge rates and the location of the TCE source zone. CompFlow Bio is then used to determine the future concentration of TCE into the basement as a consequence of imperfect knowledge in the various hydrologic parameters, and to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative remedial and foundation design options to minimize the exposure risk to the indoor air conditional upon the available data collected at the site. The outcome of this approach is two-fold. First, the owner of the site can reasonably evaluate the future indoor air exposure risk following the redevelopment of a formerly contaminated site following remediation

  7. Short Sediment Cores as Archives of Urban Pollution (United States)

    Latimer, J. C.; McLennan, D. A.; Stone, J.; Memmer, E. D.; Foster, J. A.; Hardin, K. J.; Nickerson, Z.; Portwood, C. A.; Williams, T. M.


    Urban areas are host to numerous sources of environmental pollution, including industry, traffic, and past land uses. To document this pollution within Vigo County, Indiana, we collected several short cores from ponds and wetlands throughout the county, including cores from the old industrial park in Terre Haute, nature parks, a lake impacted by acid mine drainage, and a newly restored wetland to investigate heavy metal burial in these aquatic ecosystems. One core was collected from a holding pond that was constructed in the 1950's on the former International Paper (IP) site where corrugated packing products were produced for nearly a century. One of the nature parks (Dobbs Nature Park) was established in 1976, while the other sits on a former Brownfield site and was only recently opened to the public (Maple Avenue Nature Park). Scott Lake is adjacent to an abandoned coal mine, and continues to receive acidic drainage. Wabashiki Fish and Wildlife Area is flooded seasonally by the Wabash River. Prior land uses for the Wabashiki include agriculture and illegal dumping. All of these sites, except IP are designated fishing areas. Based on water chemistry and diatom assemblages, these ponds have acceptable water quality; however, some are becoming increasingly more eutrophic. Preliminary results from the IP and Maple Avenue Nature Park sediment cores indicate elevated heavy metal concentrations above background levels and at concentrations high enough to impact benthic organisms based on NOAA Sediment Quality Guidelines. Diatoms from the IP core suggest a transition from low productivity at the base to nutrient-rich conditions in more recent sediments, and several diatom specimens have observable deformities (typically an indicator of heavy metals). The base of the IP core also has metal concentrations that are 5 times greater than the top of the core. In many cases, sediments from the Maple Avenue Nature Park pond have metal concentrations higher than the surrounding

  8. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.


    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石磊; 冯章献; 王士君


    The special development ways of resource-based cities cause a series of problems, such as industrial development problems, landscape-ecology problems,poverty problems,spatial problems,dualistic structure problems,land use problems,relationship between government and enterprises problems,relationship between regions problems,and so on. To resolve those problems need the synthesized responding of urban planning. It contains urban planning guidance, planning system and carrying out of planning. It also comes out as optimize of planning content,adjusting of planning system and improvement on carrying out of planning. The coordination and comprehensive integration of tatutory planning and unstatutable planning, especially the statutory planning such as General Planning,Detailed planning,Regional Planning,Landscape Planning,Spatial Planning, Brown-field Planning,Industrial Planning,Urban Renewal Planning.. As a traditional Resource-based city, Baishan city has the universal problems. It gets some favourable experience on responding of urban planning to the problems during the conversion period, especially on guidance and content of urban planning.%资源型城市特定的发展脉络决定了其转型期面临产业发展问题、景观生态问题、贫困问题、空间问题、二元结构问题、土地利用问题、政企协调问题、区域协调问题等突出矛盾.问题的破解需要规划的综合响应,包括城市规划导向、规划体系、规划内容、规划执行等方面.这种响应也体现在规划编制内容的优化,规划体系的调整,规划执行的演进等.特别是总体规划、详细规划,区域规划、景观规划、空间规划、棕地开发规划、产业发展战略规划、城市更新规划等法定规划与非法定规划的协调与综合集成.白山市作为典型的资源枯竭型城市,转型问题突出,其城市规划实践在导向与内容上针对转型期问题和需求具有良好的响应,值得借鉴.

  10. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine (United States)

    Cheung, David J.

    reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

  11. "Eco-Infill" as an alternative strategy for postindustrial landscape in the light of climate change: The case of Belgrade shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikezić Ana


    Full Text Available At this moment, and under the circumstances that surround us, we have recognized as a definite global challenge the problem of climate change, and in general, the ecological misbalance of cities. In an attempt to meet this challenge, we will try to discuss possibilities of implementing the "Eco-Infill" strategy (fragments of nature incorporated into abandoned artificial environment as a viable, somewhat “alternative”, urban development strategy. The contemporary matrix of the post-industrial urban landscape is dotted with large and small fragments of abandoned spaces, which need to be incorporated into the city texture. Belgrade is a city with a potential, one of the larger capitals of the region, standing on the threshold of the European Union and undergoing an intensive process of political, economic and social transition. Similar to other large cities, it was previously an industrial city, but is now increasingly relying on the tertiary sector, promoting itself through its geographical, morphological, and cultural advantages. The consequences of privatization during transition and an exceptionally long and difficult political and economic crisis produced Brownfield and other abandoned spaces of the city centre with a complicated proprietary-ownership status, and no realistic guidelines for a much needed regeneration of the city centre in terms of contemporary problems linked to ecological, social and cultural values. In this article, there is a tendency to define principles on which the transformation of these abandoned places is based on and to try to apply these strategies onto the Belgrade shipyard on the river Sava. If we accept the previously set general views, these spaces can become crucial in developing a strategy for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Although these effects are primarily aimed at confronting climate change, they are bound to upgrade the quality of life and offer new life styles, potentially affecting

  12. Evolution of iron minerals in a 100years-old Technosol. Consequences on Zn mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coussy, Samuel; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bataillard, Philippe; Khodja, Hicham; Maubec, Nicolas; Faure, Pierre; Schwartz, Christophe; Dagois, Robin (BRGM- France); (CNRS-UMR)


    The prediction of the long term trace element mobility in anthropogenic soils would be a way to anticipate land management and should help in reusing slightly contaminated materials. In the present study, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status evolution was investigated in a 100-year old Technosol. The site of investigation is an old brownfield located in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) which has not been reshaped since the beginning of the last century. The whole soil profile was sampled as a function of depth, and trace elements mobility at each depth was determined by batch leaching test. A specific focus on Fe and Zn status was carried out by bulk analyses, such as selective dissolution, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Fe and Zn status in the profile samples was also studied using laterally resolved techniques such as μ-particle induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and μ-Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (μ-RBS). The results indicate that (i) Fe is mainly under Fe(III) form, except a minor contribution of Fe(II) in the deeper samples, (ii) some Fe species inherited from the past have been weathered and secondary minerals are constituted of metal-bearing sulphates and Fe (hydr)oxides, (iii) ferrihydrite is formed during pedogenesis (iv) 20 to 30% more Fe (hydr)oxides are present in the surface than in depth and (v) Zn has tetrahedral coordination and is sorbed to phases of increasing crystallinity when depth increases. Zn-bearing phases identified in the present study are: complex Fe, Mn, Zn sulphides, sulphates, organic matter, and ferrihydrite. Soil formation on such material does not induce a dramatic increase of Zn solubility since efficient scavengers are concomitantly formed in the system. However, Technosols are highly heterogeneous and widely differ from one place to another. The behavior examined in this study is not generic and will depend on the type of Technosol and on the secondary minerals formed as well as on

  13. Impacts of Climate Change at Watershed Scale: Creating an Ecological Basis for "Smart Growth" and Economic Development in the Post-industrial Lehigh Valley of Eastern PA (United States)

    Holland, B.; Felzer, B.; Pazzaglia, F.; Sahagian, D.


    As modeling of global climate change matures and regional projections regarding regional variability become viable, the scales of climate impact analysis and regional decision-making begin to converge. This convergence provides a critical new challenge for both the climate modeling and policy communities- "How can projected climate change insights at watershed scale most effectively inform decisions regarding land use, zoning, and growth management?" This issue is particularly critical in regions that were formerly heavily industrialized and developed, and that are now finding new avenues for economic growth in the wake of massive clear-cutting, mining, and heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Lehigh Valley is a watershed defining a single ecosystem that contains 800,000 people, 321 square miles of croplands and 95 square miles of urban areas, with the remainder of the watershed at various successional stages after massive forest clear-cutting of the last two centuries. Many of the industries that fueled the industrial revolution were based in the Lehigh Valley, and their development came at an environmental cost that was not then recognized, but that left a legacy of mine-scarred lands, acid mine drained streams, soil and water contamination, and a derelict industrial infrastructure that state and local governments have only recently begun to address. Before these institutions can plan for redevelopment of brownfields, regional planning for housing and commercial development, and preservation of forested and agricultural lands, it is first necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology, productivity, and other ecosystems functions, and to provide this information to decision-makers responsible for environmentally sustainable development and regional planning. "Smart Growth" has become a catch phrase for regional development that is sensitive to social, economic, political, and historical goals, as well as ecological

  14. 受铜、铬和砷污染土壤处理后的稳定及其评估技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Maurice; Sofia Lideloew; Bjorn Gustavsson; Anders Laittstrom; Daniel Ragnvaldsson; Per Leffier; Lars Lovgren; Solomon Tesfalidet; Jurate Kumpiene; 王丽平(译)


    土壤修复主要通过将受污染土壤进行挖掘和填埋,这种方法在进行大量位点修复时不太切合实际,因此要选择其它棕地(brownfield)修复方法。本研究介绍了评估受铜铬砷(CCA)污染土壤采用含铁(Fe)爆破砂(BS)或嵌氧颗粒(OSG)处理后的化学稳定过程。就工业尺度下混合改良物的可行性和在不同氧化还原条件下的稳定效率对这种稳定技术进行了评估。在野外自然条件下,采用1m3测渗计调查了这种稳定性并在实验室(10L)对氧化还原条件的效应进行了评估。结果表明改良物的添加率最低时(0.1%和1%)化学计量中还有足够的铁,但是不管在野外还是实验室都是采用高添加率的改良物(8%和17%)效果较好。铁和混合物的颗粒大小会影响稳定效率。厌氧条件的发展(模拟自水饱和度)会提高砷(As3+)的份额,因此增强了砷的迁移能力。在有氧条件下,采用高浓度OSG提高了孔隙水中镍(Ni)和铜(Cu)的浓度,但是在厌氧条件下,与未作处理的土壤相比,砷的淋溶率降低了,而镍和铜的淋溶并不是关键的。所处理土壤的最终目的决定了改良方案,也就是说,对于在厌氧条件下填埋的土壤,OSG浓度为10%较合适。也可以在有氧条件下将1%的Bs与土壤混合,置于填埋区上层或者棕色地块(brownfield site)原处。另外从长期来看,采用BS处理似乎比用OSG处理效果要好。

  15. A Review of Attitudes towards Sharing Geotechnical Data and the use of Geospatial Data Portals in Hong Kong and the U.K.: Lessons for Europe. (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.


    Reusing existing subsurface data can greatly cut the time and financial costs of site investigations, and reduce uncertainty regarding ground conditions that can result in delays and overspend. In Hong Kong SAR it is common practice for consultancies to deposit records in the form of factual and interpretive reports, borehole logs and laboratory test data with the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) who make this information openly available to access for future investigative works. In addition to these deposits, other datasets available at GEO include, amongst others, landslide records, aerial photographs and as-built records. These archives are the first source of information about development sites in Hong Kong and no investigation takes place without a thorough desk study. Increasingly these data are digital, and can be accessed through a GIS-based online portal. In the U.K. the British Geological Survey (BGS) acts as a custodian for geoscience data deposited by the public and private sectors on a voluntary basis, and encourages organisations to make their data publicly available through the BGS online data portals. The facility to deposit digital data via the BGS website has recently been launched and should increase uptake of data sharing in the U.K. as it becomes easier for users to batch upload records digitally. Issues regarding data ownership and confidentiality are being overcome by the establishment, in some cities, of knowledge exchange networks where members who sign up to view data are expected under the terms of membership to deposit data. This has received backing from local government in some areas. The U.K. may not have the density of existing data that Hong Kong has but as knowledge exchange gathers momentum the BGS datasets are expected to grow rapidly. In Europe there appears to be a reluctance to share data. However, escalating demand for land, greater redevelopment of brownfield sites and an ever-growing need to ensure future construction

  16. Investigation of Multi-Criteria Decision Consistency: A Triplex Approach to Optimal Oilfield Portfolio Investment Decisions (United States)

    Qaradaghi, Mohammed

    techniques that can provide more flexibility and inclusiveness in the decision making process, such as Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods. However, it can be observed that the MCDM literature: 1) is primarily focused on suggesting certain MCDM techniques to specific problems without providing sufficient evidence for their selection, 2) is inadequate in addressing MCDM in E&P portfolio selection and prioritization compared with other fields, and 3) does not address prioritizing brownfields (i.e., developed oilfields). This research study aims at addressing the above drawbacks through combining three MCDM methods (i.e., AHP, PROMETHEE and TOPSIS) into a single decision making tool that can support optimal oilfield portfolio investment decisions by helping determine the share of each oilfield of the total development resources allocated. Selecting these methods is reinforced by a pre-deployment and post-deployment validation framework. In addition, this study proposes a two-dimensional consistency test to verify the output coherence or prioritization stability of the MCDM methods in comparison with an intuitive approach. Nine scenarios representing all possible outcomes of the internal and external consistency tests are further proposed to reach a conclusion. The methodology is applied to a case study of six major oilfields in Iraq to generate percentage shares of each oilfield of a total production target that is in line with Iraq's aspiration to increase oil production. However, the methodology is intended to be applicable to other E&P portfolio investment prioritization scenarios by taking the specific contextual characteristics into consideration.

  17. 3-D ore body modeling and structural settings of syn-to late orogenic Variscan hydrothermal mineralization, Siegerland district, Rhenish Massif, NW Germany (United States)

    Peters, Meike; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael


    mineralization. These vein-hooks are characterized by a dip direction to the W, which is opposite to the plunge of F1-folds. The vein-hooks are interpreted to have formed during oblique normal faulting. The compilation of historical mining and mineralogical information in combination with 3-D ore body modeling provides new insights into the structural evolution of mineralization and can be used to evaluate further mineral potential of the area, especially in currently non-explored depth levels. The 3-D ore body model is also vital for resource calculation and the design of a brown-fields drilling program. References Ahrendt, H., Hunziker, J.C. and Weber, K. (1978). Z. dt. geol. Ges. 129, 229-247 Hein, U.F. (1993). Min. Mag. 57, 451-476 Hellmann, A., Wagner, T. and Meyer, F.M. (2012). Conference proceedings GB 2012. Peters, M., Hellmann A. and Meyer, F.M. (2012). Conference proceedings GeoHannover 2012. Series of paper of the German Society of Geosciences, Vol. 80, 387.

  18. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.


    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  19. Development of a 3D Potential Field Forward Modelling System in Python (United States)

    Cole, P.


    The collection of potential field data has long been a standard part of geophysical exploration. Specifically, airborne magnetic data is collected routinely in any brown-fields area, because of the low cost and fast acquisition rate compared to other geophysical techniques. However, the interpretation of such data can be a daunting task, especially when 3D models are becoming more necessary. The current trend in modelling software is to follow either the modelling of individual profiles, which are then "joined" up into 3D sections, or to model in a full 3D using polygonal based models (Singh and Guptasarma, 2001). Unfortunately, both techniques have disadvantages. When modelling in 2.5D the impact of other profiles is not truly available on your current profile being modelled, and vice versa. The problem is not present in 3D, but 3D polygonal models, while being easy to construct the initial model, are not as easy to make fast changes to. In some cases, the entire model must be recreated from scratch. The ability to easily change a model is the very basis of forward modelling. With this is mind, the objective of the project was to: 1) Develop software which was truly modelling in 3D 2) Create a system which would allow the rapid changing of the 3D model, without the need to recreate the model. The solution was to adopt a voxel based approach, rather than a polygonal approach. The solution for a cube (Blakely 1996) was used to calculate potential field for each voxel. The voxels are then summed over the entire volume. The language used was python, because of its huge capacity for scientific development. It enables full 3D visualisation as well as complex mathematical routines. Some properties worth noting are: 1) Although 200 rows by 200 columns by 200 layers would imply 8 million calculations, in reality, since the calculation for adjacent voxels produces the same result, only 200 calculations are necessary. 2) Changes to susceptibility and density do not affect

  20. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.


    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  1. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, James Maner [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Haque, Imtiaz [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rigas, Nikolaos [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    WTDTF in the SCE&G Energy Innovation Center at the new Facility in North Charleston, SC, USA. Before the eGRID was completed, it was recognized that the ability to test solar farm equipment was but a small step away thru the addition of enhanced equipment to provide for DC testing. In yet another expansion/success, a 2.5 MW rectifier system was designed and implemented by Clemson staff to enhance the Center’s capabilities. The program required over 250,000 man-hours of on-site construction labor reworking the brownfield facility on the former Navy Base, clearly satisfying one of the major goals of the Reinvestment Act. This was done while winning numerous awards for design and construction of the facility, including the Top US Project for 2014 from the Trade Journal Engineering News Record. The project was a major collaborative developmental activity managed by Clemson University staff that involved the DOE and many partners and organizations.

  2. EDITORIAL: A physicist's journey to the centre of the Earth (United States)

    Hipkin, Roger


    extending to distant parts of the globe must be combined with international collaboration. ` `Little g' revisited' illustrates how a global picture of the Earth's gravity field is being created by supplementing such ground-based measurements with remote-sensing from satellites. Satellites now form the main source of information about `The Earth's main magnetic field', the consequence of a vast dynamo within the molten iron core. For such global problems of the deep interior, the impossibility of making direct observations is absolute but cost can often be an equally strict limitation for much geophysical work. While we could in principle look for oil reservoirs or shallow regions where poison has contaminated the ground by digging it all up or drilling, this would be economically prohibitive. `Investigating brownfield sites with electrical resistivity' illustrates that, for the geophysicist, investigating the Earth's core and mapping subsurface chemical pollutants are aspects of the same problem - using basic physics to find out about the Earth's inaccessible interior. Editor's note. In this bumper issue of Physics Education we also have a trio of articles about absolutely nothing, showing that there is more to nothing than might be apparent to the casual eye!

  3. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.


    periods. Much more challenging is the geographic mapping of impacts that these emissions will cause, given the many point and mobile sources of air pollutants over the entire transportation life cycle. Integration of LCA with high-resolution data sets is an active area of model development (Mutel and Hellweg 2009) and will provide site- and population-specific information for impacts ranging from water quality to biodiversity to human respiratory health. Another complex challenge in modeling environmental impacts of transportation (and cities in general) is the long run, interdependent relationship between transportation technologies and urban form. LCA modeling has tended to assume a fixed pattern of settlements and demand for mobility and then examined changes to a particular technology or practice within the transportation system, such as electric or hybrid vehicles or improved pavement materials. New transit options or other travel demand management strategies might induce mode switching or reduced trips, but the overall pattern of where people live and work is generally assumed in these models to be constant in the short run. In contrast, the automobile has been influencing land-use patterns for a century, and it is the resulting geographic structure that determines the baseline need for transportation, and thus drives the use of material and energy resources used in transportation systems (Kunstler 1994). We have seen that cities with high population densities tend to have lower tailpipe emissions from transportation (Kennedy et al 2009). Recent studies have modeled how changes in urban land-use or zoning changes the geographic structure of transportation demand and then used LCA to determine the environmental benefits of such policies. For example, Mashayekh et al (2012) summarized travel demand reductions projected from several studies of compact, smart growth, and brownfield in-fill development strategies to find benefits ranging up to 75% reductions in life

  4. Adaptive Planning for Resilient Coastal Waterfronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christiaan van Veelen


    sustainable adaptive paths. The method is based on mapping all planned spatial investments in brownfield development, urban renovation, and maintenance projects of public and private infrastructure and assets and by assessing the effectiveness of prevailing policies. Using design research, new opportunities for adaptation are explored and assessed. The urban dynamics based adaptation pathways method is tested at two waterfront areas in Rotterdam (Feijenoord and New York (Red Hook. Both cases show that identifying intervention opportunities and potential transitional interventions is helpful in selecting and assessing adaptive pathways. Moreover, it helps to identify legal or financial arrangements that are needed to unlock the potential of adaptation paths. One of the key findings of the case study research is that in high density urban conditions there is limited potential to build resilience from household redevelopment or renovation, even when new complementary policies and regulative instruments that support buildinglevel resilience would be developed. District-wide flood protection is effective in terms of flood risk, but requires large-scale transformations of the waterfront zone to seize opportunities to develop integrated protection at low costs. This strategy, however, needs new governance structures and financial arrangements to redistribute costs and benefits fairly among stakeholders.