WorldWideScience

Sample records for brownfields

  1. Brownfields Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  2. Brownfield Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,...

  3. Brownfields Grants Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes all types of information regarding Brownfields grant programs that subsidize/support Brownfield cleanup. This includes EPA's Brownfields Program...

  4. ACRES - Brownfields Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance,...

  5. Brownfields: A Geographical Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Martinát, Stanislav

    Ústav geoniky AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 2-4 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * remediation * contaminated lands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/mgr.2013.21.issue-2/mgr-2013-0006/mgr-2013-0006.xml

  6. The Value of Brownfield Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Haninger; Lala Ma; Christopher Timmins

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Brownfields Program awards grants to redevelop contaminated lands known as brownfields. This paper estimates cleanup benefits by combining administrative records for a nationally representative sample of brownfields with high-resolution, high-frequency housing data. We find property value increases accompanying cleanup averaging from 5.0% to 11.5%; for a welfare interpretation that does not rely on the intertemporal stability of the hedonic price funct...

  7. SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BROWNFIELDS ASSESSMENT IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Velykienė, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes situation of brownfields in Lithuania. The brownfields analysis was made according to the main aspects influencing brownfields redevelopment process the most. This paper presents the existing legislation system relative to brownfields and economic possibilities; the cleaning methods and most popular technologies in Lithuania.

  8. The Dynamics of Brownfield Redevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Negligence of former industrial sites (“brownfields” has adversely impacted urban landscapes throughout the industrialized world. Brownfield redevelopment has recently emerged as a sustainable land use strategy and impetus for urban revitalization. This study presents a system dynamics model of the redevelopment process that illustrates how delays compound before realizing financial benefits from investment in these core urban areas. We construct a dynamic hypothesis, in which brownfield redevelopment activities are dependent upon funding and in turn bolster tax base through job creation. Drawing on previous studies, barriers to brownfield redevelopment are explored, including fear of liability, regulatory concerns, and uncertain cleanup standards and funding mechanisms. We model a case study of redevelopment in the State of Michigan (USA, which is informed by data from the Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ and U.S. Conference of Mayors brownfield surveys. Stock-flow structures represent phases of redevelopment, with diverted streams for sites in which no contamination was found (false alarms and those with excess contamination level. The model is used to examine the point at which cumulative tax revenues from redeveloped areas exceed cumulative expenditures on brownfield redevelopment under different levels of funding availability.

  9. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  10. Sustainable urban development on Brownfield sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹阳

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to critically discuss sustainable urban development on Brownfield sites in United Kingdom. It will start with description of background of Brownfield. Then, it will move on to introduce how the issue of sustainable brownfield regeneration is addressed in the UK. The overview of sustainable brownfield redevelopment in UK will be presented, followed by analyzing the example of Connaught square in this part. After that, it will take Hafen city to be the case study. It will examine the strategies about economic, social and environment sustainability; discuss how to transfer these ideas into reality. Finally, this paper will close with gives some recommendations on brownfiled redevelopment in UK.

  11. Brownfield Entry in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Saul Estrin

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the brown-field entry mode, as a special case of acquisition, in which the resources transferred by the investor dominate over those provided by the acquired firm. We see this mode as having particular relevance for entry strategies in emerging markets. The choice of entry mode is analyzed on the basis of a framework utilizing both resource-based and transaction-cost theories. The resource requirements have to be matched with resources available to the investor through a...

  12. Brownfields and Land Revitalization Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains resources provided by EPA's Brownfields and Land Revitalization program that can be used for the assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment of...

  13. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Properties, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Properties as part of the CIMC web service, although the data are generally more broadly applicable. Brownfields are...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - MDC_Brownfield

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Brownfield Areas are contiguous areas of one or more brownfield sites, some of which may not be contaminated, and which has been designated by a local government by...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - BROWNFIELDS_IDEM_IN: Brownfield Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BROWNFIELDS_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains brownfield locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Environmental Management,...

  16. 76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative...: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB Control Number: 2506-0153. Description of the need for the Information and proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is...

  17. Brownfields as places for renewable sources location?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, Josef; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr

    Brno: MU Brno, 2011 - (Klímová, V.; Zitek, V.), s. 132-140 ISBN 978-80-210-5513-1. [14th International Colloquium on Regional Sciences. Boretice (CZ), 22.06.2011-24.06.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * renewable sources * revitalization Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. National brownfield redevelopment strategy: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    Brownfields refer to contaminated land which lies unused and unproductive. The potential for rejuvenation of such lands exist, which would bring health and economic benefits to local communities, as numerous sites are located in urban areas. The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) agreed, upon request from the government of Canada. to develop a redevelopment strategy designed specifically for brownfields. It is estimated that there are some 30,000 brownfield sites in Canada, such as former railway yards, decommissioned refineries, old waterfronts and riverbanks, crumbling warehouses, abandoned gas stations, former dry cleaners and other commercial properties where toxic substances were either used or stored. The rejuvenation of such sites results in economic, social, and environmental benefits through the creation of numerous jobs, millions of dollars in additional property taxes, as well as thousands of new housing units. There are several challenges in cleaning up those sites: lack of access to capital, regulatory liability risk, civil liability risk, limited access to insurance protection, regulatory delays, stigma and risk perception, and lack or awareness among many key public and private sector groups. This document presents the national strategy developed to address those issues. Three strategic directions have been identified for action: (1) applying strategic public investments to address up front costs, (2) establishing an effective public policy regime for environmental liability and risk management, and (3) building capacity for and community awareness of brownfield redevelopment. Recommendations and the rationale were presented under each proposal.

  19. Land Use and Land Cover - BROWNFIELD AREAS IN FLORIDA - APRIL 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains Brownfield Boundaries. Brownfields are defined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) as abandoned, idled, or underused...

  20. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  1. Methods of Identification and Evaluation of Brownfield Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Kurtovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of this paper was to determine the importance and potential restoration of brownfield sites in terms of economic prosperity of a particular region or country. In addition, in a theoretical sense, this paper presents the methods used in the identification of brownfield sites such as Smart Growth Network model and Thomas GIS model, and methods for evaluation of brownfield sites or the indexing method, cost-benefit and multivariate analysis.

  2. Brownfield Redevelopment Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a great amount of brownfield in Chinese mining cities. In order to promote mining cities sustainable development, it is necessary to redevelop brownfield. There is a great deal of uncertainty in the process of brownfield redevelopment owing to the influences of pollution. Normal fuzzy numbers were used to describe the fuzziness of the expected DCF (discounted cash flow value of brownfield redevelopment projects. In view of experts’ preferences, the weight of fuzzed estimation intervals of the expected DCF value was determined by means of the lattice closeness degree to find the volatility of the expected DCF value. Combining the results with the B-S (Black-Scholes real option model, we built a fuzzy real option model which could be applied to the brownfield redevelopment projects. The empirical results showed that the valuation results of the fuzzy real option model, considering the experts’ risk preferences, were relatively objective and accurate.

  3. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land

  4. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Christopher J. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: n.m.dickinson@livjm.ac.uk; Putwain, Philip D. [Ecological Restoration Consultants (ERC), Ness Botanic Gardens, University of Liverpool, Ness, Cheshire CH64 (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land.

  5. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Brownfields Grant Jurisdictions as part of the CIMC web service. The data represent polygonal boundaries that show different...

  6. Brownfield Redevelopment Toward Sustainable Urban Land Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Kang; GUAN Him

    2007-01-01

    Brownfield redevelopment is a new urban land use strategy to pursue the ideal of sustainable development. It relieves environmental pressure and resolves the glaring contradiction between urban land idleness and urban sprawl. It addresses issues of urban land use and farmland protection in China. This paper compares brownfield with greenfield, and defines brownfield and its redevelopment. It elaborates general and special government policies for this sustainable land use strategy in the context of China. General policies contain two aspects: clarifying brownfield redevelopment's priority in Chinese urban planning and land use and setting a general quantitative redevelopment target. The extent of the government's special policies, which aim at coordinating three factors in the redevelopment process, namely governments, developers and users, are divided into five areas: statistics and categorization, assessment and remediation, financial supports and tax incentives, environmental and legal liability, and publicity and guidance. The paper concludes the major functions of different levels of Chinese government in the redevelopment process, i.e. making general strategy, formulating legislation, specifying regulations and technical standards, estimating and categorizing brownfield sites, drawing up brownfield planning, providing information and financial support, guiding developers, publicizing the strategy to the public, and checking reuse results.

  7. 77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative... (FLY) 2010 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative... available by HUD. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development...

  8. 77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative...) 2009 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI... by HUD. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development...

  9. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher J; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Putwain, Philip D

    2006-06-01

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phyto-stabilization) to these less mobile contaminants. PMID:16271426

  10. Integrating Local Green Assets into Brownfields Redevelopment: Tools and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    EnviroAtlas is a free, online public mapping tool that characterizes green infrastructure and its connection to human health and wellness. The high resolution data contained in this tool can be used to incorporate local green infrastructure into Brownfields redevelopment to benef...

  11. Brownfield to Brightfield Initiative in Oak Ridge, TN - 12346

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience characterizing, permitting, and restoring 'Brownfield' sites-government or industrial sites with restricted future use due to the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants-is being leveraged to identify opportunities for redevelopment into solar power generating facilities which, in this context, are called 'Brightfields'. Brownfield sites offer the expansive land necessary for large photovoltaic (PV) solar farms, but require an in-depth working knowledge of complicated regulatory restrictions and environmental constraints to develop them. As a part of the effort to identify opportunities for redevelopment of Brownfield sites for solar applications, a technical guide, was composed specifically for the development of solar generation on restricted use sites. The basis of the technical guide gives specific consideration to environmental requirements and installation methods breaking that into three areas for assessing: 1) levels of contamination, 2) ground penetration requirements, and 3) the requirements for aesthetics and maintenance. Brightfield projects are underway to support the technical guide and expand re-industrialization efforts for the former DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. There are exciting opportunities to turn Brownfields into Brightfield solar energy solutions for meeting the future renewable energy needs of our country. Brownfields that offer the large surface area required for solar PV farms coupled with the technical guide for the installation of solar farms on restricted use sites supports efforts to develop the solar capacities and expertise to tap this future market. The initial projects designed following the technical guide will provide verification of the installation requirements and beneficial reuse of restricted use sites. (authors)

  12. Biodiversity of urban brownfields: modelling species occurrence and persistence in dynamic habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Kattwinkel, Mira

    2009-01-01

    Urban brownfields (derelict sites) offer habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, including rare species. The continuous changes in brownfield location (due to redevelopment and abandonment) and in their habitat conditions (due to succession) generate a spatio-temporal mosaic cycle of transient habitats. Aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of brownfields for urban biodiversity conservation and to provide guidelines for urban planning. Statistical species distribution models for vasc...

  13. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  14. COMPETITIVE BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING STRATEGIES (CD 2 OF 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: www.epa.gov/ncepi/ or phone 1-800-490-...

  15. Influence of Brownfield Conversion on Evaluating Real Estate and Implemeting the Possibilites of Urban Brownfields in Lithuanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Bielinskas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of brownfield in Lithuania. The paper overviews Lithuanian and foreign experience of integrating the introduced areas into the urban framework based on social, economic, ecological and cultural contextuality. The main problem, on Lithuanian scale, is the absence of an official definition of urban brownfield. The legal framework in Lithuania does not contain any provisions to be processed. The article is aimed at identifying potential threats to the areas in respect of criteria for urban brownfields, and, according to this review, at revealing possible uses of this land. One of the most effective ways of urban sustainable development is the conversion of former military, industrial and other land accepted as the legacy of the Soviet regime. The authors have established a causal relationship resulting in the emergence of the urban areas of wilderness and developed guidance on using them. The authors have analysed and evaluated the existing real estate developers and current trends towards opportunities for private and public partnership (PPP in Lithuania. Although PPP is widespread in most of European countries, it is a rare phenomenon in Lithuania, and has no deep-rooted tradition of this kind of investment in urban infrastructure; however, evaluation is one of the most potential ways to revitalize abandoned urban territories. Based on practices of foreign countries, the authors have identified PPP as a priority.

  16. Earth Science Instruction Using Brownfields in the Virtual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, P. M.; Liddicoat, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    Geophysical methods of defining contaminant plumes from brownfields are taught in lecture and laboratory using Brownfield Action (BA) that is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation in which undergraduate students explore and solve problems in geohydrology. In the U.S., BA is recognized nationally as an innovative curriculum and simulation that has been developed by Peter Bower at Barnard College in collaboration with Columbia University's Center for New Media Teaching and Learning. Brownfields are former industrial sites that have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites when reclaimed. As part of assessing the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA contains a narrative element that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams must construct a detailed narrative from diverse forms of information, including socio-historical and a scientific dataset comprised of over 2,000,000 data points. BA forces the students to act on their perceptions of the interlocking realms of knowledge, theory and practical experience, providing an opportunity for them to gain valuable practice at tackling the complexity and ambiguity of a large-scale, interdisciplinary investigation of groundwater contamination and environmental forensics.

  17. Altered vegetative assemblage trajectories within an urban brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the growing importance of both structure (maintenance of biodiversity) and function (fostering natural cycles) of urban ecologies, we examine coarse scale (herbaceous, shrub and forest) beta guild trajectory in an urban brownfield. The distribution of the pioneer forest assemblage dominated by Betula populifolia Marsh. and Populus spp. could be correlated positively with total soil metal load (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, lead and vanadium),whereas herbaceous and shrub guilds were negatively correlated. Distinct assemblage development trajectories above and below a critical soil metal threshold are demonstrated. In addition, we postulate that the translocation of metals into the plant tissue of several dominant species may provide a positive feedback loop, maintaining relatively high concentrations of metals in the litter and soil. Therefore assembly theory, which allows for the development of alternate stable states, may provide a better model for the establishment of restoration objectives on degraded urban sites. - Highlights: → Forest distribution and total soil metal load yield strong positive correlations. → Shrub and herbaceous guild distribution and TML are negative and weaker. → Below a critical TML threshold transition between guilds exhibit a standard trajectory. → Above the critical TML threshold the shrub guild is virtually absent. → Metal cycling has the potential to lead to an alternative steady state. - High concentrationsof soil metals, impact the trajectory of vegetative assemblages in an urban brownfield leading to the speculation of an alternate stable state.

  18. US EPA Brownfields Grants/IGD: PERF_CIMC_POINTS_INT_MV

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer provides point locations for Brownfields Grants as derived from the Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) database. Locations were derived from Cleanups in My...

  19. Brownfields a možnosti využití pro cestovní ruch

    OpenAIRE

    Janíčková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of unused areas called brownfields and their alternative use for needs in tourism. The theoretical part is focused on the specification of brownfields, explanation of their origin, along with sub-categories and problems connected with their utilization. Furthermore, the theoretical part will describe the regeneration process, people and organizations who are involved in the regeneration process, the procedure of writing a business plan and applying ...

  20. Renewable energy potential on brownfield sites: A case study of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal priorities are increasingly favoring the replacement of conventional sources of energy with renewable energy. With the potential for a federal Renewable Electricity Standard (RES) legislation, many states are seeking to intensify their renewable energy generation. The demand for wind, solar, geothermal and bio-fuels-based energy is likely to be rapidly expressed on the landscape. However, local zoning and NIMBYism constraints slow down the placement of renewable energy projects. One area where land constraints may be lower is brownfields; whose development is currently constrained by diminished housing, commercial, and industrial property demand. Brownfield sites have the potential for rapid renewable energy deployment if state and national interests in this area materialize. This study investigates the application of renewable energy production on brownfield sites using Michigan as a case study. Wind and solar resource maps of Michigan were overlaid with the brownfield locations based on estimates of brownfield land capacity. The total estimated energy potential available on Michigan's brownfield sites is 4320 megawatts (MW) of plate capacity for wind and 1535for solar, equating to 43% of Michigan's residential electricity consumption (using 30% capacity factor). Estimated economic impacts include over $15 billion in investments and 17,500 in construction and long-term jobs.

  1. The Path From Passivity Toward Entrepreneurship: Public Sector Actors in Brownfield Regeneration Processes in Central Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexandrescu, F.; Martinát, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Bartke, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2014), s. 181-201. ISSN 1086-0266 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfield regeneration * institutional entrepreneurs * Tailored Improvement of Brownfield Regeneration in Europe Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2013 http://oae.sagepub.com/content/27/2/181.full.pdf+html

  2. Heavy metal contamination and burden sequestering in Cleveland area Brownfield soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a survey of heavy metal soil contamination in brownfields of Cleveland, Ohio. Brownfields are abandoned or underutilized industrial properties for which environmental concerns increase the difficulty of redevelopment. Brownfield soils often suffer from the problems of 'old contamination'?. This refers to contamination that is strongly partitioned onto (or otherwise associated with) the soil, and has 'aged' in ways that reinforced immobilization. The dominant phenomena appear to be mass migration into and sheltering by younger (overlying) sorbed mass. Sequestered mass burdens can be much more difficult to identify, quantify and remediate than conventional 'young' soil contamination. This paper presents results of soil contamination (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) from over 50 brownfield sites in the Cleveland area. Results are also presented for public areas (parks, school grounds, gardens) to help quantify the degree to which brownfield problems are shared by nearby public resources. Soils were analyzed by a 24 hr. 1N HCL screening extraction, and by a more comprehensive process developed to quantify heavy metal sequestering. Both theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented to illustrate how soil pulverizations may be used to overcome the problems of mass-transport-limited sequestering and chemical heterogeneity in soil samples. Results of surveys conducted to quantify 'clean background' and 'appropriate remediation triggers' for the heavy metals are also discussed. It is believed that one must consider the whole picture carefully before making decisions about 'voluntary action program' initiatives that tempt compromises between environmental quality and new commercial, industrial or residential use of brownfield sites. (author)

  3. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. Methodological note: data for this life-cycle assessment were obtained from project reports, construction blueprints and utility bills.

  4. Assessing Success Factors of Brownfields Regeneration: International and Inter-stakeholder Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Kunc, Josef; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav

    44E, 44E (2015), s. 91-107. ISSN 2247-8310 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * success factors * stakeholders perception Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://rtsa.ro/tras/index.php/tras/article/view/427/417

  5. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. (letter)

  6. Carbonation of stainless steel slag in the context of in situ Brownfield remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capobianco, O.; Costa, G.; Thuy, L.; Magliocco, E.; Hartog, Niels; Baciocchi, R.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the potential of in situ carbonation as a treatment to modify the properties of alkaline materials such as industrial soil in terms of leaching behaviour and mineralogy and to store the CO2 generated by specific treatments applied in the context of Brownfield

  7. Negotiation issues in forming public–private partnerships for brownfield redevelopment: Applying a game theoretical experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glumac, B.; Han, Q.; Schaefer, W.; Krabben, E. van der

    2015-01-01

    The redevelopment of a brownfield can provide a range of societal, environmental but also economic benefits for a number of entities. In the Netherlands (and elsewhere), public–private partnerships are common practice for such projects, because of two main reasons. First, limitations to public fundi

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sdeiment reconnaissance basic data for Brownfield Quadrangle, New Mexico; Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 452 water samples and 351 sediment samples from the Brownfield Quadrangle, New Mexico; Texas. Uranium values have been reported by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Report GJBX-103(78). The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  9. Is FDI Beneficial for Development in any Case: an Empirical Comparison between Greenfield and Brownfield Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Sarıalioğlu HAYALI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In literature, the “quality” of FDI rather than its “quantity” was started to be focused on in order to be beneficial for economic development. One of the indicators of FDI’s “quality” is accepted as its “mode of entry”, greenfield or brownfield investments. The paper argues that greenfield investment is more useful for development in order to have its direct positive impact through investment. The paper empirically investigates this by a cross-section data analysis. The main findings support this argument. Findings also back the argument that brownfield can be beneficial for development in the long-run in relation with human capital development.

  10. Exploring spatial patterns of urban brownfields regeneration: The case of Brno, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Greer-Wootten, B.; Klusáček, Petr; Krejčí, Tomáš; Kunc, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 9-18. ISSN 0264-2751 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * urban renewal * spatial patterns Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2014.12.007

  11. Allocating risk capital for a brownfields redevelopment project under hydrogeological and financial uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth; Kim, Taehee

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we defined risk capital as the contingency fee or insurance premium that a brownfields redeveloper needs to set aside from the sale of each house in case they need to repurchase it at a later date because the indoor air has been detrimentally affected by subsurface contamination. The likelihood that indoor air concentrations will exceed a regulatory level subject to subsurface heterogeneity and source zone location uncertainty is simulated by a physics-based hydrogeological model using Monte Carlo realizations, yielding the probability of failure. The cost of failure is the future value of the house indexed to the stochastic US National Housing index. The risk capital is essentially the probability of failure times the cost of failure with a surcharge to compensate the developer against hydrogeological and financial uncertainty, with the surcharge acting as safety loading reflecting the developers' level of risk aversion. We review five methodologies taken from the actuarial and financial literature to price the risk capital for a highly stylized brownfield redevelopment project, with each method specifically adapted to accommodate our notion of the probability of failure. The objective of this paper is to develop an actuarially consistent approach for combining the hydrogeological and financial uncertainty into a contingency fee that the brownfields developer should reserve (i.e. the risk capital) in order to hedge their risk exposure during the project. Results indicate that the price of the risk capital is much more sensitive to hydrogeological rather than financial uncertainty. We use the Capital Asset Pricing Model to estimate the risk-adjusted discount rate to depreciate all costs to present value for the brownfield redevelopment project. A key outcome of this work is that the presentation of our risk capital valuation methodology is sufficiently generalized for application to a wide variety of engineering projects. PMID:22366499

  12. Applying Agile Requirements Engineering Approach for Re-engineering & Changes in existing Brownfield Adaptive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Abdullah; Ali, M. Asim

    2014-01-01

    Requirements Engineering (RE) is a key activity in the development of software systems and is concerned with the identification of the goals of stakeholders and their elaboration into precise statements of desired services and behavior. The research describes an Agile Requirements Engineering approach for re-engineering & changes in existing Brownfield adaptive system. The approach has few modifications that can be used as a part of SCRUM development process for re-engineering & changes. The ...

  13. Destiny of Urban Brownfields: Spatial Patterns and Perceived Consequences of Post-Socialistic Deindustrialization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, J.; Martinát, Stanislav; Tonev, P.; Frantál, Bohumil

    41E, February (2014), s. 109-128. ISSN 1842-2845 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * perception * residents * city of Brno * city of Ostrava Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2014 http://rtsa.ro/en/files/RTSA%2041%20E%20-7KUNC,%20MARTINAT,%20TONEV,%20FRANTAL.pdf

  14. A multi-stage sampling strategy for the delineation of soil pollution in a contaminated brownfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-stage sampling strategy, based on sequential Gaussian simulation, was presented to optimize the step-wise selection of a small numbers of additional samples to delineate soil pollution. This strategy was applied to a Belgian brownfield of 5.2 ha polluted with lead (Pb). Starting from an initial number of 240 samples in stage 1, additional samples were added, 25 per stage, and the reduction of the uncertainty in the Pb delineation was monitored. Twenty stages were used. Already in stage 6 a local optimum was found based on the median conditional coefficient of variation. An independent validation confirmed that this index was to be preferred over the median conditional variance. So for the brownfield considered our procedure indicated that 365 selected samples would have been sufficient, representing a gain of 70.7% in sampling effort compared to current practice which resulted in a sampling effort of 1245 samples. - A multi-stage sampling strategy based on geostatistics provides an efficient procedure to delineate a pollution in a contaminated brownfield

  15. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  16. A geochemical study of toxic metal translocation in an urban brownfield wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhizosphere soil and dominant plant samples were collected at a brownfield site in New Jersey, USA, during summer 2005 to evaluate plant metal uptake from the contaminated soils. Metal concentrations varied from 4.25 to 978 μg g−1 for As, 9.68–209 μg g−1 for Cr, 23.9–1870 μg g−1 for Cu, and 24.8–6502 μg g−1 for Zn. A wide range of metal uptake efficiencies in the roots, stems and leaves was found in this study. Data showed that (1) Betula populifolia has high Zn, Cu and As accumulations in the root, and high concentrations of Cu and Zn in the stem and the leaf; (2) Rhus copallinum has high accumulation of Zn and Cr in the leaf and Cu in the stem; (3) Polygonum cuspidatum has high accumulations of Cu and As in the root; and (4) Artemisia vulgaris shows high Cu accumulation in the leaf and the stem. - Highlights: ► Rhizosphere soil and dominant plant samples were studied at a brownfield. ► Plant roots showed exceptional capacity of heavy metal accumulation. ► Metal uptake efficiency decrease with the increases of pH and organic matter. ► Variations in metal uptake efficiency in the root, stem and leave were found. - Metal uptake by brownfield wetland plants in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area.

  17. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  18. Teoreticko-metodologická východiska anticipace rizik brownfield managementu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trojan, Jakub; Krejčí, Tomáš; Taraba, P.

    Uherské Hradiště: Univerzita Tomáše Bati ve Zlíně, 2015, s. 327-332. ISBN 978-80-7454-573-3. [Krizové řízení a řešení krizových situací 2015. Uherské Hradiště (CZ), 10.09.2015-11.09.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : risk analysis * brownfields * management Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.krizoverizeni-uh.cz/

  19. Location Matters! Exploring Brownfields regeneration in a Spatial Context (Case Study of the South Moravian Region, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Kunc, Josef; Nováková, Eva; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Osman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 5-19. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * success factors * spatial analysis Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2013 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2013_02.pdf

  20. Ptačí společenstva středomoravských brownfieldů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, K.; Koleček, Jaroslav

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2015 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 236 ISBN 978-80-87189-18-4. [Zoologické dny. 12.02.2015-13.02.2015, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * brownfields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Greening a Steel Mill Slag Brownfield with Biosolids and Sediments: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Dominic A; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Oladeji, Olawale O; Kumar, Kuldip; Granato, Thomas C; Cox, Albert; Abedin, Zainul

    2016-01-01

    The former US Steel Corporation's South Works site in Chicago, IL, is a 230-ha bare brownfield consisting of steel mill slag fill materials that will need to be reclaimed to support and sustain vegetation. We conducted a case study to evaluate the suitability of biosolids and dredged sediments for capping the steel mill slag to establish good quality turfgrass vegetation. Eight study plots were established on a 0.4-ha parcel that received biosolids and dredged sediment blends of 0, 25, 50, or 100% biosolids (v/v). Turfgrass was successfully established and was thicker and greener in biosolids-amended sediments than in unamended sediments. Concentrations of N, P, K, and micronutrients in turfgrass tissues increased with increasing biosolids. Soil organic carbon, N, P, and micronutrients increased with increasing biosolids. Cadmium, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in biosolids-amended sediments also increased with increasing biosolids but were far below phytotoxicity limits for turfgrass. Lead and Cr concentrations in biosolids-amended plots were comparable to concentrations in unamended sediments. Groundwater monitoring lysimeters and wells below the study site and near Lake Michigan were not affected by nutrients leaching from the amendments. Overall, the results from this case study demonstrated that blends of biosolids and dredged sediments could be successfully used for capping steel mill slag brownfield sites to establish good quality turfgrass vegetation. PMID:26828160

  2. Bending Priorities: a Study in Policy Framing. State of Michigan’s Brownfield Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HULA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the political process bywhich the state of Michigan successfully crafted andimplemented such a brownfield initiative. Althoughthe primary focus here is on the experience of asingle state, the lessons to be learned from thiscase have national and international implicationsbecause Michigan is a leader in brownfieldprograms. The paper begins with a review of thegeneral policy context in which state brownfieldpolicy is made. Particular attention is given tothe widespread dissatisfaction of a variety ofstakeholders with long dominant federal programsin the area of environmental cleanups. The secondsection outlines a number of fundamental legislativeand administrative changes that have beenimplemented in Michigan environmental policyover the past decade. Section three reviews thebroad literature on issue framing and considershow it might help identify the specific mechanismsby which the innovative brownfield program wasadopted. The final section provides an informal testof elements of the issue-framing model by exploringin some detail the convergence of public opinionwith key elements of the innovative policy, andwhether there was any significant shift in publicopinion over time.

  3. Canopy carbon net assimilation of an urban, naturally assembled brownfield forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K. V.; Wadhwa, S.; Tripathee, R.; Gallagher, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we have been investigating an urban brownfield at Liberty State Park that has been abandoned approximately for 40 years. Natural colonization has taken place that allowed a pioneer forest to grow with primarily Betula populifera and Populus spec. Despite soil metal contamination this urban forest exhibits moderate annual productivity and serves as a carbon sink. Diameters at breast height (DBH, 1.35 m above ground) of all trees in a study plot were measured. Aboveground biomass equations were determined for both species through destructive sampling. Aboveground net primary production was about 770 gC m-2 a-1 in 2009. Canopy net assimilation (AnC) was modeled with the canopy conductance constrained assimilation (4CA) model using measured sapflux derived conductance and photosynthetic parameters measured with a LICOR 6400. Annual AnC in 2009 was approximately 1500 gC m-2 a-1 thus with a partitioning of biomass and respiration in the same range of most natural forest with less anthropogenic induced stress. Urban brownfields thus can serve as C sinks and provide phytostabilization of contaminants.

  4. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  5. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  6. Brownfield Action III - Modular use of hydrogeology instruction in the virtual classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.

    2009-04-01

    Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative

  7. Renewable energy sources as an alternative to the new usage of brownfields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, Josef; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Tonev, P.

    Brno: MU Brno, 2012 - (Svobodová, H.), s. 82-88 ISBN 978-80-210-5799-9. [19th International Conference on Geography and Geoinformatics: Challenge for Practise and Education. Brno (CZ), 08.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * renewable energy sources * alternative usage * world * the Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=9&SID=U2kgIHPCYiiFNdvKq7l&page=1&doc=6

  8. Factors affecting brownfield regeneration in post-socialist space: The case of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osman, Robert; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, November 2015 (2015), s. 309-316. ISSN 0264-8377 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * success factors * land use management Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2014 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0264837715001702/1-s2.0-S0264837715001702-main.pdf?_tid=0d849052-9f28-11e5-8c6b-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1449743188_a27012ae5c616955d77af87b79b63135

  9. Faktory revitalizace brownfieldů v České Republice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osman, Robert; Frantál, Bohumil; Kunc, Josef; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav

    Brno: MU Brno, 2014 - (Klímová, V.; Žítek, V.), s. 605-612 ISBN 978-80-210-6840-7. [XVII. mezinárodní kolokvium o regionálních vědách. Hustopeče (CZ), 18.06.2014-20.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : space management * factors * revitali zation * brownfield Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://is.muni.cz/do/econ/soubory/katedry/kres/4884317/48596005/078_2014.pdf

  10. 国外棕地研究进展%The Research Progress of Brownfield in Foreign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖龙; 侯景新; 刘晓霞; 李开宇; 肖叶甜

    2015-01-01

    “棕地”一词最早出现在英国的规划文献中,20世纪90年代初开始成为美国官方用语。近年,棕地问题已成为了一个十分严肃的城市发展问题,交织了经济、社会、发展与环境保护的矛盾。为了推动棕地领域内的研究,在整理与分析国外相关文献资料的基础上,针对国外在棕地的定义、基本特征、分类、治理和开发价值评估、环境风险与责任、政策与法律法规、利益相关者及其关系以及棕地的治理与开发对策等方面的研究成果进行了述评。%The term “brownfield” first appeared in the British planning literature , and in the early 1990s, it became the official language of the United States .In recently , the problem of brownfield had become a very serious urban development issues , and it has interwoven the contradictions of economic , social development and environ-mental protection .Based on the collection and analysis of foreign literature , the paper reviews for the definition and characteristics, classification, valuation of governance and development , environmental risks and responsibilities , policies and laws and regulations , stakeholders and their relationships , and the governance and development coun-termeasures of brownfield research in foreign .

  11. 国外棕地研究进展%The Research Progress of Brownfield in Foreign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖龙; 侯景新; 刘晓霞; 李开宇; 肖叶甜

    2015-01-01

    The term “brownfield” first appeared in the British planning literature , and in the early 1990s, it became the official language of the United States .In recently , the problem of brownfield had become a very serious urban development issues , and it has interwoven the contradictions of economic , social development and environ-mental protection .Based on the collection and analysis of foreign literature , the paper reviews for the definition and characteristics, classification, valuation of governance and development , environmental risks and responsibilities , policies and laws and regulations , stakeholders and their relationships , and the governance and development coun-termeasures of brownfield research in foreign .%“棕地”一词最早出现在英国的规划文献中,20世纪90年代初开始成为美国官方用语。近年,棕地问题已成为了一个十分严肃的城市发展问题,交织了经济、社会、发展与环境保护的矛盾。为了推动棕地领域内的研究,在整理与分析国外相关文献资料的基础上,针对国外在棕地的定义、基本特征、分类、治理和开发价值评估、环境风险与责任、政策与法律法规、利益相关者及其关系以及棕地的治理与开发对策等方面的研究成果进行了述评。

  12. The Path From Passivity Toward Entrepreneurship: Public Sector Actors in Brownfield Regeneration Processes in Central Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrescu, F.; Martinat, S.; Klusa ek, P.; Bartke, S.

    2014-01-01

    Europeanization research dealing with the environmental transition in Eastern Europe has focused on the roles of state actors in adopting European regulations. Less well understood are the framings and roles of public administration actors when European Union regulations do not prescribe specific institutional changes. This article offers a micro perspective on the framings and roles of such actors in several cases of brownfield regeneration. Actors can play a proactive role, thereby fosterin...

  13. Approaches to inform redevelopment of brownfield sites: an example from the Leeds area of the West Yorkshire coalfield, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, H; Hough, E.; Morgan, D J R; Hughes, L.; Lawrence, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Government-led regeneration schemes and policies encouraging the use of brownfield land present a challenge, particularly in coalfield areas. Coalfields have typically experienced multiple phases of development and can be susceptible to a suite of problematic ground conditions that may be rooted in the near-surface geology or result from anthropogenic activity. Such problems, related to the nature of void backfill, undermined and unstable ground and the presence of contaminated land in the ne...

  14. Brownfield Dilemmas in the Transformation of Post-Communist Cities. A Case Study of Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, Barbora; Jakubínský, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 53-64. ISSN 1843-6587 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cultural continuity * Demolition * Environmental change perception * Frame analysis * Remediation * Urban brownfields * Urban planning Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  16. Insights into a 20-ha multi-contaminated brownfield megasite: An environmental forensics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, J R; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Esquinas, N; Fernández-Braña, A; Afif, E

    2016-09-01

    Here we addressed the contamination of soils in an abandoned brownfield located in an industrial area. Detailed soil and waste characterisation guided by historical information about the site revealed pyrite ashes (a residue derived from the roasting of pyrite ores) as the main environmental risk. In fact, the disposal of pyrite ashes and the mixing of these ashes with soils have affected a large area of the site, thereby causing heavy metal(loid) pollution (As and Pb levels reaching several thousands of ppm). A full characterisation of the pyrite ashes was thus performed. In this regard, we determined the bioavailable metal species present and their implications, grain-size distribution, mineralogy, and Pb isotopic signature in order to obtain an accurate conceptual model of the site. We also detected significant concentrations of pyrogenic benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs, and studied the relation of these compounds with the pyrite ashes. In addition, we examined other waste and spills of minor importance within the study site. The information gathered offered an insight into pollution sources, unravelled evidence from the industrial processes that took place decades ago, and identified the co-occurrence of contaminants by means of multivariate statistics. The environmental forensics study carried out provided greater information than conventional analyses for risk assessment purposes and for the selection of clean-up strategies adapted to future land use. PMID:26475240

  17. FROM BROWNFIELD TO GREENFIELD. MAJOR ECOLOGICAL IMBALANCES IN BAIA MARE. SĂSAR MINE RECLAMATION AND RECONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA CONDOR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Brownfield to Greenfield. Major Ecological Imbalances in Baia Mare. Săsar Mine Reclamation and Reconversion. This article is an extract of a more exhaustive study of the Săsar mine based on a multi-level approach of the environmental degradation caused by the long-lasting activities of the mining industry in the city of Baia Mare and the reconversion methods of the underutilized and contaminated properties into green spaces. The presence of brownfields in this city is a matter of great concern to the administrative bodies due to insufficient and ineffective measures for environmental protection, precarious expertise and lack of initiative to regenerate former mining sites. Furthermore, the industrial pillars refuse to get involved and take responsibility for the problems many of them have caused despite state efforts to ease liability fears. But viable projects and solid action are indispensable for overcoming this hurdle. As such, this work is an attempt to cover these exact issues as follows: after setting on the legal framework and the fundamental regulatory considerations, the vulnerability of the enviroment will be assesed in order to determine the level of pollution in the area surrounding the Săsar mine. Then the premises for a cultural landscape reconversion will be established through direct field observations and interpretations, the examination of scholarly studies and the use of GIS tools and social data. This project will try to offer a coherent transformational model of a brownfield area into a useful space for the community and the environment in compliance with the economic purposes.

  18. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  19. Integration of the subsurface and the surface sectors for a more holistic approach for sustainable redevelopment of urban brownfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Jenny; Volchko, Yevheniya; Hooimeijer, Fransje; Maring, Linda; Kain, Jaan-Henrik; Bardos, Paul; Broekx, Steven; Beames, Alistair; Rosén, Lars

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a holistic approach to sustainable urban brownfield redevelopment where specific focus is put on the integration of a multitude of subsurface qualities in the early phases of the urban redevelopment process, i.e. in the initiative and plan phases. Achieving sustainability in brownfield redevelopment projects may be constrained by a failure of engagement between two key expert constituencies: urban planners/designers and subsurface engineers, leading to missed opportunities and unintended outcomes in the plan realisation phase. A more integrated approach delivers greater benefits. Three case studies in the Netherlands, Belgium and Sweden were used to test different sustainability assessment instruments in terms of the possibility for knowledge exchange between the subsurface and the surface sectors and in terms of cooperative learning among experts and stakeholders. Based on the lessons learned from the case studies, a generic decision process framework is suggested that supports holistic decision making. The suggested framework focuses on stakeholder involvement, communication, knowledge exchange and learning and provides an inventory of instruments that can support these processes. PMID:26927965

  20. The South Wilmington Area remedial cost estimating methodology (RCEM) -- A planning tool and reality check for brownfield development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Wilmington Area (SWA), which is comprised of 200 acres of multi-use urban lowlands adjacent to the Christina River, is a brownfields area that has been targeted for redevelopment/restoration as part of a major waterfront revitalization project for the City of Wilmington, Delaware. The vision for this riverfront development, which is being promoted by a state-funded development corporation, includes plans for a new harbor, convention and entertainment facilities, upscale residences, an urban wildlife refuge, and the restoration of the Christina River. However, the environmental quality of the SWA has been seriously impacted by an assortment of historic and current heavy industrial land-uses since the late 1800's, and extensive environmental cleanup of this area will be required as part of any redevelopment plan. Given that the environmental cleanup cost will be a major factor in determining the overall economic feasibility of brownfield development in the SWA, a reliable means of estimating potential preliminary remedial costs, without the expense of costly investigative and engineering studies, was needed to assist with this redevelopment initiative. The primary chemicals-of-concern (COCs) area-wide are lead and petroleum compounds, however, there are hot-spot occurrences of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, and other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury

  1. Brownfield site investigation: a new technology for the detection of large objects based on passive seismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Aspray, T. J.; Grojean, Q.; Steirou, E.

    2013-12-01

    In assessing brownfield sites for redevelopment, intrusive investigations are carried out to assess contamination, geology and hydrogeology. Such investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment, which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they provide information for discrete sample ';windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), and have been applied to brownfield sites. Their ability in detecting pollution e.g. buried canisters, is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. This study is focused on the use, for the first time, of short period seismometers as an alternative, non-intrusive, passive seismic method to detect the presence of objects buried under the ground surface even when on-site conditions are not favourable. We used five low detection threshold seismometers with a flat response within the frequency range 1 - 80 Hz. We conducted experiments both in the lab and in the field. Three series of lab experiments were conducted in sand, under controlled conditions, using ambient noise as the only source of generating seismic waves. Results revealed that there is a distinct difference in the amplitude of the power density spectra of the recorded signals in cases where objects e.g. concrete block, polystyrene block, wood, were present. To validate these results in field scale, we conducted a series of experiments that took place in Heriot-Watt University campus on a field for which we had information for the subsurface from an electromagnetic survey. We used the same monitoring equipment to try and detect the presence of a 6m long PVC pipe buried 0.5m below the ground surface. Results were consistent with those obtained from lab experiments. This supports our initial hypothesis on the

  2. Percepce a lokalizace urbánních brownfields: podobnosti a rozdíly na příkladu Brna a Ostravy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, Josef; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2011), s. 13-17. ISSN 1212-0855 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA301670901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : brownfields * perception * localization Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.uur.cz/images/5-publikacni-cinnost-a-knihovna/casopis/2011/2011-01/03_percepce.pdf

  3. Bio-CCS: co-firing of established greenfield and novel, brownfield biomass resources under air, oxygen-enriched air and oxy-fuel conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, S; Daood, SS; Nimmo, W.; Lord, R; Pourkashanian, M.

    2013-01-01

    As demand for electricity and atmospheric CO concentrations rise technologies that reduce the environmental impact of generating electricity are sought. Within the many options a combination of co-firing of biomass and carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS) could present a negative-emission process. This work investigates co-firing of a novel brownfield and two conventional greenfield biomass reserves with coal in oxygen-enriched conditions which may enhance the efficiency of post-combustion ca...

  4. Comparison of risk-based decision-support systems for brownfield site rehabilitation: DESYRE and SADA applied to a Romanian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stezar, I C; Pizzol, L; Critto, A; Ozunu, A; Marcomini, A

    2013-12-15

    Brownfield rehabilitation is an essential step for sustainable land-use planning and management in the European Union. In brownfield regeneration processes, the legacy contamination plays a significant role, firstly because of the persistent contaminants in soil or groundwater which extends the existing hazards and risks well into the future; and secondly, problems from historical contamination are often more difficult to manage than contamination caused by new activities. Due to the complexity associated with the management of brownfield site rehabilitation, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed to support problem holders and stakeholders in the decision-making process encompassing all phases of the rehabilitation. This paper presents a comparative study between two DSSs, namely SADA (Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance) and DESYRE (Decision Support System for the Requalification of Contaminated Sites), with the main objective of showing the benefits of using DSSs to introduce and process data and then to disseminate results to different stakeholders involved in the decision-making process. For this purpose, a former car manufacturing plant located in the Brasov area, Central Romania, contaminated chiefly by heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons, has been selected as a case study to apply the two examined DSSs. Major results presented here concern the analysis of the functionalities of the two DSSs in order to identify similarities, differences and complementarities and, thus, to provide an indication of the most suitable integration options. PMID:24211567

  5. Investigating Heavy Metal Pollution in Mining Brownfield and Its Policy Implications: A Case Study of the Bayan Obo Rare Earth Mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China and associated demand for land resources necessitates remediation, redevelopment, and reclamation of contaminated soil. Before these measures are taken, a basic investigation and inventory of heavy metal (HM) pollution levels in contaminated soil is necessary for establishing and implementing the redevelopment plan. In the present study, to identify the policy implications of inventorying and mapping HM pollution of soil in brownfields throughout China, the Bayan Obo giant rare earth element (REE)-Nb-Fe ore deposit of Baotou in Inner Mongolia, China, which is the largest REE mineral deposit in the world, was taken as a case study. Soil samples from 24 sites in Bayan Obo mining area (MA) and 76 sites in mine tailing area (TA) were collected for determining contents of soil HMs (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in both MA and TA were all higher than their corresponding background values for Inner Mongolia but lower than the Class II criteria of the National Soil Quality Standards of China (GB 15618—1995). Enrichment factor (EF) analysis of the soil samples indicated that the soil in the brownfield sites was highly enriched with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn compared to the corresponding background values. In MA, the EF for Cd was the highest among the studied elements, while in TA, the EF for Cr (3.45) was the highest, closely followed by the EF for Cd (3.34). The potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated a moderate potential ecological risk from the studied HMs in MA and a low potential ecological risk in TA, and the results of RI also suggested that the soil was most heavily polluted by Cd. According to the spatial distribution maps of HM, contamination hot-spots were primarily located near mining-related high-pollution plants. Based on the results, policy recommendations are proposed related to brownfield management in urban planning.

  6. Možnosti samosprávy a soukromých subjektů při revitalizaci brownfields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáček, Petr; Krejčí, Tomáš; Kolejka, Jaromír; Kunc, J.

    Znojmo : Soukromá vysoká škola ekonomická Znojmo, 2009, s. 500-506. ISBN 978-80-87314-04-3. [Nové trendy - nové nápady 2009 /4./ Mezinárodní vědecká konference. Znojmo (CZ), 19.11.2009-20.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : brownfields * revitalisation * public administration Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  7. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: pildiko@andromeda.rutgers.edu; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  8. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  9. Urban Brownfields in Estonia: Scope, Consequences and Redevelopment Barriers as Perceived by Local Governments/ Urbánní brownfieldy v Estonsku: rozsah, dopady a revitalizační bariéry z pohledu městských samospráv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintěra Jiří

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Povědomí o problematice brownfields je v Estonsku slabé, dodnes pro ně neexistuje žádný konkrétní oficiální termín. Cílem této práce je prozkoumat zájem městských samospráv o regeneraci brownfields a analyzovat rozsah, dopady a bariéry rozvoje urbánních brownfields v Estonsku ve vnímání a hodnocení místních samospráv. Vnímaná důležitost negativních dopadů brownfields je spíše než množstvím a rozlohou brownfields ve městech ovlivněna přítomností dalších negativních socioekonomických jevů jako lokální nezaměstnanost či úbytek populace. Podle samospráv obcí představují kromě ekonomických faktorů hlavní překážky regenerace městských brownfields v Estonsku jednak nedostatek znalostí možných nástrojů k podpoře regenerace brownfields ze strany statní správy a samosprávy a také široce rozšířený názor, že regenerace brownfields má být záležitostí soukromého sektoru.

  10. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the groundwater system behavior to support Brownfield regeneration of Hunedoara (Romania) former steel production site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogu, R.; Gaitanaru, D.; Ciugulea, O.; Boukhemacha, M. A.; Bica, I.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Western part of Romania, the study area is the Hunedoara former steel industry site. The current contamination status of the subsurface shows a real threat due to the contribution of more than 100 years of steel production, ironworks operations, coke products generation, and recovery of recycling materials. Analyses performed in 2007 indicated high contaminations with heavy metals like copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, and chromium. As the contamination of the soil and groundwater severe, brownfield regeneration of this site is essential for a sustainable land management. Intelligent remediation techniques with regard to phytoremediation and soil washing with recycled solutions could be applied. However, these techniques could be correctly chosen and applied if a reliable image of the hydrological, geological, hydrogeological, pedological settings exits and after a deep understanding of the contamination mechanisms. As consequence the development of a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model for this area is compulsory. Hunedoara County has a complex geological structure, made by crystalline-Mesozoic units belonging to Southern Carpathians and by sedimentary-volcanic units of Western Carpathians. The site area is shaped by the presence of alluvial deposits from the Superior Holocene. From the lithologic point of view, covered by a thick layer of clay a sandy formation is located at depths bellow 10 m. The two strata are covering an extended carbonate media. The main aquifer is represented by a groundwater body located under the clay layer. The groundwater table of the superficial aquifer is located at about 10 m depth. The one layer groundwater flow model simulating aquifer behavior covers about 1,2 km2. Its conceptual model relies on a 3D geological model made by using 7 accurate geological cross-sections of the studied domain. Detailed geological data was provided by direct-push core sampling correlated with the penetration time and with

  11. Transformation of an Industrial Brownfield into an Ecological Buffer for Michigan’s Only Ramsar Wetland of International Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Norwood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge spans 77 km along the Detroit River and western Lake Erie, and is the only unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System that is international. A key unit of the refuge is the 166-ha Humbug Marsh that represents the last kilometer of natural shoreline on the U.S. mainland of the river and Michigan’s only “Wetland of International Importance” designated under the 1971 International Ramsar Convention. Adjacent to Humbug Marsh is an 18-ha former industrial manufacturing site (now called the Refuge Gateway that is being remediated and restored as an ecological buffer for Humbug Marsh and the future home of the refuge’s visitor center. Restoration and redevelopment activities have included: cleanup and capping of contaminated lands; daylighting a creek (i.e., deliberately exposing the flow of a creek that was historically placed underground in a culvert and constructing a retention pond and emergent wetland to treat storm water prior to discharge to the Detroit River; restoring coastal wetland, riparian buffer, and upland habitats; and constructing two roads, hiking/biking trails, and a kayak/canoe landing to offer wildlife-compatible public uses that allow visitors to experience this internationally-recognized natural resource. This project has been described as transformational for the region by restoring an industrial brownfield into high quality wildlife habitat that expands the ecological buffer of a Ramsar site. Specific restoration targets for the site include: achieving a net gain of 6.5 ha of wetlands in a river that has lost 97% of its coastal wetlands to development; restoring 10.1 ha of upland buffer habitat; treating invasive Phragmites along 4 km of shoreline; and treatment of invasive plant species in 20.2 ha of upland habitats in Humbug Marsh. Further, the Refuge Gateway is being restored as a model of environmental sustainability for nearly seven million

  12. No perfect tools: trade-offs of sustainability principles and user requirements in designing support tools for land-use decisions between greenfields and brownfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Schwarze, Reimund

    2015-04-15

    The EU Soil Thematic Strategy calls for the application of sustainability concepts and methods as part of an integrated policy to prevent soil degradation and to increase the re-use of brownfields. Although certain general principles have been proposed for the evaluation of sustainable development, the practical application of sustainability assessment tools (SATs) is contingent on the actual requirements of tool users, e.g. planners or investors, to pick up such instruments in actual decision making. We examine the normative sustainability principles that need to be taken into account in order to make sound land-use decisions between new development on greenfield sites and the regeneration of brownfields - and relate these principles to empirically observed user requirements and the properties of available SATs. In this way we provide an overview of approaches to sustainability assessment. Three stylized approaches, represented in each case by a typical tool selected from the literature, are presented and contrasted with (1) the norm-oriented Bellagio sustainability principles and (2) the requirements of three different stakeholder groups: decision makers, scientists/experts and representatives of the general public. The paper disentangles some of the inevitable trade-offs involved in seeking to implement sustainable land-use planning, i.e. between norm orientation and holism, broad participation and effective communication. It concludes with the controversial assessment that there are no perfect tools and that to be meaningful the user requirements of decision makers must take precedence over those of other interest groups in the design of SATs. PMID:25645951

  13. Stakeholder-Based Risk Research of Brownfield Redevelopment Projects%基于利益相关者的棕地再开发项目风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏; 桂琪琪; 朱煜明

    2011-01-01

    运用利益相关者理论对棕地再开发项目的利益相关者进行界定和分类,对主要社会利益相关者在项目中面临的主要风险进行分析,并提出相应的管理措施,形成一个基于利益相关者合作模式的棕地再开发项目风险管理机制.%This paper defines and classifies the stakeholders of brownfield redevelopment projects with stakeholder theory, analyses the main social stakeholders' risks in detail and proposes corresponding management measures. It forms a stakeholder-based cooperation model of brownfield redevelopment projects risk management mechanism.

  14. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data release for the New Mexico portions of the Hobbs and Brownfield NTMS quadrangles, New Mexico/Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U concentrations in waters approximate a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.73 parts per billion (ppB) for the combined water samples from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U concentration found in a water sample is 139.7 ppb. About 93% of these samples were collected from 1008 wells. Of the remainder, 1 sample was collected from a spring and 75 samples were collected from combined surface water sources of artificial and natural ponds. The mean U content of the samples from surface water sources (7.63 ppB) is higher than that of the samples from wells (4.50 ppB). The water samples having the highest U content are from wells and ponds in the western, and especially the northwestern, portion of the Brownfield quadrangle. Most waters containing less than 20 ppB U were collected from areas in which the Dockum group underlies a thin veneer of surficial deposits, near the edge of the caprock, or from saline ponds. The U concentrations in sediments approximate a normal distribution with a mean of 2.18 ppM for the 914 sediment samples collected from the western halves of both quadrangles. The highest U value found in a sediment sample is 19.3 ppM. Sediments were collected from 154 dry streams, 522 dry natural ponds, 166 dry artificial ponds, and a total of 72 wet natural ponds, wet artificial ponds, and springs. The mean U content for sediments derived from the wet sources (2.77 ppM) is noticeably higher than that from dry sources (2.11 ppM).The highest U contents within the report area generally are associated with sediments collected from locations in which the Dockum group underlies a thin cover of surficial deposits. A cluster of seven sediments containing more than 3.0 ppM U is centered at 330 34'N, 1030 53'W, where a U occurrence is reported at the Hoffacker test hole in the middle Dockum group

  15. 棕地再开发中利益主体决策行为研究%Research on the Decision-making Behavior of Stakeholders in the Brownfield Redevelopment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新海; 李培培; 王玥

    2013-01-01

    Brownfield redevelopment process involves many stakeholders which involves different decision-making behaviors and even the situation of“prisoner's dilemma”.Then,based on game theory,we select the government and developers as the main object of study.Decision-making environment is built with seven key factors and two levels which are selected by literature and policy survey.We conduct empirical analysis with conjoint analysis and questionnaire survey.As a result we conclude four factors which play an important role for the government and developers to reach a Nash Equilibrium in the redevelopment of brownfield:the division of polluting responsibility,support from the government,value-added benefits of the project,achievements and brand value of the utility.After regression analysis of the results we sum up a series of theoretical outcome.Finally,brownfield redevelopment policy recommendations are put up correspondingly.%  棕地再开发过程涉及众多的利益主体,各主体之间利益诉求的差异将导致出现不同的决策行为,甚至是“囚徒困境”。本文选取政府和开发商作为主要研究对象,以博弈论为基础,首先通过文献分析与政策分析构建可能影响政府与开发商决策的7个关键影响因素及2个水平的决策环境,然后运用联合分析和问卷调查的方法进行决策行为的实证分析。研究得到对政府和开发商达成棕地再开发合作的纳什均衡起重要作用的四个影响因素是政府支持、政绩和品牌价值效用、污染治理责任的划分、项目的增值收益。最后,根据模型结果为我国棕地再开发提出相应的政策建议。

  16. Brownfields a rozvoj cestovního ruchu - návštěvnické preference na příkladu města Brna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Tomáš; Martinát, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Tocháčková, K.

    Brno: MU Brno, 2014 - (Klímová, V.; Žítek, V.), s. 857-865 ISBN 978-80-210-6840-7. [XVII. mezinárodní kolokvium o regionálních vědách. Hustopeče (CZ), 18.06.2014-20.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * tourism * regeneration * Brno * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://is.muni.cz/do/econ/soubory/katedry/kres/4884317/48596005/111_2014.pdf

  17. US EPA Region 4 Brownfields

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places...

  18. The Analysis of City Brownfield Reuse Conflict Based on Game Theory%基于博弈论的褐色土地再利用冲突解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈红; 谢红彬

    2014-01-01

    In the process of brownfield reuse, based on the ratio-nal strategy selection of these four major stakeholders, polluting enterprises, local governments, developers and community residents, using the classic model of game theory to analysis the conflict of them, dissect the real reason of conflict of these stakeholders and put forward counter measures. They are establish brown land appraisal recognition uniform standard, make pollution responsibility identification laws and regulations, forming brown land pollution information management mechanism, support brown land pollution treatment technology innovation and create brown land pollution management incentive mechanism.%以褐色土地再利用过程中污染企业、地方政府、开发商和社区居民四类主要利益相关者的“理性”策略选择为依据,运用博弈论经典模型对褐色土地再利用冲突进行解析,剖析各利益相关者之间冲突形成的现实原因,提出解决冲突的对策措施。即建立褐色土地鉴定识别统一标准、制定污染治理责任认定法律法规、形成褐色土地污染信息管理机制、支持褐色土地污染治理技术创新以及创建褐色土地污染治理激励机制。

  19. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  20. A Brownfields strategy for the Toronto Port Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbotson, B.G. [Angus Environmental Ltd., Don Mills, Ontario (Canada); Benson, B.A. [Waterfront Regeneration Trust, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The Port Area of Toronto consists of several hundred acres, much of it created by filling near-shore sections of the Inner Harbour. The quality of the fill materials and the industrial activities that have taken place in the Port Area have resulted in soil and/or ground water quality conditions at many locations that do not meet current regulatory criteria and guidelines. As the administrator of properties representing more than 400 acres in the Port Area, the City of Toronto Economic Development Corporation (TEDCO) has a leadership role in the redevelopment of the Port Area. To date, a few TEDCO sites have always been restored and redeveloped on an individual basis, with little attention paid to ground water issues. To move forward on other redevelopment initiatives and to attract capital, it is necessary to increase the certainty with respect to regulatory requirements, the distribution of liabilities, and those parts of decision-making processes that consider soil and ground water issues. To address these needs, TEDCO has designed an overall soil and ground water management strategy that can be applied to its properties in the Port Area. The resulting strategy consists of four interrelated parts: an area-wide initiative to monitor ground water characteristics and assess ecological conditions; a collection of three protocols for managing individual sites; an information management system; and direction on the administration of the strategy. Together, the four parts provide a comprehensive and pragmatic approach to managing soil and ground water on TEDCO properties. The use of a multi-party agreement to formalize the strategy and specify roles and responsibilities of TEDCO, the municipality, and the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy is recommended.

  1. Challenge of Replacing Obsolete Equipment and Systems on Brownfield Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is responsible for the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. One of their top priorities is the retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) at Sellafield site which is one of the most complex and compact nuclear sites in the world. The FGMSP plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. One of the most challenging modifications undertaken in the facility has been the Control and Surveillance Project which covered replacement of the existing Environmental Monitoring System, this presented the complex challenge of replacing an existing system whilst maintaining full functionality on a live radiological safety system with a constant radiological hazard. The Control and Surveillance Project involved the design, procurement, installation, changeover and commissioning of a new Radiological Surveillance System (alpha, beta and gamma monitoring) along with Building Evacuation Systems within the FGMSP complex to replace the existing obsolete system. This Project was a key enabler to future FGMSP retrievals and decommissioning activities. The project objective was to create and maintain a safe radiological working environment for over 450 personnel working in the plant up to 2020. The Legacy Ponds at Sellafield represent one of the biggest challenges in the civil nuclear clean up portfolio in the UK. Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP), and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities. In June 2002 Sellafield Ltd contracted with the ACKtiv Nuclear Joint Venture to progress the risk mitigation, asset restoration and the early enabling works associated with preparation for clean up. Since then significant progress has been made in preparing the facility, and it's support systems, for the clean-up operations. This has been achieved by breaking down the scope, within an integrated framework, to manageable and definable elements, detailed planning and preparation, undertaking site works to an exemplary safety record by the introduction of a pro-active safety management culture. The complexity of the changeovers was vast with multiple interfaces and numerous constraints and challenges. The changeovers have been implemented successfully without any radiological or Safety incidents within cost and programme targets. The success of the projects can be attributed to the detailed planning and preparation undertaken, along with the early involvement of key stakeholders and interfaces. (authors)

  2. From contaminated land management to the redevelopment of brownfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimski, D. [Umweltbundesamt, Fachgebiet Altlasten, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-10-11

    The revitalisation of derelict industrial sites is regarded as an important structural policy task in the industrial heartlands of Europe. Contamination in particular has proved to be a significant obstacle in the restoration of these sites in practice. This contribution provides a survey of the findings of the 'Land recycling' working group within the framework of the European contaminated site research network CLARINET. The cross-relationships between contaminated sites and aspects of town and regional planning outlined by the working group are described, the currently known derelict industrial sites in the EU member states listed and the research recommendations in the English original summarised. (orig.) [German] Die Revitalisierung von Brachflaechen wird in den industriellen Kernzonen Europas als bedeutsame strukturpolitische Aufgabe eingestuft. Als wesentliches Hemmnis bei der Wiederherrichtung solcher Flaechen haben sich in der Praxis insbesondere Altlasten erwiesen. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Erkenntnisse der Arbeitsgruppe 'Flaechenrecycling' im Rahmen des Europaeischen Altlastenforschungsnetzwerkes CLARINET. Dabei werden die von der Arbeitsgruppe skizzierten Querbeziehungen zwischen Altlasten und Aspekten der Stadt- und Regionalplanung dargestellt, der gegenwaertig bekannte Brachflaechenbestand in den Mitgliedsstaaten der EU aufgezeigt sowie die empfohlenen Forschungsempfehlungen im englischen Original zusammengefasst. (orig.)

  3. The enhancement of dismissed military barracks, a method for brownfield recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pellegrini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of dismissed military barracks is a big problem in Friuli Venezia Giulia region. The changed geo-politic conditions caused the abandonment of the numerous structures and the transfer of their property from State to Region and then to local municipalities. The regional government has not defined guidelines for their re-use and the work for the Patussi barracks, done to produce a re-use program, became a case study to explore possible strategies of intervention and the right method to adopt in order to give technical support to local governments. The paper describes the analysis, the scenarios, the proposal produced for the case-study.

  4. Assessing Success Factors of Brownfields Regeneration: International and Inter-Stakeholder Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil FRANTÁL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an interna-tional comparative survey of stakeholders from four European countries (the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland and Romania. The aim was to identify and classify the ‘success factors’ of brownfelds regeneration and to detect signifcant convergences and divergences concerning the drivers and barriers of regeneration processes in different geographical and institutional contexts. The existence of ecological burden or site con-tamination, overall regeneration costs and clari-fed ownership relations are considered the most important factors of regeneration internationally. Especially in Romania but also in Poland, the fac-tors at national level (legislation, incentives, and foreign direct investments are perceived to be more infuential than in the Czech Republic and Germany, where a stronger emphasis is put on the location factors (whether a brownfeld is lo-cated in rural, urban or inner city area and trans-port links. Physical attributes such as the site’s area and terrain are also considered among the most signifcant factors in Romania. While rep-resentatives of public administration emphasized more the importance of legislation, state incen-tives and general localization, the investors and developers highlighted local factors (landscape protection limits, place marketing, and previous use of brownfelds. The emphasis on political and geographical factors increases with the level of experience of stakeholders, while the empha-sis on site specifc factors decreases with the length of experience.

  5. A Pattern-Based Approach to Changing Software Requirements in Brown-Field Business Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Brier, John

    2011-01-01

    In organisations, competitive advantage is increasingly reliant on the alignment of sociotechnical systems with business processes. 'Socio-technical' refers to the complex systems of people, tasks and technology. Supporting this alignment is exacerbated by the speed of technological change and its relationship with organisation growth. This complexity is further aggravated in a number of ways. Organisations and/or parts of organisations are structured differently and have different approaches...

  6. The enhancement of dismissed military barracks, a method for brownfield recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Pellegrini; Christina Conti

    2012-01-01

    The enhancement of dismissed military barracks is a big problem in Friuli Venezia Giulia region. The changed geo-politic conditions caused the abandonment of the numerous structures and the transfer of their property from State to Region and then to local municipalities. The regional government has not defined guidelines for their re-use and the work for the Patussi barracks, done to produce a re-use program, became a case study to explore possible strategies of intervention and the right met...

  7. Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach. PMID:16869439

  8. Brownfield, TX 1:250,000 Quad USGS Land Use/Land Cover, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This land cover data set was produced as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  9. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to humans and ecosystems and the risks due to contaminant migration. PMID:15214610

  10. Harmony Park: A Decision Case on Gardening on a Brownfield Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Attanayake, Chammi; Martin, Sabine; Thien, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In March of 2009, Mr. John Holloway and his neighbors in the Harmony Park district of Kansas City, MO, were excited to begin gardening on a vacant city lot in their neighborhood. The neighborhood, like many in urban areas, had once been residential interspersed with small establishments including restaurants, shops, and businesses such as auto…

  11. Safety of gardening on lead- and arsenic-contaminated urban brownfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Phillip P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Benedict, Christopher; Martin, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Elevated levels of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are not uncommon for urban soils. Test plots were established at urban gardens in Tacoma and Seattle, WA. The Tacoma site was contaminated with Pb (51-312 mg kg) and As (39-146 mg kg), and the Seattle site had high Pb soil concentrations ranging from 506 to 2022 mg kg and As concentrations of carrot > tomato. Food-chain transfer of Pb and As in vegetables grown in contaminated urban soils were reduced by laboratory cleaning. PMID:25602223

  12. China - International Experience in Policy and Regulatory Frameworks for Brownfield Site Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yuyang

    2010-01-01

    Recurring environmental incidents have led to increased public awareness of the threats of environmental pollution to public health and rapid urbanization is driving up land prices in Chinese cities. As a result of these developments, industrial plant relocations are numerous, particularly of heavily polluting industrial plants, such as pesticide, coke, steel plants, and chemical industry ...

  13. BALANCE 4P: Balancing decisions for urban brownfield regeneration – people, planet, profit and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Tummers, L.

    2016-01-01

    Urban designers are not used to taking the subsurface into a holistic perspective on spatial development. Nevertheless, the subsurface accommodates numerous functions crucial to urban life, such as infrastructure, carry capacity, heat, water, etc.. Moreover, it also carries the natural system crucial for urban quality and health. In the light of the current climate change, energy transition and the financial crisis these issues are more important for different reasons. The subsurface stores w...

  14. Transformation of an Industrial Brownfield into an Ecological Buffer for Michigan’s Only Ramsar Wetland of International Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Norwood; Steven F. Niswander; Burke Jenkins; Allison Krueger; Kelly Rice; John H. Hartig

    2012-01-01

    The Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge spans 77 km along the Detroit River and western Lake Erie, and is the only unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System that is international. A key unit of the refuge is the 166-ha Humbug Marsh that represents the last kilometer of natural shoreline on the U.S. mainland of the river and Michigan’s only “Wetland of International Importance” designated under the 1971 International Ramsar Convention. Adjacent to Humbug Marsh is an 18-ha former indu...

  15. Evaluation of Brownfield remediation based on environmental and health impact and financial risk: comparison of different tools

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In Flanders (Belgium), the BATNEEC methodology is traditionally used to make a selection between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site. Previous research (Cappuyns et al., 2011) showed that a more detailed analysis is often necessary for a more correct estimation of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process. In the present study, several methods that can be used to estimate the environmental and health impact of a soil remediation process were compared. ...

  16. Frişã, brownfield or paraginã – dilemmas and reasonings for a comprehensive concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CHIRIȚĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article originates in an empiric research blocked at the level of theory. The present work deals with two types of arguments: semantic and case-based, questioning the adoption of a neologism: the concept of “frişa1”. Although the domain aimed at is geography,the new term could be transferred towards all research domains that have in common the phenomenon represented by abandoned fields and buildings, that is urbanism and planning, sociology, economy, ecology, culture, defense, etc. Methodologically speaking, there had been three stages. After the semantic analysis of the main terms in French, English and Romanian, we identified the theoretical grounds of the phenomenon they designate. In order to have a proper view upon the present day perception of the phenomenon we looked for information both in the research field and in that of economy, politics and local administration. Our personal survey can be added to these sources and one can say that they all allowed the selection of case study examples that can support the authors’ intention.The source of confusion that inevitably appears in the context of the present article is due to the difficulty in choosing a truly solid concept that could the best choice among all the other Romanian subject-versions. We need to adopt a unifying concept to define all these phenomena presented only as a succession of examples. Although they are apparently different manifestations, they are ultimately focusing upon the same thing: a material understructure that is not used and thus becomes degraded. We may speak about the simultaneity of these phenomena and therefore we could establish a certain typology, which is another stage in our preoccupations with this new, yet not exclusively unifying concept.

  17. Suitability analysis of wind energy development on brownfields, landfills and industrial sites in the city of Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorova, Valeryia A.

    In 2011 renewable energy generated only about 5% of total U.S. electricity and 3% came from wind power. Wind power is the oldest and fastest growing renewable energy, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates that by 2030 the potential of the U.S. to generate wind power will rise up to 20% (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2008). Currently, the rural areas serve as the primary choice of wind turbine installation because there are less wind obstacles that create wind turbulence, which in turn is disruptive for the proper functioning of the wind turbines, and allows more laminar (streamline) wind flow. However according to various literatures, the installation of wind turbines in rural areas has its drawbacks. The infrastructure is underdeveloped and usually the selected sites require the construction of new roads and transmission lines. The new construction and occasional deforestation lead to soil erosion and environmental degradation. On top of that transporting energy to cities that are the primary consumers of wind energy results in energy transmission loss. Urban areas, on the other hand, have well developed infrastructure, and the installation of turbines on abandoned and contaminated urban lands which are expensive to clean and rehabilitate for other uses would lower installation costs and would have little environmental degradation effect. The objective of this research was to provide a preliminary wind power suitability analysis for installing medium (100 -1000 kW) and large (1000 - 3000 kW) size wind turbines in urban areas, such as city of Chicago. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and a multi attribute Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method that is based on the concept of weighted average were primary tools utilized to conduct the analysis. The criteria that were used to select suitable sites were the same criteria used for rural wind farms, such as wind speeds, historic landmarks, avian and wildlife habitat, conservation lands, proximity to airports, roads, and transmission lines. The result of study showed that there is a range of 29 to 81 locations that are potentially feasible for the placement of large and medium-scale wind turbines in city of Chicago. Twenty nine of these sites were found to be most suitable. The study has limitations in that some of the data used were incomplete and some additional variables that needed to be considered, such as, the effects of passing trains on wind turbines and acceptance of urban dwellers of wind turbines in their city. Despite these limitations, the framework of this research can be applied to improve the study for the city of Chicago by considering additional variables and to extend it to other areas of study, and raise awareness of renewable energy, and the possibilities and flexibility of wind energy.

  18. Magacín Nižbor - příklad úspěšné animace drážního objektu

    OpenAIRE

    Hanáková, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the potential and limitation of railway brownfield use. Underutilized and crumbling stations form significant part of brownfield sites. The aim of this thesis is to explain the issue of railway brownfield in the context of the Czech Republic, where the railway network is dense and the railway itself is popular in society. The thesis depicts the historical context of railway brownfield, their formation, and briefly the possible ways of their new utilization. T...

  19. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  20. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy consumption for building heating increases and for cooling — slightly decreases. For the conditions of the northern region of Tajikistan, the recommended optimal thickness of the air gap with ventilation is 60 mm.

  1. Početnost a druhové bohatství ptáků brownfieldů na střední Moravě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, K.; Koleček, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 50 (2014), s. 25-40. ISSN 0231-7796 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : anthropogenic habitats * habitat preference * habitat heterogeneity * species richness * urban habitats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Analýza možností a regenerace brownfields: Příklad libereckého kraje

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černík, J.; Kunc, Josef

    Brno : MU Brno, 2014 - (Klímová, V.; Žítek, V.), s. 613-620 ISBN 978-80-210-6840-7. [XVII. mezinárodní kolokvium o regionálních vědách. Hustopeče (CZ), 18.06.2014-20.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfileds * regeneration * factor analysis * Liberecký region * the Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://is.muni.cz/do/econ/soubory/katedry/kres/4884317/48596005/079_2014.pdf

  3. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-01-01

    The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 ...

  4. Analýza stavu a možností rozvoje východní části vnitřního Brna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana; Walter, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2009), s. 22-28. ISSN 1212-0855 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : development potential * Brno * brownfields Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  5. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  6. 24 CFR 598.215 - What are the purpose and content of the strategic plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... segments of the community, including the political and governmental leadership, community groups, local..., technical, human, cultural, educational, leadership, volunteerism, communications, transportation and..., Environmental Cleanup Cost Deduction (i.e., “Brownfields Tax Incentive”), and the Work Opportunity Tax...

  7. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  8. 棕地地下水污染修复技术筛选方法研究——以某废弃化工厂污染场地为例%Screening process of brownfield site groundwater remedial technologies:a case study of an abandoned chemical factory contaminated site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 王明玉; 韩占涛; 张敏; 刘丽雅

    2016-01-01

    科学合理的地下水污染修复技术筛选方法对于有效修复受污染地下水体、节约修复工程成本、保护地下水资源、维护生态系统安全和人体健康具有重要意义.以某化工厂遗址早期排污渗坑为目标污染源,在结合水文地质勘查和地下水人体健康风险评价的基础上确定场地受污染地下水修复目标污染物,根据污染物迁移性、降解性、人体健康风险等指标及抽出处理、化学修复、生物修复、渗透反应格栅等地下水污染修复技术特点,使用偏好顺序结构评估法(PROMETHEE)进行修复技术筛选.结果显示,该场地地下水中主要污染物为1,2-二氯乙烷、1,4-二氯苯等有机污染物,其中1,2-二氯乙烷在呼吸吸入条件下的最大致癌风险达9.54×10-7.化学清除、监测自然衰减等四项技术适用于该场地地下水1,2-二氯乙烷修复,化学清除法综合排序分值最高,而在成本优先控制条件下,监测自然衰减技术更为适宜.研究对于我国场地地下水污染调查评估及修复工作具有积极的参考意义.%Scientific and reasonable screening method of groundwater pollution remediation technologies is of great importance to efficient remediate the polluted groundwater,saving remediation program cost and groundwater resource and ecology and human health protection.Considered as a target pollution source,hydrological survey combined with groundwater pollution human health risk were conducted in a discarded chemical factory site with a drain contamination pool,and PROMETHEE method was used to screen efficient technologies for local groundwater pollution remediation based on pollutants characteristics such as migration,degradation and human health risk,and technologies applicability analysis among pump & treat,chemical reduction,bioremediation and permeable reactive barriers,etc.Study results suggested that local groundwater was polluted by organic pollutants such as 1,2-DCA and 1,4-DCB,the largest cancerigenic risk of 1,2-DCA through inhaled ingestion was about 9.54 × 10-7.Chemical reduction,monitored natural attenuation,bioremediation and air sparging were considered to be suitable technologies for remediation of local groundwater 1,2-DCA pollution.The total ranking score of chemical reduction was the highest while monitored natural attenuation had a highest ranking score considering cost control.This study had a positive reference meaning for field investigation and assessment and remediation of groundwater pollution in China.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Patrimoniul provenit din fostele baze militare trecute în circuit civil între realitate şi uitare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the survey of the architectural heritage represented by the military brownfields in Romania transferred in public property within the implementation of the Project “From Army to Entrepreneurship” within the South-East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme aimed at supporting the conversion of military brownfields into business support centres or business incubators. The advantages and disadvantages of taking advantage of these heritage pieces, their deficient privatization, the lack of transparency in their taking-over by various stakeholders and the necessity to raise the awareness of the public local administration bodies are emphasized.

  12. Význam kulturního centra pro místní kulturu

    OpenAIRE

    Talknerová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Thesis discusses the importance of cultural centres for the community and the importance of their recovery. Theory is focused on defining the concept of a cultural centre, its position in the local culture and the influence of cultural centre for tourism. This thesis explains the concept of brownfield and its connection with the revitalization of the cultural centre on practical example of caste Větruše. In the practical part s mapped the area of brownfields currently in Ústí nad Labem, compa...

  13. STEAM INJECTION REMEDIATION IN FRACTURED BEDROCK AT LORING AIR FORCE BASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated groundwater occurs at many Superfund, RCRA, and Brownfields sites. Chlorinated solvents which can form a dense nonaqueous phase (DNAPL) when released to the subsurface can pose an extreme challenge for remediation, as DNAPLs are often difficult to locate and even ha...

  14. The Post-Industrial Landscape In Relation To Local Self-Government In The Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáček, Petr; Krejčí, Tomáš; Kunc, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Nováková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2011), s. 18-28. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : brownfields redevelopment * municipalities * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.geonika.cz/CZ/CZresearch/CZMgrArchive.html

  15. 75 FR 69992 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Notice at 67 FR 67181, Nov. 4, 2002, are also eligible for funding under CERCLA 128(a). \\3\\ The Agency... ``timely survey and inventory'' element, described above, refers to a general approach to identifying... assessments or cleanups at sites that meet the definition of a brownfields site at CERCLA 101(39). b....

  16. When planning for new housing developments, we must make sure they are built where people actually want to live

    OpenAIRE

    Leunig, Tim

    2011-01-01

    With a growing population, government is under increasing pressure to build more and more housing developments. Previously used, or brownfield, land often offers an attractive alternative to building on greenfield sites. However, Tim Leunig warns that we must be certain that there is demand for new homes in these areas before we commit to redeveloping them at an often high cost.

  17. From Wasted Land to Megawatts: How to Convert Brownfi elds Into Solar Power Plants (the Case of the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáček, Petr; Havlíček, M.; Dvořák, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Petr, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 517-528. ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * solar energy * regeneration Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://dx.doi.org/10.11118/actaun201462030517

  18. Urban Gardens as Sustainable Reuse - Considerations and Current Resources for Evaluating an Urban Gardens Site, In: SMARTe 2011, EPA/600/C-10/007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban gardening and agriculture is of increasing interest as a land revitalization option for interim as well as long term use, and is receiving increased attention, funding, and promotiion under EPA's Brownfields land redevelopment efforts. A broad range of state and local gove...

  19. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Riby, Philip; Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Lepp, Nicholas W

    2010-12-01

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. PMID:20864234

  1. Accumulation and stress responce on heavy metals treatment by hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Valenová, Šárka; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Kuala Lumpur : The Institution of Engineers, 2006, s. 295. [Brownfield ASIA 2006. International Conference on Remediation and Management of Contaminated Land: Focus on Asia. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 05.09.2006-07.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042; GA ČR(CZ) GP522/06/P002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : heavy metals * garlic * onion * chive Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Making performance plants from branch plants? In situ restructuring in the automobile industry in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a critical examination is made of the alleged change in the branch-plant economy. It is claimed that a new type of branch plant is emerging, with more progressive implications for local economic development. This argument is reviewed with reference to in situ restructuring in existing brownfield plants in the automobile industry. Empirical evidence is examined from 'Motor Co.' and 'Car Co.' (pseudonyms) in Riverside, across several dimensions of change: role and autonomy; labour...

  3. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Zarull; Rebecca S. Robinson; John H. Hartig

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator repo...

  4. he role of waterfront areas for the historical city and the urban territory. Regeneration experiences in England and France

    OpenAIRE

    Candida Cuturi

    2014-01-01

    Several considerable processes of urban regeneration, carried out in the last decades, have particularly concerned brownfield areas, along sea, rivers and canals.Some operations, run in the wake of European policies for urban areas or programmes related to cultural and sport events, have actually contributed to the renaissance and vitality of territories in decline.Nevertheless, in a period of deep economic crisis and unemployment, urgent environmental emergencies, multiplicity and diversity ...

  5. Delineation of post - i ndustrial landscapes of the Upper Silesian corridor in the Basin of Ostrava

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Klimánek, M.; Martinát, Stanislav; Ruda, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2013), s. 21-34. ISSN 2354-0079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300860903 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : delineation * brownfields * Upper Silesia * GIS Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://environ.ses.us.edu.pl/download/2013.1.3/2013.1.3.%20Full%20text%2021-34.pdf

  6. Hybné síly dlouhodobých proměn industrializované krajiny (Případová studie Hrušov)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Dvořák, Petr; Klusáček, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Havlíček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 106 (2014), s. 35-44. ISSN 1805-921X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Hrušov * Ostrava * industrial landscape * deindustrialisation * brownfields Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.vukoz.cz/acta/dokumenty/acta_106/Acta-106_komplet-cz.pdf

  7. Method for assessing consolidated coastal tourist areas and urban regeneration. La costa del sol occidental

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Ramírez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this abstract, which is in an initial phase, forms part of a future PhD thesis whose objective is the definition of a Methodology to assessment and integral regeneration of the Mediterranean coastal tourist areas in Spain, transformed since the start of tourism as massive activity in the mid-twentieth century. The base of this research is the fact that historic city centres, neighborhoods or brownfields have been the focus of european and national urban regeneration ...

  8. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Jason T.; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A.; Whalley, W. Richard; Ginn, Timothy R.; Nelson, Douglas C.; Mortensen, Brina M.; Martinez, Brian C.; Barkouki, Tammer

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming—these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, ar...

  9. Recent functional changes in a mixed residential/industrial area of the Eastern part of the Brno inner city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    Gliwice : Wydawniczwo Politechniki Śląskiej, 2007 - (Komar, B.; Kucharczyk-Brus, B.), s. 337-349 ISBN 978-83-7335-477-7. [Housing and Environmnetal Condition in Post-communist Countries. Gliwice (PL), 11.10.2007-13.10.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : subcentral zone * demographic change * change s of housing * brownfields Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  10. Assessment of the mass of pollutant in a soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents.

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of housing has led more and more developers to turn to the conversion of former industrial areas into residential areas. Brownfield redevelopment involves the cleanup of contaminated soil to eliminate any health or environmental risk. The quantification of the amount of pollutant in soil is essential to carry out an efficient remediation. It involves sampling and analyzing the soil to determine the concentration of pollutant at a finite number of locations. It is therefore necess...

  11. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination in eighteen cultivars of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Katrušáková, A.; Maršík, Petr; Valenová, Šárka; Kočí, V.; Griga, M.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Kuala Lumpur : The Institution of Engineers, 2006, s. 283. [Brownfield ASIA 2006. International Conference on Remediation and Management of Contaminated Land: Focus on Asia. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 05.09.2006-07.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/04/0135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : heavy metals * flax * germination Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  12. From laboratory experiments to large scale application - example of radionuclides phytoremediation from Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Valenová, Šárka; Benešová, D.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Kuala Lumpur: The Institution of Engineers, 2006, s. 146. [Brownfield ASIA 2006. International Conference on Remediation and Management of Contaminated Land: Focus on Asia. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 05.09.2006-07.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : radionuclides * uranium * phytoremediation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Risk security and soil loss mitigation: the EU case study of the Sufalnet Project

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Rigillo

    2014-01-01

    Former and abandoned landfills represent a good opportunity for producing new impervious surfaces for the urban environment, contrasting soil loss (specially the agricultural one) and improving the recovery of brownfield. From such perspective, landfill redevelopment could be intended as the beginning of a new life cycle for the site, corresponding to a kick off action for achieving environmental and socio-economic development. This is the purpose of the Sufalnet Project (Sustainable Use of F...

  14. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) is a mixture of arsenic, chromium and copper salts which have widely been used for impregnation of wood. World-wide many contaminated sites and brownfields exist, where wood impregnation with CCA has taken place, resulting in soil contamination and leaching of contaminants. Arsenic, chromium and copper cannot be degraded and existing methods for cleaning the soil are rarely used as they are expensive and technically demanding.Chemical stabilization of polluted ...

  15. Geothermal Energy Challenge Fund: the Guardbridge Geothermal Technology Project

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R.A.J.; Townsend, P; Steen, P.; Barron, H; Abesser, C.A.; Muschamp, H.; McGrath, I.; Todd, I.

    2016-01-01

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CHALLENGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This feasibility study investigates whether a geothermal district heating system, which accesses Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) resources underlying a brownfield site at Guardbridge in northeast Fife, can be developed in a cost-effective manner. This project’s scope is to assess the available geological information and estimate the hot saline aquifer heat supply, calculate the current heat demand at the Guardbridge site, Guardbrid...

  16. URBAN REGENERATION PROCESSES IN RIGA

    OpenAIRE

    Guntis Šolks

    2013-01-01

    URBAN REGENERATION PROCESSES IN RIGA ANNOTATION Urban regeneration is characterized by various forms and implications and it is an important research issue for modern urban geography. Riga also has experienced various transformations since the reestablishment of the independence of Latvia. Urban regeneration have an important role in the urban transformation processes, what are providing the revitalization and reuse of urban brownfields, thus contributing to sustainable u...

  17. Industriebrachen und Kulturblüten – vom Wert und dem Dilemma von Zwischennutzungen

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, P.

    2008-01-01

    Abandoned industrial areas are targets for urban regeneration and new uses, such as shopping centers, offices and luxury housing. During the planning process and the search for investors, brownfield sites are let to temporary users. A wide range of artists, cultural entrepreneurs, small businesses and manufacturers settle into the areas. Relatively low rents make the spaces attractive for such activities. Most owners welcome these tenants as they bring in reasonable income as well as inves...

  18. Planning for Ex-Landfill Redevelopment: Assessing What Community Have in Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Mazifah Simis; Azahan Awang

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia, a fast growing developing country is now facing the issue of inadequate urban spaces for futuredevelopment, which leads to the need to redevelop the brownfield, particularly ex-landfills. A total of 296ex-landfills have been planned to undergo redevelopment by the year 2020. Although there is a policy forex-landfill development, a question arises if the policy reflects the needs of the society as the end-recipient thatdetermines the success of the planned development. Therefore, thi...

  19. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant

    OpenAIRE

    Foucault, Yann; Durand, Marie-José; Tack, Karine; Schreck, Eva; Geret, Florence; Leveque, Thibaut; Pradère, Philippe; Goix, Sylvaine; Dumat, Camille

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE ...

  20. PHYTOREMEDIATION – POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR ENVIRONMENT DECONTAMINATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Fialová, Zuzana; Podlipná, Radka; Kotyza, Jan; Benešová, Dagmar; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Kuala Lumpur : Institution of Engineers, 2008, ---. [International Conference on Remediation & Management of Contaminated land: Focus on Asia /3./. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 21.10.2008-23.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 109; GA MŠk 2B06187; GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytoremediation * brownfields * radionuclides Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  1. 2. Symposium environmental geotechnics. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd symposium of the chapter section 'Environmental Geotechnics' of DGGT follows the event in Weimar 2003 and focuses on the central topics of Landfill - Contaminated Sites - Brownfields. The stream 'Waste management - Waste Site technology' discusses legal requirements and technical alternatives, especially in view of many upcoming closures of landfill sites and associated surface sealing, as well as technical reports of case studies and developments. The contribution 'Ultimate storage of radioactive waste' illustrates the wider dimensions to geotechnical questions. Between the streams of 'Remediation Techniques' and 'Land Recycling/Land Management' a panel discussion 'From Brownfield Remediation to Land Management' is taking place. The aim is to discuss the way forward and the need to take up the opportunity for future town planning as well as the design of conversion sites and expansive former mining areas. Representatives of authorities involved and project participants have submitted their statements in advance to the following question: 1.) status of remediation - research and practice 2.) what practical significance is attributed to different remediation techniques for the remediation of brownfields? 3.) modern town planning/redevelopment of former mining areas - spatial planning - real estate economy - financing models for redeveloping land - which parameters/instruments work? (orig.)

  2. Integrating the environment, the economy, and community health: a Community Health Center's initiative to link health benefits to smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Peter V; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J

    2004-04-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC's pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off. PMID:15053995

  3. 波兰卡托维兹城市群的环境管理与城市发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆; 李静

    2003-01-01

    The Katowice experience focuses on the issue of brownfield remediation and how a local authority addressed issues related to the rehabilitation and re-use of industrial sites, and solid waste and sewage management in revitalizing the urban environment. The Katowice agglomeration is considered an exceptional area in Poland owing to its environmental and spatial conditions. The agglomeration is the most urbanized, industrialized and densely populated region in the country. The article introduces the experience of environmental management and city development in the Katowice agglomeration.

  4. Denmark: Intervention Dilemma in South Harbour and Aalborg East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    2014-01-01

    industrial, ill-reputed brownfield area; whereas in Aalborg East, this point of collective action is still open: will collaborators succeed in supporting a joint agenda? Is it possible for Aalborg Municipality to enable this sort of collaborative, flexible planning? Will one of the actors succeed in...... demonstrating a strategic leadership that will convince collaborators of the added value of the project, in order to change the status quo in the huge, fragmented suburban area of Aalborg East? For general background information concerning the context of the cases, the reader should consult the case...

  5. PAVING THE WAY TO SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES: TRANSFORMATION MODELS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysoun Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and globalization make the move toward Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC a must. Achieving successful transformation towards SSCs constitutes a significant challenge for policy makers. One area that is not well covered in the literature is the application of SSCs in specific regions, such as the Arab region. This paper draws upon examples of SSCs initiatives and existing SSC transformation frameworks to more fully articulate the challenges of achieving successful SSC projects across the Arab region. One of the interesting emergent themes is the emergence of two main approaches to SSCs transformation, Brownfield and Greenfield approaches

  6. Performance Assessment for Environmental Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Fewell, M.E.; Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Swift, P.N.; Trauth, K.M.; Vaughn, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, R.J. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have, over the last twenty (20) years, developed unique, internationally-recognized performance and risk assessment methods to assess options for the safe disposal and remediation of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous waste/contamination in geohydrologic systems. While these methods were originally developed for the disposal of nuclear waste, ongoing improvements and extensions make them equally applicable to a variety of environmental problems such as those associated with the remediation of EPA designated Superfund sites and the more generic Brownfield sites (industrial sites whose future use is restricted because of real or perceived contamination).

  7. Working together: financing the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local governments and lenders need to work together to encourage and facilitate remediation, redevelopment and full utilization of 'brownfield' sites. Over the past few years in the United States, there has been a trend to develop risk-based clean-up standards and voluntary clean-up programmes that encourage reuse of such sites. Newly available liability protection offered by local governments and private insurers has encouraged this trend. Methods of financing the remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties are considered in this article. (author)

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2010-08-01

    The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  9. Regenerace bývalé drůbežárny ve Slaném

    OpenAIRE

    Janoušková, Klára

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to design eco-residential area on the site of a former poultry farm in Slaný First part of the study evaluate two international projects of ecological residential quarters built on the brownfield site. The second part deals with the characteristics of the territory and his analysis. Analyses examine the possibilities for the proposal itself. The last part of the thesis is the proposal, which follow case studies and analysis. The result is a proposal for a re...

  10. Management of Stakeholders in Urban Regeneration Projects. Case Study: Baia-Mare, Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina M. Rădulescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of regeneration of abandoned areas or deteriorated structures in the cities of Romania has become a strategy of urban-integrated development. Conversions and/or regeneration of facilities in the form of assets, with different destinations, are part of the new trend of urban regeneration and a strategy used to attract investment capital. The disappearance of mining industry sites in Maramures County, Romania, has allowed the expansion and planning of new spaces for public use and/or semipublic, and most cities have opened new development perspectives. The study is based on empirical research conducted on the brownfields of Baia-Mare City. This research investigates how stakeholders of an urban regeneration project can be more actively involved in the decision-making processes with regard to the strategic elements of the renewal project of Cuprom, as a former mining industry area. This research contributes to the development of the investigation of new types of knowledge of stakeholder analysis and improves the available practices for stakeholder salience. Social networks created and consolidated by stakeholders of an urban regeneration project are the object of analysis, evaluation, and monitoring of the equilibrium between project management and grant of resources and capital. This paper studies the salience of stakeholders of the SEPA-CUPROM project from Baia-Mare using the social networking approach. Visualization by graphical methods of social networking analysis is a useful instrument in the decision-making process of brownfield projects as part of sustainable strategies in Romania.

  11. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.u [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: nickandeileenlepp@hotmail.co [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  12. Assessment methodology of protection schemes for next generation optical access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Machuca, Carmen; Wosinska, Lena; Chen, Jiajia

    2015-12-01

    Optical access networks are evolving towards next generation solutions offering much higher bandwidth per end point. Moreover, the uninterrupted access to the network services is becoming crucial and therefore operators are now considering protecting their access networks. However, the cost factor is still very important due to the relatively low cost sharing in access segment. For this purpose, this paper proposes an assessment methodology that can be used to compare different protection schemes and help to identify the suitable solution for a given scenario. The assessment criteria includes some reliability measures such as Failure Impact Factor (FIF) and connection availability, as well as cost parameters such as the investment required in greenfield and brownfield scenarios and the increase in power consumption compared to the unprotected network. The proposed criteria have been used to compare 7 representative protection schemes shown in literature, which differ mainly in the number of protected network elements and the technology used for protection (fiber, wireless, etc.). The considered protection schemes have been applied to a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing Passive Optical Network (Hybrid PON) architecture in an urban area. It has been shown that it is difficult to identify the absolute best scheme with respect to all the considered criteria. However, depending on the requirements from the operator regarding the targeted reliability performance in the network, an appropriate protection scheme can be recommended for either a greenfield or a brownfield scenario.

  13. he role of waterfront areas for the historical city and the urban territory. Regeneration experiences in England and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Cuturi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several considerable processes of urban regeneration, carried out in the last decades, have particularly concerned brownfield areas, along sea, rivers and canals.Some operations, run in the wake of European policies for urban areas or programmes related to cultural and sport events, have actually contributed to the renaissance and vitality of territories in decline.Nevertheless, in a period of deep economic crisis and unemployment, urgent environmental emergencies, multiplicity and diversity of social instances, there is a real need for approaches more and more consistent with objectives of both physical/environmental and socio-economic regeneration.English and French experiences of waterfront regeneration are interesting, in different ways, in relation to the process activation/implementation (partnership organisational structure, private/public investment ratio, duration, as to enterprises, employment and innovation (office, retail and leisure space, enterprise localization, cultural attractions and urban design, with regard to local communities, services and cultural heritage (increase of population and local employment, accessibility to housing and integrated services, mobility and transport, conservation and valorisation of buildings and sites of architectural or historic interest, involvement and participation to local planning processes, as to the use of resources and pollution reduction (energy management, building recovery and brownfield regeneration, etc..

  14. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects. - Research highlights: → An A horizon has developed in these urban soils after only 12 years of pedogenesis. → Iron and cement artifacts have undergone accelerated weathering due to deicing salts. → One soil is contaminated by lead derived from weathered paint. → Artifact weathering can have ameliorating effects on urban soils contaminated by heavy metals. - Weathering of artifacts can have ameliorating effects on heavy metal-polluted soils at brownfield sites.

  15. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  16. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  17. Aquifer modification: an approach to improve the mobility of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles used for in situ groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicicBatka, Vesna; Schmid, Doris; Marko, Florian; Velimirovic, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Successful emplacement of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) within the contaminated source zone is a prerequisite for the use of nZVI technology in groundwater remediation. Emplacement of nZVI is influenced i.e., by the injection technique and the injection velocity applied, as well as by the mobility of nZVI in the subsurface. Whereas processes linked to the injection can be controlled by the remediation practitioners, the mobility of nZVI in the subsurface remains limited. Even though mobility of nZVI is somewhat improved by surface coating with polyelectrolytes, it is still greatly affected by the groundwater composition and physical and chemical heterogeneities of aquifer grains. In order to promote mobility of nZVI it is needed to alter the surface charge heterogeneities of aquifer grains. Modifying the aquifer grain's surfaces by means of polyelectrolyte coating is an approach proposed to increase the overall negative surface charge of the aquifer grain surfaces, hinder deposition of nZVI onto aquifer grains, and finally promote nZVI mobility. In this study the effect of different polyelectrolytes on the nZVI mobility is tested in natural sands deriving from real brownfield sites that are proposed to be remediated using the nZVI technology. Sands collected from brownfield sites were characterized in terms of grain size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and organic carbon content. Furthermore, surface charge of these sands was determined in both, low- and high ionic strength background solutions. Finally, changes of the sand's surface charges were examined after addition of the proposed aquifer modifiers, lignin sulfonate and humic acid. Surface charge of brownfield sands in low ionic strength background solution is more negative compared to that in high ionic strength background solution. An increase in negative surface potential of brownfield sand was recorded when aquifer modifiers were applied in a background solution with low ionic

  18. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are expanding their global reach, carrying their products and brands to ever more remote corners of the world. They encounter business environments that vary not only from their country of origin, but also vary greatly amongst each other. Thus foreign investors have...... have to develop a portfolio of local and/or global brands that matches their competences with local needs. If they aim for market leadership they may pursue a multi-tier strategy, but this needs to be supported by an appropriate foundation of global and local resources. This strategy in particular...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...

  19. Social Inclusion by Revitalisation? The Potential of Disused Industrial Areas as an Opportunity for Mitigating Social Polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Marius

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the relation between revitalisation projects and socio-economic polarisation, and discusses the potential of new urban spaces for social inclusion. The phenomenon is considered on the example of recreational facilities that have emerged from brownfields located in the Ruhr region (Germany. It was ascertained that the diversity of implemented projects was important in terms of the significance of revitalisation processes for social polarisation tendencies. It allowed regional authorities to create income-generating facilities and spaces that can be used regardless of income, and to resolve deficits in urban recreational facilities. It was also noted that the Ruhr examples could provide guidance for the recently begun revitalisation processes in the Upper Silesian industrial area (Poland.

  20. Integrating the Environment, the Economy, and Community Health: A Community Health Center’s Initiative to Link Health Benefits to Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Peter V.; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC’s pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off. PMID:15053995

  1. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  2. Understanding sprawl : A citizen's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, D.

    2003-10-01

    This guide was prepared to assist decision-makers and citizens in creating a healthy, affordable and sustainable urban future. The history of cities was reviewed, and the social and economic costs incurred by recent development were outlined. Urban sprawl is defined as the difference between the growth rates of people and of the land they occupy. Sprawl evolves into a drain on ecological, social and economic capital, as cities spread into vast low-density urban areas. The issues addressed in the guide were: low-density housing; household cost of sprawl; consuming precious land; public health; climate change; energy; water; wildlife; aesthetics and quality of life. A series of recommendations to be included in every community plan was proposed. They included: protecting the environment; intensifying town centres; reinvesting along empty corridors and brownfields; promoting regional planning; promoting alternative transportation; increasing housing and jobs; protecting the downtown; protecting existing compact residential neighbourhoods; and protecting agricultural and rural areas. refs.

  3. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  4. Proceedings of GeoHalifax 2009 : the 62. Canadian geotechnical conference and 10. joint CGS/IAH-CNC groundwater conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.; Fenton, G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada); Taylor, B. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Ferguson, G. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada)] (comps.) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    More than 500 delegates from industry, government, universities and research centres attended this conference to exchange professional knowledge on research and development that affects all sectors of geotechnical engineering, applied geology and hydrogeology. The conference also highlighted recent geoenvironmental achievements. The geotechnical sessions were entitled: soil mechanics; soil mechanics and brownfields; foundation engineering; landslide and slopes engineering; rock mechanics; risk assessment; reliability-based design; geoenvironmental issues; transportation geotechniques; marine geotechniques and geohazards; non-textbook soils and waste soils; covers and liners; instrumentation; harbour and shoreline geotechniques; geosynthetic mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) systems; cold regions and climate change; computer applications; regional hydrogeology; groundwater-surface water interaction; well hydraulics; radioactive waste management; groundwater sustainability; source water protection; mine waters; field techniques in hydrogeology; and hydrogeology of fractured rocks. The conference featured more than 230 presentations, of which 37 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) is a mixture of arsenic, chromium and copper salts which have widely been used for impregnation of wood. World-wide many contaminated sites and brownfields exist, where wood impregnation with CCA has taken place, resulting in soil contamination and leaching...... of contaminants. Arsenic, chromium and copper cannot be degraded and existing methods for cleaning the soil are rarely used as they are expensive and technically demanding. Chemical stabilization of polluted soil is an alternative method for soil remediation, especially metal contamination, and consists in adding...... showed a remarkable effect on the porewater. Porewater concentrations of arsenic decreased by two orders of magnitude in the amended soil compared to an undisturbed soil profile. A full scale field experiment was then initiated, where mixing of soil and Fe-WTR was done with an excavator mounted...

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-03-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on brownfield sites in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All of the assessed sites are landfills. The sites were assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.119/kWh and incentives offered by Puerto Rico and by the serving utility, PREPA. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former St. Marks Refinery in St. Marks, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site in St. Marks, Florida. The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.08/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Florida and from the two accessible utilities, Progress Energy and the City of Tallahassee. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the fixed-tilt thin film technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  9. Risk security and soil loss mitigation: the EU case study of the Sufalnet Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rigillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Former and abandoned landfills represent a good opportunity for producing new impervious surfaces for the urban environment, contrasting soil loss (specially the agricultural one and improving the recovery of brownfield. From such perspective, landfill redevelopment could be intended as the beginning of a new life cycle for the site, corresponding to a kick off action for achieving environmental and socio-economic development. This is the purpose of the Sufalnet Project (Sustainable Use of Former and Abandoned Landfill that defines a new approach for landfill redevelopment in form of model strategy by which reducing both the risk of the project failure and of the environmental pollution. Model strategy acts as cultural device for managing redevelop- ment process and its complexity.

  10. Improving the environment in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs

  11. Laboratory Reproduction and Failure Analysis of Cracked Orbiter Reaction Control System Niobium Thruster Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeremy B.; Castner, Willard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing cracks and failure analysis of an orbiter reaction control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Endeavour STS-113 Landing; 2) RCS Thruster; 3) Thruster Cross-Section; 4) RCS Injector; 5) RCS Thruster, S/N 120l 6) Counterbore Cracks; 7) Relief Radius Cracks; 8) RCS Thruster Cracking History; 9) Thruster Manufacturing Timelines; 10) Laboratory Reproduction of Injector Cracking; 11) The Brownfield Specimen; 12) HF EtchantTests/Specimen Loading; 13) Specimen #3 HF + 600F; 14) Specimen #3 IG Fracture; 15) Specimen #5 HF + 600F; 16) Specimen #5 Popcorn ; 17) Specimen #5 Cleaned and Bent; 18) HF Exposure Test Matrix; 19) Krytox143AC Tests; 20) KrytoxTests/Specimen Loading; 21) Specimen #13 Krytox + 600F; and 22) KrytoxExposure Test Matrix.

  12. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy : Greening of the budget submission : Budget recommendations 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandate of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy is to act as a catalyst to identify, explain and promote principles and practices of sustainable development in all sectors of Canadian society. This annual set of recommendations outlining ways in which the Federal Government can better integrate economic, social, and environmental considerations into its annual budget is the result of multi-stakeholder processes involving industry, Aboriginals, environmental interest groups and others. The focus of this year's recommendations is in ensuring a more fully balanced budget that achieves an equilibrium between economic, environmental, and societal objectives. The 34 recommendations included in the report touched upon the following areas: sustainable urban communities; brownfield redevelopment; sustainability opportunities for Northern Aboriginal communities; environment and human health; conserving Canada's natural heritage; and building Canada's knowledge base and sustainable development capacity. A summary of recommended measures was provided in appendix A. tabs

  13. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  14. A fully continuous supercritical fluid extraction system for contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownfield sites are contaminated sites in an urban setting. There are hundreds of thousands of such sites, where contaminants migrate to the atmosphere, seep into groundwater, runoff into surface water and enter the food chain through plant uptake and soil ingestion. The Sydney Tar Ponds alone contain more than a million tonnes of contaminated soils and sediments. Soil vapour extraction, incineration, bioremediation, solvent extraction and land filling are among the remediation techniques that have been developed for brownfield sites over the years. However, no single technology is ideally suited to all cases because of the diversity of contaminants and diversity of site characterization. This paper focused on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) which is well suited to sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metal. A fully continuous laboratory-scale SFE process for a slurry-based system was designed and constructed to handle the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and the soil slurry. The system continuously pumps carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions and soil slurry into a counter-current contacting column. The testing soil was Delhi loamy sand, spiked with 10 mg/g of naphthalene. The soil slurry ranged from 0.0028 g dry soil per g slurry to 0.072 g/g. The operating temperature was 43 degrees C and the operating pressure was 7.7 MPa. Near steady state, fully continuous flow was achieved with runs lasting up to 2 hours. The quantifiable recoveries of naphthalene from the soil slurry was demonstrated and the mass transfer coefficients for the system were quantified in order to provide the foundation to advance to a full-scale system and costing analysis. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  15. Advancing district energy development in Canada : a process for site selection, review and community participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Municipalities are giving greater consideration to the role of energy in the design, development, and operation of communities. Organizations and governments around the world are beginning to assess various energy risks beyond just the generation or delivery of energy. Municipalities planning for population growth no longer include only the potential increases in revenue from property taxes or the requirement to expand urban growth boundaries to accommodate new development. Energy planning requires an understanding of how communities can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and local energy consumption. This report presented the development of a process in order to assist decision makers, business leaders and local citizens in reviewing the role of energy in urban regions and how district energy (DE) can be part of the solution. The report presented an overview of the approach developed to identify 10 communities across Canada for the application of DE to assist with urban revitalization, brownfield remediation, community economic development, and sustainable energy conservation. The report outlined the development of an energy selection framework and how the framework could be replicated in urban regions to identify the interest in a community for DE. It was concluded that development of a DE system is complex and requires consideration for the interaction of land use policies and energy supply goals, the support of senior decision makers at the public and private level, an open dialogue between planners, engineers, utility operators and developers, as well as an informed and involved citizens. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 8 appendices

  16. Contaminant source apportionment by PIMMS lead isotope analysis and SEM-image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, R A; Pearce, J M; Fortey, N J; Watt, J; Ault, L; Parrish, R R

    2003-03-01

    By combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis and laser ablation plasma ionisation multi-collector mass spectrometry (LA-PIMMS), high precision lead isotope analyses can be obtained from individual metal-rich particles. Soils from Wolverhampton and Nottingham were sampled on the basis of high Pb concentrations or brownfield location. Pressed powder pellets of each were rastered by LA-PIMMS to obtain a bulk Pb-isotope signature. The results plot along an apparent mixing line between the major sources of lead contamination in the UK, that is UK ore deposits and alkyl-lead from petrol additives (Australian ore). Two particularly lead-rich soils were chosen to investigate the lead distribution and isotope variability between size and density fractions. The fine-grained and low-density fractions contained most of the lead and have Pb-isotope ratios comparable with the bulk soils. By contrast, the small, lead-enriched denser fractions contained only a minor proportion of the total lead but Pb-isotope signatures indicating relative enrichment in one or other of the end-members from the mixing line. Further characterisation of individual Pb-rich grains is in progress. PMID:12901075

  17. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (∼900, 200 and 500 mg kg-1, respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. - Arsenic solubility and bioavailability increases in soil two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch.

  18. In situ application of activated carbon and biochar to PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of mixing regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ use of carbon amendments such as activated carbon (AC) and biochar to minimize the bioavailability of organic contaminants is gaining in popularity. In the first in situ experiment conducted at a Canadian PCB-contaminated Brownfield site, GAC and two types of biochar were statistically equal at reducing PCB uptake into plants. PCB concentrations in Cucurbita pepo root tissue were reduced by 74%, 72% and 64%, with the addition of 2.8% GAC, Burt's biochar and BlueLeaf biochar, respectively. A complementary greenhouse study which included a bioaccumulation study of Eisenia fetida (earthworm), found mechanically mixing carbon amendments with PCB-contaminated soil (i.e. 24 h at 30 rpm) resulted in shoot, root and worm PCB concentrations 66%, 59% and 39% lower than in the manually mixed treatments (i.e. with a spade and bucket). Therefore, studies which mechanically mix carbon amendments with contaminated soil may over-estimate the short-term potential to reduce PCB bioavailability. Highlights: •Biochar and GAC reduced PCB uptake into plants and earthworms. •Biochar offered additional benefits, including increased plant and earthworm biomass. •BSAF reductions are greater when amendments are mechanically vs. manually mixed. •Mechanically mixing carbon amendments may over-estimate their remediation potential. -- In situ AC and biochar soil amendments perform equally well at reducing PCB uptake, however, laboratory-based mixing methods may exaggerate the sorptive capacities of both amendments

  19. Faster-higher-stronger -- greener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Toronto Olympic Bid Committee is reported to have adopted a strong environmental orientation in its bid to bring the 2008 Olympic Games to Toronto. In a recent address, the President of the Committee outlined details of the bid's environmental component which emphasizes the role of sustainable development within the Olympics and the consequences of this orientation on the design, construction and operation of facilities. The Toronto Bid Committee has gained inspiration and momentum for its 'green bid' from the host city of the 2000 Olympic Games, Sidney, Australia, which has won widespread praise for its efforts to clean up Homebush Bay, a brownfield site long seen as a liability for the city. The Toronto Bid Committee is making itself accountable for: creating the healthiest possible conditions for the athletes, visitors and residents; designing for sustainability; protecting, restoring and enhancing human and natural habitats; conserving resources and minimizing the ecological impact of the Games; promoting innovative, technically proven Canadian environmental technology; and fostering environmental awareness and education. The Committee intends to make the environment a priority and not just an afterthought in the bidding process. It hopes to develop specific goals and where possible, quantifiable targets in non-polluting designs for all Olympic housing and sports facilities. Wherever possible renewable power such as wind, solar and fuel cells will be used, and cleaner fuels such as natural gas where green power is not a viable option

  20. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey L; Olszewska, Dorota

    2011-03-01

    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects. PMID:21183263

  1. Ford Rouge Center green roof project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, D.K. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Rouge Center; Schickedantz, R. [William McDonough and Partners, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Ford Motor Company is upgrading an 85-year old brownfield property located at the historic Rouge Manufacturing Complex in Dearborn, Michigan. The project is estimated to cost $2 billion. Part of the storm water management plan involves the construction of a 10.4-acre green roof for a new assembly plant to be built on the site. The evaluation of green roof technology began in November 1999 by a cross-functional team which recommended an implementation plan. A modular tray green roof system was evaluated by this team, working in conjunction with researchers from McDonough-Braungart Design Chemistry and Michigan State University. Plant and substrate parameters, as well as the functional attributes of the system, were studied. The investigation of the system was halted due to concerns about durability, weight, and prohibitive manufacturing start-up costs. Efforts were then directed to four commercially available drainage systems. After careful evaluation, the team selected the Xero flor, a German product. The advantages of the selected system were: minimal saturated weight, minimal weed growth, and the ability to grow the product at ground level. During the summer of 2002, sedum clippings and sedum seeds were used with a thin layer of substrate to grow a vegetation blanket which was subsequently installed in October.

  2. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan

    2014-04-29

    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  3. Multi-criteria assessment of socio-environmental aspects in shrinking cities. Experiences from eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demographic change and economic decline produce modified urban land use pattern and densities. Compared to the beginning of the 90s after the German reunification, nowadays massive housing and commercial vacancies followed by demolition and perforation come to pass in many cities of the former GDR. In consequence, a considerable surplus of urban brownfields has been created. Furthermore, the decline in the urban fabric affects social infrastructure and urban greenery of local neighbourhoods. Here, urban planning enters into 'uncharted territory' since it needs to assess the socio-environmental impact of shrinkage. In order to carry out such an evaluation quantitatively, a multi-criteria assessment scheme (MCA) was developed and applied. Firstly, we identified infrastructure and land use changes related to vacancy and demolition. Secondly, demolition scenarios for the coming 20 years were applied in order to give an idea for a long-term monitoring approach at the local district level. A multi-criteria indicator matrix quantifies the socio-environmental impact on both urban greenery and residents. Using it, we set demolition scenarios against urban 'quality of life' targets. Empirical evidence comes from Leipzig, in eastern Germany, a representative case study for urban shrinkage processes. The results show that shrinkage implies socio-environmental changes of residential livelihoods, however, does not simply increase or decrease the overall urban quality of life. The integrated assessment of all indicators identifies environmental and social opportunities, as well as the challenges a shrinking city is faced with

  4. Overview of the performances of PMMA-SI-POF communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straullu, Stefano; Abrate, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Poly-Methyl-MethAcrilate based optical fibers with Step-Index profile and 1 mm core diameter (PMMA-SI-POF) are widely deployed in automobile infotainment systems thanks to the MOST standards that adopt them as the preferred physical medium. However, thanks to their mechanical robustness and tolerance and their ease of installation, they make a suitable medium for local networking. Unfortunately, their good mechanical characteristics have to be paid in terms of performances, since PMMA-SI-POF based systems are severely limited in both bandwidth and attenuation. We will present a review of the best research results that have been obtained at the different speeds that are defined by the Ethernet standard: 10 Mb/s, 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s, showing that PMMA-SI-POF can easily overcome copper performances while being smaller, cheaper, easier to install in brownfield environment. To date, the following results have been obtained: 425 m at 10 Mb/s, 275 m at 100 Mb/s and 75 m at 1 Gb/s; these results have been obtained with commercial eye-safe components, and we believe that overcoming them requires in most cases the development of a new class of components. An overview of the different modulation formats that have been adopted, the most suitable equalization techniques and the best affordable components will be given. In the end, an overview of the current commercial systems performances and the road standardization procedures are taking will be given.

  5. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  7. A nanoremediation strategy for the recovery of an As-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Díaz, M; Diez-Pascual, S; González, A; Alonso, J; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Gallego, J R; Lobo, M C

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates the impact of the nanoremediation treatment on soil recovery as evaluated by the development of barley plants. Highly As-polluted brownfield soil was treated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) commercial suspension at two doses (1% and 10%). Barley plants were cultivated in treated and untreated soils in a growth chamber, and the As, Fe, and nutrients uptake were determined. The efficacy of As immobilization was evaluated according to the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) as well as using a sequential extraction procedure. The application of nZVI reduced the amount of As in the more available fractions and increased the amount of As in the residual fraction. The best immobilization results were obtained for the highest dose of nZVI (10%). In turn, the lower availability of As in nZVI-treated soils, particularly at the dose of 10%, stimulated the development of the barley plants and decreased the As uptake. Neither an important increase of available Fe nor negative impact on soil physico-chemical and biological properties were observed. Thus, our results show that the use of nZVI could be an adequate strategy to recover the land use in As polluted soils. PMID:26855217

  8. Lysimeter monitoring as assessment of the potential for revegetation to manage former iron industry settling ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Hermine; Séré, Geoffroy; Charbonnier, Patrick; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of metal-rich brownfields on groundwater quality, the fluxes in a Technosol developed on a former iron industry settling pond were studied. Intact soil monoliths (1 m(2) × 2 m) were extracted and placed in lysimeters. Dynamics of fluxes of metals and solutes under varying vegetation cover were monitored over the course of four years. Soil hydraulic properties were also determined. Results showed that the Technosol has a high retention capacity for water and metals, in relation to its mineral components and resulting chemical and physical properties. As a consequence, metal fluxes were limited. However, soluble compounds, such as SO4(2-), were found at significant concentrations in the leachates. The presence of a dense and deeply-rooted vegetation cover limited water- and solute-fluxes by increasing evapotranspiration and water uptake, thereby reducing the risks of transfer of potentially toxic compounds to local groundwater sources. However, vegetation development may induce changes in soil chemical (e.g. pH, redox potential) and physical properties (e.g. structure), favoring metal mobilization and transport. Revegetation is a valuable management solution for former iron industry settling ponds, provided vegetation does not change soil physico-chemical conditions in the long term. Monitored natural attenuation is required. PMID:25918890

  9. Proceedings of the 2010 international solidification-stabilization technology forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, C.B. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Resource Engineering; Hills, C.D. [Greenwich Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation] (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is remediation technology used to manage the risk associated with contaminated soils, wastes, and brownfield sites. Canada is now facing considerable challenges in ensuring that sites impacted by hydrocarbon contaminants are efficiently and effectively remediated. This forum was held to bring together leading researchers and practitioners in S/S remediation technology. Recent advances in research were presented, as well as new developments in the implementation of S/S technologies in the field, and methods of safely stabilizing and using potentially hazardous waste products. The conference was divided into the following 8 sessions: (1) stabilization/solidification of organics, (2) stabilization/solidification case studies, (3) stabilization/solidification of metals, (4) performance assessment, (5) mining applications, (6) new stabilization/solidification applications and approaches, (7) marine/coastal applications, and (8) stabilization/solidification amendments or alternatives. The forum featured 28 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., figs.

  10. Integrated planning and spatial evaluation of megasite remediation and reuse options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Sebastian; Morio, Maximilian; Bartke, Stephan; Finkel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Redevelopment of large contaminated brownfields (megasites) is often hampered by a lack of communication and harmonization among diverse stakeholders with potentially conflicting interests. Decision support is required to provide integrative yet transparent evaluation of often complex spatial information to stakeholders with different areas of expertise. It is considered crucial for successful redevelopment to identify a shared vision of how the respective contaminated site could be remediated and redeveloped. We describe a framework of assessment methods and models that analyzes and visualizes site- and land use-specific spatial information at the screening level, with the aim to support the derivation of recommendable land use layouts and to initiate further and more detailed planning. The framework integrates a GIS-based identification of areas to be remediated, an estimation of associated clean-up costs, a spatially explicit market value appraisal, and an assessment of the planned future land use's contribution to sustainable urban and regional development. Case study results show that derived options are potentially favorable in both a sustainability and an economic sense and that iterative re-planning is facilitated by the evaluation and visualization of economic, ecological and socio-economic aspects. The framework supports an efficient early judgment about whether and how abandoned land may be assigned a sustainable and marketable land use.

  11. Developing and validating a practical decision support tool (DST) for biomass selection on marginal land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson-Sköld, Y; Bardos, P; Chalot, M; Bert, V; Crutu, G; Phanthavongsa, P; Delplanque, M; Track, T; Cundy, A B

    2014-12-01

    Marginal, often contaminated, sites exist in large areas across the world as a result of historic activities such as industry, transportation and mineral extraction. Remediation, or other improvements, of these sites is typically only considered for sites with high exploitation pressure and those posing the highest risks to human health or the environment. At the same time there is increasing competition for land resources for different needs such as biofuel production. Potentially some of this land requirement could be met by production of biomass on brownfield or other marginal land, thereby improving the land while applying the crop cultivation as part of an integrated management strategy. The design and decision making for such a strategy will be site specific. A decision support framework, the Rejuvenate DST (decision support tool) has been developed with the aim of supporting such site specific decision making. This tool is presented here, and has been tested by applying it to a number of case study sites. The consequent SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis is discussed and evaluated. The DST was found to be systematic, transparent, and applicable for diverse sites in France, Romania and Sweden, in addition to the sites to which it was applied through its development. The DST is regarded as especially useful if applied as a checklist in an iterative way throughout the decision process, from identifying potential crops to identifying knowledge gaps, working/non-working management strategies and potential risks. The DST also provides a structure promoting effective stakeholder engagement. PMID:25014888

  12. THE AMAZING UNIVERSE OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS: NEW INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.

  13. Use of ecotoxicity test and ecoscores to improve the management of polluted soils: case of a secondary lead smelter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Yann; Durand, Marie-José; Tack, Karine; Schreck, Eva; Geret, Florence; Leveque, Thibaut; Pradere, Philippe; Goix, Sylvaine; Dumat, Camille

    2013-02-15

    With the rise of sustainable development, rehabilitation of brownfield sites located in urban areas has become a major concern. Management of contaminated soils in relation with environmental and sanitary risk concerns is therefore a strong aim needing the development of both useful tools for risk assessment and sustainable remediation techniques. For soils polluted by metals and metalloids (MTE), the criteria for landfilling are currently not based on ecotoxicological tests but on total MTE concentrations and leaching tests. In this study, the ecotoxicity of leachates from MTE polluted soils sampled from an industrial site recycling lead-acid batteries were evaluated by using both modified Escherichia coli strains with luminescence modulated by metals and normalized Daphnia magna and Alivibrio fischeri bioassays. The results were clearly related to the type of microorganisms (crustacean, different strains of bacteria) whose sensitivity varied. Ecotoxicity was also different according to sample location on the site, total concentrations and physico-chemical properties of each soil. For comparison, standard leaching tests were also performed. Potentially phytoavailable fraction of MTE in soils and physico-chemical measures were finally performed in order to highlight the mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the use of a panel of microorganisms is suitable for hazard classification of polluted soils. In addition, calculated eco-scores permit to rank the polluted soils according to their potentially of dangerousness. Influence of soil and MTE characteristics on MTE mobility and ecotoxicity was also highlighted. PMID:23328625

  14. Integrating public health and community development to tackle neighborhood distress and promote well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    Recently there have been calls for public health to reconnect to urban planning in ways that emphasize the impact of place on health and that address fundamental causes of poor health, such as poverty, social inequality, and discrimination. Community developers have realized that poor health limits individuals' and communities' economic potential and have begun to integrate into their work such neighborhood health issues as access to fresh food and open space. In this article we review recent shifts in the community development field and give examples of programs that operate at the intersection of community development, public health, and civic engagement. For example, in Sacramento, California, the Building Healthy Communities program successfully promoted the creation of community gardens and bike paths and the redevelopment of brownfields. A major housing revitalization initiative in San Francisco, California, known as Sunnydale-Velasco, is transforming the city's largest public housing site into a mixed-income community that provides existing residents with new housing, infrastructure, services, and amenities. These examples and others illustrate the need to identify and make use of interdisciplinary approaches to ensure that all places are strong platforms for economic mobility, full democratic participation, and community health. PMID:25367982

  15. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  16. Use of agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Velimirović, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; Micić Batka, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    A major obstacle for use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles as a nontoxic material for effective in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is the high production cost. For that reason, submicro-scale milled zero-valent iron particles were recently developed (milled ZVI, UVR-FIA, Germany) by grinding macroscopic raw materials of elementary iron as a cheaper alternative to products produced by solid-state reduction. However, milled ZVI particles tend to aggregate and due to the rather large particle size (d50= 11.9 µm) also rapidly sediment. To prevent aggregation and consequently sedimentation of milled ZVI particles and therefore improve the mobility after in situ application, the use of a stabilizer is considered in literature as a most promising option. In this study, milled ZVI particles (1 g L-1 of particle concentration) were stabilized by environmentally friendly polymer agar agar (>0.5 g L-1), which had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability. Sedimentation rate was significantly decreased by increasing the suspension viscosity. Column transport experiments were performed for bare and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles in commercially available fine grained quartz sand (DORSILIT® Nr.8, Gebrüder Dorfner GmbH Co, Germany) and different porous media collected from brownfields. The experiments were carried out under field relevant injection conditions of 100 m d-1. The maximal travel distance (LT) of less than 10 cm was determined for non-stabilized suspension in fine grained quartz sand, while agar agar (1 g L-1) stabilized milled ZVI suspension revealed LT of 12 m. Similar results were observed for porous media from brownfields showing that mobility of agar agar stabilized particle suspensions was significantly improved compared to bare particles. Based on the mobility data, agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles could be used for in situ application. Finally, lab-scale batch degradation

  17. Sustainable Construction for Urban Infill Development Using Engineered Massive Wood Panel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Prefabricated engineered solid wood panel construction systems can sequester and store CO2. Modular cross-laminated timber (CLT, also called cross-lam panels form the basis of low-carbon, engineered construction systems using solid wood panels that can be used to build residential infill developments of 10 storeys or higher. Multi-apartment buildings of 4 to 10 storeys constructed entirely in timber, such as recently in Europe, are innovative, but their social and cultural acceptance in Australia and North America is at this stage still uncertain. Future commercial utilisation is only possible if there is a user acceptance. The author is part of a research team that aims to study two problems: first models of urban infill; then focus on how the use of the CLT systems can play an important role in facilitating a more livable city with better models of infill housing. Wood is an important contemporary building resource due to its low embodied energy and unique attributes. The potential of prefabricated engineered solid wood panel systems, such as CLT, as a sustainable building material and system is only just being realised around the globe. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, solid wood panel construction offers the opportunity of carbon engineering, to turn buildings into ‘carbon sinks’. Thus some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction can be turned around with CLT construction on brownfield sites.

  18. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  19. Teaching stream geomorphology to in-service teachers as part of the Geoscience Institute for Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napieralski, J. A.; Murray, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Geosciences Institute is a partnership that includes the University of Michigan-Dearborn, the Detroit Public Schools, and local corporations that extends research and learning opportunities in the geosciences to in-service teachers within the Detroit metropolitan area. Since Michigan recently removed Earth science from the core curriculum and, according to a recent survey, fewer than 2% of teachers who teach geology in SE Michigan had college-level courses or training in geology, the Institute aims to improve teacher knowledge and efficacy in geology and increase awareness of opportunities within geology for teachers and underrepresented students. This is accomplished through an intensive 3-week course that uses a watershed approach (interdisciplinary) to teach geoscience, especially the environmental problems affecting SE Michigan, including soil pollution and brownfield mapping, groundwater contamination, and stream quality. This paper presents the approach used to teach basic stream geomorphology necessary to address middle and high school standards on watershed science, landforms, and the hydrologic cycle. Small teams of teachers collaborate with a research team comprised of faculty and students to study the impact of urbanization along the Lower Rouge River, a heavily polluted and populated watershed within SE Michigan. The teachers learn basic concepts in geomorphology and stream sampling techniques and then sample and describe the Rouge River at four sites between the outer and lower branch of the watershed. On the final day, each team utilizes two mapping tools (Google Earth and L-THIA) to compare results between the sites, including discharge, percent imperviousness and land use characteristics, dissolved oxygen and conductivity, and vegetation type. Examples of data and observations and interpretations and maps are presented, along with preliminary post-evaluations and related assessment of the program. It is expected this experience will improve

  20. Sustainability policy and effects on practices in the remediation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2012-12-01

    Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economy. However, historical industrial operations have caused a huge stockpile of contaminated land that is only slowly being remediated. After several decades of clean-up efforts, there are still an estimated 294,000 contaminated sites in the US and over 300,000 hectares of potentially contaminated land in the UK. It is imperative to develop technical solutions as well as socioeconomic and political instruments to achieve sustainable restoration of contaminated land. The inclusion of sustainability in decision making provides an opportunity to integrate a wide range of considerations: risk control, brownfield regeneration, carbon footprint, water footprint, renewable energy, etc. This study explores the behavior patterns and driving forces behind sustainable practices in remediation, aiming at advancing our understanding of the fundamental relationships among changing natural and manipulated geological environments, sustainability, and technology choices. A large-scale survey is being conducted in the US and UK to study behaviour and decision making issues from a stakeholder perspective. Historically stakeholder theories have been extensively applied to study organization management issues in the academia. This study intends to apply stakeholder theories to engineering practice and sustainability science studies. Pilot test results found that sustainability considerations are widely adopted and in a wide variety of ways. Site owners and regulators are found to be most influential in the decision making process. There is no lack of incentives to adopt sustainability practices, but various factors, such as lack of resources and cost considerations, are still considered impeding factors. At the time of the 2012 AGU meeting, further results from the survey will be available.

  1. Biodiversity in urban habitat patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angold, P G; Sadler, J P; Hill, M O; Pullin, A; Rushton, S; Austin, K; Small, E; Wood, B; Wadsworth, R; Sanderson, R; Thompson, K

    2006-05-01

    biodiversity by slowing the pace of redevelopment and by not hurrying to tidy up and redevelop brownfield sites. PMID:16297440

  2. Broadening Diversity in the Geosciences through Teacher-Student Workshops that Emphasizes Community-Based Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napieralski, J.; Murray, K.; Luera, G.; Brown, K. Thomas; Reynolds Keefer, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) has been an example of a successful and effective model in increasing the participation of underrepresented groups in the geosciences. The program emphasizes involving middle school and at-risk high school students from Detroit area public schools along with their teachers in urban geology research projects through a series of spring and summer workshops. The workshops introduce students to the geosciences by emphasizing how geology can be used as a tool to solve community-based environmental problems in a metropolitan setting. Students work alongside their teachers and UM-D faculty on projects that include the assessment of brownfield sites, installation of groundwater monitoring wells, and evaluation of land use impact on groundwater and surface water quality. Spring workshops focused on students from three middle schools in Detroit, while the summer workshops focused more on middle school and high school teacher training, but also included a small group of middle school and high school students. Instruments used to evaluate the effectiveness of the summer workshops included the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI), Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI), and pre- and post-workshop questionnaires and focus groups demonstrate that we have not only increased student awareness of the geosciences but are motivating students to pursue career opportunities in science. Since the Institute began in 2005, we have reached over 100 middle and high school students and 75 teachers, and the Earth Science major at UM-D has tripled in size and we have quadrupled the number of minority students taking introductory geology courses during this time.

  3. Investigating carbonate formation in urban soils as a method for capture and storage of atmospheric carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washbourne, C-L; Renforth, P; Manning, D A C

    2012-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential for engineered urban soils to capture and store atmospheric carbon (C). Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) bearing waste silicate minerals within the soil environment can capture and store atmospheric C through the process of weathering and secondary carbonate mineral precipitation. Anthropogenic soils, known to contain substantial quantities of Ca and Mg-rich minerals derived from demolition activity (particularly cement and concrete), were systematically sampled at the surface across a 10 ha brownfield site, Science Central, located in the urban centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. Subsequent analysis yielded average carbonate contents of 21.8±4.7% wt CaCO(3). Isotopic analysis demonstrated δ(18)O values between -9.4‰ and -13.3‰ and δ(13)C values between -7.4‰ and -13.6‰ (relative to Pee Dee Belemnite), suggesting that up to 39.4±8.8% of the carbonate C has been captured from the atmosphere through hydroxylation of dissolved CO(2) in high pH solutions. The remaining carbonate C is derived from lithogenic sources. 37.4 kg of atmospheric CO(2) has already been captured and stored as carbonate per Mg of soil across the site, representing a carbon dioxide (CO(2)) removal rate of 12.5 kg CO(2) Mg(-1) yr(-1). There is the potential for capture and storage of a further 27.3 kg CO(2) Mg(-1) in residual reactive materials, which may be exploited through increased residence time (additional in situ weathering). Overall, the Science Central site has the potential to capture and store a total of 64,800 Mg CO(2) as carbonate minerals. This study illustrates the potential for managing urban soils as tools of C capture and storage, an important ecosystem service, and demonstrates the importance of studying C storage in engineering urban anthropogenic soils. PMID:22683756

  4. Sustainability: A new imperative in contaminated land remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reviewed the emerging green and sustainable remediation movement in the US and Europe. • Identified three sources of pressures for emphasizing sustainability in the remediation field. • Presented a holistic view of sustainability considerations in remediation. • Developed an integrated framework for sustainability assessment and decision making. - Abstract: Land is not only a critical component of the earth's life support system, but also a precious resource and an important factor of production in economic systems. However, historical industrial operations have resulted in large areas of contaminated land that are only slowly being remediated. In recent years, sustainability has drawn increasing attention in the environmental remediation field. In Europe, there has been a movement towards sustainable land management; and in the US, there is an urge for green remediation. Based on a questionnaire survey and a review of existing theories and empirical evidence, this paper suggests the expanding emphasis on sustainable remediation is driven by three general factors: (1) increased recognition of secondary environmental impacts (e.g., life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, energy consumption, and waste production) from remediation operations, (2) stakeholders’ demand for economically sustainable brownfield remediation and “green” practices, and (3) institutional pressures (e.g., social norm and public policy) that promote sustainable practices (e.g., renewable energy, green building, and waste recycling). This paper further argues that the rise of the “sustainable remediation” concept represents a critical intervention point from where the remediation field will be reshaped and new norms and standards will be established for practitioners to follow in future years. This paper presents a holistic view of sustainability considerations in remediation, and an integrated framework for sustainability assessment and decision making

  5. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. → Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. → We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg-1 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm-2 achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  6. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 μm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles ( 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 μm) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  7. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermont, G., E-mail: dermonge@gmail.com [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 {mu}m. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (< 20 {mu}m) caused a flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (> 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 {mu}m) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  8. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Richer-Laflèche, M; Mercier, G

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions >250microm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor>2.5), and volume reduction (>80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (>5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 microm) showed the best flotation selectivity. PMID:19959208

  9. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voglar, Grega E. [RDA - Regional Development Agency Celje, Kidriceva ulica 25, 3000 Celje (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. {yields} Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. {yields} We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm{sup -2} achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  10. Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jason T; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A; Whalley, W Richard; Ginn, Timothy R; Nelson, Douglas C; Mortensen, Brina M; Martinez, Brian C; Barkouki, Tammer

    2011-01-01

    Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming-these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that 'soil engineering in vivo', wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon-effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

  11. Remediation and Reuse of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihms, Stephanie; Switzer, Christine; Tarantino, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    rates and response to loading. These parameters are essential to effective and safe reuse of formerly contaminated brownfield sites.

  12. Benzene dispersion and natural attenuation in an alluvial aquifer with strong interactions with surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain; Morasch, Barbara; Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Seuntjens, Piet; Halen, Henri

    2009-05-01

    SummaryField and laboratory investigations have been conducted at a former coke plant, in order to assess pollutant attenuation in a contaminated alluvial aquifer, discharging to an adjacent river. Various organic (BTEX, PAHs, mineral oils) and inorganic (As, Zn, Cd) compounds were found in the aquifer in concentrations exceeding regulatory values. Due to redox conditions of the aquifer, heavy metals were almost immobile, thus not posing a major risk of dispersion off-site the brownfield. Field and laboratory investigations demonstrated that benzene, among organic pollutants, presented the major worry for off-site dispersion, mainly due to its mobility and high concentration, i.e. up to 750 mg L -1 in the source zone. However, benzene could never be detected near the river which is about 160 m downgradient the main source. Redox conditions together with benzene concentrations determined in the aquifer have suggested that degradation mainly occurred within 100 m distance from the contaminant source under anoxic conditions, and most probably with sulphate as main oxidant. A numerical groundwater flow and transport model, calibrated under transient conditions, was used to simulate benzene attenuation in the alluvial aquifer towards the Meuse River. The mean benzene degradation rate used in the model was quantified in situ along the groundwater flow path using compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (CSIA). The results of the solute transport simulations confirmed that benzene concentrations decreased almost five orders of magnitude 70 m downgradient the source. Simulated concentrations have been found to be below the detection limit in the zone adjacent to the river and consistent with the absence of benzene in downgradient piezometers located close to the river reported in groundwater sampling campaigns. In a transient model scenario including groundwater-surface water dynamics, benzene concentrations were observed to be inversely correlated to the river water

  13. Revitalization and ITS Impact on Public. Space Organization A Case Study of Manchester in UK, Lyon in France and Łódź in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kazimierczak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Process of deindustrialization of downtowns in most of well-developed Western European countries has been undertaken since 1960’s while in post-socialist countries just from last 25 years, after political and economic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe.  As far as urban structure is concerned, a new type of inner-city sites has appeared as a consequence of the collapse of industrial activities in second half of 20th century.  In vast majority of cases newly developed morhological units (e.g. run-down post-industrial have been unavailable to the public. As a reult, “classical” public space organization of European cities has been significantly changed. However, revitalization of post-industrial urban areas creates opportunities to reorganize public space according to current inhabitants and other urban space users’ needs. All transitions undertaken as a part of re-developement of brownfields sites are focused on impovements in physical and functional dimension of urban space quality to increase the standard of living condition. According to the concept of smat cities it is relaeted to “smart living” in sustainable urban environment. As a matter of fact, post-socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe where interval of central planning was present in second half of 20th century and “classical” capitalist cites of Western Europe represent different patterns of public space transitions due to distinct historical development process of central space. In the paper a comparative study of Manchester, Lyon and Łódź is presented. The aim of the research is to indicate the reorganization of historically shaped public space structre in central space of analyzed cities after revitalization of post-industrial urban areas and new central space creation.

  14. The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon: How Its Effects Can Influence Environmental Decision Making in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Quattrochi, Dale; Stasiak, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Reinvestment in urban centers is breathing new life into neighborhoods that have been languishing as a result of explosive suburban development over the past several decades. In cities all over the country, adaptive reuse, brownfields redevelopment, transforming urban landscapes, economies, and quality of life. However, the way in which this development occurs has the potential to exacerbate the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, an existing problem in many areas and one which poses a threat to the long-term sustainability and environmental quality of cities. The UHI phenomenon is rooted in the science of how the land covers respond to solar heating and can adversely effect the environment. This phenomenon is responsible for urban centers having higher air temperatures and poorer air quality than suburban areas. In addition, the UHI phenomenon causes metrological occurrences, degrades water quality, increases energy demands, poses threats to public health and contributes to global warming. While the name of the phenomenon implies that is solely an urban issue, research has shown that the effects of the UHI are becoming prevalent in suburbs, as well. The UHI phenomenon can plague regions - urban centers and their suburbs. Furthermore, heat islands have been found to exist in both city centers and suburban communities. As suburban areas increasingly develop using land covers and building materials common to urban areas, they are inheriting urban problems - such as heat islands. In this way, it may be necessary for non-urban communities to engage in heat island mitigation. The good news is that through education and planning, the effects of the UHI phenomenon can be prevented and mitigated. Heat islands are more a product of urban design rather than the density of development. Therefore, cities can continue to grow and develop without exacerbating the UHI by employing sustainable development strategies.

  15. Radon and its decay product activities in the magmatic area and the adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tchorz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the magmatic area of Sudetes covering the Karkonosze granite and adjacent volcano-sedimentary Intrasudetic Basin a study of atmospheric radon activity was performed by means of SSNTD Kodak LR-115. The study was completed by gamma spectrometric survey of eU and eTh determined by gamma activity of radon decay products 214Bi and 208Tl respectively. In the case of the western part of the Karkonosze granite area the radon decay products activity in the granitic basement was found to be as high as 343 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 496 Bq/kg for 208Tl respectively. Atmospheric radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 track detector at the height of 1.5 m was found as high as 70 Bq/m3 in the regions, where no mining activities took place. However in the eastern part of the granitic massif in the proximity of abandoned uranium mine atmospheric radon content was found to be 6000 Bq/m3. In the case of sedimentary basin where sedimentary sequence of Carboniferous rocks has been penetrated by younger gases and fluids of volcanic origin uranium mineralization developed. The region known from its CO2 outburst during coal mining activity is characterized by good ventilation of the uranium enriched geological basement resulting in increased atmospheric radon activity being in average 72 Bq/m3. In the vicinity of coal mine tailing an increase up to 125 Bq/m3 can be observed. Seasonal variations of atmospheric radon content are influenced in agricultural areas by cyclic cultivation works (plough on soils of increased uranium content and in the case of post-industrial brownfields varying rates of radon exhalation from tailings due to different meteorological conditions.

  16. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  17. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P and T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume - primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (''brownfield'') scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P and T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations

  18. Soil in the City: Sustainably Improving Urban Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S

    2016-01-01

    Large tracts of abandoned urban land, resulting from the deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, are generating a renewed interest among city planners and community organizations envisioning the productive use of this land not only to produce fresh food but to effectively manage stormwater and mitigate the impact of urban heat islands. Healthy and productive soils are paramount to meet these objectives. However, these urban lands are often severely degraded due to anthropogenic activities and are generally contaminated with priority pollutants, especially heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characterizing these degraded and contaminated soils and making them productive again to restore the required ecosystem services was the theme of the "Soil in the City- 2014" conference organized by W-2170 Committee (USDA's Sponsored Multi-State Research Project: Soil-Based Use of Residuals, Wastewater, & Reclaimed Water). This special section of comprises 12 targeted papers authored by conference participants to make available much needed information about the characteristics of urban soils. Innovative ways to mitigate the risks from pollutants and to improve the soil quality using local resources are discussed. Such practices include the use of composts and biosolids to grow healthy foods, reclaim brownfields, manage stormwater, and improve the overall ecosystem functioning of urban soils. These papers provide a needed resource for educating policymakers, practitioners, and the general public about using locally available resources to restore fertility, productivity, and ecosystem functioning of degraded urban land to revitalize metropolitan areas for improving the overall quality of life for a large segment of a rapidly growing urban population. PMID:26828154

  19. Paradigmatic shifts in exploration process: The role of industry-academia collaborative research and development in discovering the next generation of uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium exploration increased over the past decade in a sympathetic response to a rapid increase in the price of uranium, inspired by fuel supply-demand, and stock market dynamics. Exploration activity likely peaked during this cycle in 2008, with in excess of 850 companies, engaged in the global exploration of a portfolio of over 3000 projects. Global uranium exploration expenditures for the period 2004-2008 are estimated at US$3.2 billion -from US$130 million in 2004, to an estimated peak of US$1.2 billion in 2008. A major focus of the exploration effort has been on brown-fields exploration in historical uranium districts. Less effort has been devoted to exploration at green-field frontiers. An anticipated significant reduction in global exploration expenditures in 2009, and beyond, is anticipated concurrent with the global recession. There is not much evidence to indicate that significant brand-new, large, and higher grade, uranium deposits have been discovered during this uranium exploration cycle. It is likely that future uranium explorers will need to be more efficient, and effective in their efforts, and to adopt new, and innovative business strategies for their survival, and success. This paper addresses some of the fundamental reasons why major economic discoveries of uranium ore bodies have been elusive over the past two decades, through a cyclical model know as the 'learning curve', using the prolific Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, as an exemplar. This model incorporates elements relating exploration expenditure, quantities of discovered uranium, and the sequence of uranium deposit discoveries, to reveal that discovery cycles are epochal in nature, and that they are also intimately related to the development, and deployment of new exploration technologies. The history of uranium exploration is parsed into the early 'prospector' exploration phase (1960- 1980), and the current model driven phase (1981-present). The future of successful uranium

  20. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the

  1. Paradigmatic Shifts in Exploration Process: The Role of Industry-Academia Collaborative Research and Development in Discovering the Next Generation of Uranium Ore Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium exploration increased over the past decade in a sympathetic response to a rapid increase in the price of uranium, inspired by fuel supply-demand and stock market dynamics. Exploration activity likely peaked during this cycle in 2008 with in excess of 900 companies engaged in the global exploration of a portfolio of over 3000 projects. Global uranium exploration expenditures for the period 2004–2008 are estimated at US$3.2 billion — from US$130 million in 2004 to an estimated peak of US$1.2 billion in 2008. A major focus of the exploration effort has been on brown-fields exploration in historical uranium districts. Less effort has been devoted to exploration at green-field frontiers. A significant reduction in global exploration expenditures in 2009 and beyond is anticipated concurrent with the global recession. There is not much evidence to indicate that brand-new, large, and higher grade, uranium deposits have been discovered during this uranium exploration cycle. It is likely that future uranium explorers will need to be more efficient and effective in their efforts and to adopt new and innovative business strategies for their survival and success. This paper addresses some of the fundamental reasons why major economic discoveries of uranium ore bodies have been elusive over the past two decades, through a cyclical model know as the ‘learning curve’, using the prolific Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, as an exemplar. This model relates exploration expenditure, quantities of discovered uranium, and the sequence of uranium deposit discoveries, to reveal that discovery cycles are epochal in nature and that they are also intimately related to the development and deployment of new exploration technologies. The history of uranium exploration is parsed into the early ‘prospector’ exploration phase (1960–1980) and the current ‘model driven’ phase (1981–present). The future of successful uranium exploration is envisaged as

  2. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  3. The Impact of Thermal Remediation on Soil Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Andrew; Switzer, Christine; Knapp, Charles

    2013-04-01

    In an effort to restore the social and economic value of brownfield sites contaminated by hazardous organic liquids, many new remediation techniques involving the use of elevated temperatures to desorb and extract or destroy these contaminants have been developed. These approaches are typically applied to heavily contaminated soils to effect substantial source removal from the subsurface. These processes operate over a range of temperatures from just above ambient to in excess of 1000˚C depending on technology choice and contaminant type. To facilitate the successful rehabilitation of treated soils for agriculture, biomass production, or habitat enrichment the effects of high temperatures on the ability of soil to support biological activity needs to be understood. Four soils were treated with high temperatures or artificially contaminated and subjected to a smouldering treatment (600-1100°C) in this investigation. Subsequent chemical analysis, plant growth trials and microbial analysis were used to characterise the impacts of these processes on soil geochemistry, plant health, and potential for recovery. Decreases were found in levels of carbon (>250˚C), nitrogen (>500˚C) and phosphorus (1000˚C) with intermediate temperatures having variable affects on bio-available levels. Macro and micro nutrients such as potassium, calcium, zinc and copper also showed changes with general trends towards reduced bioavailability at higher temperatures. Above 500°C, cation exchange capacity and phosphate adsorption were lowered indicating that nutrient retention will be a problem in some treated soils. In addition, these temperatures reduced the content of clay sized particles changing the texture of the soils. These changes had a statistically significant impact on plant growth with moderate growth reductions occurring at 250°C and 500°C. Above 750°C, growth was extremely limited and soils treated at these temperatures would need major restorative efforts. Microbial re

  4. Design risk assessment for burst-prone mines: Application in a Canadian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, David J.

    reduce both exposure risk (personnel and equipment), and economical risk (revenue and costs). Fatal and catastrophic consequences can be averted through robust planning and design. Two customized approaches were developed to conduct risk assessment of case studies at Craig Mine. Firstly, the Brownfield Approach utilizes the seismic database to determine the seismic hazard from a rating system that evaluates frequency-magnitude, event size, and event-blast relation. Secondly, the Greenfield Approach utilizes the seismic database, focusing on larger magnitude events, rocktype, and geological structure. The customized Greenfield Approach can also be applied in the evaluation of design risk in deep mines with the same setting and condition as Craig Mine. Other mines with different settings and conditions can apply the principles in the methodology to evaluate design alternatives and risk reduction strategies for burst-prone mines.

  5. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  6. "Eco-Infill" as an alternative strategy for postindustrial landscape in the light of climate change: The case of Belgrade shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikezić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At this moment, and under the circumstances that surround us, we have recognized as a definite global challenge the problem of climate change, and in general, the ecological misbalance of cities. In an attempt to meet this challenge, we will try to discuss possibilities of implementing the "Eco-Infill" strategy (fragments of nature incorporated into abandoned artificial environment as a viable, somewhat “alternative”, urban development strategy. The contemporary matrix of the post-industrial urban landscape is dotted with large and small fragments of abandoned spaces, which need to be incorporated into the city texture. Belgrade is a city with a potential, one of the larger capitals of the region, standing on the threshold of the European Union and undergoing an intensive process of political, economic and social transition. Similar to other large cities, it was previously an industrial city, but is now increasingly relying on the tertiary sector, promoting itself through its geographical, morphological, and cultural advantages. The consequences of privatization during transition and an exceptionally long and difficult political and economic crisis produced Brownfield and other abandoned spaces of the city centre with a complicated proprietary-ownership status, and no realistic guidelines for a much needed regeneration of the city centre in terms of contemporary problems linked to ecological, social and cultural values. In this article, there is a tendency to define principles on which the transformation of these abandoned places is based on and to try to apply these strategies onto the Belgrade shipyard on the river Sava. If we accept the previously set general views, these spaces can become crucial in developing a strategy for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Although these effects are primarily aimed at confronting climate change, they are bound to upgrade the quality of life and offer new life styles, potentially affecting

  7. Carbonation of Artificial Silicate Minerals in Soils: Passive Removal of Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washbourne, C.; Renforth, P.; Manning, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in global soils is a widely recognised phenomenon, which is amenable to an environmental engineering approach. It is proposed that the use of direct soil engineering, promoting CO2 sequestration by accelerating the activity of reactive mineral substrates, has the potential to harness the significant carbon turnover of the global pedologic system (75 x 10^15 gC/yr [1]) [2][3][4]. Estimates of C capture potential through this process are 100-1000 MTa-1. This study focuses on the ambient carbonation of high-Ca residues as agents of mineral CCS. A synergy of contemporary field observations is presented, alongside data acquired from laboratory testing (acid digestion, optical petrography, SEM, IRMS) of carbonated material recovered from urban brown-field and former industrial sites in north east England. It is demonstrated that urban soils may accumulate ~30 kg/m2 (300 T/ha) of carbon over 10 years as inorganic calcium carbonate, approximately twice the typical organic C content of rural soils, ~17.5 kg/m2 in the UK. Stable isotope data (δ13C and δ18O) confirm that over 90% of the carbon is derived from the atmosphere. Economic and mechanical constraints on experimental performance in industrial batch reactor settings have strongly influenced the contemporary view on the efficacy of mineral CCS for large-scale environmental application [5][6][7]. Effective, low-energy field-scale implementation of mineral CCS through soil engineering would counter many of these concerns. Proof of principle for carbon capture efficacy of artificial silicates in soil engineering has been demonstrated [4]; proof of field scale feasibility will be demonstrated though continuing empirical field observation, engineered field cell construction and laboratory investigation. [1] Schlesinger, W. H., et al. (2000), Biogeochemistry, Vol. 48: 7-20. [2] Lal, R. (2003), Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22, pp. 151-184. [3] Manning, D. A. C., (2008), Mineralogical Magazine

  8. A regional approach to the environmental risk assessment in the Campania region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment and analysis has a crucial role for guaranteeing the safety of the population, especially in intensive urbanized and industrialized areas, such as the Campania region (Italy). In Italy, since 2006, the human health risk assessment has become mandatory for contaminated soil and waters at contaminated sites. While traditional risk assessment procedures are usually run at site specific level (brownfields), with this work we would like to introduce a freshly developed method to assess risks at regional level by means of GIS, considering the hazard due to the presence in the environment of a contaminated media, the land use variability and the actual distribution of the population. 3535 top soils were collected across the whole Campania region (Italy) with a sampling density of 1 sample/4 km2. Samples were analyzed at ACME Analytical Lab. Ltd (Vancouver, Canada), to determine the concentration of 52 elements, with a combined methods of ICP-MS and ICP-ES following an aqua regia digestion. After a detailed statistical data analysis and geochemical mapping, we reclassified the interpolated maps of some potentially toxic elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn), in accordance with the Italian environmental law (D.Lgs 152/2006), on the base of the trigger and action limits (CSC) for human safety established by this latter. The obtained maps were summed up in the GIS environment in order to get a cumulative map of the potential hazard for the topsoils of Campania region. Considering that environmental risk for the population is strongly influenced by the exposure pathways followed by contaminants to reach the human target, in the case of Campania region we evaluated as relevant pathways both the soil/dust and food ingestion. Furthermore to consider the influence of the land use in the onset of the risk, each land use type was associated with a specific value of a Land Use Risk Coefficient (LURC) which is also dependent on

  9. Short Sediment Cores as Archives of Urban Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. C.; McLennan, D. A.; Stone, J.; Memmer, E. D.; Foster, J. A.; Hardin, K. J.; Nickerson, Z.; Portwood, C. A.; Williams, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban areas are host to numerous sources of environmental pollution, including industry, traffic, and past land uses. To document this pollution within Vigo County, Indiana, we collected several short cores from ponds and wetlands throughout the county, including cores from the old industrial park in Terre Haute, nature parks, a lake impacted by acid mine drainage, and a newly restored wetland to investigate heavy metal burial in these aquatic ecosystems. One core was collected from a holding pond that was constructed in the 1950's on the former International Paper (IP) site where corrugated packing products were produced for nearly a century. One of the nature parks (Dobbs Nature Park) was established in 1976, while the other sits on a former Brownfield site and was only recently opened to the public (Maple Avenue Nature Park). Scott Lake is adjacent to an abandoned coal mine, and continues to receive acidic drainage. Wabashiki Fish and Wildlife Area is flooded seasonally by the Wabash River. Prior land uses for the Wabashiki include agriculture and illegal dumping. All of these sites, except IP are designated fishing areas. Based on water chemistry and diatom assemblages, these ponds have acceptable water quality; however, some are becoming increasingly more eutrophic. Preliminary results from the IP and Maple Avenue Nature Park sediment cores indicate elevated heavy metal concentrations above background levels and at concentrations high enough to impact benthic organisms based on NOAA Sediment Quality Guidelines. Diatoms from the IP core suggest a transition from low productivity at the base to nutrient-rich conditions in more recent sediments, and several diatom specimens have observable deformities (typically an indicator of heavy metals). The base of the IP core also has metal concentrations that are 5 times greater than the top of the core. In many cases, sediments from the Maple Avenue Nature Park pond have metal concentrations higher than the surrounding

  10. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  11. Investigating carbonate formation in urban soils as a method for capture and storage of atmospheric carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the potential for engineered urban soils to capture and store atmospheric carbon (C). Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) bearing waste silicate minerals within the soil environment can capture and store atmospheric C through the process of weathering and secondary carbonate mineral precipitation. Anthropogenic soils, known to contain substantial quantities of Ca and Mg-rich minerals derived from demolition activity (particularly cement and concrete), were systematically sampled at the surface across a 10 ha brownfield site, Science Central, located in the urban centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. Subsequent analysis yielded average carbonate contents of 21.8 ± 4.7% wt CaCO3. Isotopic analysis demonstrated δ18O values between − 9.4‰ and − 13.3‰ and δ13C values between − 7.4‰ and − 13.6‰ (relative to Pee Dee Belemnite), suggesting that up to 39.4 ± 8.8% of the carbonate C has been captured from the atmosphere through hydroxylation of dissolved CO2 in high pH solutions. The remaining carbonate C is derived from lithogenic sources. 37.4 kg of atmospheric CO2 has already been captured and stored as carbonate per Mg of soil across the site, representing a carbon dioxide (CO2) removal rate of 12.5 kgCO2 Mg−1 yr−1. There is the potential for capture and storage of a further 27.3 kgCO2 Mg−1 in residual reactive materials, which may be exploited through increased residence time (additional in situ weathering). Overall, the Science Central site has the potential to capture and store a total of 64,800 Mg CO2 as carbonate minerals. This study illustrates the potential for managing urban soils as tools of C capture and storage, an important ecosystem service, and demonstrates the importance of studying C storage in engineering urban anthropogenic soils. Highlights: ► Urban soils potentially capture 12.5 kgCO2 Mg−1 yr−1 (value £51,843–£77,765 ha−1). ► Formation of carbonate may be significant and exploitable storage

  12. Recent innovative applications of geophysics to new uranium discoveries in the Athabasca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Next) zone, Eagle Point mine area, 2) Zone A, McArthur River Mine area, 3) the Millennium deposit, midway between the McArthur River and Key Lake mines, and 4) a very recent discovery at the Virgin River project, in the south-central part of the basin. These recent successes are related to a variety of themes, notably 1) brownfields - a renewed focus on brownfields to mine-scale exploration and careful use of orientation surveys to characterize and predict deposit response, 2) basement-hosted - a new focus on lower-cost, lower-risk production from basement-hosted uranium to supplement production from the classic unconformity deposits, 3) grid format surveys - a focus on defining the ore system geology in three dimensions through the use of grid format surveys, 4) integration - more integration of the disciplines through 3D visualization, notably through the use of downhole geological, geochemical and geophysical data, and 5) innovation - employing new uses of existing geophysical techniques for faster, better, cheaper exploration. The significance of the Millenium and O2 Next discoveries relates to the presence of a relatively undertested target type in the Athabasca basin located at depths of 50 to 350 m below the unconformity. The off-conductor position of O2 Next bears similarities to Zone O2 which lies 200 m southeast of the Collins Bay fault, as well as the original basement-hosted discovery by Gulf Minerals in 1968 of the Rabbit Lake deposit which is located 200 m into the hanging wall of the graphitic Rabbit Lake fault. Millenium constitutes a potentially different style of basement-hosted mineralization which is footwall to the dominant graphitic structure. The significance of Zone A at the McArthur River mine relates to the recognition that considerable potential remains in this area for both unconformity and basement-hosted styles of mineralization. The message of the Virgin River greenfields discovery is that considerable efficiencies are achievable by

  13. South Africa: Necsa Redevelopment and Reuse. Annex A.I-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    currently challenged because demolition is no longer considered a final decommissioning phase. Shutdown and decommissioning is viewed as a starting phase of an redevelopment and reuse opportunity for each available building on the Necsa site. Redevelopment and reuse of currently licensed facilities at Necsa can prevent the development of greenfield sites into brownfield sites. An example of such a development is the siting of the fuel plant of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) in the facility previously used for the manufacturing of PWR fuel on the Necsa site. As the demand for nuclear facilities increase (nuclear renaissance), the redevelopment and reuse options for the Necsa redundant buildings (some currently occupied by outside tenants) are considered. The decommissioning of Necsa buildings is the responsibility of the Nuclear Liability Management (NLM) Department. To date, NLM has decommissioned several buildings, made available for redevelopment and reuse by Necsa as well as non-Necsa tenants, for reuse as chemical facilities, production of pharmaceuticals and mechanical workshops, etc.

  14. Development of a 3D Potential Field Forward Modelling System in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P.

    2012-12-01

    The collection of potential field data has long been a standard part of geophysical exploration. Specifically, airborne magnetic data is collected routinely in any brown-fields area, because of the low cost and fast acquisition rate compared to other geophysical techniques. However, the interpretation of such data can be a daunting task, especially when 3D models are becoming more necessary. The current trend in modelling software is to follow either the modelling of individual profiles, which are then "joined" up into 3D sections, or to model in a full 3D using polygonal based models (Singh and Guptasarma, 2001). Unfortunately, both techniques have disadvantages. When modelling in 2.5D the impact of other profiles is not truly available on your current profile being modelled, and vice versa. The problem is not present in 3D, but 3D polygonal models, while being easy to construct the initial model, are not as easy to make fast changes to. In some cases, the entire model must be recreated from scratch. The ability to easily change a model is the very basis of forward modelling. With this is mind, the objective of the project was to: 1) Develop software which was truly modelling in 3D 2) Create a system which would allow the rapid changing of the 3D model, without the need to recreate the model. The solution was to adopt a voxel based approach, rather than a polygonal approach. The solution for a cube (Blakely 1996) was used to calculate potential field for each voxel. The voxels are then summed over the entire volume. The language used was python, because of its huge capacity for scientific development. It enables full 3D visualisation as well as complex mathematical routines. Some properties worth noting are: 1) Although 200 rows by 200 columns by 200 layers would imply 8 million calculations, in reality, since the calculation for adjacent voxels produces the same result, only 200 calculations are necessary. 2) Changes to susceptibility and density do not affect

  15. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J

    2011-07-18

    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing “green” building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2’s most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a café and river vistas for miles of New York City’s skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for “innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects,” selected

  16. A Review of Attitudes towards Sharing Geotechnical Data and the use of Geospatial Data Portals in Hong Kong and the U.K.: Lessons for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.

    2016-04-01

    Reusing existing subsurface data can greatly cut the time and financial costs of site investigations, and reduce uncertainty regarding ground conditions that can result in delays and overspend. In Hong Kong SAR it is common practice for consultancies to deposit records in the form of factual and interpretive reports, borehole logs and laboratory test data with the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) who make this information openly available to access for future investigative works. In addition to these deposits, other datasets available at GEO include, amongst others, landslide records, aerial photographs and as-built records. These archives are the first source of information about development sites in Hong Kong and no investigation takes place without a thorough desk study. Increasingly these data are digital, and can be accessed through a GIS-based online portal. In the U.K. the British Geological Survey (BGS) acts as a custodian for geoscience data deposited by the public and private sectors on a voluntary basis, and encourages organisations to make their data publicly available through the BGS online data portals. The facility to deposit digital data via the BGS website has recently been launched and should increase uptake of data sharing in the U.K. as it becomes easier for users to batch upload records digitally. Issues regarding data ownership and confidentiality are being overcome by the establishment, in some cities, of knowledge exchange networks where members who sign up to view data are expected under the terms of membership to deposit data. This has received backing from local government in some areas. The U.K. may not have the density of existing data that Hong Kong has but as knowledge exchange gathers momentum the BGS datasets are expected to grow rapidly. In Europe there appears to be a reluctance to share data. However, escalating demand for land, greater redevelopment of brownfield sites and an ever-growing need to ensure future construction

  17. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  18. Impacts of Climate Change at Watershed Scale: Creating an Ecological Basis for "Smart Growth" and Economic Development in the Post-industrial Lehigh Valley of Eastern PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, B.; Felzer, B.; Pazzaglia, F.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    As modeling of global climate change matures and regional projections regarding regional variability become viable, the scales of climate impact analysis and regional decision-making begin to converge. This convergence provides a critical new challenge for both the climate modeling and policy communities- "How can projected climate change insights at watershed scale most effectively inform decisions regarding land use, zoning, and growth management?" This issue is particularly critical in regions that were formerly heavily industrialized and developed, and that are now finding new avenues for economic growth in the wake of massive clear-cutting, mining, and heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Lehigh Valley is a watershed defining a single ecosystem that contains 800,000 people, 321 square miles of croplands and 95 square miles of urban areas, with the remainder of the watershed at various successional stages after massive forest clear-cutting of the last two centuries. Many of the industries that fueled the industrial revolution were based in the Lehigh Valley, and their development came at an environmental cost that was not then recognized, but that left a legacy of mine-scarred lands, acid mine drained streams, soil and water contamination, and a derelict industrial infrastructure that state and local governments have only recently begun to address. Before these institutions can plan for redevelopment of brownfields, regional planning for housing and commercial development, and preservation of forested and agricultural lands, it is first necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology, productivity, and other ecosystems functions, and to provide this information to decision-makers responsible for environmentally sustainable development and regional planning. "Smart Growth" has become a catch phrase for regional development that is sensitive to social, economic, political, and historical goals, as well as ecological

  19. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  20. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation; Migration d'hydrocarbures dans le sous-sol d'une installation industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues (CNRSSP), 59 - Douai (France)

    2000-07-01

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  1. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  2. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    periods. Much more challenging is the geographic mapping of impacts that these emissions will cause, given the many point and mobile sources of air pollutants over the entire transportation life cycle. Integration of LCA with high-resolution data sets is an active area of model development (Mutel and Hellweg 2009) and will provide site- and population-specific information for impacts ranging from water quality to biodiversity to human respiratory health. Another complex challenge in modeling environmental impacts of transportation (and cities in general) is the long run, interdependent relationship between transportation technologies and urban form. LCA modeling has tended to assume a fixed pattern of settlements and demand for mobility and then examined changes to a particular technology or practice within the transportation system, such as electric or hybrid vehicles or improved pavement materials. New transit options or other travel demand management strategies might induce mode switching or reduced trips, but the overall pattern of where people live and work is generally assumed in these models to be constant in the short run. In contrast, the automobile has been influencing land-use patterns for a century, and it is the resulting geographic structure that determines the baseline need for transportation, and thus drives the use of material and energy resources used in transportation systems (Kunstler 1994). We have seen that cities with high population densities tend to have lower tailpipe emissions from transportation (Kennedy et al 2009). Recent studies have modeled how changes in urban land-use or zoning changes the geographic structure of transportation demand and then used LCA to determine the environmental benefits of such policies. For example, Mashayekh et al (2012) summarized travel demand reductions projected from several studies of compact, smart growth, and brownfield in-fill development strategies to find benefits ranging up to 75% reductions in life