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Sample records for brown rice

  1. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  2. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  3. Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population of Super Rice Yongyou 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senfu Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the cost-effective control of occurrence and damage of rice brown planthopper, Study of super indica japonica hybrid rice Yongyou 6 of brown planthopper population reproduction rate density effect. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of rice brown planthopper in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. Field test results showed that the population amount of rice brown planthopper in super rice during tillering stage and booting stage gradually increased with the increasing amount of released pest and its growth amount gradually increased with the advancement of growth stage. However, as the density reached a certain limit during gain filling stage (>250 head/cluster, the population amount during maturity stage showed decline trend with the increasing density.

  4. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  5. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear.... Standards developed by GIPSA under the AMA include rice, whole dry peas, split peas, feed peas, lentils,...

  6. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  7. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  8. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  10. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Islam; M Shams

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  11. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  12. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  13. Effect of application timing of potassium fertilizer on root uptake of 137Cs in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have already reported that potassium fertilizer is effective to reduce radiocesium in brown rice. In this study, we tried to find the most appropriate timing for potassium fertilizer application during the rice cultivation period in terms of 137Cs concentrations in brown rice. The concentration of 137Cs in brown rice cultivated without application of potassium fertilizer was 32 Bq kg-1, while that with application of basal fertilizer including potassium was 5 Bq kg-1. The concentration of 137Cs in brown rice was increased with the late application timing. Therefore, application of potassium fertilizer in the early growing period reduced the uptake of 137Cs by rice plant from contaminated soils effectively. (author)

  14. Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Chemical Engineeringg Dept., Biotechnology Unit, IIT Kharagpur, (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw was taken for the present investigation and their efficiency on biomethanation has been tested. Rice straw was treated with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P{sub C}) and brown rot fungus Polyporus ostreiformis (P{sub O}). Biogas and methane production was increased by about 34.73% and 46.19% in P{sub C}-treated straw and 21.12% and 31.94% in P{sub O}-treated straw respectively. VFA production has also been increased in P{sub C} and P{sub O} treated straw compared to control straw which were 76.73% and 30.69% respectively. Reduction of COD has also been found during biomethanation. The rate of reduction of COD during the initial period of digestion was 59.01%, 55.55% and 26.00% in P{sub C}-treated, P{sub O}-treated and control straw respectively after 21 days of digestion. (orig.) With 12 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs.

  15. Effect of flour-blasting of brown rice on reduction of cooking time and resulting texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long grain non-parboiled, long grain parboiled, and American basmati-type brown rice were bombarded with parboiled rice flour sufficient to create microperforations in the water-resistant outer coat of the seed. These microperforations in the treated rice significantly increased the rate of hydratio...

  16. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql (EPA); (Bangladesh); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  17. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  18. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Beong Ou Lim; Jeong Eun Jo; Da Hye Kim; Trishna Debnath; Sa Ra Park

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed...

  19. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (pwheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  20. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer. PMID:26258710

  1. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Noppawat Pengkumsri; Chaiyavat Chaiyasut; Chalermpong Saenjum; Sasithorn Sirilun; Sartjin Peerajan; Prasit Suwannalert; Sophon Sirisattha; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi

    2015-01-01

    Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple), brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the prope...

  2. Improvement in shelf life of rough and brown rice using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IR heating and tempering treatments on storage stability of rough and brown rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium grain rice variety M206 with initial moisture content of 25.03±0.21% (d.b.) were used. They were dried using infrared (IR...

  3. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Khalili; Mehdi Sadravi; Shahram Naeimi; Vahid Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that ...

  4. Effect of application timing of potassium fertilizer on root uptake of 137Cs in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the optimal timing and quantity of K to reduce radiocesium in brown rice. The concentration of 137Cs in brown rice was reduced from 32 Bq kg-1 without K fertilizer to 2.0 Bq kg-1 with 16 g m-2 of basal K. The concentration of exchangeable 137Cs in the soil decreased from 234 to 25 Bq kg-1 with increasing application of K fertilizer from 0 to 57 g m-2. Hence, heavy application of K fertilizer in the early growing period can decrease the uptake of 137Cs by rice plants and the concentration of exchangeable 137Cs in the soil. (author)

  5. Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsono, Y; Illman, R J; Clarke, J M; Trimble, R P; Topping, D L

    1993-09-01

    Adult male pigs were fed on a diet containing (% of energy) fat 25 starch 55 from white rice and providing 20 g fibre/pig d (diet WR). In two other groups rice bran was added to the diet to provide 43 g fibre/d. One group received the diet unmodified (diet RB), but in another (diet RO) heat-stabilized unrefined rice oil replaced the palm oil. In a further group brown rice replaced white rice and provided 37 g fibre/pig per d (diet BR). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar with diets WR, RB and BR. With diet RO the concentration was significantly lower than with diets WR and BR but was not different from diet RB. Plasma high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerols were unaffected by diet. In all groups, digesta mass rose from the caecum to the proximal colon but fell in the distal colon. Diet WR gave the lowest digesta mass while diet BR gave a significantly higher mass along the large bowel length. RB- and RO-fed pigs had equal masses of digesta which were intermediate between BR- and WR-fed pigs at all sampling sites. Pools of individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the proximal large bowel were unaffected by diet. Pools of total and individual VFA in the median and distal colon were lowest with diets WR and RB and significantly higher with diet BR. In these regions of the colon pools of acetate in RO-fed pigs did not differ from those in the BR-fed group but were higher than in other groups. However, pools of propionate and butyrate with the RO diet were significantly lower than with diet BR and the same as with diets WR and RB. Portal venous VFA concentrations were unaffected by diet. The higher large bowel digesta masses and VFA with diet BR may reflect the escape of starch from the small intestine. PMID:8260477

  6. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  7. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  8. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer. PMID:27409632

  9. Dietary Toxicity Evaluation of Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss the reference safety of the Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine (BRSRKRW and provide scientific basis for rational development and utilization of the wine. In order to evaluate the toxicity of BRSRKRW in vivo, acute and subchronic toxicity of BRSRKRW in SD rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of BRSRKRW at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, or 31.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw, were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, BRSRKRW at 1.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw were administered for 30 days. The results showed that BRSRKRW did not affect weight gain in growing rats, in the level of hematological parameters, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid in blood and histopathological damages of the liver. Overall, the study suggests that the risk of drinking BRSRKRW toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  10. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  11. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yangrong; Chen Mulong [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hainan Institute of Geological Survey, Haikou 570206 (China); Bi Xiangyang, E-mail: bixy@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); He Yusheng [Hainan Institute of Geological Survey, Haikou 570206 (China); Ren Limin [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xiang Wu; Qiao Shengying; Yan Sen [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Ma Zhendong [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 {mu}g/kg, with a mean (92 {mu}g/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As{sub i} in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. - Highlights: > Arsenic concentration in brown rice from Hainan was lower than most published data. > Grain As was affected by soil As speciation, OM, and P. > Humic acid and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions were important pools for rice plant. > Grain arsenic rises steeply at lower soil As concentrations and gently at higher concentrations. - Arsenic in brown rice grain from Hainan, China showed low concentrations and correlated most closely to soil humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions.

  12. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. - Highlights: → Arsenic concentration in brown rice from Hainan was lower than most published data. → Grain As was affected by soil As speciation, OM, and P. → Humic acid and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions were important pools for rice plant. → Grain arsenic rises steeply at lower soil As concentrations and gently at higher concentrations. - Arsenic in brown rice grain from Hainan, China showed low concentrations and correlated most closely to soil humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions.

  13. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition. PMID:26988508

  14. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. PMID:24973509

  15. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  16. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-01-01

    Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  19. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  20. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization. PMID:25036893

  1. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties. PMID:26072143

  2. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Nikolić; Jelena Dodić; Mirjana Mitrović; Miodrag Lazić

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w) were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat fl...

  3. Localization and speciation of mercury in brown rice with implications for pan-Asian public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Wang, Jianxu; Zhao, Lei

    2014-07-15

    Cultivation of paddy rice for human consumption is a dominant agricultural activity throughout Asia. High levels of mercury (Hg) in rice grain pose a potential threat to human health, although the extent of risk is dependent on the chemical speciation of Hg inside the grain. We have investigated the speciation and localization of Hg in three fractions of rice grain (hull, bran, and white rice) collected from a Hg-contaminated region in China. On a mass basis, the majority of inorganic mercury (IHg) in a rice grain is found in hull and bran. However, the majority of the more toxic species methyl mercury (MeHg) is found in edible white rice. Our data show that during grain processing, most of the IHg (∼78%) is eliminated, but the majority of the MeHg remains in the food product (∼80%). Synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) mapping shows strong localization of Hg at the surface of brown rice grains, corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. We infer that this Hg is predominantly IHg absorbed from the atmosphere. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data we propose that IHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine, and is associated with phytochelatins. Consequently, IHg is largely immobile and restricted to the outer layers of rice grain. MeHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine and is associated with proteins. However, this MeHg-cysteine association behaves like a mobile nutrient and is actively transported to the endosperm during seed ripening. Concentration of MeHg-cysteine in white rice has implications for public health. There is growing evidence for Hg contamination of rice throughout Asia due to point and diffuse sources of Hg pollution. The magnitude of the associated risk must be quantified through better understanding of the localization and speciation of mercury in rice. Our work makes an effort to contribute to this understanding. PMID:24925231

  4. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Elham; Sadravi, Mehdi; Naeimi, Shahram; Khosravi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran. PMID:24031832

  5. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  7. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  8. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in Thailand by consumption of brown and color rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panrapee, Iamtaweejaroen; Phakpoom, Kooprasertying; Thanapoom, Maneeboon; Nampeung, Anukul; Warapa, Mahakarnchanakul

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intake of the Thai population through consumption of contaminated brown and color rice. A total of 240 rice samples from two harvesting periods were collected in June/July 2012 (period I) and in December 2012/January 2013 (period II) and analyzed for AFB1 by HPLC with fluorescence detection (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.093 ng/g). Exposure assessment was based on AFB1 levels in rice and food intake data for rice according to Thai National Consumption. Frequency and levels of AFB1 were higher in period I (59%, rice samples exceeded the European Union maximum level for AFB1 of 2 μg kg(-1). The data showed that the quality and safety of Thai rice largely comply with the requirement for both exports and domestic consumption. According to the Thai National Consumption data, the estimated AFB1 intake via rice consumption in period I and period II was 0.80 and 0.12 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The potential risk for cancer, based on the recommendation of the JECFA, was estimated to be 0.011 person/year/100,000 people at a mean consumption. Although the risk via consumption of Thai rice seems to be low, the maximum levels of AFB1 in this staple food suggest that careful monitoring and surveillance of AFB1 contamination in rice is essential to ensure the safety of rice. PMID:26686516

  9. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferat...

  10. Analysis of Antioxidant Activity of Chinese Brown Rice by Fourier-Transformed Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a rapid method using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for analyzing the antioxidant activity of brown rice as total phenol content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Brown rice (n=121) collected from five producing areas was analyzed for TPC and DPPH by reference methods. The NIR reflectance spectra were measured with compact powders of samples and no treatment was used. Full-spectrum par...

  11. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  12. ECO FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR CONTROLING BROWN SPOT DISEASE IN RICE

    OpenAIRE

    M. SRINIVASARAO*, M. PRAMANICK, A. HALDER AND S. DAS1

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Brown spot of paddy (Helminthosporium oryzae) is prevalent in all rice growing areas of the country especially in heavy monsoon areas of West Bengal. The indiscriminate use of chemical fungicides to control the disease is not only hazardous to living beings but also adversely affects the environment. Successful control of the diseases by different tree biomass and by using bio control agents which had no adverse effect on the environment is one of the challenging objectives in or...

  13. Computer Vision for Screening Resistance Level of Rice Varieties to Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nurfadhilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper is one of the most important insect pest that threatens the stability of national rice production in Indonesia. One of the efforts to save rice production is by using brown planthopper resistant variety. Currently the determination approach is still conventional based on Standard Seedboxes Screening Test from IRRI with assistance of experienced experts in the scoring process resistance level.In this study, a prototype of application system to predict resistance levels by image color approach was developed. The method consists of collecting images data, preparation process (background and objects segmentation, and determination of area proportion which has been infected (sick and dead and healthy, based on ‘A’ value from CIELab color space laboratory. According to proportion value distribution, the rule of rice resistance to brown planthopper assessment based on image was developed. The rule is mostly similar with IRRI standard rules. All of images were assessed based on the rule and then the model was developed with an error rate of 17.02%.

  14. Investigation on subcellular localization of Rice stripe virus in its vector small brown planthopper by electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jinhua; Li, Shuo; Hong, Jian; Ji, Yinghua; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice stripe virus (RSV), which is transmitted by small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH), has been reported to be epidemic and cause severe rice stripe disease in rice fields in many East Asian countries, including China. Investigation on viral localization in the vector is very important for elucidating transmission mechanisms of RSV by SBPH. In this study, transmission electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling technique were used to investigate the subcel...

  15. Estimation of the Age and Amount of Brown Rice Plant Hoppers Based on Bionic Electronic Nose Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sai Xu; Zhiyan Zhou; Huazhong Lu; Xiwen Luo; Yubin Lan; Yang Zhang; Yanfang Li

    2014-01-01

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analy...

  16. Development of NIRS models to predict protein and amylose content of brown rice and proximate compositions of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Torit Baran; Sharma, Srigopal; Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu

    2016-01-15

    With the escalating persuasion of economic and nutritional importance of rice grain protein and nutritional components of rice bran (RB), NIRS can be an effective tool for high throughput screening in rice breeding programme. Optimization of NIRS is prerequisite for accurate prediction of grain quality parameters. In the present study, 173 brown rice (BR) and 86 RB samples with a wide range of values were used to compare the calibration models generated by different chemometrics for grain protein (GPC) and amylose content (AC) of BR and proximate compositions (protein, crude oil, moisture, ash and fiber content) of RB. Various modified partial least square (mPLSs) models corresponding with the best mathematical treatments were identified for all components. Another set of 29 genotypes derived from the breeding programme were employed for the external validation of these calibration models. High accuracy of all these calibration and prediction models was ensured through pair t-test and correlation regression analysis between reference and predicted values. PMID:26258697

  17. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; He, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating pest of rice. Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. To date, 29 major BPH resistance genes have been identified from indica cultivars and wild rice species, and more than ten genes have been fine mapped to chromosome regions of less than 200 kb. Four genes (Bph14, Bph26, Bph17 and bph29) have been cloned. The increasing number of fine-mapped and cloned genes provide a solid foundation for development of functional markers for use in breeding. Several BPH resistant introgression lines (ILs), near-isogenic lines (NILs) and pyramided lines (PLs) carrying single or multiple resistance genes were developed by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABC). Here we review recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of BPH resistance in rice. Prospect for developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum BPH resistance are discussed. PMID:27300326

  18. Increasing the bio-active compounds contents by optimizing the germination conditions of Southern Thai Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiraporn Banchuen; Paiboon Thammarutwasik; Buncha Ooraikul; Phaisan Wuttijumnong; Piyarat Sirivongpaisal

    2010-01-01

    Three Thailand rice varieties (cv. Niaw Dam Peuak Dam, Sangyod Phatthalung and Chiang Phatthalung) were germinatedand their -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was monitored. Optimum germination conditions to maximize GABAcontent in brown rice were determined. The brown rice was first soaked in various solutions (buffer solution pH 2, 3, 5, and 7and distilled water) at room temperature (30±2°C) for 5 hours, followed by germinating in either open or closed vessel for 12,24, 36, and 48 hours. Re...

  19. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  20. Serotonin attenuates biotic stress and leads to lesion browning caused by a hypersensitive response to Magnaporthe oryzae penetration in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiko; Fujita, Yoshikatsu; Ashizawa, Taketo; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Hayano-Saito, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) of plants is one of the earliest responses to prevent pathogen invasion. A brown dot lesion on a leaf is visual evidence of the HR against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice, but tracking the browning process has been difficult. In this study, we induced the HR in rice cultivars harboring the blast resistance gene Pit by inoculation of an incompatible M. oryzae strain, which generated a unique resistance lesion with a brown ring (halo) around the brown fungal penetration site. Inoculation analysis using a plant harboring Pit but lacking an enzyme that catalyzes tryptamine to serotonin showed that high accumulation of the oxidized form of serotonin was the cause of the browning at the halo and penetration site. Our analysis of the halo browning process in the rice leaf revealed that abscisic acid enhanced biosynthesis of serotonin under light conditions, and serotonin changed to the oxidized form via hydrogen peroxide produced by light. The dramatic increase in serotonin, which has a high antioxidant activity, suppressed leaf damage outside the halo, blocked expansion of the browning area and attenuated inhibition of plant growth. These results suggest that serotonin helps to reduce biotic stress in the plant by acting as a scavenger of oxygen radicals to protect uninfected tissues from oxidative damage caused by the HR. The deposition of its oxide at the HR lesion is observed as lesion browning. PMID:26603141

  1. Physical mapping of Bph3, a brown planthopper resistance locus in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapong Jairin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, a destructive phloem feeding insect pest, is an important objective in rice breeding programs in Thailand. The broad-spectrum resistance gene Bph3 is one of the major BPH resistance genes identified so far in cultivated rice and has been widely used in rice improvement programs. This resistance gene has been identified and mapped on the short arm of chromosome 6. In this study, physical mapping of Bph3 was performed using a BC3F3 population derived from a cross between Rathu Heenati and KDML105. Recombinant BC3F3 individuals with the Bph3 genotype were determined by phenotypic evaluation using modified mass tiller screening at the vegetative stage of rice plants. The recombination events surrounding the Bph3 locus were used to identify the co-segregate markers. According to the genome sequence of Nipponbare, the Bph3 locus was finally localized approximately in a 190 kb interval flanked by markers RM19291 and RM8072, which contain twenty-two putative genes. Additional phenotypic experiment revealed that the resistance in Rathu Heenati was decreased by increasing nitrogen content in rice plants through remobilization of nitrogen. This phenomenon should be helpful for identifying the Bph3 gene.

  2. Determination of sixteen elements and arsenic species in brown, polished and milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Eri; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Hioki, Akiharu

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 elements in 10 rice flour samples and the distribution of the elements in the rice grains from which the flour were made were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES after microwave-assisted digestion of the samples. Arsenic speciation analysis was carried out by HPLC-ICP-MS following heat-assisted extraction of the sample. The concentrations of inorganic As (As(III) and As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and their distribution in the rice grains were determined. Portions of the brown rice were polished/milled to different degrees to yield milled off samples and polished rice samples. All samples were powdered and analyzed for 16 elements and for As species. The recoveries and mass balances for all elements in all samples showed good agreements with the starting materials. As(III), As(V), MMAA and DMAA were detected, and the sums of the concentrations of all species in the extract were 86-105% of the total As concentration in each case. PMID:24521911

  3. Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bao-hua; YANG Yang; SHI Yong-feng; LIN Lu; CHEN Jie; WEI Yan-lin; Hei LEUNG

    2013-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)induced IR64 mutant bank.The mutant,designated as Ibsl1 (light brown spotted-leaf 1),displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions.Agronomic traits including plant height,growth duration,number of filled grains per panicle,seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected.Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene,tentatively named Ibsl1(t),which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6.By developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers,the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588.The Ibsl1(t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identified near the chromosomal region.The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.

  4. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae) using some phenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Y M; Abdel-Fattah, G M; Ismail, A E; Rashad, Y M

    2008-07-01

    Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone). The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains. PMID:24031243

  5. Effect of selenium enrichment on the quality of germinated brown rice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Kunlun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-09-15

    Changes in the quality of selenized germinated brown rice (Se-GBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) under controlled temperature storage were investigated. Samples were sealed in air-tight jars (75% RH) and stored at 15, 25, or 35°C for 9months. Fatty acid value (FAV), peroxide value (POV), and carbonyl value (CV) were determined every 45d. FAV, POV, and CV gradually increased with the storage period. Samples stored under low-temperature showed lower FAVs, POVs, and CVs than samples stored at higher temperatures. Compared with GBR, Se-GBR showed lower FAVs, POVs and CVs; this indicates Se exerted a positive effect on the preservation of rice quality. Over 100 volatile compounds were identified, and 15 volatile aldehydes were further studied. To determine the distribution pattern of volatile aldehydes, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed. The first two principal components determined from the PCA of volatile aldehydes explained 50.22% of the variance observed. PMID:27080875

  6. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  7. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  8. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back...

  9. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  10. Developmental Analysis of Genetic Behavior of Brown Rice Width in indica-japonica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; SHI Chun-hai; YE Shen-hai; QI Yong-bin

    2006-01-01

    The developmental genetic behaviors of brown rice width (BRW) have been studied in indica-japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), in which seven indica male sterile lines and five japonica restorer lines were applied, by using the developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid in cereal crops. The BRW of indica-japonica hybrid rice was co-determined by gene expression of triploid endosperm, cytoplasm, diploid maternal plant and their genotype ×environmental interaction effects. Unconditional analysis showed that the endosperm additive and maternal additive effects were predominant for the development of BRW from early- to late-stage of the grain development, but the endosperm dominant effect together with maternal effect and cytoplasmic effect became the major factor determing the BRW at the ripening stage. Moreover,conditional analysis found that there were new onset and offset of gene expression at different developmental stages of BRW in indica-japonica hybrid rice. Maternal and cytoplasm general heritabilities and their interaction heritabilities were more important compared to other components of heritability for BRW at all the five developmental stages.

  11. Preparation the germinated brown rice yogurt%发芽糙米酸奶发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊秀花; 王步江; 何新益; 张爱琳

    2012-01-01

    论文以发芽糙米和奶粉为主要原料,发芽糙米经液化、糖化、乳酸发酵等工艺,研究添加了发茅糙米对酸奶的发酵特性以及品质的影响。实验结果表明:在配方为发芽糙米用量10%,脱脂酸奶的用量15%,食用蔗糖3%,酸奶接种量5%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间为11h时,含菌量是对照的5倍,达到4.1×10^8cfu/mL,乳酸菌含量比对照组增加了5倍之多且风味良好,说明发芽糙米具有一定的益菌作用,发芽糙米酸奶具有一定的开发价值。%This paper was studied on fermented yogurt were investigated using germinated brown rice as raw material by processes of liquefying, saccharification and lactic acid fermentation. Preliminary germinated brown rice that are explored in the increase of germinated brown rice yogurt. The optimal fermentation conditions of lactic acid fermented yogurt were investigated using germinated brown rice as raw material through experimental design. The optimum conditions were as followed: germinated brown rice content 10%, skimmed milk powder content 15%, sugar content 3%, inoculum of yogurt 3%, fermentation temperature 42 ℃ and fermentation time 11 h. The results showed that content of lactic acid bacteria increased when content of germinated brown rice increased.

  12. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayi Huangfu; Jiancai Li; Ran Li; Meng Ye; Peng Kuai; Tongfang Zhang; Yonggen Lou

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salic...

  13. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  14. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application

  15. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  17. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus obliquus (IO is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H2O2-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  18. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

  19. A novel multi-biofunctional protein from brown rice hydrolysed by endo/endo-exoproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamassakul, Orrapun; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2016-06-15

    Brown rice, which is a less allergenic food grain and contains essential amino acids, was hydrolysed by bromelain and PROTEASE FP51® to improve its functionalities and taste for food applications. The hydrolysate prepared by bromelain (eb-RPH) had high protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, low molecular weight peptides, hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) and flavor amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid). The eb-RPH exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic (ABTS˙(+)) radical-scavenging activities of 76.62% and 52.96%, respectively, and possessed a better foaming capacity (221.76%) and emulsifying capacity (32.34%) than the hydrolysate prepared by PROTEASE FP51® (ep-RPH) did. The eb-RPH gave the desired taste, which is attributed to volatile flavor compounds (benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) and non-volatile flavor compounds, such as monosodium glutamate, 5'-guanosine monophosphate and 5'-inosine monophosphate (0.07, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL(-1), respectively). Brown rice peptides generated by bromelain were novel bioactive peptides with multifunctional properties. PMID:27186602

  20. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  1. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs. PMID:27178300

  2. Primary metabolism plays a central role in moulding silicon-inducible brown spot resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockhaven, Jonas; Steppe, Kathy; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Asano, Takayuki; Höfte, Monica; De Vleesschauwer, David

    2015-10-01

    Over recent decades, a multitude of studies have shown the ability of silicon (Si) to protect various plants against a range of microbial pathogens exhibiting different lifestyles and infection strategies. Despite this relative wealth of knowledge, an understanding of the action mechanism of Si is still in its infancy, which hinders its widespread application for agricultural purposes. In an attempt to further elucidate the molecular underpinnings of Si-induced disease resistance, we studied the transcriptome of control and Si-treated rice plants infected with the necrotrophic brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Analysis of brown spot-infected control plants suggested that C. miyabeanus represses plant photosynthetic processes and nitrate reduction in order to trigger premature senescence and cause disease. In Si-treated plants, however, these pathogen-induced metabolic alterations are strongly impaired, suggesting that Si alleviates stress imposed by the pathogen. Interestingly, Si also significantly increased photorespiration rates in brown spot-infected plants. Although photorespiration is often considered as a wasteful process, recent studies have indicated that this metabolic bypass also enhances resistance during abiotic stress and pathogen attack by protecting the plant's photosynthetic machinery. In view of these findings, our results favour a scenario in which Si enhances brown spot resistance by counteracting C. miyabeanus-induced senescence and cell death via increased photorespiration. Moreover, our results shed light onto the mechanistic basis of Si-induced disease control and support the view that, in addition to activating plant immune responses, Si can also reduce disease severity by interfering with pathogen virulence strategies. PMID:25583155

  3. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  5. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedick, Nicole M.; Vasudevan, Sudha; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Ramya; Malik, Vasanti; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B.; Mohan, Anjana Ranjit; Viswanathan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. This manuscript describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25–65y with a body mass index ≥23kg/m2 and habitual rice consumption ≥200grams/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere. PMID:26017321

  6. Silicon, acibenzolar-S-methyl and potassium phosphite in the control of brown spot in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Juliane Telles Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of silicon (Si, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, and potassium phosphite (Phi on the potentiation of rice resistance to infection by Bipolaris oryzae. The treatments included the soil amended with Si (1.25 g of calcium silicate per kg of soil, spraying of plants with ASM (500 mg∙L–1, Phi (5 mL∙L–1, and distilled water (control 24 h before inoculation with B. oryzae. The treatments Si supply and the spraying of ASM and Phi were effective in reducing the area under brown spot progress curve and the number of lesions per cm2 of leaf. Polyphenoloxidases activity was higher for plants supplied with Si. On plants sprayed with ASM, the activities of polyphenoloxidases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chitinases, and β-1,3-glucanases increased. The spraying of plants with Phi did not increase the activities of the studied defense enzymes. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that brown spot symptoms can be greatly reduced with the use of Si, ASM, and Phi.

  7. Rice brown spot and susceptibility of some cultivars in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari-Motlagh, M R; Hedjaroude, Gh A; Zad, S J; Okhovvat, S M

    2002-01-01

    Rice brown spot is one of the important diseases in the world including Iran. 91 samples of the infected plants such as leaves and panicles were collected from different locations of Guilan province, North of Iran and the fungi isolated and studied for pathogenicity. Three species of Bipolaris (B. oryzae, Bipolaris sp. and B. cf. victoriae) were isolated more than other species with serious effects on the plants respectively. Reactions of 8 cultivars of rice, Neda, Nemat, Sepeed-rood, Bejar, Khazar, Domsephid, Hassan-saraee and Binam were studied in greenhouse to Bipolaris sp. and B. cf. victoriae in two stages of growth, on leaves and panicles, respectively. The results showed that in seedling stage on leaf there was no significant difference between these cultivars in case of infection rates. In heading stage, although there was no significant difference according to variance analysis, but according to Duncan test (5%) they could be divided into 3 groups. Neda, Sepeed-rood, Khazar and Binam, with the lowest infection rate, were in the first group Bejar, Domsephid and Hassan-saraee were classified into the second group and Nemat was in the third one. Curvularia sp., Nigrospora sp., Pyricularia grisea and Alternaria sp. were with minor prevalence in infection of the plants. PMID:12701419

  8. Screening of Rice Varieties against Brown Leaf Spot Disease at Jyotinagar, Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Magar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on fourteen rice varieties to determine the level of resistance against brown leaf spot (Bipolaris oryzaedisease at Karma Research and Development Center, Jyotinagar, Chitwan during summer in 2013. Design used was randomized completeblock design with three replications. Disease severity, total AUDPC value, thousand grain weight and grain yield were highly significant amongthe rice varieties. Disease severity and total AUDPC value ranged from 21.73% to 58.07% and 614.8 to 1827 respectively. None of thesevarieties were found either resistant or highly resistant to disease. Only HJ-G1 and HJ-G2 were moderately resistant with grain yield of 5.10t/ha and 4.25 t/ha respectively. HJ-G1 variety had the highest grain yield 5.10 t/ha and lowest disease severity (21.73% as well as total AUDPCvalue (6148. From this experiment, it can be concluded that HJ-G1 variety can be used for higher grain yield purpose under similar fieldcondition because it has highest yield and also tolerant to disease.

  9. Preventive effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran against N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in male hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hara, Akira; HIRATA, AKIHIRO; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to have the potential to prevent chemical carcinogenesis of the colon, liver, esophagus, urinary bladder, stomach and lungs in rodents. The present study examined the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in hamsters. Five-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into seven groups. Groups 1–5 were subcutaneously injected with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight...

  10. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  11. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage. PMID:23912113

  12. Performance of Fatty Liver Development in Response to Brown Rice and Corn-Based Diets in Overfed Landes Geese(Anser anser)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi; HE Rui-guo; WANG Yu-lian; SUN Yun-zi; ZHOU Ying; YANG Zheng-mei; ZHANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The effect of brown rice and corn-based diets on fatty liver weight, carcass traits, lipids accumulation and liver composition of Landes geese (Anser anser) after feeding the same amount of each diet was investigated. After 2 weeks overfeeding,besides body weight and body weight gain increased significantly, the fatty liver weights were increased dramatically from 94.67 to 554.67 and 754.00 g in corn treatment and rice treatment, respectively, and the accumulation lipids in adipose tissues reached up to or close to 2 folds of initial weight in both treatments. Liver weight was greater in brown rice group than in corn group(P<0.05). Compared to before overfeeding, triacylglycerols (TG) in geese fatty liver increased dramatically and predominated (from 9.08% to close to or more than 90% of hepatic lipids), whereas phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) decreased sharply in both treatments (P<0.05). However, the percentages of lipids, TG and PL in fatty liver were higher in brown rice treatment than in corn treatment, and that of CE was lower (P<0.05). It indicates that overfeeding chiefly results in lipids accumulation in goose fatty liver and adipose tiss ues. Brown rice-based diet induces greater fatty liver, and brown rice is one of high quality overfeeding ingredients instead of corn.

  13. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

  14. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Huangfu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA or salicylic acid (SA. The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  15. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  16. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, T; Nakajima, K; Uno, Y; Sakano, A; Murakami, M; Narahara, Y; Fujii, T [Department of Food Sci., Niigata University Pharm. Appl. Life Sci. (NUPALS), Niigata, Niigata, 956-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, M [Niigata Industrial Creation Organization (NICO), Niigata, Niigata, 950-0078 (Japan); Ueno, S, E-mail: shige@nupals.ac.j [Grad. School of Agric. Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25{sup 0}C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  17. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  18. SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA BERAS MERAH GOGO LOKAL ENDE [The Physico-chemical Properties of Local Ende High Land Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Herianus J.D Lalel; Zainal Abidin; Lewi Jutomo2)

    2009-01-01

    Ten strains of Ende high land brown rice were assessed to underpin their physico-chemical properties related to their potential uses. Are Ndota has bigger grain size and smoother gel consistency than others (63.50 mm gel length). It potentially can be used as food thickeners and baby foods. Are Kea showed the highest water imbibition ability (90.99%), the fastest wettability (12.11 sec), and the highest dispersibility value (2,50 %) due to its high amylose content (33.21 %). Potentially, Ar...

  19. The concentration and distribution of essential elements in brown rice associated with the polishing rate: Use of ICP-AES and Micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and distribution of essential elements in brown rice grains (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) associated with the polishing rate was determined. Rice samples were collected in Japan and polished to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% loss of the total weight of brown rice. Concentrations of eight essential elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and distributions of the elements in a single grain were visualized as elemental distribution maps of a cross section by micro particle induced X-ray emission (Micro-PIXE) analysis. Results of ICP-AES analysis indicated that in rice which polished from 0% to 10% loss of weight, there were three patterns in the P/B ratio, which is the mean concentration of an element in polished rice divided by that of the element in the brown rice: no change (Cu and Zn), a gradual decrease (P, Mg, Mn and Fe), and a decrease after a constant phase (Ca and K). There was no remarkable change of the P/B ratio in rice grains which polished from 10% to 20% loss of weight. Micro-PIXE analysis images showed that P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn were present in large amounts in the surface layer (approx. <200 μm thickness) of brown rice. Two sub-layers were mainly recognized in the grain surface layer in the elemental distribution maps of a cross section. The first sub-layer was approximately 130-170 μm thick. The second sub-layer was approximately 20-50 μm thick, and the primary part of the grain (endosperm cells and starch granules) was under it. The images showed Cu and Zn were uniformity distributed in brown rice, and their concentrations of polished rice were not affected by the polishing rate. Although ICP-AES measurements could not provide the detail structure of the surface layer of the rice grains, the trend of concentration of the elements generally agreed with the elemental distribution maps obtained Micro-PIXE analysis

  20. Genetic improvement of brown - Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) resistance through radiation technique in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate over genetic manipulation and its use in plant improvement for insect resistance has led to an increased demand for developing various alternative methods. Mutation induction for plant genetic improvement is one of the oldest but still relevant, economic and recognized methods. Mutations induced by radiation can alter the host parasite interaction by alteration relevant gene sequence, and thus enhance resistance to insect pests while keeping intact the original plant type. Brown-planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is a major insect pest of rice in the region of Chhattisgarh State. Use of insecticide to control this insect is loosing its ground due to development of resurgence, insecticide resistance in insects and insecticide residue in crop plant at crop maturity stage. Varieties viz. Safri, Mahsuri, Dubraj and Mahamaya are most popular in this region, but are susceptible to this insect pest. Therefore, these four varieties were taken into consideration for genetic improvement through radiation techniques. Seeds of these varieties were exposed to four doses of gamma rays viz. 150, 200, 250, and 300 Gy at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) Mumbai (M.S.) India. M1 generations were raised in the field during 2003-2004 kharif in the experimental plot of Entomology Department, IGAU Raipur. The M2 seeds of randomly harvested from 100 M1 plants were tested using BPH larvae, which are throughout the year at temperature ± 28-30 deg. C in glass house, as per the standard technique. Survived seedlings from wooden screening boxes were repotted in earthen pots individually. M3 seeds were harvested from these survived individual plants for further test. A total of 3000 seedlings from 100 M1 plants of each variety/ treatment were evaluated in M2 generation and 2 to 57 tentative resistant M2 seedlings were identified for the three varieties. In M3, 510,150 and 60 seedlings were grown from the seeds harvested from the resistant M2 plants and screened for their

  1. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-05-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4-25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81-101% with relative standard deviations of 5-19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0-1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49-5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10-14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964

  2. Characterizing and estimating rice brown spot disease severity using stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least-square regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-yu; Huang, Jing-feng; Shi, Jing-jing; Tao, Rong-xiang; Zhou, Wan; Zhang, Li-Li

    2007-10-01

    Detecting plant health conditions plays a key role in farm pest management and crop protection. In this study, measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance in rice crop (Oryzasativa L.) was conducted on groups of healthy and infected leaves by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann) through the wavelength range from 350 to 2,500 nm. The percentage of leaf surface lesions was estimated and defined as the disease severity. Statistical methods like multiple stepwise regression, principal component analysis and partial least-square regression were utilized to calculate and estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf level. Our results revealed that multiple stepwise linear regressions could efficiently estimate disease severity with three wavebands in seven steps. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) for training (n=210) and testing (n=53) dataset were 6.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component could explain approximately 80% of the variance of the original hyperspectral reflectance. The regression model with the first two principal components predicted a disease severity with RMSEs of 16.3% and 13.9% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Partial least-square regression with seven extracted factors could most effectively predict disease severity compared with other statistical methods with RMSEs of 4.1% and 2.0% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Our research demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot using hyperspectral reflectance data at the leaf level. PMID:17910117

  3. Uptake of 14C-carbofuran from rice plants by brown planthopper (nilaparvata lugens stal) and green leafhopper (Nephotettix virencence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the amount of 14-C-carbofuran taken up by brown planthopper (BPH) and green leafhopper (GLH) from ride plants containing 14-C-carbofuran. The roots of 30 days old rice plants were immersed in Kimura B solution containing carbofuran (0.6ug/ml) with activity of 18600 pCi/ml. After 3 days, 20 BPH and 20 GLH released onto the rice stems and leaves. The mortalities of BPH and GLH were similar after 24 and 48 hours of the release. The average radioactivity found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living BPH. And in dead GLH was 3.2 times on those in dead BPH. Radioactivity in rice leaves was 3.5 times of those in stems. This layer chromatograph of extracts of Kimura B solution, stems, and leaves showed that small amounts of carbofuran had degraded to substances like 3-OH-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran. The percentage of radioactivity found as carbofuran decreased with time, while the amount of 3-ket-carbofuran increased. (authors). 6 refs, 2 figs, 6 tab

  4. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio. PMID:27213275

  5. Bebidas saborizadas obtidas de extratos de quirera de arroz, de arroz integral e de soja Flavored drinks obtained from extracts of broken rice and brown rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de desenvolver bebidas elaboradas com extratos de quirera de arroz e de arroz integral e comparar as características químicas e sensoriais destas com bebida elaborada com extrato de soja. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com três tratamentos (bebidas de extrato de quirera de arroz, extrato de arroz integral e extrato soja. As seguintes análises foram realizadas: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, valor energético, cálcio, magnésio, cobre, manganês, ferro e zinco. Também determinou-se a aceitabilidade e a intenção de compra. A bebida elaborada com o extrato de soja contém maiores teores de cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos e minerais em relação ao extrato de quirera de arroz, que possui o maior teor de carboidratos e valor energético. Todas as bebidas obtiveram boa aceitação, com intenção de compra pela população entrevistada acima de 95%, sendo que mais de 99% dos provadores comprariam a bebida elaborada com o extrato de arroz integral (tratamento de maior aceitação. As bebidas elaboradas com extrato de arroz integral ou de quirera de arroz são uma alternativa viável para as pessoas que possuam intolerância à lactose do leite de origem animal e/ou alergia às proteínas da soja.The aim of this work was to develop drinks based on extracts of broken rice and brown rice and to compare their chemical and sensory characteristics with a drink made of soy extract. A totally randomized design was applied, with three treatments (broken rice extract, brown rice extract and soy extract drinks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ash, protein, lipids, total carbohydrates, caloric value, calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc, besides the determination of consumer acceptability and buying intention. The soy-based drink has the highest ash, protein, lipids and mineral contents when compared to broken rice extract, which in

  6. Heavy Metals in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Soil After Long-Term Irrigation of Wastewater Discharged from Domestic Sewage Treatment Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. CHUNG; C. H. SONG; B. J. PARK; J. Y. CHO

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a plastic film house to evaluate the translocation and uptake of heavy metals (Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn) into brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the heavy metals residues in soils which had previously been irrigated with domestic wastewater for a long time (3 years).The range of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn was 5.10 ± 0.01,0.105 ± 0.017,5.76 ± 0.42,and 23.56 ± 1.40 mg kg-1,respectively in the domestic wastewater-irrigated soil,and 0.370 ± 0.006,0.011 ±0.001,0.340 ± 0.04,and 2.05 ± 0.18 mg kg-1,respectively,in the domestic wastewater-irrigated brown rice.The results indicated that application of domestic wastewater to arable land slightly increased the levels of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn in soil and brown rice (P < 0.01).The concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were lower than the recommended tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.However,the continuous monitoring and pollution control of hazardous materials from domestic wastewater are needed in order to prevent excessive build-up of heavy metals in the food chain.

  7. Low-temperature brown rice storage by using renewable energy from snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, S.; Kawamura, S.; Fujita, H.; Doi, T.; Okada, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural Science; Homma, K. [Itogumi Construction Co. Ltd, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsuchiya, F. [Obihiro Univ. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in Japan to determine whether renewable energy generated from snow can be used to replace the cooling system and electricity used for cooling a rice storehouse that maintained the grain temperature below 15 degrees C. However, the low-temperature storage system required a cooling system and electricity to cool rice in summer. In this study, a snow pile using 890 t of snow was made at the beginning of March next to the rice storehouse. The shape of the snow pile was a trapezium, 17 x 23 m at the bottom and 4 x 10 m at the top and 5 m in height. The snow pile was covered with 200 to 300 mm of wood chips to act as an insulation layer. Approximately 27 per cent of the energy for cooling the rice storehouse could be replaced by using the snow pile in summer. The quality of stored rice was almost similar to that of freshly harvested rice. The study showed that renewable energy generated from snow piles can be used for cooling a high-quality rice storehouse without using electricity.

  8. Effects of Yamase climatic condition during the pollen mother cell developmental stage on concentrations of Cs and Sr in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the Yamase climatic condition on the concentration of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in brown rice were examined in relation to the soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L cv. Yumeakari) were cultivated in an artificial climate chamber, and exposed to a simulated Yamase condition for 3 or 7 d during the pollen mother cell developmental stage. In these simulated treatments, temperature and light intensity were set to 5degC lower and 50% lower than the respective control values. Fog was generated with visibility of 70±30 m. Concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and the other minor elements in brown rice samples were analyzed. Measured Cs and Sr concentrations were found to be unaffected by the Yamase treatments, while concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo were increased. (author)

  9. SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA BERAS MERAH GOGO LOKAL ENDE [The Physico-chemical Properties of Local Ende High Land Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herianus J.D. Lalel1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of Ende high land brown rice were assessed to underpin their physico-chemical properties related to their potential uses. Are Ndota has bigger grain size and smoother gel consistency than others (63.50 mm gel length. It potentially can be used as food thickeners and baby foods. Are Kea showed the highest water imbibition ability (90.99%, the fastest wettability (12.11 sec, and the highest dispersibility value (2,50 % due to its high amylose content (33.21 %. Potentially, Are kea can be used for noodles. The variety also had small repose angle (27.46, therefore it can be easily transported.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  11. Characterizing and estimating rice brown spot disease severity using stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least-square regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Detecting plant health conditions plays a key role in farm pest management and crop protection. In this study,measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance in rice crop (Oryzasativa L.) was conducted on groups of healthy and infected leaves by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann) through the wavelength range from 350 to 2 500 nm. The percentage of leaf surface lesions was estimated and defined as the disease severity. Statistical methods like multiple stepwise regression, principal component analysis and partial least-square regression were utilized to calculate and estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf level. Our results revealed that multiple stepwise linear regressions could efficiently estimate disease severity with three wavebands in seven steps. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) for training (n=210) and testing (n=53) dataset were 6.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component could explain approximately 80% of the variance of the original hyperspectral reflectance. The regression model with the first two principal components predicted a disease severity with RMSEs of 16.3% and 13.9% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Partial least-square regression with seven extracted factors could most effectively predict disease severity compared with other statistical methods with RMSEs of 4.1% and 2.0% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Our research demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate the disease severity office brown spot using hyperspectral reflectance data at the leaf level.

  12. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Il Jeon; Chang-Hwa Jung; Jeong-Yong Cho; Dong Ki Park; Jae-Hak Moon

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods: EtOAc extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAc, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results: The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAc extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions:Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB.

  13. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer. PMID:26769704

  14. Confirming a major QTL and finding additional loci responsible for field resistance to brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kengo; Ota, Chihiro; Yamakawa, Tomohiro; Kihara, Junichi; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko

    2015-03-01

    Brown spot is a devastating rice disease. Quantitative resistance has been observed in local varieties (e.g., 'Tadukan'), but no economically useful resistant variety has been bred. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from 'Tadukan' (resistant) × 'Hinohikari' (susceptible), we previously found three QTLs (qBS2, qBS9, and qBS11) that conferred resistance in seedlings in a greenhouse. To confirm their effect, the parents and later generations of RILs were transplanted into paddy fields where brown spot severely occurred. Three new resistance QTLs (qBSfR1, qBSfR4, and qBSfR11) were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 11, respectively. The 'Tadukan' alleles at qBSfR1 and qBSfR11 and the 'Hinohikari' allele at qBSfR4 increased resistance. The major QTL qBSfR11 coincided with qBS11 from the previous study, whereas qBSfR1 and qBSfR4 were new but neither qBS2 nor qBS9 were detected. To verify the qBSfR1 and qBSfR11 'Tadukan' resistance alleles, near-isogenic lines (NILs) with one or both QTLs in a susceptible background ('Koshihikari') were evaluated under field conditions. NILs with qBSfR11 acquired significant field resistance; those with qBSfR1 did not. This confirms the effectiveness of qBSfR11. Genetic markers flanking qBSfR11 will be powerful tools for marker-assisted selection to improve brown spot resistance. PMID:26069447

  15. Whole-genome expression analysis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in different plant hosts and small brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lan, Ying; Ren, Chunmei; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-11-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) can infect a number of gramineous plants and cause severe crop yield losses in southeast Asian countries. The virus is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent circulative manner. The interactions between RBSDV and its different hosts remain unknown. Besides, how the virus adjusts itself to infect different hosts is unclear. In the present study, the relative RNA levels of the thirteen RBSDV genes in rice, maize, wheat, and SBPH were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. P7-1 and P10 genes were predominantly expressed whereas P8 and P7-2 genes were expressed at low levels in plant hosts. Similar to the expression in rice, P7-1 was the most abundantly expressed gene and P8 was expressed at the lowest level in SBPH, indicating that RBSDV adopts the same strategy to infect distinct hosts. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene in both plants and insect suggest that it can be used as the target gene for disease diagnostics. However, the expression levels of some genes varied from host to host. P5-1, P6 and P9-1, the components of the RBSDV viroplasm, are differentially expressed in different hosts. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the quantity of the P9-1 protein was more abundant in SBPH than in plant hosts. These data indicate that the virus may adjust its own gene expression to replicate in different hosts. Analysis of time course of gene expression revealed that P7-1 stands out as the only gene highly expressed at the earliest time point and its expression precedes all others throughout infection from 8 to 24days post-inoculation. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene suggest that it plays a significant role in RBSDV-host interactions. PMID:26149652

  16. Highly Sensitive and Speciifc Monoclonal Antibody-Based Serological Methods for Rice Ragged Stunt Virus Detection in Rice Plants and Rice Brown Planthopper Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) is a serious rice disease in Asia, causing serious yield losses on rice. The capsid protein(CP) gene of the major outer capsid protein of RRSV was expressed inEscherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pMAL-C2X expression vector. The recombinant protein was used as the immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. A hybridoma cell line 8A12 secreting monoclonal antibody (MAb) against RRSV was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells (Sp 2/0) with spleen cells from the immunized BALB/c mice. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb 8A12 can speciifcally react with RRSV CP. Using the MAb, an antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), a dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA), and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) assay were developed to detect RRSV. The established ACP-ELISA, dot-blot ELISA and IC-RT-PCR methods could detect RRSV in infected rice tissue crude extracts with dilutions of 1:40960, 1:1280 and 1:655360 (w/v, g mL-1), respectively. The ACP-ELISA and dot-blot ELISA methods could detect RRSV in infected insect vector crude extracts with dilutions of 1:12800 and 1:1600 (an individual planthopper µL-1), respectively. The ifeld survey revealed that Rice ragged stunt disease occurs on rice in Hainan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi and Zhejiang in China.

  17. Effect of replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice and brown rice in broiler diets on growth performance and intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittiya, J; Yamauchi, K; Takata, K

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice (WPR) and whole-grain brown rice (BR) in broiler chicken diets and its effect on growth performance and histological structures of the intestinal villi. Marshall Chunky male chicks (14 days old) were divided into five groups with four replicates of four chicks each. In the dietary treatments, corn in the basal diet was replaced with WPR and BR. The chickens received five experimental diets consisting of corn, WPR and BR in ratios of 100:0:0 (Control), 50:0:50 (50Corn + 50BR), 50:25:25 (50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR), 25:50:25 (25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR) and 0:50:50 (50WPR + 50BR) respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 35 day. No significant differences were found in feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency among the treatment groups. The relative weights of the gizzard in the 50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR, 25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR and 50WPR + 50BR groups were significantly higher than that of the Control and 50Corn + 50BR groups (p Corn + 50WPR + 25BR group had cell clusters. The jejunal and ileal villus apical surface of the experimental groups showed similar morphology to the Control group. These findings suggest that WPR and BR can totally replace corn in broiler diets without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26122821

  18. Development of tea polyphenols brown rice sponge cake%茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红利; 吴跃; 李安平; 张燕秋

    2015-01-01

    以糙米粉和蛋糕粉为主要原料,研究茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方。通过单因素和正交试验考察了蛋糕粉、茶多酚、白砂糖和牛奶添加量对茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕感官品质和质构品质的影响,优化了茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方,确定了其最佳配方:蛋糕粉添加量20%,茶多酚添加量0.8%,白砂糖添加量80%,牛奶添加量40%,鸡蛋添加量180%,食用油添加量10%(以糙米粉与蛋糕粉的总量为基准)。按此配方所制得的糙米海绵蛋糕不含其他添加剂,表面呈金黄色,外形规范,隆起正常,而且营养价值高,具有焙烤米香风味,咀嚼性好,不易形成碎渣,爽口、有弹性,存放时间延长。%The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake was studied by using brown rice powder andcake powder as themain rawmaterials.The single factor andorthogonal test examined the effectsof the addition amountofcake powder,tea polyphenols,sugar andmilkon the sensory quality and structure qualityof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake.The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake wasoptimized and the best formula was 20%cake powder,0.8% tea polyphenols,80%sugar,40%milk,180% egg and 10%oil(basedon the total amountof brown rice powder andcake powder).Thecakemade withoutother additiveshad golden surface,appearance specification and normal uplift. In addition,ithadhigh nutritional value,baked rice fragrant flavor,goodchewiness,not easily broken slag formation,prolong storage time and was refreshing and elastic.

  19. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  20. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  1. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. PMID:26213057

  2. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  3. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to...

  4. 发芽糙米淀粉理化特性研究%The Study on Physicochemical Properties of Germinated Brown Rice Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧萍; 李常钰; 王超超; 宋伟

    2012-01-01

    采用富集γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的优选糙米发芽工艺条件,通过碱酶两步法提取糙米淀粉,研究发芽对糙米淀粉结构和理化特性的影响.结果表明:糙米发芽后,淀粉膨胀度增大,且随温度升高而提高;透明度升高了57.14%;峰值黏度基本不变;冻融稳定性提高,凝沉特性得到改善;淀粉凝胶的凝胶粘性有所提高,硬度和胶凝性有所降低;碘兰值减小,说明糙米发芽后其直链淀粉含量降低或聚合度减小;电镜分析结果显示,发芽后糙米淀粉颗粒变得圆滑,棱角较发芽前不明显.综上得出,发芽对糙米淀粉的理化特性具有一定的改善作用.%With the optimal germination conditions on brown rice of GABA enrichment,two - step by alkali and enzyme was used to extract the starch from the brown rice,ar.d the changes of starch structure of brown rice and physi-cochemical properties after germination were studied in the paper. The results showed that;The swelling power was increased after germination,and increased with the temperature rising;the transparency was increased by 57. 14% ;the peak viscosity was inhibited obviously and the freeze - thawing stability was enhanced strongly after germination; the adhesiveness of starch gelatin was increased after germination, hardness and gumminess were both decreased; iodine blue value was decreased;it indicated that the amylose content or the degree of polymerization decreased after germination; electron microscopy analysis showed that germinated brown rice starch granules were round, and the angular were not obvious after germination. It showed that germination could improve the physicochemical properties of brown rice starch.

  5. Purification and identification of Se-containing antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Se-enriched brown rice protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fusheng; Fang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    As a further study of Se-containing proteins (Se-Pro) derived from Se-enriched brown rice (Se-BR), this paper aimed to purify and identify Se-containing antioxidative peptides (Se-antioxi-Peps) from Se-Pro hydrolysates. The total Se content in Se-BR was 6.26μg/g DW, and selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine were identified as the main organic Se species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Se-Pro was extracted and hydrolyzed by four types of proteases, and Alcalase was chosen as the optimum enzyme according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysate with 17.08% DH possessing the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was separated into five fractions (F1 to F5). Fractions F3 to F5, which had high antioxidative activities, were further separated. Sub-fractions F3-3, F4-2, and F5-1 were chosen to evaluate antioxidative activities and analyze Se species. The Se-antioxi-Pep with the sequence SeMet-Pro-Ser was identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. PMID:25977046

  6. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (pprotein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  7. Study on antioxidant activity of brown rice during gemination%糙米发芽过程中体外抗氧化活性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅晴; 吴跃; 林亲录; 徐红利

    2016-01-01

    以湘晚籼13和星2号两种稻谷品种为原料,采用糙米快速发芽技术,研究糙米发芽过程中抗氧化活性变化,其中抗氧化活性综合了目前广泛采用的六种方法,分别为DPPH自由基清除、铁离子还原力、羟基自由基清除、ORAC(氧化自由基吸收能力)荧光法、总抗氧化能力测定(ABTS)法、抑制脂质过氧化能力。结果表明,随着糙米的发芽,其体内的抗氧化活性物质在发生改变,此变化过程中会达到一个最佳状态,得出发芽14 h的湘晚籼13糙米和发芽12 h的星2号糙米抗氧化活性最好。%With 13 XiangLate Indica andStar 2 two rice varieties asmaterial,using brown rice quick germination technology,thechangeof antioxidant activity in vitroof brown rice gemination was studied.The antioxidant activity was acombinationof six kindsofmethods,including DPPH radical scavenging,iron reducing power,hydroxyl radical scavenging,ORAC(oxide free radical absorptive capacity) fluorescencemethod, determinationof total antioxidantcapacity(ABTS)method and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation.The results showed that with brown rice germinated,its antioxidant activity in the bodymaterial was inchange,thischange would reach a best state,antioxidant activityof brown rice was best when 13 XiangLate Indica germinated 14h andStar 2 germinated 12h.

  8. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. PMID:27283689

  9. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-09-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant-insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties. PMID:26136269

  10. 糙米芽制备及其在红曲保健酒中的应用%Studies on the preparation of brown rice bud and its application in red starter health wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 肖连冬

    2012-01-01

    对糙米芽制备及其红曲保健酒的生产工艺条件进行研究.通过单因素及正交试验,确定糙米发芽、糙米芽汁制备及复合菌种发酵等过程的最佳工艺条件.结果表明,糙米芽制备适宜的工艺条件为25℃浸泡10 h、30℃下发芽24h;糙米芽汁制备中,采用70℃液化2h、55℃糖化2h所得糙米汁质量较高;酵母接种量为0.5%(m/V),红曲霉接种量为15% (V/V),在32℃下发酵5d,可得到色香味俱佳的糙米芽红曲保健酿造酒.%This paper inquire into production process conditions of brown rice germination and brown rice bud red starter health wine. Single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were adopted to study brown rice germination, preparation of brown rice bud extract and fermentation by mixed strains. The experimental results showed that the optimum brown rice germination conditions were 25 ℃ soak 10 h and 30 ℃ germinate 24 h ; The optimum conditions of preparation of brown rice bud extract were 70 ℃ liquefying 2 h and 55 ℃ saccharification 2 h; when yeast inoculum quantity was 0.5% (m/V), monascus inoculation quantity was 15% (V/V) and 32 ℃ fermentation 5d , the red starter Health Wine which was coloury , refreshing . tasty, and nourishing was obtained.

  11. Screening of browning inhibitor in the extraction of rice bran protein%米糠蛋白提取中褐变抑制剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 刘颖; 窦博鑫

    2012-01-01

    米糠蛋白是一种低过敏性的优质植物性蛋白,但制备过程中常伴随褐变反应的发生,导致制备出的米糠蛋白成品颜色深,限制了米糠蛋白在食品及相关领域的广泛应用。本文以米糠为原料,分别采用碱法和复合法提取米糠蛋白,在提取米糠蛋白的过程中分别加入各种不同的抑制剂,以抑制褐变反应。碱法提取米糠蛋白过程中,最佳抑制剂为1.5%的次氯酸钠,色素抑制率为64.2%,蛋白提取率为53.7%;复合法中,以3.0%的抗坏血酸、1.0%的次氯酸钠和o.15%的L-半胱氨酸为最佳复配抑制剂的情况下,提取出的米糠蛋白颜色浅,此时色素抑制率为69.87%,蛋白提取率曲80.06%,褐变抑制效果显著,蛋白提取率高。%Rice bran protein is hypoallergenic and high-quality plant protein. Browning reactions often occur with extraction process of rice bran protein,and the color of protein production is dark that limits the applications of rice bran protein.Rice bran was used as the raw material and many kinds of inhibitors were added in the extraction process of rice bran protein to prevent the browning of rice bran.In the alkali extraction process,the best inhibitor was sodium hypochlorite,the protein extraction rate was 53.7% and inhibitory rate of pigment was 64.2%.1n the compounding extraction process, the best inhibitor was the mixture of 3.0% ascorbic acid, 1.0% Sodium hypochlorite and 0.15% L-Cysteine. Under this condition, inhibition rate of pigment was 69.87% and protein extraction rate was 80.06%.

  12. Comparative chemical screening and genetic analysis reveal tentoxin as a new virulence factor in Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the causal agent of brown spot disease on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, Lieselotte; Van Poucke, Christof; Di Mavungu, Diana Jose; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Vleesschauwer, David; Turgeon, B Gillian; De Saeger, Sarah; Höfte, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Brown spot disease, caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, is currently considered to be one of the most important yield reducers of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Despite its agricultural importance, little is known about the virulence mechanisms deployed by the fungus. Therefore, we set out to identify novel virulence factors with a role in disease development. This article reports, for the first time, the production of tentoxin by C. miyabeanus as a virulence factor during brown spot disease and the identification of the non-ribosomal protein synthetase (NRPS) CmNps3, responsible for tentoxin biosynthesis. We compared the chemical compounds produced by C. miyabeanus strains differing in virulence ability using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HRMS). The production of tentoxin by a highly virulent strain was revealed by principal component analysis of the detected ions and confirmed by UHPLC coupled to tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The corresponding NRPS was identified by in silico genome analysis and confirmed by gene deletion. Infection tests with wild-type and Cmnps3 mutants showed that tentoxin acts as a virulence factor and is correlated with chlorosis development during the second phase of infection. Although rice has previously been classified as a tentoxin-insensitive plant species, our data demonstrate that tentoxin production by C. miyabeanus affects symptom development. PMID:26456797

  13. 糙米储藏品质评价数学模型的建立%ESTABLISHMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING BROWN RICE STORAGE QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉荣; 贾少英; 周显青

    2011-01-01

    为对糙米储藏过程中的劣变进行及时调控,选用2个粳糙米样品,测定不同储藏条件下的脂肪酸值、发芽率、生活力、电导率、降落数值等生理生化指标,进行各指标间的相关性分析,采用灰色关联度分析法对各项指标进行储藏品质敏感指标的筛选,并以各项敏感指标为自变量,以碾磨后的大米食味值为因变量,采用逐步回归的方法建立敏感指标与糙米最终食味值间的数学模型.结果表明:脂肪酸值、电导率对粳糙米储藏品质有显著影响,其中脂肪酸值对储藏品质敏感度最大,电导率次之;辽星糙米储藏品质评价的数学模型为y =92.57 +0.83X脂肪酸值-2.08X电导率,盐丰糙米储藏品质评价的数学模型为Y=-99.42+4.03X脂肪酸值-1.44X电导率.%In order to control the deterioration during brown rice storage, the paper selected two Japonica brown rice samples (liaoxing and yanfeng) to measure the physiological and biochemical indexes under different storage conditions, such as fatty acid value, germination rate, viability, electrical conductivity and falling number, and analyzed the correlation among the indexes. The storage quality sensitive indexes were screened by using grey correlative degree analysis method, and a mathematical mode was established by a gradual regression method selecting the sensitive indexes as the independent variables and the taste value of the milled rice as dependent variables. The results showed that the fatty acid value and the electrical conductivity had significant influences on the storage quality of brown rice, wherein the storage quality evaluation model of liaoxing was F=92.57+0.83X 2.08Z (dearicai Otduoivity); and the storage quality evaluation model of yanfeng was F-99.42+4.03A' (Wy1-44A (eleoricai conductivity)-

  14. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologs and '-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from 6 rice culti...

  15. Identification of the secreted watery saliva proteins of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome and Shotgun LC-MS/MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; He, Yueping

    2016-06-01

    The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a major rice insect pest in Asia, is a vascular bundle-feeder that ejects gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. Although major proteins in the salivary glands of N. lugens have been identified using 2D PAGE, very little is known about the secreted saliva of this insect. In this study, we identified the major proteins in the secreted watery saliva of N. lugens, via collecting from a sucrose diet that adult planthoppers had fed upon through a membrane of stretched parafilm, and using shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis with reference to transcriptome database of salivary glands of N. lugens. A total of 107 proteins were identified in the watery saliva of N. lugens, over 80% of which showed significant similarity to known proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, 29 proteins had catalytic activity and 24 proteins were binding proteins. The saliva enzymes included oxidoreductases, hydrolases, phosphatases, peptidases (proteases), kinases, transferases, and lyases. Binding proteins in N. lugens watery saliva included ATP-binding, lipophorin, calcium-binding, actin-binding and DNA-, RNA-, and chromatin-binding proteins. Other non-enzymatic proteins, such as ubiquitins, heat shock proteins, ribosomal proteins, and immunoglobulin proteins were also found in N. lugens watery saliva. This is the first study to identify, characterize and list the proteins in watery saliva of N. lugens, which might be involved in planthopper-rice interactions. PMID:27080912

  16. Detection of three herbicide, and one metabolite, residues in brown rice and rice straw using various versions of the QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Chung, Hyung Suk; Kim, Sung-Woo; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    A single-run analytical method was developed to analyze the three herbicides azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, and mesotrione and its metabolite (4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA)) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Samples extracted using various versions of Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe "QuEChERS" (original unbuffered, acetate (AOAC), and citrate (EN) buffered) methods gave poor recoveries of all the tested analytes in both matrices. The extraction efficiency was improved when primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent was removed from the purification step, with the best recovery being achieved for EN-QuEChERS, which was subsequently used throughout the study. Overall, a determination coefficients (R(2))⩾0.995 was achieved at matrix-matched calibration curves at various concentration ranges. The recovery rates at three fortification levels (limit of quantification (LOQ), 1/2 maximum residue limit (1/2MRL), and MRL) ranged from 78 to 114.5, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<18% for all the tested analytes in both matrices. The LOQs for all herbicides were lower than the MRL set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), Republic of Korea. Field trials with the recommended, or double the recommended dose, revealed that the herbicides can safely be applied to rice, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples at 110days. PMID:27211669

  17. Toxicity and physiological effects of neem pesticides applied to rice on the Nilaparvata lugens Stål, the brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Choi, Man-Young; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Seo, Hong-Yul; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy

    2009-09-01

    The effects of two different neem products (Parker Oil and Neema) on mortality, food consumption and survival of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were investigated. The LC(50) (3.45 ml/L for nymph and 4.42 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 4.18 ml/L for nymph and 5.63 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) and LC(90) (8.72 ml/L for nymph and 11.1 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 9.84 ml/L for nymph and 13.07 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) were identified by probit analysis. The LC(90) (equal to recommended dose) was applied in the rice field. The effective concentration of both Parker Oil and Neema took more than 48 h to kill 80% of the N. lugens. Fourth instar nymph and adult female N. lugens were caged on rice plants and exposed to a series (both LC(50) and LC(90)) of neem concentrations. Nymph and adult female N. lugens that were chronically exposed to neem pesticides showed immediate mortality after application in laboratory experiment. The quantity of food ingested and assimilated by N. lugens on neem-treated rice plants was significantly less than on control rice plants. The results clearly indicate the neem-based pesticide (Parker Oil and Neema), containing low lethal concentration, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of N. lugens. PMID:19500844

  18. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra. PMID:26433461

  19. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL SEED TREATMENT IN THE CONTROL OF BLAST DISEASE AND BROWN SPOT OF RICE EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES NO CONTROLE DE BRUSONE (Pyricularia oryzae) E MANCHA PARDA (Helminthosporium oryzae) DO ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Valácia Lemes da Silva; Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Meire Aparecida Damaceno

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of controlling blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) and brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) of rice (Oryza sativa), different fungicides were tested, through seeds treatment, at field culture in low land soil. The results showed, preliminarily and in general terms that fungicides dichlofluanid and terbuconazole propitiated in the stand increase superior to 30% when confronted with standard fungici...

  20. Escala diagramática para avaliação de severidade de mancha-parda em arroz Diagrammatic scale for assessment of rice brown spot severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuvan Lenz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática com seis níveis: 1,6; 3,2; 6,4; 12,6; 23,1 e 38,6% foi desenvolvida e validada para quantificar a severidade da mancha-parda em arroz causada por Bipolaris oryzae. A escala considerou o limite de severidade máxima da doença observado no campo, e os níveis intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos, obedecendo-se à "Lei do estímulo de Weber-Fechner". Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi realizada sem auxílio da escala, em 30 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade, por oito indivíduos, sem experiência na avaliação de doenças. Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores utilizaram a escala diagramática proposta. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores, não ocorrendo erro sistemático na superestimativa ou subestimativa da doença entre estes. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade da mancha-parda em arroz.A diagrammatic scale with six levels of disease severity: 1.6; 3.2; 6.4; 12.6; 23.1 and 38.6% was developed and validated to assess rice brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae. The scale was developed considering the maximum limit of disease severity observed in the field and the intermediate values followed logarithmic increases according to the "Stimulus Law by Weber-Fechner". Initially, the estimatives of severity were performed without the use of the scale in 30 leaves with different levels of severity by eight people without previous experience in assessing diseases severity. Then, the same people estimated the severity of leaves using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of great precision for all raters and did not presented systematic errors in over- or underestimating the disease severity. The proposed diagrammatic scale was considered adequate to estimate rice brown spot severity.

  1. Screening Varieties of Brown Rice with Mineral-rich Elements and Their Sub-microscope Structures%高矿质元素糙米品种筛选与亚显微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李明; 华泽田; 陈雅蕾; 杨剑; 刘雅婷

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从20种糙米中以蛋白质和矿质元素( Ca、Fe、Se)为主要指标对糙米的营养价值进行初步筛选,并观察筛选品种的形态结构,为功能稻米的选育提供依据.[方法]凯氏定氮法测定蛋白质含量,原子吸收光谱和原子荧光光谱法比较矿质元素含量差异,SPSS软件分析相关性,扫描电子显微镜观察筛选品种的形态.[结果]筛选出高Fe、高蛋白糙米ZT11(Fe 17.29 μg/g,蛋白质9.80%)和高Ca、高Se糙米小品比71(Ca 65.50 μg/g,Se 0.050μg/g).蛋白质含量与Fe含量在0.01水平有显著正相关性.糙米横断面有一定的差异,蛋白质含量一定程度上影响糙米品种米糠层的分布情况.[结论]筛选的富Fe、Ca、Se糙米具有广阔的市场前景、保健效果和附加价值.%[Objective] The nutritional quality of 20 varieties of brown rice was preliminarily screened using protein content and mineral ele ments (Ca, Fe, Se) concentrations as main indicators, the morphology was also observed,so as to provide a theoretical and material basis for functional rice breeding. [Method ] Protein content of brown rice was determined using Kjeldahl nitrogen determination method. Mineral ele ments such as Ca, Fe, Se concentrations were compared by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respective ly. The correlation between protein content and mineral element concentration was analyzed by SPSS software. And the morphology was ob served by scanning electron microscope. [ Result] Two varieties of brown rice were filtered out, that is, varieties of ZT11 brown rice with rich Fe concentration of 17.29 μg/g and high protein content of 9. 80 % , Xiaopinbi 71 with rich-Ca (65.50 μg/g) and Se concentrations (0.050 μg/g). Protein content is found to be significantly positive correlation with Fe content by SPSS analysis ( P < 0.01). Cross section of varieties of brown rice had distinctly differences. Protein content of brown rice had a certain

  2. Comparison of the RVA Profiles between the Milled and Brown Rice Flour%糙米粉与精米粉的淀粉粘滞性比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洁; 张晶; 刘周; 石英尧

    2013-01-01

    Aims at strains including few seeds which is difficult to process the milled rice,meanwhile it has a problem of detecting the RVA profiles.Selecting a various RVA profiles of forty-one rice varieties as material,using them to analyze the relationship,difference and law on the RVA profiles of the milled and brown rice flour.The main results were as follows:the RVA profiles have some difference on the milled and brown rice flour.Peak viscosity(PKV),consistence(CSV),Break-down (BDV) and Setback(SBV) about the brown rice flour are less than the milled rice flour,determination coefficient in proper order were 0.565,0.572,0.455 and 0.639.Pasting temperature(PAT) about the brown rice flour are higher than the milled rice flour.Their determination coefficient is 0.366.The overall trend of the regularity is the basic stable.In the breeding,middle and early generation of individual choice,using brown rice is as reference on individual choice.The results of the study provide a reference for quality direct identification of rice breeding.%研究针对育种中株系种子量少,难加工成精米,用精米粉测淀粉粘滞性难的问题,选用淀粉粘滞性有一定差异的41个水稻品种(组合、系)为材料,分析用糙米粉和精米粉测定的淀粉粘滞性.结果表明,糙米粉与精米粉的特征值有一定差异,糙米粉测定峰值粘度、回复值、崩解值、消减值普遍小于精米粉,决定系数分别为0.565、0.572、0.455、0.639,糙米粉糊化温度大于精米粉,两者之间的决定系数为0.366,糙米粉和精米粉总体趋势的规律性是基本稳定的.在育种的中、早世代的单株选择中,可以用糙米粉测定稻米淀粉粘滞性作为参考进行单株选择.研究结果为水稻育种中、早代的单株的品质直接鉴定选择提供了依据.

  3. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koda, Risa; Hama, Shinji; Yamada, Ryosuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing α-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks. PMID:23273281

  4. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot......-94 was found in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus...... disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts, the...

  5. Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV, which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only a few genomic sequences are available for this species. To investigate its transcriptome and determine the differences between viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, we employed 454-FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing to generate EST databases of this insect. Results We obtained 201,281 and 218,681 high-quality reads from viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, respectively, with an average read length as 230 bp. These reads were assembled into contigs and two EST databases were generated. When all reads were combined, 16,885 contigs and 24,607 singletons (a total of 41,492 unigenes were obtained, which represents a transcriptome of the insect. BlastX search against the NCBI-NR database revealed that only 6,873 (16.6% of these unigenes have significant matches. Comparison of the distribution of GO classification among viruliferous, naïve, and combined EST databases indicated that these libraries are broadly representative of the L. striatellus transcriptomes. Functionally diverse transcripts from RSV, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiotes were identified, which reflects the possible lifestyles of these microbial symbionts that live in the cells of the host insect. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that L. striatellus encodes similar innate immunity regulatory systems as other insects, such as RNA interference, JAK/STAT and partial Imd cascades, which might be involved in defense against viral infection. In addition, we determined the differences in gene expression between vector and naïve samples, which

  6. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  7. Research Progress in Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in the Germinated Brown Rice%γ-氨基丁酸在发芽糙米中检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞萍; 贾成莉; 吕庆銮; 李秀娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed nutritional value and research status of germinated brown rice, introduced determination methods of γ-arninobutyric acid, for explore high pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry, paper chromatography method and colorimetry.%综述了发芽糙米的营养价值和研究状况,介绍γ-氨基丁酸检测方法,如:高效液相法、LC—MS、纸层析法、比色法等。

  8. Effects of Transgenic Brown Rice on Nutritional of Broiler Chicken%转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料的营养安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海峰; 刘阳; 邢福国

    2011-01-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was employed to evaluate whether the transgenic brown rice used in broiler' s diet had any deleterious effects on gowth performance, on organ index, on carcass trait, on composition of muscle of broiler chicken. Three hunder sixty one-day old broilers were divided into three groups. One group was fed a diet containing transgenic brown rice and the other group was fed a diet containing corresponding nontransgenic brown rice. Three group was fed a diet containing corn. Growth Performance and organ index at the 21 and 42 day of age were determined, carcass trait and composition of muscle were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that no significant difference were observed(P>0.05) in the growth performance, in organ index and carcass trait and composition of muscle in two phases between the two groups. No histopathological damages were detected. From this study, it was concluded that there were no adverse effects of the transgenic brown rice on the broiler chicken' s health.%为了研究转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料的营养安全性,将360只1日龄肉仔鸡随机分成3组.一组饲喂含转基因糙米日粮,另一组饲喂含非转基因糙米日粮,第三组饲喂非转基因玉米日粮.试验期42 d.测定肉仔鸡的生产性能,器官指数,屠体性状,肌肉成分,21,42 d测定生产性能,器官指数.42 d测定屠体性状和肌肉成分.结果显示,转基因糙米对肉仔鸡的生产性能、器官指数、屠体性状、肌肉成分和健康状况在试验期内未产生明显的有害影响(P>0.05).

  9. 富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶品质控制的研究%Quality Control on Germinated Brown Rice Yoghurt Rich in Ferulic Acid- and γ-GABA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿欣; 杜江; 肖军霞

    2011-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a brown rice product which is the brown rice germinates to a certain length af-ter being cultured under a certain temperature and humidity combined with bud, bran and endosperm. It has shown many important physiological functions, such as reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, preventing obesity etc. Germi-nated brown rice yoghurt is a novel fermented dairy product which is prepared with germinated brown rice, fresh milk, sugar and together with ready-to-use yoghurt starter. The influence of the amount of germinated brown rice, milk, sug-ar, the starter and fermentation time on the quality of the yoghurt were studied in this paper. The optimum conditions were determined by orthogonal test and the nutritional components of the yoghurt including ferulic acid andγ-GABA were investigated finally. It was shown that the ratio of germinated brown rice to milk was 1:1.5, the amount of sugar was 7%, and the amount of starter was 0.008%. Under these conditions, the germinated brown rice yoghurt with abundant nutrition, sour-sweet agreeable to the taste and unique flavor was obtained, its content of femlic acid and γ-GABA were 5.02 mg/g and 4.54 mg/g, respectively.%目的:以发芽糙米、鲜牛奶及白砂糖为主要原料,利用直投式发酵剂制作富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶.方法:研究发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比、糖添加量、发酵剂接入量、发酵时间等因素对成品酸奶品质的影响.结果:通过正交试验等得到最佳工艺条件:发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比1:1.5,糖添加量7%.发酵剂接入量0.008%.在此条件下得到的发芽糙米酸奶中阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的含量分别为5.02 mg/g和4.54 mg/g.结论:在最佳工艺条件下获得了营养丰富、酸甜适宜和风味独特的发芽糙米酸奶制品.

  10. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Methods Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. Results The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER-β reactivity at the glandular epithelium, while the group treated with EST showed immunoreactivity at the glandular, luminal, and stromal epithelium. Conclusion GBR phenolics moderately regulate the expression of ER-β, HSP70, and IL-4 receptor genes, and gave a positive immunoreaction to ER-β antigen in the uterus. ASG regulates the expression of CaBP9k and IL-4 receptor genes, and ORZ regulates the expression of the CaBP9k gene, while GABA at 100 mg/kg regulates the expression of the HSP70 gene. GBR and its bioactives

  11. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  12. 糙米粉对小麦面团流变学及饼干品质特性的影响%Influence of Brown Rice Flour on Wheat Dough Rheological Properties and Cookie Quality Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓智; 扈战强; 周剑敏; 方勇; 沈新春; 胡秋辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Effects of brown rice flour on the thermomechanical and dynamic rheological properties of wheat flour dough as well as physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were investigated. The aim of the research is to provide a basis for further utilization of brown rice in developing new food products.[Method]Mixolab and dynamic rheometer were employed to study the effects of brown rice flour replacement on rheological properties of wheat flour dough. The dough microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cookies were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of brown rice flour replacement on cookie quality characteristics. [Result] With the addition of brown rice flour, the water absorption of the flour dough and the degree of protein weakening increased, while dough development time and stability time decreased. The addition of brown rice flour diluted the concentration of gluten and destroyed the continuous state of the flour dough, which resulted in being difficult to form the stable gluten network structure, and subsequently leading to higher degree of protein weakening under double effects of mechanical force and heating. The increase of replacement ratio of brown rice flour decreased the temperature of starch gelatinization, peak and break down viscosity of the mixed flour, and setback value of the starch due to the higher degree of starch hydrolysis. It was shown from dynamic rheological studies that with the addition of brown rice flour, the dough remained viscoelastic system and storage modulus and loss modulus increased, while tanδof the dough decreased, indicating higher degree of molecular cross-linking and elastic proportion in the mixed system. From SEM, with the addition of 10% brown rice flour, the dough microstructure became loose with small cracks and starch granules distributed unevenly. Irregular shape of rice starch granules could be observed and their adhesion force to dough surface significantly

  13. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China); Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Highlight A brown planthopper resistance recessive gene, BPH29, was cloned which contained a B3 DNA-binding domain and conferred resistance by a mechanism that was similar to plant defence against pathogens.

  14. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Bint Mahmud,4 Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed,1 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Aminu Ishaka11Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Usmanu, Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.Methods: Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA, and γ-oryzanol (ORZ at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (mRNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β, calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k, complement protein (C3, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70, and interleukin (IL-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry.Results: The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001. GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg, EST (0.2 mg/kg, and ORZ (200 mg/kg (P<0.05. Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg compared

  15. Phosphatase activities in rice-planting meadow brown soil and their responses to fertilization%草甸棕壤水稻田磷酸酶活性及对施肥措施的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈菊培; 陈振华; 陈利军

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activities of phosphomonoesterase (acid-, neutral-, and alkaline-), phosphodiesterase and phosphotriesterase in a rice-planting meadow brown soil at the lower reach of Liao River, and their responses to different fertilization treatments. The results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total P and organic P contents among all treatments, but soil available P content was significantly higher in treatment OM than in other treatments. Soil acid-and neutral phosphomonoesterase had a higher activity than alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase, while phosphotriesterase had the lowest activity. No significant difference was found in phosphatase activities between different fertilization treatments. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity had a significant correlation with soil total P and available P contents, while soil phosphodiesterase activity significantly correlated with soil organic P content.

  16. EFICIÊNCIA DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE MANCHA PARDA (Bipolaris oryzae EM ARROZ (Oryza sativa EFFICIENCY OF FUNGICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF RICE (Oryza sativa BROWN SPOT (Bipolaris oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Guicherit

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em situações nas quais a brusone tem pouca importância na sanidade da lavoura de arroz, o controle da mancha parda (Bipolaris Oryzõe pode mostrar-se altamente eficiente com pulverizações de fungicidas no campo. Assim, realizou-se um experimento em Indiara (GO com o objetivo de comparar a eficácia de diferentes produtos fungicidas no controle da mancha parda em condições pouco favoráveis à brusone. Foram comparados difenoconazole, propiconazole e tryfloxystrobin em diferentes combinações e dosagens, e os resultados mostraram que, em situações nas quais a brusone tem pouca importância na sanidade da lavoura do arroz, o controle da mancha parda pode mostrar-se altamente eficiente com pulverizações de fungicidas no campo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Helminthosporium oryzae; controle químico; patógeno; doença.

    In situations where the blight (Pyricularia grisea is not limiting the rice crop, the brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae control can be extremely efficient with field sprayings. This experiment was conduced in Indiara (GO aiming to compare the efficiency of different fungicides in one or two dosages in the control of brown spot under low blight conditions. All treatments showed efficiency in the control of brown spot, with no signifficant difference among them.

    KEY-WORDS: Chemical control; pathogens; disease.

  17. Aplicação do silício para aumentar a resistência do arroz à mancha-parda Silicon application to increase rice resistance to brown spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar fontes e métodos de aplicação de silício para aumentar sua absorção e a resistência de plantas de arroz (Oryza sativa, cultivar Metica-1, à mancha-parda (Bipolaris oryzae. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação, com solo Latossolo Vermelho. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, com oito repetições. As fontes foram wollastonita (silicato de cálcio, aplicada via solo, e silicato de potássio e ácido monossilícico, aplicados via foliar. A aplicação de silício via solo resultou em aumento do teor foliar deste elemento e foi eficiente na indução de resistência à mancha-parda, diferentemente do observado com sua aplicação via foliar.The aim of this study was to evaluate sources and methods of silicon application to improve silicon uptake and the resistance of rice plants (Oryza sativa, cultivar Metica-1, to brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, with an Oxisol soil, in a completely randomized design with eight repetitions. The treatments were wollastonite (calcium silicate applied via soil and potassium silicate and silicic acid applied to the leaves. The soil-applied silicon increased the foliar silicon content and reduced the severity of brown spot, in contrast to the results observed in the foliar-applied silicon treatments.

  18. Estudio de Propiedades Físicas y Viscoelásticas de Panes Elaborados con Mezclas de Harinas de Trigo y de Arroz Integral Study of Viscoelastic and Physical Properties of Breads Made with mixed Wheat and Brown Rice Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrollaron fórmulas de panes, empleando proporciones de harina de trigo comercial marca "Tres Castillos" (50 a 90% y harina de arroz integral comercial marca "Diana" (10 a 40% y grasa entre 0 y 6 %. Se estudian las propiedades físicas y viscoelásticas a través de técnicas de medición simples para parámetros físicos, un análisis de perfil de textura y la prueba de relajación de esfuerzos. De los resultados se apreció que e l volumen específico es el parámetro físico más representativo para los panes. Las propiedades de textura resultaron significativas para pNew formulas for breads, using different proportions of commercial wheat flour of the brand "Tres Castillos" (50 a 90% and brown rice flour trade mark of the brand "Diana" (10 a 40%, and fat from 0 to 6 %, have been formulated. Physical and viscoelastic properties are determined using simple techniques for measuring physical parameters and texture profile analysis and stress relaxation test for viscoelastic properties. From the results it was found that the specific volume is the most representative physical parameter for breads. The texture properties were highly significant at p <0.05 and for hardness ranged from 4.0 to 10.7 N and elasticity from 9 to 12 mm . The fitting to the Peleg model corroborated the viscoelastic nature of the breads. It was concluded that formulas for combining bread wheat flour with rice flour having acceptable physical and viscoelastic properties and of good quality can be obtained.

  19. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. PMID:16206236

  20. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  1. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  2. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  3. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae using some phenolic antioxidants Controle da macha-parda do arroz (Bipolaris oryzae pelo emprego de antioxidantes fenólicos

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    Y.M. Shabana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone. The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS and disease incidence (DI on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains.Bipolaris oryzae é o agente causador da doença mancha-parda do arroz e é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas. Três antioxidantes fenólicos (ácido salicílico, ácido benzóico e hidroquinona foram avaliados para o controle dessa doença do arroz. A atividade antifúngica destes compostos foi avaliada in vitro contra B. oryzae em diferentes concentrações e a eficiência de sua aplicação exógena no controle da mancha-parda foi avaliada em condições de campo. Nos ensaios in vitro, os ácidos benzóico e salicílico a 9 mM inibiram completamente a multiplicação de B. oryzae. Em condições de campo, a aspersão de ácido benzóico a 20 mM causou uma redução significativa na gravidade e incidência da doença na folhas da planta, além de aumentar significativamente o rendimento dos grãos e seus componentes. Algumas respostas bioqu

  4. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL SEED TREATMENT IN THE CONTROL OF BLAST DISEASE AND BROWN SPOT OF RICE EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES NO CONTROLE DE BRUSONE (Pyricularia oryzae E MANCHA PARDA (Helminthosporium oryzae DO ARROZ

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    Valácia Lemes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    With the objective of controlling blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae and brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae of rice (Oryza sativa, different fungicides were tested, through seeds treatment, at field culture in low land soil. The results showed, preliminarily and in general terms that fungicides dichlofluanid and terbuconazole propitiated in the stand increase superior to 30% when confronted with standard fungicide mancozeb and testimony with regard to infection level at plants the best results were presented by terbuconazole. Refering to production there was no significative difference between both treatments. Treatments with fungicide terbuconazole individually or in mixture with dichlofluanid showed superiority over testimonies.

    Com o objetivo de controlar brusone (Pyricularia oryzae e mancha parda (Helminthosporium oryzae do arroz (Oryza sativa, diferentes fungicidas foram testados, através do tratamento de sementes, a nível de campo em solo de várzea (glei pouco húmico. Os resultados mostraram, preliminarmente e de modo geral, que os fungicidas dichlofluanid e terbuconazole propiciaram aumento no “stand” superiores a 30% quando comparados com o fungicida padrão mancozeb e a testemunha. Com relação ao nível de infecção nas plantas, o terbuconazole foi o que melhores resultados apresentou. E quanto à produção não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos com o fungicida terbuconazole individualmente ou em mistura com dichlofluanid mostraram-se superiores às testemunhas.

  5. Effect of Brown Rice Protein and Its Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in High-fat Diet on Syrian hamsters%糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对喂食高脂饲料叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; Wally Yokoyama; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brown rice protein(BRP) and BRP hydrolysates(BRPH)on lipoprotein metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets compared to casein.The supplements of brown rice protein and its hydrolysates reduced hepatic total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content of hamster.Meanwhile,the BRP and BRPH diet increased the fecal total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content.Moreover,BRPH significantly reduced the hamster body weight compared to control.%以动物性蛋白酪蛋白为对照,研究了糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响。糙米蛋白及其酶解产物降低了仓鼠肝脏中总脂肪、总胆固醇和游离胆固醇含量,同时增加了粪便中脂肪及胆固醇的排出量。糙米蛋白酶解产物还可以显著降低仓鼠的体重。

  6. Processing rice bran to yield added-value oil based extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Nantiyakul, Nantaprapa

    2012-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product from rice milling, is an excellent source of natural antioxidants. Lipids in rice bran appear as small spherical droplets called oil bodies. This work attempted to recover the oil bodies from rice bran (fresh, stored and heat-treated) and to determine their chemical, biochemical and physical properties ex vivo. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy, oil bodies were observed mainly in the sub-aleurone and aleurone layer of brown rice. Oil bodies were successfu...

  7. Rice-Traditional Medicinal Plant in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umadevi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.

  8. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  9. Use of bacillus biocontrol agents for disease management in organic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Organic rice growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot, caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. Thi...

  10. 地上部植食者褐飞虱对不同水稻品种土壤线虫群落的影响%Aboveground herbivory by the brown planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens)affects soil nematode communities under different rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘满强; 胡锋; 黄菁华; 陈小云; 王峰; 葛成; 苏昱; 邵波; 汤英; 李辉信

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground-belowground communities play an important role in regulating terrestrial ecological processes; however, the interactions between rice varieties, herbivory and the soil community are often ignored. A pot experiment with a full 2×2 factorial design was conducted to examine the impacts of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and rice variety (susceptible or resistant) on the soil nematode community. The results showed that, after nine days, aboveground herbivory significantly (P<0.05) increased total abundance, numbers of nematode genera and the number of free-living nematodes (such as bacterivores, fungivores, and predators), under the rice varieties susceptible to the brown planthopper (Guangsi and Shanyou63), whereas an opposite trend was observed under the rice varieties resistant to the brown planthopper (Shanyou559 and IR36). In the presence of planthoppers, herbivorous nematodes significantly increased under the most susceptible rice variety Guangsi but significantly decreased under the most resistant rice variety IR36. Both planthopper and rice variety had negligible influences on ecological indices of the soil nematode community, including nematode channel ratio (NCR), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), maturity index (MI), enrichment index (El) and structure index (SI). This might be due to domination by bacterivores of the soil nematode community and the short length of exposure to aboveground herbivory for our pot experiment (only nine days). In conclusion, the brown planthopper strongly affects the abundance, composition as well as trophic structure of nematode community, but the direction (i.e. stimulation or depression) and magnitude of influences interacts with the rice variety. Our results imply that short-term aboveground herbivory may impose profound impacts on the structure and functions of rice paddy ecosystem.%地上和地下部生物群落的交互作用对于调控陆地生态过程具有重要

  11. Effect of potassium application on root uptake of radiocesium in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011, the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice that has been produced in some area has exceeded the provisional regulation value. In order to decrease the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice, we investigated the effect of the application of potassium fertilizer in rice paddy fields on the root uptake of radiocesium. The observed concentration ratio of 134Cs to 137Cs was 0.81 at the time of sample collection, and the mean concentrations of radiocesium in the soils at depths of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm were 5879 Bq kg-1 DW, 3223 Bq kg-1 DW and 1835 Bq kg-1 DW, respectively. The results showed that the vertical distribution of radiocesium was not uniform, although the rice paddy fields had been plowed. The concentration of radiocesium at a depth of 0-5 cm in soil collected from the 5 different rice paddy fields was in the range of 2465-7823Bq kg-1 DW, showing an approximately 3-fold variation between the upper and lower limits of the range. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice cultivated in 5 different fields, was in the range of 52-485 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice was found to be not correlated with that in the soil, and the soil-to-brown rice transfer factor was found to lie in the range of 0.0075-0.11. However, the radiocesium in brown rice decreased with an increase in exchangeable potassium in the soil. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice also decreased from 370 to 138 Bq kg-1 upon the application of a top dressing of potassium fertilizer. Thus, the application of potassium fertilizer is shown to reduce the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the glycemic index of some cooked variety of rice products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Wordu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI is an important parameter of food quality which compares the hyperglycemic effect of a tested meal with pure glucose. The glycomic index of different varieties of rice (Oryza sativa such as white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice were determined. A group of 22 participants with the mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 24 to 62 ± 1.43 years, 63.42 ± 10.50 kg, 1.70 ± 0.0 m and 21.90 ± 2.74 kgm-2 were respectively selected for the study. The mean fasting blood glucose level of the participants was 84.81 ± 4.37 mgdl-1. The mean blood glucose level at 30 and 60 min after the oral administration of 75 g glucose were 147.43 ± 11.67 and 125.95 ± 9.30 mgdl-1, respectively. The mean glycemic response of pure glucose at 30 and 60 min were 62.62 ± 11.4 and 41.14 ± 8.932 mgdl-1 respectively and hence, higher glycemic response for the pure glucose was obtained at 30 min. To the participants different varieties of cooked vice (white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice boiled containing 75 g digestible carbohydrate were administered, the peak blood glucose response was obtained at 30 min. The mean glycemic response of white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice were 41.71 ± 6.17, 37.72 ± 5.11 and 35.05 ± 3.77 mgdl-1, respectively. The glycemic responses after the consumption of cooked rice sample containing 75 g digestible carbohydrate, showed significant difference (P > 0.05 between cooked white rice and brown rice, cooked brown rice and parboiled rice and cooked white rice and parboiled rice. The mean GI values of cooked white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice were 66.61 ± 9.86, 60.24 ± 8.16 and 55.97 ± 6.01, respectively. Based on these GI values, it can be suggested that among the three varieties of cooked rice, the parboiled rice is a better choice for diabetes patients.

  13. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination. PMID:27339205

  14. Changes in physical, cooking, textural properties and crystallinity upon iron fortification of red rice (Jyothi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shruti; Mr, Asha; A, Jayadep

    2016-02-01

    The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice. The cooking parameters for control and fortified brown rice viz. cooking time, volume expansion water uptake were quite close to the control sample. The cooking time for fortified rice was 1-2 min high as compared to control, other parameters remained same. In case of milled rice, the cooking time and volume expansion for control milled rice and fortified was almost same; however the water uptake was higher for fortified milled rice as compared to control milled rice. The texture of fortified brown rice was hard as compared to fortified milled rice, although the taste was found satisfactory. The colour was significantly different in brown and milled rice. X-ray diffraction results revealed the polycrystalline nature of the fortified sample, was somewhat less crystalline as compared to control sample. PMID:27162381

  15. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched. PMID:26515534

  16. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  17. Transfer of radioiodine from the environment to rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil-plant transfer factors for iodine in polished rice and brown rice on a dry weight basis at the time of harvest were 0.002 and 0.006, respectively. It was observed that concentration of radioiodine in the soil solution increased with the plant growth, though the soil-water distribution coefficient (Kd) of the soil used in the experiment was very high (more than 1000). This was attributed to the reduced condition in the soil caused by the effects of root and/or micro-organisms. Release of iodine from rice plants into the air in an organic form was found. Mass normalized deposition velocity (Vd), and grain number normalized deposition velocity (Vs) of gaseous molecular iodine (I2) on unhulled rice were 0.1 cm3g-1s-1 and 0.4 cm3(100 grains)-1s-1, respectively. The distribution ratios of the deposited iodine between unhulled rice and brown rice and between brown rice and polished rice were about 100:4 and 100:40, respectively. (author)

  18. Effect of Geminated Rough Rice Media on Growth of Selected Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of germinated rice media on growth of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. pentosus, L. plantarum and L. fermentum were studied. Germinated rough rice powder was obtained by allowing rice grains to germinate in water with hulls at 80% relative humidity and 30°C for 48 h. The germinated rice grains were dried, dehulled and powdered with a laboratory hamper mill. The powder (5% w/w was well-mixed with water to prepare the growth medium for the probiotic bacteria strains. This was compared with medium with regular rice powder. NaCl (2%w/w was also added to study the bacteria growth. Chemical analysis including vitamins B (thiamin, niacin and pyridoxine, reducing sugar and total protein contents in rice, brown rice and germinated rough rice were determined. Germination of rice grains increased many nutrients. Vitamins B, reducing sugar and total protein contents of germinated rough rice were higher (p<0.05 than those of brown rice and rice, respectively. Addition of NaCl lowered the growth of probiotic bacteria. L. plantarum exhibited the highest (p<0.05 growth in medium containing germinated rough rice powder with and without NaCl compared to the other strains. The results from this present study suggested that germinated rough rice can be used as a supplement for L. plantarum in food fermentation.

  19. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  20. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Genotype on Rice Grain Macronutrients and Micronutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhao-miao; NING Hui-feng; BI Jun-guo; QIAO Jiang-fang; LIU Zheng-hui; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2014-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) input features China’s intensive rice production system. To elucidate N and genotype effects on accumulation of macronutrients and micronutrients in grains of japonica rice, and to discuss its significance in rice production, a three-year field experiment involving six japonica rice varieties and seven N treatments were performed. Macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) concentrations in brown and milled rice were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For macronutrients, no consistently significant effect of N was detected in both brown and milled rice. For micronutrients, N showed significant effect, especially in lowering Zn accumulation in brown and milled rice. In addition, N tended to increase Fe concentration in milled rice. Genotype showed larger effect on distribution of minerals in milled rice than N. The high-yielding variety, Wuyunjing 7, accumulated larger proportion of Mg, K, and Zn in the milled rice as compared with the other five varieties, and could be of value for rice breeding programs aiming at high nutritional quality. The results demonstrated differences in response to N between macronutrients and micronutrients, and are of significance for coping with‘hidden hunger’ both in humans and crops through agronomical practices.

  2. Transfer of radioiodine into rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that 129I levels near the spent fuel reprocessing plants are obviously higher than those in the other areas. At present commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant is under planning in the north of Japan mainland. For the safety assessment before the new-construction of the plant, it is required to obtain transfer factors of the nuclide to rice grains through deposition-translocation and rootuptake routes. Results obtained showed that contribution from dry deposition (I2 gas deposition)-translocation should be more significant than that from wet-deposition-translocation, but sometimes comparable or preferably less significant than that from root uptake route. In this paper, however, discussion is focused on I2 gas deposition translocation to rice grains, gaseous iodine deposition to hull surfaces and subsequent infiltration to brown rice should be more critical than leaf absorption-translocation. Excretion of the nuclide from hull surfaces was hardly recognized. Thus the transfer factor of gaseous 129I to rice grains was successfully obtained by using grain number deposition velocity (Vs) and distribution ratio of I between rough rice and rice grain. Ther Vs is given as following: Vs = the amount of iodine deposited on unit number of rough rice per unit time divided by iodine concentration in unit volume of air. Experimentally obtained Vs is about 5x10-3cm3.(grain.sec)-1. And the transfer factor of gaseous iodine (I2) to polished rice is calculated as about 4x102cm3.(grain)-1

  3. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  4. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of UV-induced phenylamides from rice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Lin; Yoo, Youngchul; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Cho, Man-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae). In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus). UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae), blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola) diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25383752

  7. The deposition of radioiodine onto rice plant from atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose estimations are usually made with the aid of assessment models in which model parameters such as the transfer factors of radionuclides from one environmental compartment to another are involved. In simple models the parameters are often described as the concentration ratio of a radionuclide between two compartments, when the system is under equilibrium condition. In this paper, the authors introduce the values of the parameters of radioiodine obtained by tracer experiments. Laboratory experiments on the transfer parameters of radionuclides from the atmosphere to rice plant were carried out in the atmosphere-to-crops system (deposition pathway). It is known that the typical chemical species of gaseous iodine in the atmosphere are elemental iodine (I2) and methyliodide (CH3I). The deposition characteristics of both chemical species of gaseous iodine to rice grains were obtained. Mass normalized deposition velocity (VD) and grain number normalized deposition velocity (VS) of gaseous elemental iodine (I2) and also methyliodide (CH3I) on unhulled rice were measured. Both VD and VS of methyliodide were about one percent of those of elemental iodine. Distribution pattern of methyliodide between unhulled rice and brown rice was significantly lower than that of elemental one. For wet deposition, we investigated the retention of radioiodines (iodide [I-] and iodate [IO3-] on rice grains and their translocation from the surface of the grains to brown rice. Though the ears were dipped into the solution containing 125I- or 125IO3- more than 15 min., both iodine species in the solutions were hardly taken up to the rice grains. The transfer rates of iodide and iodate, which are defined as 'the amount of the iodine in brown rice' divided by 'the amount of iodide in unhulled rice' were about 0.015 and 0.04, respectively. The rates were not changed with time after the radioiodine application. (author)

  8. Miracle Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A pioneering agricultural scientist helps China find its way out of a food deficit BIG YIELDS: Despite the remarkable accomplishments he has already achieved, Yuan Longping is still working hard to improve the hybrid rice strain he has developed

  9. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  10. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  11. Economic Impact of Research Investment in Chinat1 Rice Variety Development.

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, O.

    2012-01-01

    Rice breeding is one of the ways to tackle production problems and to maintain production competitiveness of the country. Although Thailand has been successfully developing improved rice varieties, there is a lack of economic assessment of research investment which is important information for appropriate research planning. Chainat1 is hard rice resistant to leaf curl and blast diseases, resistant to brown plant hoppers and white-backed plant hoppers, and high yielding. These traits were high...

  12. 有色稻米Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn含量及与种皮颜色相关分析%Evaluation and Correlation Analysis on Mineral Concentrations and Pigment Content in Pericarp of Color Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭咏梅; 段延碧; 李少明; 黄平; 涂建; 李华慧; 萧凤回; 谭学林

    2011-01-01

    The different color rice were evaluated based on four mineral concentrations of brown rice from 61 accessions harvested from Mile experiment farm under the uniform ecological conditions by A AS method. The results showed that the Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn concentration of the color rice was higher than that of the write rice, and the four mineral concentrations in brown rice was Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. In addition,Fe and Zn concentration of color rice were affected by pigment content in pericarp of it, Cu and Mn of color rice were not influenced by pigment content in pericarp of it. Fe concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice > green rice > brown rice > red rice > yellow rice, Zn concentration of the color rice was in turn green rice > red rice > black rice > brown rice > yellow rice, Cu concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice > brown rice > red rice > yellow rice > green rice, Mn concentration of the color rice was in turn brown rice > black rice > red rice > yellow rice > green rice. There were some differences among Fe, Zu, Cu and Mn average concentrations in brown rice of the different color rice, black rice and brown rice rich on Fe,Zn,Cu and Mn,green rice rich on Fe and Zn,red rice rich on Zn and Cu. Four concentration of yellow rice were lower than that of the other color rice.%用AAS方法测定了弥勒县相同生态条件下种植的27份有色稻和34份普通稻糙米4种矿质元素含量,并对有色米和普通米Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn含量进行了比较研究.结果表明,有色稻米4种矿质元素含量明显高于无色稻米,其差异均达显著水平,其含量高低依次为Zn> Fe> Cu> Mn;对黑、褐、红、黄、绿5种不同种皮颜色的稻米4种矿质元素含量进行比较研究,发现稻米Fe含量高低依次为黑>绿>褐>红>黄,Zn含量依次为绿>红>黑>褐>黄,Cu含量依次为黑>褐>红>黄>绿,Mn含量依次为褐>黑>红>黄>绿;并且Fe和Mn含量在不同颜色稻

  13. Analysis of Metal Element Distributions in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds and Relocation during Germination Based on X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of Zn, Fe, K, Ca, and Mn

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke; Liao, Haibing; Jie ZHANG; Yang, Xiaoe; Labavitch, John M.; Chen, Wenrong

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of mineral localization within rice grains is important for understanding the role of different elements in seed development, as well as for facilitating biofortification of seed micronutrients in order to enhance seeds’ values in human diets. In this study, the concentrations of minerals in whole rice grains, hulls, brown rice, bran and polished rice were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The in vivo mineral distribution patterns in rice grains and shifts ...

  14. EffectsofDifferentEcologicalConditionsonGrainQualityandRVAProfileCharaCteriSticSofJaponicaRiceVarietiesfrOmYunnanPlateauofChinaandKorea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua ZHU; Pingrong YUAN; Guozhen ZHAO; Zhenxi SU; Xinhua LIAO; Seajun YANG; Luyuan DAI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice quality under different environmental conditions in Yunnan Plateau. [Method] Ten Yunnan japonica rice varieties and six Korean japoni- ca rice varieties were selected to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on grain quality characteristics and starch RVA profile characteristic values of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice. [Result] The coefficient of variation of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice reached the maximum in setback viscosity (SBV). The coefficients of variation of brown rice length (BRL), chalkiness rate (CR), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), final viscosity (FLV), setback vis- cosity (SBV) and peak time (PET) of Yunnan japonica rice varieties were significant- ly higher than those of Korean japonica rice, while other grain quality characteristics were contrary. With the increasing altitudes, BRL, brown rice width (BRW), length- width ratio (L/W), whiteness (WH), AC, ADV, FLV and consistence viscosity (CTV) of Yunnan japonica rice and BRL, BRW, WH, PC, peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosi- ty (HTV) and breakdown viscosity (BDV) of Korean japonica rice were significantly reduced , while CR, PC, HTV and PeT of Yunnan japonica rice and L/W, AC, ADV and CTV of Korean japonica rice significantly increased, but CR of Korean japonica rice showed no significantly variation. PKV, BDV and pasting temperature (PAT) of Yunnan japonica rice and PaT of Korean japonica rice showed an upward trend af- ter an initial drop with the increasing altitudes, while SBV of Yunnan japonica rice and FLV and PeT of Korean japonica rice were contrary. [Conclusion] This study provided theoretical basis for breeding of japonica rice in Yunnan Plateau.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jian; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Li, Bao-ling; Cheng, Yan-Bing; Peng, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Hang; Xu, Hai-jun; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Lou, Yong-Gen; Cheng, Jia-An; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in this species. Genomic information for BPH is currently unavailable, and, therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to better understand the biological mechanisms of BPH. Methodology/Principal ...

  16. Development of techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions, 1: Storage of rough rice at country elevator with natural heat radiation in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-farm experiment in which 361 metric tons of rough rice was stored in a silo from November until July was conducted at a country elevator in Hokkaido to develop new techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions. The temperature of the rough rice near the inner silo wall decreased to below ice point (-5°C) due to natural heat radiation in winter, which the temperature of the rough rice in the center of the silo was maintained at almost the same temperature as that at the beginning of storage (5°C). Ventilation in the upper vacant space of the silo prevented moisture condensation on the inside surface of the silo during storage. When the cold rough rice was unloaded from the silo in summer, an unheated forced-air drier was used to increase the temperature of rough rice to above the dew point temperature of surrounding air. During the unloading and rewarming process, the moisture content of the rough rice increased due to moisture condensation on the grain from the air. However, the husks first absorbed the condensation and then the moisture slowly permeated into the brown rice kernel. Thus the rewarming process didn't cause any fissures in the brown rice. The results of the experiment indicate that condensation on rough rice doesn't give rise to any problems

  17. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice. PMID:24892387

  18. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  19. EFFECT OF GROWTH PROMOTOR AND BIOPROTECTOR ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATED RICE AND BROWN SPOT INCIDENCE USO DE PROMOTOR DE CRESCIMENTO E DE BIOPROTETOR NA CULTURA DO ARROZ IRRIGADO E SEU EFEITO SOBRE A INCIDÊNCIA DA MANCHA-DE-GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fascin Berni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercial products, one containing plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and micorrhizae, and the other containing micronutrients and aminoacids, on the development of irrigated rice. One kilogram of the biological product Biosol (trade mark was added to the seeds at sowing time (1kg / ha and the biofertilizer Greensol (trade mark was sprayed by airplane (200 ml / ha in association with fungicides, when 5% of panicles had been emitted. The treatments used were T1: Control; T2: Greensol; T3: Biosol + Greensol and T4: Biosol. Five parameters were evaluated: number of shoots per meter, dry weight 90 days after sowing, grain yield, empty grains percentage and incidence of brown spot disease (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan. Number of shoots per meter was uniform in all treatments. Grouped analysis indicated superiority of all treatments with Biosol over the control for the parameters of dry weight of plants and roots. Treatments T3 and T4 presented superior yields. In these treatments empty grain percentage was lower than the control. Brown spot severity index indicated that all treatments were better than control and T3 and T4 treatments had the lowest disease index.

    KEY-WORDS: Helminthosporium oryzae; Oryza sativa; disease control; rice.

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de dois produtos comerciais sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre a incidência da mancha-de-grãos causada por Helminthosporium oryzae. Um dos produtos consistia de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas (RPCPs e micorrizas (Biosol e o outro era constituído por micronutrientes e amino

  20. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and germinated for four different days (1- 4 days. Total phenolic compounds, phytic acid, á-tocopherol, á- tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol were investigated compared with those of ungerminated brown rice. The antioxidant activity of germinated rice was evaluated through four different methods, the 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay and linoleic acid emulsion system-thiocyanate method. Results: The results showed that the germination for 2 days or longer, after soaking, yielded significantly higher level of total phenolic, á-tocopherol, á-tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol than those of ungerminated brown rice and soaked rice, whilst the concentration of phytic acid was reduced significantly when germination time was increased. The samples germinated for one day or longer also revealed greater antioxidant activity than those of ungerminated rice. Conclusion: The level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of germinated rough rice were affected by germination time. Germination for 2 and 3 days was the optimum time for germination rough rice to obtain high concentration of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity. The germination process of rough rice could be a potential method to obtain functional germinated rice flour with high bioactive compounds and health beneficial properties and could be applied to produce

  1. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    OpenAIRE

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon; Chomdao Sikkhamondhol; Chansuda Jariyavattanavijit; Chowladda Teangpook

    2008-01-01

    Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB), Homnin 313 (HW) and Homnin 1000 (HP), containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w) and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g) respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (3...

  2. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  3. Susceptibility of ''Yuanfengzao'' and other mutant rice varieties to herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbicides are used to control barngrass and other water grasses in rice fields. However, rice may suffer in some cases too. We developed a technique to evaluate rice for herbicide tolerance at seedling stage. The seedlings were grown in 15, 20, 50 cm plastic trays with 7 cm soil. Up to 2-leaf stage, seedlings were treated with 50, 100 and 500 ppm butachlor, and 250, 500 and 1000 ppm thiobencarb respectively, in the incubator (30/25 deg. C day/night, 12 h light and 3000 lux/d) up to 11 d. The herbicide solution was filled up to the pulvinus of the second leaf, with water treatment as a check. Light brown spots on the leaf were the most visible injury symptom and might be used as criterion of herbicide susceptibility in Indica rice at seedling stage. During treatment, the first leaf became yellow and was killed first, then the water soaked spots appeared on the second leaf and turned to light brown spots gradually. Afterwards, the light brown spots linked up with each other and the leaf became partially necrotic. On the third leaf light brown spots appeared also. Finally, the seedling was killed

  4. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals. PMID:26891000

  5. STUDY ON RESIDUES OF 14C-FENITROTHION IN MODEL RICE-FISH ECOSYSTEM AND FIELD RICE-FISH ECOSYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of 14C-fenitrothion in a model rice-fish ecosystem and field rice-fish ecosystem were studied.When equal amounts of the pesticide were applied.the extractable residues in brown rice (equivalent to 34.3±1.9ug/kg fenitrothion) and rice stems and leaves(20.9±1.5ug/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-15times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem(4.48±0.13ug/kg and 1.27±0.34ug/kg respectively).Residues in upper part of the soil (6.50±0.1-8.10±0.2ug/kg)and lower part of the soil(1.30±0.1-1.50±0.1ug/kg)of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-40 times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem (0.17±0.01ug/kg).The extractable residues in paddy water of the model ecosystem (0.30±0.01ug/kg)were similar to that of the field ecosystem(0.20±0.02ug/kg),When the fenitrothion was sprayed on the rice plants.residues in brown rice,fish body.soil and paddy water were lower than those when the pesticide was sprayed on the surface of the soil.

  6. Fate of technical and C14-labelled BHC in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of BHC in paddy rice was investigated under conventional agricultural conditions of Korea by means of gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Application of technical BHC for the control of rice stem borer at the first generation time resulted in a residue level of 0.02 mg/kg in brown rice while the application at the second generation time increased the level to 0.06-0.18 mg/kg. The partition ratios of BHC residues into polished rice grain and bran were 20:80 and 8:92 for 70% and 100% polishings respectively. Washing of polished rice removed 60-69% of BHC residues while cooking effected removal of only 7-25%. It is maintained that polishing and washing play an important role in removing BHC residues. Following application of γ-(U-14C)-BHC to rice plants, only 2.8% of the radioactivity was recovered in rice straw and grain. (author)

  7. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Kamal Uddin; Muhammad Ashraf; Farooq Anwar; Muhammad Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240...

  8. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    OpenAIRE

    Noppawat Pengkumsri; Chaiyavat Chaiyasut; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi; Chalermpong Saenjum; Sasithorn Sirilun; Sartjin Peerajan; Prasit Suwannalert; Sophon Sirisattha; Khontaros Chaiyasut; Periyanaina Kesika

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO) was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe) methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by H...

  9. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  10. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  11. Transfer of technetium from soil to paddy and upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-plant transfer factors (concentration ratio between the plant and soil) of technetium in paddy and upland rice plants were obtained from laboratory experiments. The transfer factor is one of the most important parameters for environmental radiation dose assessment. Technetium tracer (95mTcO4-) was added to the soil prior to rice cultivation. The transfer factor of technetium for the hulled grains (brown rice) of paddy rice (≤0.0002) was much lower than for that of upland rice (0.021). The transfer factors for both types of hulled grains were much lower than in the leaves. The technetium decontamination rate from hulled grains by polishing was 34%, the percentage of the weight decrease being 12%. The concentration of technetium in the soil solution collected from the paddy rice soil (flooded conditions) decreased rapidly with time due to its adsorption on the soil. In the upland rice soil (non-flooded) solution, the decrease in the technetium concentration was fairly slow. The low transfer factors for the paddy rice plants could be explained by the immobilization of technetium in the flooded soil. The oxidation-reduction potentials (Eh) in the flooded soil decreased rapidly with time. We conclude that technetium tracer added as TcO4- to flooded soil is readily transformed to an insoluble form (e.g.TcO2) under the reducing conditions provided by flooding. (author)

  12. Cambodia Rice Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Cambodias rice exports are on a steep upward trajectory, benefiting from import duty preferences and new investments in rice mills and polishing factories. Cambodia’s major export competitors are Thailand and Vietnam. Thailand is a main competitor for fragrant rice, exporting itself ca 2.65 million tons of aromatic rice (including brokens) in 2010/2011. Vietnam is the principal competitor ...

  13. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants. PMID:15151303

  14. Radiation breeding for high protein rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the main food of the people in Thailand as well as in most Asian countries. Most of the recommended rice varieties in Thailand are low in protein content. Protein deficiency is a serious problem of the people in the Northeastern region. Rice breeding for high protein should be practiced to solve this problem. Mutation breeding or the use of induced mutations in rice breeding has been studied for many years. Many successful results have been reported and presently 3 mutant varieties have been released. The parental RD 9 variety is recommended to the farmers due to its high yield resistance to brown plant hopper and moderated resistance to ragged stunt virus disease in the field conditions, even though protein content is moderately low (7 - 8% protein). In 1978, dry seeds of RD 9 were treated with 20 and 30 kilorads of gamma rays at the Office of Thai Atomic Energy for Peace. Higher protein content is the main objective of this mutation breeding. All of the treated seeds were planted in the field at Bangkhen Rice Experiment Station, and were analysed for protein content by the use of Dye Binding Capacity method at the Rice Division. Ninety-two samples of M2 seeds show higher protein content than the original variety RD 9 and they are in the range of 10 - 12 percent protein content. During the year 1979 - 1981, several high protein mutant lines of RD 9 variety were carried on in observation test at Khlong-Luang Rice Experiment Station Pathumthani province. The last wet season 1981, M5 plants were harvested and will be analysed for total protein and some essential amino acids

  15. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  16. Estimation of the contribution of soil carbon to paddy rice and soil to rice carbon transfer factor using natural abundances of stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain the soil-to-rice transfer factor (TF) of carbon-14 (14C), TF of stable carbon was estimated by measuring stable carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C) and total C concentrations in rice grain and associated soil samples collected throughout Japan. Carbon isotope ratios were reported in terms of a δ13C value. By comparing δ13C values for brown rice, white rice and bran, we concluded that white rice was the most suitable part to be used for this estimation because it reflects products from photosynthesis. The δ13C values for white rice and soil showed a weak correlation which may indicate a potential carbon supply from soil to rice. Thus we took a statistical approach to estimate the percent of soil-origin carbon in rice plants. We found that a maximum 1.6% of total carbon in rice plants was from soil under the reasonable assumptions that the carbon fractionation by paddy rice was -19 per mille and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 was -8 per mille. Maximum TF value ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 for stable carbon and the value would also be applicable for 14C because the carbon fractionation effect for 14C would be negligible in carbon transfer. (author)

  17. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuohuiZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  18. Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation. PMID:25174427

  19. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  20. A taxonomic investigation on egg parasitoid, Anagrus of rice planthopper in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Exploitation and utilization of beneficial arthropods viz. insects and spiders to regulate pest populations has a good prospect in China. The role of non_rice habitats in maintaining the population of natural enemies of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) has been investigated in Zhejiang Province since 1994. The work focused primarily on the egg parasitoids genus Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Plants laden with eggs of the brown planthopper were exposed 2 d every week in the rice fields and grassy areas dominated by Digitaria spp. Then, the plants were retrieved and brought back to the laboratory for parasitoid rearing. Newly emerged parasitoids were preserved in alcohol solution for further identification.

  1. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  2. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  3. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  4. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  5. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; J. Tam; Cavlovic, P.; Kwong, K.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid Chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g−1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection ...

  6. Use of rice seedlings to estimate uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radiocesium to plants from the soil is affected by many environmental factors, and it is difficult to determine the contribution of uptake among these factors. In addition, these environmental factors should be investigated independently for each field. The aim of this study was to develop a practical and simple method for the estimate of uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants. Rice seedlings were used to estimate the root uptake of radiocesium from seven different soils. To confirm that the seedlings were the effective indicator, the concentration of 137Cs in the seedlings was compared with that in brown rice and sunflower. The seedlings were cultivated for a week from germination in a phytotron and the concentrations of 137Cs in the seedlings above ground were determined. To obtain brown rice and sunflower, rice and sunflower were cultivated either in a pot (1/5000 a Wagner pot, 4000 cm3) placed in a glasshouse or in a paddy field in Fukushima prefecture for two to four months. The concentration of 137Cs in the rice seedlings ranged from 150 to 1900 Bq kg-1, and that in brown rice and sunflower ranged from 2 to 880 Bq kg-1 and from 580 to 3900 Bq kg-1, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the measured concentration of 137Cs in rice seedlings and the measured concentration of 137Cs in brown rice and sunflower was 1.0 (p 137Cs from soil to plants over a longer period of time. (author)

  7. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  8. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  9. Effects of Different Lead Compounds on Growth and Heavy Metal Uptake of Wetland Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAI-MAN; ZHENGCHUN-RONG; 等

    1991-01-01

    Effects of different lead compounds,PbCl2,Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(OAc)2,on the rice growth and uptake of lead and some microelements by wetland rice were studied.The results showed that the seed germination,rice seedling growth,chlorophyl content,grain yield and uptake of Pb,Cu,Zn,Fe and Mn by rice plant were affected by the chemical forms of Pb compunds added in soil to a certain degree.The germination rate and the amount of chlorophyl decreased remarkably with increasing Pb concentration,the root extension was restrained obviously by the presence of Pb,and the effect of PbCl2 was more evident than that of Pb(NO3)2 or Pb(OAc)2.The pot incubation test with yellow brown soil and redsoil showed that there was no significant regularity in effect of Pb on grain yield,but the difference in the influence of various Pb compounds on yield was clearer.The effect on the amount of Pb in straw and brown rice was in the sequence of Pb(NO3)2>Pb(OAc)2>PbCl1.In case the content of Pb in brown rice was 0.5mg/kg,the relative loading capacities of yellow brown soil for Pb added as PbCl2,Pb(OAc)2 and Pb(NO3)2 were 100,90 and 60 respectively.Pb uptake by wetland rice was closely related to the chemical species of Pb in soil,but there was no comparability among chemical forms of different Pb compounds in the same soil.The uptake of Cu,Zn,Fe and Mn by wetland rice was markedly affected by the addition of Pb,and different Pb compounds varied in their impacts on the uptake of other metals by different organs of wetland rice,e.g.the concentration of Fe in root increased significantly (r=0.92**),while opposite was true for Fe in brown rice (r=-0.92**) due to the application of Pb(OAc)2 in soil.These results demonstrate that the effect of accompanying anions of Pb on the physiological and biochemical processes of wetland rice was rather complex.

  10. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  11. Transgenic Cry1Ab rice does not impact ecological fitness and predation of a generalist spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized.

  12. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L. Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg. The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis, with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg, campesterol (116–242 mg/kg, ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data, identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.

  13. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-01-01

    The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum ...

  14. Effect of Instant Cooked Giant Embryonic Rice on Body Fat Weight and Plasma Lipid Profile in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Tae Hyeong Kim; Rico, Catherine W.; Mi Young Kang

    2014-01-01

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic tri...

  15. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  16. Screening of resistant mutant induced by γ-rays irradiation to rice blast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice seeds were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays to induce mutants, which resistant to rice blast were screened in subculture medium and differentiation medium under mix toxin from dominant strains of pyricularia grisea in Heilongjiang. The results indicated that the inductivity of callus of mature rice embryo by irradiation was very low and the browning rate of callus was very high. However, the resistance rate of resistant regenerating plants was obviously higher, which indicated the resistant breeding by irradiation and biotechnology had a great potential and a better prospect. (authors)

  17. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  18. Radioactive caesium concentration of lowland rice grown in the decontaminated paddy fields in Iitate-village in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the relationship between radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) concentration (specific radio activity: Bq/kg) in rice and the paddy soil in Iitate village where people evacuated because of the high levels of radioactive contamination caused by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The radiocaesium concentration was measured of paddy soil and of lowland rice grown on variously decontaminated paddy soil in the year 2012 and 2013. The results showed that the concentration of radiocaesium in the brown rice cultured in the field of Sasu and Maeda with 2000 - 6000 Bq/kg(DW) soil (0 - 15 cm depth) was below 40 Bq/kg, which was below the new standard for food (100 Bq/kg), and the concentration of radiocaesium in the brown rice depended on the decontamination level of the paddy soil. In addition, the radiocaesium in rice was reduced depending on the exchangeable K content of the soil, which comes to plateau around 20 mg K2O/100 g dry soil. However, in 2013, in the fields of Komiya where the radiocaesium concentration was higher than 8000 Bq/kg(DW) even after decontamination, brown rice with higher than 100 Bq/kg was harvested, indicating the necessity of further decontamination. Overall, our results show that the suitable decontamination and additional fertilization of K can make the radiocaesium concentration of rice much lower than the new standard. (author)

  19. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  20. Association Analysis of the Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhao; Eun-Jin Park; Jong-Wook Chung; Yong-Jin Park; III-Min Chung; Joung-Kuk Ahn; Gwang-Ho Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with the amino acid content of rice (Oryza sativa L.). SSR markers were selected by prescreening for the relationship to amino acid content. Eighty-four rice landrace accessions from Korea were evaluated for 16 kinds of amino acids in brown rice and genotyped with 25 SSR markers. Analysis of population structure revealed four subgroups in the population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and distributions are of fundamental importance for genome-wide mapping associations. The mean r2 value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.033. LD between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). A total of 42 marker-trait associations with amino acids (P < 0.05) were identified using 15 different SSR markers covering three chromosomes and explaining more than 40% of the total variation. These results suggest that association analysis In rice is a viable alternative to quantitative trait loci mapping and should help rice breeders develop strategies for improving rice quality.

  1. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on yield and quality of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on yield and quality of two rice cuhivars(ShenNong 6014 and ShenNong 265) are studied in potted method. There were three treatments including natural light (TCK), enhanced 5% UV-B radiation (T) and enhanced 10% (T). The results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreases yield components, the percentage of brown rice (0.66%-7.06%), head rice rate (5.65%-18.88%), the rate of white rice (22.17%-40.16%), grain area (2.61%-6.25%), fatty acid contents (1.23%-54.19%) and eating quality (1.07%-16.78%) but increasea protein content (4.65%-10.71%) and amylose content of rice (0.56%-4.81%). The effects of T2 was stronger than T1

  2. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  3. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  4. Genome-Wide Association of Rice Blast Disease Resistance and Yield-Related Components of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Jia, Melissa H; Ghai, Pooja; Lee, Fleet N; Jia, Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Robust disease resistance may require an expenditure of energy that may limit crop yield potential. In the present study, a subset of a United States Department of Agriculture rice core collection consisting of 151 accessions was selected using a major blast resistance (R) gene, Pi-ta, marker and was genotyped with 156 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Disease reactions to Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions, and heading date, plant height, paddy and brown seed weight in two field environments were analyzed, using an association mapping approach. A total of 21 SSR markers distributed among rice chromosomes 2 to 12 were associated with blast resistance, and 16 SSR markers were associated with seed weight, heading date, and plant height. Most noticeably, shorter plants were significantly correlated with resistance to blast, rice genomes with Pi-ta were associated with lighter seed weights, and the susceptible alleles of RM171 and RM6544 were associated with heavier seed weight. These findings unraveled a complex relationship between disease resistance and yield-related components. PMID:26284908

  5. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  6. A preliminary study on the uptake of radioiodine by rice plants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway from the environment to man. However, 129I reaches man through several pathways because of its long half life of 1.6 x 107 years. Root uptake of 129I is one of the most important pathways of this nuclide. In Japan, rice is thought to be the most critical crop on the pathway. In this paper, uptake of radioiodine from irrigation water by rice plant was investigated. Rice plants, Oryza sativa cv. Nihonbare, were grown under flooded condition in Wagner pots containing soil collected in Tokai-mura. Iodine-131 was added as a tracer into the surface water in the pots at three different growing stages, heading, dough-ripe and yellow-ripe stages, respectively, and the plants were cultivated until the harvest time in a plant growth chamber. At the harvest time, concentration of 131I in each organ of rice plant was measured with a NaI scintillation counter. The profile of 131I in the soil was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows; (1) Activities of 131I in leaf blade and sheath of lower part were generally higher than those of upper part. Compared to the 131I activity of the flag leaf, the ratios of the activity in rachis-branch, hull and brown rice were 1.0-0.5, 0.1 and 1-5 x 10-3, respectively. These may suggest that iodine taken up by the roots scarcely re-translocated into rice. (2) Ratio of 131I in brown rice and hull was about 1 : 4. (3) Activity ratio ('concentration of 131I in brown rice'/'average concentration of that in the soil' during 6 days uptake experiment.) was 4-5 x 10-4. (author)

  7. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  8. Accumulation of 137Cs by rice grown in four types of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to predict radiocesium transfer from soil to agricultural products is necessary for assessing management options in a radiocesium contaminated area. In this study, we evaluated the differences in transfer factors among soil samples and the differences in transfer factors between the first and the second years of contamination in rice. We employed pot experiments using four types of soils that are representative of the agricultural soils present in the Fukushima Prefecture contaminated by 137Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the March 2011 accident. The experiments were conducted during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons. The geometric mean of transfer factors for brown rice and inedible rice part was 0.011 and 0.031, respectively, in 2011 and 0.0061 and 0.020, respectively, in 2012. The average decreasing rate of the transfer factor was 40% and 30% in brown rice and inedible rice part, respectively, from 2011 to 2012, presumably owing to the irreversible sorption of 137Cs to clay minerals. - Highlights: • Rice was grown in the first and the second year from 137Cs contamination. • Transfer factor was measured for rice grown in four soils contaminated by 137Cs. • Decreasing rate of transfer factor was estimated to be 40% in brown rice

  9. Genetic improvement of long grain aromatic rices through mutation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the export market, the price of basmati rice is two to three times higher than non-basmati rice. Traditional tall basmati variety Taroari Basmati, followed by Basmati 370 has supremacy over other basmati rice due to their exclusive quality. The breeding efforts of Basmati rices have resulted in the development of improved varieties, such as Pusa Basmati 1, which currently occupies a large area in the basmati zone. However, the variety has now become highly susceptible to blast, which is causing severe yield losses. The present investigation deals with the development of non-lodging, high yielding, long grain aromatic rices, employing a mutation approach of gamma rays (γ) irradiation. Mutant lines were developed from three elite basmati cultivars, i.e. Basmati 370, Pusa Basmati 1 and Pakistan Basmati. A mutant line derived from Basmati 370, CR 2007-1(IET 17276), is found to be highly promising in the basmati growing areas of Haryana and Punjab in the multi location trials. This promising mutant line consistently shows significant yield superiority over Pusa Basmati (5.36%) and Taroari Basmati (64.04%) and has all the desirable basmati grain quality traits that are closer to Taroari Basmati. It is also resistant to rice neck blast, moderately resistant to brown spot and also to biotype 1 of rice gall midge. The other mutants developed under the study have also shown higher yield potential than Pusa Basmatil 1, the highest yielding basmati cultivar that is being currently grown, but their quality characteristics could not reach the standard of Basmati rice. (author)

  10. Rice trade liberalization and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Ashok; Narayanan, Sudha

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world's poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice market is highly distorted, partly because of the high degree of intervention in rice markets across the world. While poor countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and India tend to “disprotect” rice sectors, the rich countries of East Asia (Japan and Korea), Eu...

  11. Variability, heritability and genetic advance studies in some indigenous genotypes of basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Allam, H.K. Jaiswal , A. Qamar , Challa Venkateshwarlu and Y.S. Reddy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation conducted with 25 rice genotypes comprising both Basmati and non-basmati types revealed significant differences among the genotypes for the yield, its components and some grain quality characteristics. The magnitude of differences between PCV and GCV was relatively low for all the traits, indicating less environmental influence. The GCV was higher for the characters alkali spread value, yield per plant and effective panicles. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, effective panicles per plant, spikelets per panicle, filled grains per panicle, test weight, yield per plant, brown rice length, brown rice L/B ratio, kernel length, kernel L/B ratio, kernel length after cooking, elongation ratio and alkali spread value indicating the additive gene effects in the genetic control of these traits and can be improved by simple selection in the present breeding material.

  12. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  13. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  14. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  15. Eco-Friendly Management of Rice Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amanut Ullah Razu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of BAU-Biofungicide (2%, a product of Trichoderma harzianum, Garlic (Allium sativum clove extract (5%, Allamanda(Allamanda cathartica leaf extract (5%, Bion (25ppm, Amistar (0.1% and Tilt 250EC (0.1% were evaluated for eco-friendly managementof diseases of rice cv. BRRI Dhan-49 under field and laboratory conditions from July,2013 to March,2014. The field experiment was carriedout following Randomised Complete Block Design and the laboratory experiments were done following Completely Randomized Design.Brown spot, Narrow brown leaf spot, Bacterial leaf blight and Sheath blight were recorded in the field. The lowest incidence of brown spotand narrow brown leaf spot was observed in plots treated with BAU-Biofungicide and that of bacterial leaf blight was observed in plots sprayedwith Allamanda leaf extract. In case of sheath blight, the lowest incidence was observed in BAU-Biofungicide sprayed plots. The highest grainyield (3680.34kg/ha was recorded in plots sprayed with BAU-Biofungicide which is 40.56% higher over control. The highest seed germination(% was recorded when seeds were treated with Garlic clove extract (89.29% followed by BAU-Biofungicide (87.30%. The prevalence ofseed-borne fungi was investigated by blotter method. The identified seed-borne fungal species were Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum,Fusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Maximum reduction of seed-borne infection of pathogenswas obtained by treating seeds with BAU-Biofungicide (2% of seed weight.

  16. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  17. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  18. Rice Varietal Improvement and International Exchange of Rice Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Rice is the most important food grain in developing countries. Rapid population growth in developing countries during the 1950s and 1960s presented a massive challenge to rice producers. Rice production would have to be expanded at historically unprecedented rates to maintain per capita rice consumption levels. That challenge was met. Rice production expanded more rapidly than population. The challenge was met primarily by increased yields per hectare of land. This paper documents the role of...

  19. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  20. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioca and rice flour respectively, with the addition of brown sugar, and analyses its technological, nutritional and sensory properties. The following physical, physicochemical and nutritional properties were analyzed: dough texture profile, cookie weight, diameter and volume, acidity, water activity, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, ash content and moisture. A sensory evaluation was held using an affective test with 90 judges and a structured nine-point hedonic scale ranging from 'like extremely' to 'dislike extremely' for the attributes scent, color, texture, taste and overall impression in addition to purchase intent. The results indicate that cookies made of tapioca and rice flours with the addition of brown sugar have technological, physicochemical and nutritional profiles within legal standards; however, the fiber contents were below recommendations. The sensory evaluation showed good acceptance of the cookies, with average scores above 7.0. This study is part of an attempt to raise further discussions regarding the production of new low-cost bakery products that are nutritionally enriched, viable and easily accessible to all, including to people with celiac disease.

  1. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  2. A Century of Rice Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Halos, Saturnina C.

    2005-01-01

    Rice innovations are technologies and practices extensively adopted so as to change production practices and productivity. This paper documents the changes in rice productivity, policy and institutions in the last 100 years and identifies the technological change that may have affected rice productivity. One hundred years has totally changed rice production practices and improved productivity. Technical innovations that helped improved rice productivity include irrigation, pest management not...

  3. Lethal concentration of carbofuran to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and green leaf-hopper (Nephotettix virecence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oral toxicity test of carbofuran to brown planthopper and green leaf-hopper using sucrose solution as feed given to the hopper through a membrane feeding system was conducted in the laboratory, pure carbofuran was dilute in the feeding solution. The 50 percent lethal concentration (LC-50) of this insecticide to adult and nymph of brown planthopper were 0.21 and 0.43 ppm, respectively, while those to adult and nymph of green leaf-hopper were 0.43 and 0.58 ppm. The LC 90 were 0.56 an 0.90 ppm to adult and nymph of brown planthopper, and 1.20 and 1.60 ppm to adult and nymph of green leaf-hopper, respectively. The brown planthopper was found to be more susceptible than the nymph. When carbofuran was applied to rice plant, this insecticide was accumulated more in the leaf than in the stem, so that green leaf-hopper got more toxicity than the brown planthopper. (authors). 5 refs, 7 figs

  4. Transfer to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical foods for the intake of radionuclides by humans is rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is the dominant staple food crop in humid tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe. Cultivation methods have important effects on plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Most rice is produced under flooded conditions, i.e. in fields with a water layer of 5-15 cm deep on soil. This is unlike the situation in unsaturated fields where the soil conditions are significantly different, meaning that the soil-to-rice transfer factors (Fvs) need to be discussed separately from Fv values of other cereals grown under unsaturated field conditions. In this section, rice refers to the crop grown on wet paddy fields; since water management is the dominant method for rice cultivation this is the most common type. Rice Fv values were collected from papers in international journals, books and proceedings with peer reviewing processes and Fv values based on dry weight rice grain were summarized here. Fv data for fallout isotopes (e.g. 90Sr and 137Cs), neutron activation products (e.g. 54Mn, 60Co, etc.) or naturally existing radionluclides (e.g. 210Pb, 226Ra, 238U, etc.) and those for naturally existing stable elements under agricultural field conditions were listed. (author)

  5. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. Evidence of sibling species in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens complex, detected from long primer random amplified polymorphic DNA (LP-RAPD) fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown planthopper, N. lugens (Staal), has become a serious threat to rice production throughout tropical and sub-tropical Asia with the spread of high yielding rice varieties and intensive culture practices since about 1970. It causes 'hopperburn' and complete wilting and drying of rice plants. Another N. lugens population was found to infest a weed grass, Leersia hexandra that grows abundantly in canals near irrigated rice fields in southeastern Asia. The Leersia infesting N. lugens population fails to survive on rice plants. Conversely, rice infesting N. lugens does not thrive on Leersia. Two sympatric populations of N. lugens, one from rice and other from L. hexandra were collected from five locations in Malaysia. The locations were University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Tanjung Karang (TK), Melaka (MK), Perak (PK) and Sabah (SB). An out group, N. bakeri was also collected from Cameron Highlands (CH). The insects used for long primer RAPD analysis were tested for esterase activity on a simple filter paper using the method reported by Pasteur and Georghiou. DNA extraction and PCR protocols were followed as described by Gillings and Holley. Four Long RAPD primers were used in this study. The primer, pehA no.6, 5'ATCGCACTTGATGCGCAGGCCGTT was diagnostic and the other three yielded the strongest bands and showed polymorphisms in rice and Leersia populations of N. lugens. Cluster analysis based on genetic distance revealed that the 10 brown planthopper populations and an out group, N. bakeri were divided into three major clusters. N. bakeri formed the most isolated cluster from populations of either rice or Leersia infesting populations of N. lugens. The rice infesting populations of five localities clustered together as a group. On the other hand Leersia infesting populations of the same localities formed another distinct cluster. An analysis of molecular variance was also performed and confirmed the differentiation into two groups. One RAPD band that was obtained

  10. Transfer of radium-226 from soil to rice. A comparison of sampling area differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to limited numbers of radium-226 (226Ra) soil-to-plant transfer data, it has been difficult to analyze the sampling area differences. In this study, we measured 226Ra concentrations in brown rice and associated soils collected from 61 locations throughout Japan and obtained soil-to-rice transfer factors (TFs). Concentrations of 226Ra in the soils collected in southwestern Japan were higher than those in northeastern Japan (t-test, p226Ra in southwestern Japan was 40.4 Bq/kg-dry (N=33) and it was 27.8 Bq/kg (N=28) in northeastern Japan, reflecting geological differences between these areas. Using the measured data, we compared TFs in these two areas and found no difference, i.e., the GM in southwest was 4.6x10-4 and it was 4.9x10-4 in northeast. The observed TFs were about one order of magnitude lower than the previously reported TF values for cereals (maize, wheat, and rice), but in the same range for previously reported data for white rice. Among the alkaline earth metals, TF for Ba was well correlated to TF for Ra, but because Ba and Ra concentrations in brown rice were highly correlated, the TF would also be expected to correlate. (author)

  11. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stripe Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to map the quantitative trait loci for rice stripe resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed based on the lines to rice stripe were investigated by both artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, and the ratios of ranged from 0 to 134.08 and from 6.25 to 133.6 under artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, respectively,and showed a marked bias towards resistant parent (Zhaiyeqing 8), indicating that the resistance to rice stripe was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). QTL analysis showed that the QTLs detected by the two inoculation methods were completely different.Only one QTL, qSTV7, was detected under artificial inoculation, at which the Zhaiyeqing 8 allele increased the resistance to rice stripe, while two QTLs, qSTV5 and qSTV1, were detected under natural infection, in which resistant alleles came from Zhaiyeqing 8and Wuyujing 3, respectively. These results showed that resistant parent Zhaiyeqing 8 carried the alleles associated with the resistance to rice stripe virus and the small brown planthopper, and susceptible parent Wuyujing 3 also carried the resistant allele to rice stripe virus. In comparison with the results previously reported, QTLs detected in the study were new resistant genes to rice stripe disease. This will provide a new resistant resource for avoiding genetic vulnerability for single utilization of the resistant gene Stvb-i.

  13. Status in physical properties of coloured rice varieties before and after inducing retro-gradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagi, HameedaBanu N; Singh, Vasudeva

    2015-12-01

    Three varieties of paddy in brown, red (non-waxy) and black (waxy) forms were de-husked and milled before and after inducing retro-gradation and their physical properties were studied. Normalized grain weight, porosity of parboiled paddy (PP) and its de-husked rice (DR), were high compared to their respective native. True and bulk density were lowest for black variety, its DR, its raw and parboiled forms compared to other varieties of paddy. Angle of repose increased from raw paddy to PP whereas it decreased from raw DR to parboiled DR. Under similar conditions of milling of DR, raw and parboiled milled rice of black variety was the darkest. Raw husk showed higher EMC compared to husk of parboiled. Hardness followed the pattern: Raw: Paddy (~230-280 N) > DR (~120-260 N) > Milled rice (~110 N); for parboiled: DR (~270-480 N) > PP (~260-425 N) > Parboiled milled rice (~250-340 N). Cooking time was high for DR of parboiled ones and least for waxy raw milled rice. Results of this study will be helpful in understanding the quality of pigmented rice cultivars, design and fabrication of some of the equipments in rice processing industry. PMID:26604348

  14. RICE BRAN WAX-A NOVEL EXCEPIENT FOR PHARMACEUTICAL TOPICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Basarkar UG*

    2013-01-01

    The crude rice bran wax was obtained from M/S Bajaj rice mills, Gondia (MS) which was dark brown in color & contains nonwaxy impurities & fixed oil. After purification around 38gm wax obtained which was almost white, light in weight and non-sticky. No instances of skin irritation or sensitization symptoms such as edema / rending of the skin were observed on the skin of Albino rabbits even after 24 hrs. Therefore wax was nontoxic & safe to use in pharmaceutical preparations. In the...

  15. Exploring the likelihood of the formation of Organization of Rice Exporting Countries in international rice market

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyadul, Supaluck

    2008-01-01

    The situation in international rice trade can be considered as in crisis because of two main factors; an increase in rice prices and shortage of rice supply. The rice crisis has impacts on rice producers, traders, consumers in terms of life quality, especially those in Asia where rice is considered a basic staple and necessary commodity. To alleviate negative consequences from the crisis, an idea to stabilize international rice market is to form a rice cartel called Organization of Rice Expor...

  16. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  17. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  18. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  19. Differential Response of Grain Quality to Cold Water Irrigation in Cold Tolerant and Sensitive Lines of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Long-zhi; PIAO Zhong-ze; Koh Hee-jong

    2005-01-01

    Three rice varieties and several F3 lines with high and low cold tolerance, selected from F3 segregation lines of two crosses Milyang 23/Tong 88-7 and Milyang 23/TR22183 were used to analyze the effects of cold tolerance on the response of grain quality to cold water irrigation. The result showed that cold water irrigation led to the decrease of rice grain size. The length, length-width ratio and weight of brown rice grain were more sensitively affected by cold water irrigation than the width and thickness. The shape of brown rice grain was not significantly affected by the selection for cold tolerance at the seedling stage (CTS). The gel consistency, amylose content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, breakdown viscosity and consistency viscosity were decreased, while alkali digestibility value and protein content were increased by cold water irrigation. Under normal irrigation condition the physicochemical properties of milled rice and viscogram components of milled rice flour were not significantly different between lines with high and low cold tolerance. Under cold water irrigation the amylose content, peak viscosity, hot viscosity, final viscosity of rice lines with high CTS or high cold tolerance at the booting stage (CTB) were higher, while the protein content, setback viscosity, breakdown ratio and setback ratio were lower, than those of rice lines with low cold tolerance. This implied that the cold water response of rice grain quality was less sensitive in the lines with high cold tolerance than in the lines with low cold tolerance, and the varietal improvement for cold tolerance would be important for grain quality improvement at the same time.

  20. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    OpenAIRE

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-01-01

    The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one genera...

  1. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  2. Rice breeding problems in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with general rice production in Korea and the problems encountered. The history of rice growing and breeding in Korea is outlined and a description of recent advances in rice breeding is given, including a discussion of some uses of radiation treatments in the breeding programme during the last few years. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  4. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  5. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  6. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  7. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  8. Residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in rice field ecosystem in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang P; He, Hong M; Yu, Jian Z; Hu, Xiu Q; Zhu, Ya H; Wang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The fate of carbosulfan (seed treatment dry powder) was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of carbosulfan, carbofuran, and 3-hydroxyl carbofuran in brown rice, rice straw, paddy water, and soil. The target compounds were extracted using acetonitrile or dichloromethane, cleaned up on acidic alumina or florisil solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The average recoveries of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in brown rice, rice straw, paddy water, and soil ranged from 72.71% to 105.07%, with relative standard deviations of 2.00-8.80%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in the samples (brown rice, rice straw, paddy water and soil) were 0.011, 0.0091, 0.014, 0.010 mg kg(-1), 0.016, 0.019, 0.025, 0.013 mg kg(-1), and 0.031, 0.039, 0.035, 0.036 mg kg(-1), respectively. The trials results showed that the half-lives of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in rice straw were 4.0, 2.6 days, 3.9, 6.0 days, and 5.8, 7.0 days in Zhejiang and Hunan, respectively. Carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were detected in soils. Carbosulfan and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were almost undetectable in paddy water. Carbofuran was detected in paddy water. The final residues of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in brown rice were lower than 0.05 mg kg(-1), which were lower than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (MRL of carbosulfan) or 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MRL of carbofuran). Therefore, a dosage of 420 g active ingredient per 100 kg seed was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. These would contribute to provide the scientific basis of using this insecticide. PMID:26963425

  9. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  10. Rice bran stabilization by improved internal and external heating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice bran stabilization was conducted by internal (microwave), external (oven drying and steam retorting) heating and non-heating (60Co irradiation) treatments to improve currently used methods. Two commercial rice varieties cultivated in Louisiana, one long grain (Lemont) and a medium grain (Nato), were milled to collect bran samples. The bran was analyzed for its proximate composition and various physical and thermal characteristics. The rice bran stabilized by four methods was packed in brown paper bags and stored in an extremely unfavorable environment (33 ± 2 degree C, 75 ± 5% relative humidity) to test the efficacy of each of the four stabilization methods. Bran treated by microwave heating was found to be very stable. At the end of the four week storage period, free fatty acids (FFA) increased only from 4.0% to 4.9% in long grain bran and 4.6% to 6.2% in medium grain bran, while in untreated bran it increased from 4.0% to 68% and 4.6% to 56.8%, respectively. Bran stabilized by microwave heating was as well as steam retorted bran in terms of FFA and better in color and nutrition. Oven dried bran was found to be unstable at high temperature and under high humidity conditions, and so was the bran stabilized by irradiation. Heat transfer efficiency analysis revealed that microwave heating is superior to either external heating methods for bran stabilization. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the initial moisture content, weight of the rice bran and microwave heating time are three important variables for the inactivation of bran peroxidase and lipase. Given the microwave heating strength constant, optimum stabilization effect was obtained with 21% initial moisture content in rice bran

  11. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic compounds in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Su; Nakamura, Kozo; Cui, Tong; Kayahara, Hiroshi

    2005-01-21

    A method has been developed for the determination of 6'-O-feruloylsucrose, 6'-O-sinapoylsucrose, ferulic acid, sinapinic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic (3-caffeoylquinic) acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid in rice. The rice samples were extracted with 70% ethanol, filtered, and defatted. The defatted aqueous solution was subjected to solid-phase extraction using a C18 silica gel cartridge; no analyte was lost in this procedure. The 70% acidic methanol elution was analyzed directly by HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS. Phenolic compounds were separated with a C18 reversed-phase column by gradient elution using 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid in purified water (A)--acetonitrile (B) (0 min, 5% B; 5 min, 9% B; 15 min, 9% B; 22 min, 11% B; and 38 min, 18% B) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Detection limits ranged from 0.10 to 0.35 ng per injection (5 microl). Relative standard deviations of 0.22-3.95% and recoveries of 99-108% were obtained for simultaneous determination of these phenolic compounds. This method was applied to analysis of phenolic compounds in brown rice and germinated brown rice soaked in 32 degrees C water for varying durations. PMID:15700463

  12. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  13. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  14. BASIS RISK FOR RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Yoshie Saito; Turner, Steven C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a cross hedging model for rice that minimizes basis risk and accounts for the existence of the nonstationary nature of basis. Basis is treated as an endogenous variable and model for basis risk are developed.

  15. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  16. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  17. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  18. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  19. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  20. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  1. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  2. The improvement of cisantana rice variety through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous improvement for rice through breeding is necessary to obtain new varieties with good quality and quantity. Cisantana variety hairy tips could be improved by mutation breeding. Seeds of Cisantana variety was irradiated by gamma rays (60Co) at doses of 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 kGy respectively at the Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation (CAIR) - Batan, Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. There after the irradiated seeds were planted as M1 plants at the CAIR’S experiment field in the dry season of 2000. Selection was carried out at the M2 generation and stressed on early maturity and bald spike. This was done at the experiment field at Pusakanegara - Subang in the Wet season of 2001/2002. From this population 19 mutants having early maturity and bald spike lets were selected. Purification in the next generation obtained 10 mutants which were homogeneous and without segregation. From these 10 mutants two mutant lines Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ were further tested. These two mutant lines showed good productivity and adaptability when tested at several locations. The resistance test for brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight disease showed that these two mutant lines are resistant to biotype 1 and 2, and medium resistant to biotype 3 of brown plant hopper, and also resistant to strain 3 and medium resistant to strain IV of bacterial leaf blight disease. These two mutant lines have good rice quality and were gelatinous. The Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ mutant lines were released as new rice varieties by the Minister of Agriculture and officially address as Mira-1 at 2006 and Bestari at 2008, respectively. (author)

  3. Rice functional genomics research in China

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bin; Xue, Yongbiao; Li, Jiayang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Zhang, Qifa

    2007-01-01

    Rice functional genomics is a scientific approach that seeks to identify and define the function of rice genes, and uncover when and how genes work together to produce phenotypic traits. Rapid progress in rice genome sequencing has facilitated research in rice functional genomics in China. The Ministry of Science and Technology of China has funded two major rice functional genomics research programmes for building up the infrastructures of the functional genomics study such as developing rice...

  4. Survey of Recent Innovations in Aromatic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides situations of aromatic rice demand, and international standards. The history and recent developments of traditional and evolved aromatic rice varieties, namely Basmati rice and Jasmine rice, are reviewed. The emerging aromatic rice innovations from developed countries such as the U.S. and other Asian countries generate a threat to these traditional aromatic rice producers such as India, Pakistan, and Thailand. Under WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights...

  5. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  6. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-zhen; LIU Ji-xin; YANG Sea-jun; YEA Jong-doo; LIAO Xin-hua; SU Zhen-xi; SHI Rong; JIANG Cong; DAI Lu-yuan

    2009-01-01

    The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  7. Influence of growing location and cultivar on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of rough rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK H. ARTHUR; RUSTY C. BAUTISTA; TERRENCE J. SIEBENMORGEN

    2007-01-01

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations (Hazen, MO; Essex and Newport, AR, USA), and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations (Jonesboro and Lodge Corner, AR, USA), were harvested and assayed for susceptibility to Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), the lesser grain borer, and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rice weevil, on rice held at 27℃ 57% and 75% relative humidity (RH).Separate samples from the same harvest lots were also analyzed for the physical characteristics of brown rice yield, percentage whole kernels and kernel thickness. Progeny production and feeding damage of R. dominica were significantly different among long-grain cultivars within two of the three locations (P < 0.05), but not for location or RH (P ≥ 0.05), while progeny production of S. oryzae was different among cultivars, location, and RH (P < 0.05). On medium-grain rice, both cultivar and location were significant for progeny production of R. dominica, but not RH, while cultivar and RH were significant for progeny production of S. oryzae, but not location. On both rice types, feeding damage of R. dominica followed the same trends and was always strongly positively correlated with progeny production (P < 0.05), but for S. oryzae there were several instances in which progeny production was not correlated with feeding damage (P ≥ 0.05). Physical characteristics of both rice types were statistically significant (P < 0.01) but actual numerical differences were extremely small, and were generally not correlated with progeny production of either species. Results indicate that the location in which a particular rice cultivar is grown, along with its characteristics, could affect susceptibility of the rice to R. dominica and S. oryzae.

  8. Promising medium duration multiple resistant rice culture CB 05 022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pushpam,S. Robin, S.Rajeswari, K. Mohanasundaram and K. Thiagarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available CB 05022, the medium duration rice culture with the parentage of CO 43/ ADT 39 was developed at Department of Rice,TNAU, Coimbatore. The culture was evaluated at station trials and it gave 21.8% increased yield over ADT (R 46. Thisculture was evaluated under AICRIP in irrigated transplanted low land ecosystem as IET 20884 for two years 2006-2008.Under IVT-IM the culture recorded a mean grain yield of 5485 kg/ha which was 21, 22% increase over the checks Jayaand Triguna respectively. Again the culture was tested under IVT-L during kharif 2009 wherein it recorded a mean grainyield of 5551 kg/ha which was 11.4% increase over Savitri. In the region wise performance, this culture ranked first inEastern region and fifth in Western region. In overall basis, it ranked second among all entries. The culture was alsotested under Disease Screening Nursery during 2009 and it showed multiple disease resistance again leaf blast, neck blastand brown spot. The culture is having good quality characteristics of intermediate amylose and GT, soft GC, high milling(70.7% and head rice recovery (60.6. The culture is now under third year of testing under AICRIP. Owing to highyielding, multiple resistance to major diseases, this culture has great scope for exploitation under our varietalimprovement programmes.

  9. Rice: The First Crop Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    Rice was the first sequenced crop genome, paving the way for the sequencing of additional and more complicated crop genomes. The impact that the genome sequence made on rice genetics and breeding research was immediate, as evidence by citations and DNA marker use. The impact on other crop genomes was evident too, particularly for those within the grass family. As we celebrate 10 years since the completion of the rice genome sequence, we look forward to new empowering tool sets that will further revolutionize research in rice genetics and breeding and result in varieties that will continue to feed a growing population. PMID:27003180

  10. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  11. The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Hanif, Usman; Zuber, Muhammad; Jinap, S

    2016-11-01

    In present study aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analysed in 208 samples of rice and products collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that 35% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 19% and 24% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 19% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 14% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in brown rice samples i.e. 8.91 and 12.4μg/kg, respectively. However, white rice samples have shown the highest mean level of OTA (8.50μg/kg) with highest level of 24.9μg/kg. The high mean dietary exposure 22.2 and 24.2ngkg(-1)bwday(-1) to AFB1 and OTA, respectively poses significant health hazard for local population. PMID:27211631

  12. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  13. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  14. Rice and Philippine Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Intal, Ponciano S.; Garcia, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Rice has been a pivotal political commodity since the Commonwealth because of its importance as a staple food and calorie source for majority of the population, especially in the low-income groups, as well as a source of employment and income to a wide range of people that comprise the demand and supply chain. As a result, food security and price stability continue as twin priority objectives of the government regimes in the Philippines. Using a political economy perspective, this paper estab...

  15. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  16. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation. PMID:25903182

  17. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  18. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  19. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  20. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  1. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice. PMID:22286805

  2. Role of varieties in sustainable rice production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the staple food of Malaysians. Rice production in Malaysia is concentrated in granary areas, which are provided with irrigation facilities. There is no plan to increase the size or the number of these granary areas, thus productivity per unit area must be increased to sustain the current level of self-sufficiency. Variety determines the potential productivity; environment and crop management determine how much of this potential is realized. Crop management is very important, as any drop in the level of management will effect productivity. However there are characteristics / factors that can be incorporated into varieties which can buffer the effect of environment and crop management. Pests and diseases can result in severe yield loss and lead to non-sustainable production. Varietal resistance to some of these diseases can be incorporated into rice varieties. Active breeding to incorporate rice resistance to blast, PMV (tungro), bacterial blight and brown planthopper is being currently carried out Factors that determine or justify the active breeding status are: importance of Oe pests diseases, resistance sources and the availability of efficient screening procedure. Sheath blight is also an important disease in direct seeded crops as it can cause severe yield loss, but good resistant sources are not available for incorporation and the screening procedure is also not very efficient. Biotechnologists are working hard to introduce resistance from other crops and also develop other resistance mechanisms for sheath blight. Water, shortage or excess, is a major cause of non-sustainable production. The breeding of short-term varieties can overcome water problems or shortages. Negative interaction between varietal characteristics and environment do occur. Finally farmers have to decide which factors of the environment cannot be easily controlled, and choose the correct varieties in order to achieve sustainable production. (Author)

  3. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  16. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  17. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  7. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  8. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  9. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  10. Effect of N level on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice intercropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Lu, Guoli; Cu, Yiou; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zheng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Plant N nutrition plays an important role on plant metabolisms and crop diseases resistance. Intercropping can increase grain yields greatly and provide an ecological approach to disease control. Field trails of using two rice varieties with different resistance to rice blast, Huangkenuo (HKN) and Hexi-41(HX41), was carried out to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rate on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice mono-cropping and intercroppi...

  11. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  12. silencing COI1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    Full Text Available The jasmonic acid (JA pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1 is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT, the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI, and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation.

  13. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  14. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  15. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  16. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  17. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  18. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  19. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  20. Competition Reform in the Philippine Rice Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.; Dela Pena, Beulah

    2015-01-01

    The rice sector is regulated by the National Food Authority, with imports under a statutory monopoly. Consistent with previous studies done on the rice supply chain, a rapid appraisal finds that the domestic paddy and rice supply chain is highly competitive. Entry into import business is however severely curtailed. Welfare analysis indicates that in 2013, if quantitative restrictions were eliminated and rice imports were allowed to freely enter the country, rice imports would have increased t...

  1. Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno V. Aguilar; Jr.,

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a basic question : How central is rice to the Filipino, what are its implications for understanding the way we approach and regard rice, and what do they indicate about Filipino culture? To answer this question, the paper focuses on the structural position of most Filipinos vis--vis rice. The paper argues that, at present, most Filipinos relate to rice as consumers rather than as producers of rice. From that perspective, the paper explores certain cultural practices that...

  2. Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno V. Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a basic question: How central is rice to the Filipino, what are its implications for understanding the way we approach and regard rice, and what do they indicate about Filipino culture? To answer this question, the paper focuses on the structural position of most Filipinos vis-à-vis rice. The paper argues that, at present, most Filipinos relate to rice as consumers rather than as producers of rice. From that perspective, the paper explores certain cultural practices that...

  3. Price relations between international rice markets

    OpenAIRE

    John, Adam

    2014-01-01

    International rice markets are seen as volatile due to the thin nature of the market which is believed to be exacerbated by a low level of substitution between major rice export markets. In other words, this perceived lack of price transmission amongst international rice markets is believed to further thin out an already thin world rice market. The paper tests for price transmission between five major rice exporting markets representing Asia and the Americas over the past decade. It uses a ve...

  4. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world’s most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are ...

  5. Response of rice yields in Ghana: some prescriptions for future rice policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boansi, David

    2013-01-01

    With local rice production lagging well behind demand as a result of low productivity of farmers’ fields, this study analyzed the response of rice yields in Ghana to major internal and external factors which have direct and indirect effects on production and to producers. Yield of rice was found to increase with producer price of rice, irrigated area, labor availability and world price of rice to producer price of rice ratio. It however decreases with increases in harvested area and price of ...

  6. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  7. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  8. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  9. Cloning of heat shock protein genes from the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, and their expression in relation to thermal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hun Kim; Sang-Chul Lee; Do-Yeon Kwak; Kyeong-Yeoll Lee

    2008-01-01

    Three heat shock protein (HSP) genes (hsp7O, hsc70, hsp90) were partially cloned from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), which are serious pests of the rice plant. Sequence comparisons at the deduced amino acid level showed that the three HSPs of planthoppers were most homologous to corresponding HSPs of dipteran and lepidopteran species. Identities of both heat shock cognate 70 and HSP90 were higher than HSP70 in both species. Identity of the HSP70 between the two planthopper species was only 81%, a value much lower than seen among fly and moth groups. Effects of heat and cold shocks were demonstrated on expression of the three hsp genes in the two planthopper species. Heat shock (40℃) upregulated the hsp90 level but did not change the hsc70 level in either the nymph and adult stages of either species. On the other hand, the hsp70 level was only upregulated in L. striatellus. This heat shock response was prompt and lasted only for 1 h after treatment. In contrast, cold shock at 4℃did not change the expression levels of any hsp in either species.

  10. Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Carla; Alff, Emily; Johnson, Cameron; Ramos, Cassandra; Donofrio, Nicole; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Bais, Harsh

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of ...

  11. The response of rice grain quality to ozone exposure during growth depends on ozone level and genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ozone exposure during the cropping season on rice grain quality were investigated in chamber experiments employing four ozone treatments (charcoal filtered air, ambient, 2× ambient, and 2.5× ambient concentration) and six genotypes. The concentrations of protein and lipids in brown rice increased significantly in response to ozone, while starch concentration and thousand kernel mass decreased. Other parameters, including the concentrations of iron, zinc, phenolics, stickiness and geometrical traits did not exhibit significant treatment effects. Total brown rice yield, protein yield, and iron yield were negatively affected by ozone. Numerous genotypic differences occurred in the response to ozone, indicating the possibility of optimizing the grain quality in high ozone environments by breeding. It is concluded that although the concentrations of two important macronutrients, proteins and lipids, increased in ozone treated grains, the implications for human nutrition are negative due to losses in total grain, protein and iron yield. - Highlights: ► Exposure of rice plants to elevated ozone during growth led to altered grain quality. ► Protein and lipid concentration increased whereas starch concentration and thousand kernel weight decreased. ► Rice grain, protein and iron yield tended to decrease in plants exposed to high ozone. ► These effects were responsive to different ozone levels and showed genotypic differences. ► The overall effect of ozone o human nutrition is expected to be negative. - Ozone exposure during growth tends to increase the protein and lipid concentration in rice grains but decreases total grain and nutrient yields. These effects are dependent on ozone level and genotype.

  12. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  13. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  14. Calibration of the AD-RICE 2012 model

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruin, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The AD-RICE2012 model is an updated version of the AD-RICE99 (Nordhaus and Boyer 2001) model, where the AD_RICE99 model is based on the RICE99 model and the AD-RICE2012 on the RICE2010 (Nordhaus 2010) model. In this document, we will describe the calibration of the AD-RICE2012 model and compare it with the AD-RICE99 model.

  15. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain. PMID:27109244

  16. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  17. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  18. Probing the role of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolism in defense responses against Bipolaris oryzae infection in rice leaves by a suicide substrate of tryptophan decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakao, Takahito; Mashimo, Yuko; Murai, Masatoshi; Ichimaru, Naoya; Tanaka, Chihiro; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Wakasa, Kyo; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites, including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides, markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack. These compounds have been implicated in the physical defense system against pathogen invasion by being deposited in cell walls. Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine, and tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) catalyzes the first committed reaction. In this study, (S)-α-(fluoromethyl)tryptophan (S-αFMT) was utilized to investigate the effects of the inhibition of TDC on the defense responses of rice leaves. S-αFMT, enantiospecifically synthesized from L-tryptophan, effectively inhibited TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae. The inhibition rate increased dependently on the incubation time, indicating that S-αFMT served as a suicide substrate. Treatment of rice seedlings with S-αFMT suppressed accumulation of serotonin, tryptamine, and hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin in a dose-dependent manner in B. oryzae-inoculated leaves. The lesions formed on seedlings treated with S-αFMT lacked deposition of brown materials, and those leaves were severely damaged in comparison with leaves without S-αFMT treatment. Administrating tryptamine to S-αFMT-treated leaves restored accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites as well as deposition of brown material. In addition, tryptamine administration reduced damage caused by fungal infection. Accordingly, the accumulation of tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites was suggested to be part of the effective defense mechanism of rice. PMID:21112065

  19. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum freezer respectively. The optimum ferrous sulphate added to the rice was 0.05% and the developed formulation of dried porridge consisted of ferrous sulphate rice (67.80%, chicken fillet (20%, chicken blood (3%, green shallot (0.7%, young ginger (1%, edible fern (0.5%, pepper powder (0.5%, sucrose (3%, salt (3% and monosodium glutamate (0.5%.The dried porridge had a high iron content of 10.18 mg/50 g and the shelf life was three months at room temperature when stored in either aluminum foil laminated bag or metalite bag.

  20. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  1. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  2. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  3. Rice Production Response in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Fan, Shenggen

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes how Cambodian farmers and the government can respond to the rise of rice price. The study estimates rice production response in Cambodia using the Cambodia Socio-Economic Surveys (CSES) conducted in 2004 and 2007. The results indicate that agricultural productivity is far from its potential and can be increased substantially by using modern technology and inputs such as fertilizers and irrigation. Our findings also suggest that the Cambodian government needs to design its ...

  4. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Arjmandi; Azman Hassan; Khaliq Majeed; Zainoha Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH) is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polyme...

  5. Functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis to eggs ofNilaparvata lugens are not affected by genetically modiifed herbicide-tolerant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-bin; LONG Li-ping; HUANG Qian; LING Yan; CHEN Yu-chong; XIAO Guo-ying; HUANG Suo-sheng; WU Bi-qiu; HUANG Feng-kuan; CAI Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    To safely and sustainably utilize genetic breeding techniques for crop production, greater understanding of the potential effects of geneticaly modiifed herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the ecological functions of predators is required. In the laboratory, we examined the functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to eggs of brown plan-thopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), which were reared on GMHT rice Bar68-1; the untransformed parental cultivar, D68; or a BPH-susceptive rice variety, Taichung Native 1. Al stages of nymphs and female adultof C. lividipennis, either on GMHT rice or control plants, exhibited typical type II functional responses when fed on BPH eggs; the attacking rate and handling time ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice Bar68-1 was not signiifcantly different from that on D68. The numerical responses ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice or controls ift Beddington’s model; there were no signiifcant differences in the parameters of numerical responses between GMHT rice Bar68-1 and D68. The results indicated that the functional and numerical responses ofC. lividipennis to BPH eggs are not affected by GMHT rice Bar68-1.

  6. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  7. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-long; ZHANG Yu-ping; ZHANG Qian-yuan; ZHU De-feng; CHEN Qi

    2011-01-01

    The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant,however,is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process.Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages.Firstly,the simulations of geometrical shape,the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted.Then,by using an improved model for bending deformation,the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated,and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created.Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures,and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures.Finally,the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved.The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective,and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  8. Effects and Mechanisms of P and K Nutrients on Yield and Protein Content of Fodder Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiang-ru; YU Tie-qiao

    2002-01-01

    Effects and mechanisms of P and K nutrients on yield and protein content of Weiyou 56, a fodder hybrid rice combination, were studied through pot experiment and biochemical analysis. The results showed that the increase of P and K nutrients enhanced the activities of PEP carboxylase (PEPC), glutamine synthase (GS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in leaves, sucrose synthase (SS), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGP) and GS in grains, and the chlorophyll content in leaves, soluble sugar and starch content in grains,protein N and total N content in leaves and grains. Howerer, they decreased soluble sugar content in leaves and led to an increase of protein content in brown rice, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. Excessive P nutrients slightly reduced SPS and ADPG activity in leaves and grains respectively.

  9. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengjie Hu; Younan Ouyang; Longhua Wu; Libo Shen; Yongming Luo; Peter Christie

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd.In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend.Compared to arsenate,there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted,and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil.In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions.Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha.The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment.Thus,water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice.Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  10. A significant contribution of mutation techniques to rice breeding in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mutation techniques in rice breeding was first introduced to Indonesia in 1966 by Dr. B.H. Siwi, after his fellowship training in Sweden awarded by the IAEA. However the first mutant rice variety, Atomita 1, was not officially released until 1982, though in between several mutant lines performed very well in regional and national trials, with early maturity and high yield. The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) is the only institute in the country that has the mission of research and development on mutation techniques for plant breeding. From 1982 to 2004, there have been 14 mutant rice varieties (11 lowland, 2 upland, and 1 tidal swamp rice variety) which were officially released in Indonesia, constituting more than 10% of the total number of released rice varieties during this time period. The number of variety itself cannot totally reflect the significant contribution of mutation techniques to the improvement of rice varieties in Indonesia; more importantly, are the improved traits in the new varieties, i.e. resistance to various biotypes of plant brown hoppers, tolerance to soil stresses (salinity, acidity, and high Fe concentration), in addition to other common traits such as early maturity (earlier than parent variety up to two months) and high yielding. Mutation techniques have proven particularly useful in traditional variety improvement, because no other techniques succeeded in improving their yield, disease resistance, or maturity, while keeping their quality characters unchanged. The breeding of a new mutant line, Pandanputri, and its superior performance to its parent variety is given as an example. (author)

  11. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200mg/L), Zn (1800mg/L) and Pb (1200mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains+3mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd accumulation in

  12. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  13. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  14. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  15. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  16. Genotype × Environment Interactions for Agronomic Traits of Rice Revealed by Association Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fei-fei; TANG Fu-fu; SHAO Ya-fang; CHEN Ya-ling; TONG Chuan; BAO Jin-song

    2014-01-01

    Agronomic traits are important determinants to rice yield, which are controlled by complex genetic factors as well as genotype by environment (G × E) interaction effects. The G × E effects for agronomic traits of rice have been dissected with various approaches, but not with the current available approach, the association studies. In this study, a total of 32 655 single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to carry out associations with 14 agronomic traits among 20 rice accessions in two environments. The G × E interaction effects for all the agronomic traits were at highly significant levels (P<0.01), accounting for 3.4%-22.3% of the total sum of squares except for the length of brown rice. Twenty three putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including five previously known and several new promising associations, were identified for 10 of 14 traits. Analysis of the relationships between the traits for which QTLs and the genotype effects could be identified suggested that the higher the genotypic effect, the higher the possibility to identify QTLs for the given trait. The new QTLs detected in this study will facilitate dissection of the complex agronomic traits and may give insight into the G × E effects with association mapping.

  17. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins. PMID:27285791

  18. The mutation reversion of induced waxy gene of rice in Indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some induced waxy gene lines such as Nanhui 175wxR, Xianghui 288wxR, Minghui 86wxR, Shuhui 527wxR, Minghui 63wxR, II-32wxB, Longtepu wxB and D62wxB, which developed through irradiation induction of the parents of hybrid rice in indica, were selected as the materials, and the properties of endosperm of their inbred descendant brown rice were identified by visual estimation and by the method of 1% KI-I2 determination. It was the first time to discover the reversion of induced waxy mutants (waxy endosperm reversed to non-waxy ones) in rice, and the reversion frequency was between 0 to 6.34 x 10-5, with a average of 3.74 x 10-5 Genetic analysis indicated that induced waxy mutants reversion gene was dominant. Except for 1000-grain weight, no significant difference in other traits was found among the induced waxy mutants, the waxy mutants reversion and the wilds. A new core seed production and seed purity control techniques of the parents of waxy hybrid rice was also put forward in this paper. (authors)

  19. Breeding, characterization and application of a new early season indica rice variety Zhefu 910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new early season indica rice variety, Zhefu 910, was officially registered by the Municipal Crop Variety Registration Committee of Xiangtan, Hunan Province in 1999, and the Provincial Crop Variety Registration Committee of Zhejiang Province in 2000, respectively. It was bred by pedigree selection of a cross between an early season indica variety Zhefu 219 and a late season indica rice variety Chang-si-ruan-zhan. The F, dried seeds of this cross were treated with 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 300 Gy before germination. In regional yield trials Zhefu 910 gained yield increase of 5.5% - 6.4% (significant at 5% probability) and 6.9%-9.8% over control in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Biochemical analysis revealed that the crude protein content of brown rice of Zhefu 910 was as high as 13.2%. Therefore, Zhefu 910 could be also regarded as a high protein content rice variety. The main characteristics of Zhefu 910 and its cultivation techniques are described in this paper

  20. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  2. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  3. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  4. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  5. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  6. The brown fat secretome: metabolic functions beyond thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat is highly active in fuel oxidation and dissipates chemical energy through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated heat production. Activation of brown fat leads to increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and lower plasma glucose and lipid levels, thus contributing to better homeostasis. Uncoupled respiration and thermogenesis have been considered to be responsible for the metabolic benefits of brown adipose tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes also se...

  7. In planta assay of hygromycin susceptibility and mutant screening in rice at heading stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells and tissue of plants carrying the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) are tolerant to antibiotic hygromycin and hence become the common selection gene for genetic transformation of crop plants, particularly monocots. The present study aimed at establishing a rapid method for in planta screening of hygromycin tolerant plants in transgenic breeding. At heading stage transgenic and conventional rice plants were sprayed with hygromycin solutions of different concentrations (25 ∼ 100 mg/L) and toxic symptoms were observed in the following days. It was observed that yellow-brown necrotic spots appeared in the leaves and grains of conventional rice varieties after foliar spraying of 50 mg/L hygromycin, and the more spots were occurred with the higher hygromycin solution. There were 21.1 and 19.2 spots per cm2 on flag leaves of indica varieties Jiayou 99 and C10, respectively; while 27.6% and 23.5% grains were yellow-brown in the varieties, respectively. The corresponding data for two japonica varieties Jiayou 5 and R5 were 11.8 and 10.7 for leave spots and 11.2% and 11.6% for yellow-brown grains, respectively. These results indicated that the two indica varieties are more sensitive to hygromycin than the two japonica varieties. In the treatment of hygromycin with above levels, the transgenic rice line KMD1 with the HPT gene showed no toxic symptoms on leaf or panicles. The γ-rays treated M2 population of KMD1 was sprayed with 100 mg/L hygromycin solution at heading stage and 42 plants were screened out with toxic symptoms in leaves and panicles form 120000 plants. Among the 42 hygromycin susceptible plants, 14 plants with leaves available for in vitro feeding assay were subjected to the feeding of rice striped steam borers [Chilo supperssalis (Walker)] and all showed high resistance. The above results showed that spraying of 100 mg/L hygromycin solution at heading stage would lead to visually apparent toxic symptoms in susceptibility rice plants and hence

  8. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  9. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  10. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  11. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  12. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear Ursus arctos from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  13. Black-Brown Relations: Are Alliances Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klor de Alva, J. Jorge; West, Cornel

    1997-01-01

    Dialogue between Cornel West and Jorge Klor de Alva explores the question of black-brown alliances, those between African Americans and Hispanic Americans. If minority groups can put aside the difference of skin color and join to combat economic and social racism, they can have far-reaching and meaningful impacts on society. (SLD)

  14. From a Brown to a Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    instruments such as taxes and subsidies. In this way, renewable energy sources and green industries become more competitive, thus enhancing the transition from brown to green economy. Not only can these economic incentives accelerate the so-called switch point in time from fossil fuel–based energy sources to...

  15. The White, the Brite and the Brown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lone Møller

    development, also termed adipocyte differentiation, and the role played by adipocytes in wholebody energy metabolism is therefore of utmost importance. Mammals harbour two general types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) that carry out essentially opposite functions...

  16. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  17. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  18. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  19. The Volatility of Thai Rice Price

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Baharom; Radam, Alias; Habibullah, M.S.; Hirnissa, M.T

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the varying volatility of world rice price for the period 1961 to 2008 using monthly data. The paper provides estimates of two GARCH models, namely, GARCH and EGARCH which were used to capture the stochastic variation and asymmetries in the world rice price. The results indicate that EGARCH model gives better estimate of the volatility of world rice price. Furthermore the EGARCH model was able to describe the asymmetric volatility in the world price of rice...

  20. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by ...

  1. IMPLICATIONS OF RICE BIOTECHNOLOGY ON OPTIMAL RICE CROP ROTATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Annou, Mamane Malam; Thomsen, Michael R.; Hansen, James M.; Wailes, Eric J.; Cramer, Gail L.

    2001-01-01

    Availability of new herbicide-resistant biotech rice varieties may affect traditional rice rotation practices to control red rice and enhance yields. This research evaluates the adoption of biotech rice and its effects on the current practice of crop rotation in the Mississippi River Delta region. The optimal utilization of biotech rice rotation is analyzed using a nonlinear mathematical programming model with mixed integers. Optimal rotation was found to be sensitive to the technology fee, r...

  2. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation 1 . Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans 2-5 , BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome 1 . Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and...

  3. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation1. Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans2-5, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome1. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anato...

  4. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  5. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  6. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  7. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  8. Origin of Weedy Rice as Revealed by Hybridizations among Cultivated Rice and its Wild Relatives%栽培稻及其近缘野生种间杂交揭示杂草稻的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红云; 陈丽娟; 熊海波; 朱骞; 石瑜敏; 王威豪; 刘百龙; 徐家星; 文建成; 李东宣

    2012-01-01

    通过水稻种间、亚种间和品种间的杂交,在套袋隔离和自然授粉两种条件下,对其杂交亲本主要农艺性状类型及杂交后代群体中杂草稻发生频率、类型及主要特征以及杂草稻的发生趋势进行调查分析,直接验证和重演杂草稻起源的主要路径.杂草稻的主要特征为:颖壳褐色或金色,种皮红色,散穗、易落粒,中长芒或无芒.结果表明,如果以近缘野生种为亲本,在其F2群体中比较容易发生类似杂草稻的单株;杂交组合中杂草稻出现频率的大小依次为:杂草稻或野生稻/粳稻(44.16%)>杂草稻或野生稻/籼稻(27.84%)>籼稻/粳稻(3.30%)>籼稻/籼稻(1.41%)>梗稻/粳稻(0).这一结果显示杂交亲本间遗传差异越大,在后代中出现杂草稻类型植株的频率就越高.套袋条件下,后代中杂草稻出现的频率为10.70%,而不套袋情况下为4.90%.%The objectives of this study are to explore the occurrence and development of weedy rice by investigating the frequency of weedy rice, which occurred in the progenies of crosses amount wild rice species, typical weedy rice,rice subspecies and cultivars. The results of this study indicated that wild and weedy rice showed brown or golden color of glum with or without awns and red pericarp, spreading type of panicles and shattering easily. A-nalysis for qualitative characteristics in F2 population suggested that the hybrid combinations with one of its parental line, which genetically nearer to its ancestry lines, would be prone to produce more weedy rice like plants. The frequencies of occurrence of weedy rice like plants in F2 population varied depending on the genetic similarities between the two parents. The more different between two parental lines are the more frequent weedy rice like plants produced. The sequence is as: weedy rice or wild rice/Japonica (44. 16%) > weedy rice or wild rice/Indica (27.84%) >Indica/Japonica (3. 30%) > Indica/Indica( 1. 41

  9. STRUCTURE AND CONDUCT OF THE WORLD RICE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hyunsoo; Kennedy, P. Lynn; Hilbun, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the world rice market through a Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework utilizing annual data from 1970 to 2007. Since World War Two, the world rice market has been very unstable, with rice prices experiencing volatile swings in both rice price and rice availability. Therefore, a SCP framework can provide crucial insight into the world rice market for policy makers. Also, this paper describes the effects of total production, export rice price, and...

  10. Herbivory-induced glucose transporter gene expression in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shingo; Nakamura, Yuki; Hattori, Makoto; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Noda, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) feeds on rice phloem sap, containing high amounts of sucrose as a carbon source. Nutrients such as sugars in the digestive tract are incorporated into the body cavity via transporters with substrate selectivity. Eighteen sugar transporter genes of BPH (Nlst) were reported and three transporters have been functionally characterized. However, individual characteristics of NlST members associated with sugar transport remain poorly understood. Comparative gene expression analyses using oligo-microarray and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the sugar transporter gene Nlst16 was markedly up-regulated during BPH feeding. Expression of Nlst16 was induced 2 h after BPH feeding on rice plants. Nlst16, mainly expressed in the midgut, appears to be involved in carbohydrate incorporation from the gut cavity into the hemolymph. Nlst1 (NlHT1), the most highly expressed sugar transporter gene in the midgut was not up-regulated during BPH feeding. The biochemical function of NlST16 was shown as facilitative glucose transport along gradients. Glucose uptake activity by NlST16 was higher than that of NlST1 in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. At least two NlST members are responsible for glucose uptake in the BPH midgut, suggesting that the midgut of BPH is equipped with various types of transporters having diversified manner for sugar uptake. PMID:26226652

  11. Heavy metals in paddy fields in Taiwan: chemical behavior in soil and uptake by brown rice

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. CHU; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Guo, H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were measured in 19 individual paddy fields in Taiwan. Total, reactive, and available metal levels were measured using Aqua Regia, 0.43 N HNO3, 0.1 M HCl, 0.05 M EDTA and 0.01 M CaCl2. Total metal levels ranged from below background levels to polluted and were highly heterogeneous across most fields. In general levels of metals in the soil decreased with an increase in distance from the water inlet which ...

  12. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    OpenAIRE

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological control") or manipulation of indigenous organisms (Chapter 1). Integrated pest management (IPM) combines biological control with other forms of pest control, such as cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods. However, n...

  13. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  14. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  15. Nonstructural Protein NS4 of Rice Stripe Virus Plays a Critical Role in Viral Spread in the Body of Vector Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; Zheng, Limin; Chen, Hongyan; Jia, Dongsheng; Li, Fan; Wei, Taiyun

    2014-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), a tenuivirus, is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, sequential infection of RSV in the internal organs of SBPH after ingestion of virus indicated that RSV initially infected the midgut epithelium, and then progressed to the visceral muscle tissues, through which RSV spread to the entire alimentary canal. Finally, RSV spread into the salivary glands and reproductive system. During viral infection, the nonstr...

  16. Improvement of potato based cropping patterns by inclusion of short duration Mungbean and T. Aman rice in Monga prone areas of Rangpur

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Islam

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to compare the improved cropping patterns against the farmers existing potato based cropping patterns having no mungbean/brown manure crop for higher yield, economic return and income generation in agricultural field in the off period following RCBD design with three replications at farmer’s field at Paikan Gangachara, Rangpur district during September- October. The treatments (cropping patterns) were T1 = T. aman rice (BINA 7) - Potato - Mungbean (BARI mungbean...

  17. Rice bran proteins: properties and food uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J

    1996-07-01

    Rice bran, a good source of protein and fat, is at present underutilized as a food material. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 27.3 million t. The presence of enzyme lipase in rice bran causes rapid deterioration of oil to free fatty acids and glycerol. Various stabilization techniques involving heat treatment, low-temperature storage, chemical treatment, control of relative humidity during storage, and simultaneous milling and extraction were evolved to inactivate lipase. Multiple forms of rice bran lipase have been identified. Fractional classification of proteins reveals a high percentage of albumins and globulins. Proteins can be extracted from full-fat or defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and acid or heat precipitation. Extraction procedures influence the protein content of concentrates, which ranged from 19.4 to 76.1% in concentrates from full-fat rice bran and 17.5 to 85.0% in concentrates from defatted rice bran. The PER of rice bran ranges from 1.59 to 2.04 and that of protein concentrates from 1.99 to 2.19. Available lysine contents of protein concentrates ranged from 54 to 58.8%. The essential amino acid profiles of protein concentrates indicate that threonine and isoleucine are limiting amino acids. Various functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates have also been investigated that are known to be influenced by drying technique and stabilization treatment of rice bran. Rice bran has been used in food as full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, and in the form of rice bran oil and protein concentrates. Full-fat and defatted rice bran have been used in bakery products, breakfast cereals, wafers, as a protein supplement, binder ingredients for meats and sausages, and as a beverage base. Incorporation of protein concentrates have been studied in bread, beverages, confections, and weaning foods. PMID:8841730

  18. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains. PMID:24447030

  19. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  20. Genetic analysis of rice allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A double haploid population derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used in this study. The inhibited effect of water-soluble extract of 123 DH pure lines leaves on the lettuce roots growth was investigated, and the QTLs analysis of rice allelopathy was carried out. Totally, four QTLs related to rice allelopathy were detected, and they were on chromosomes 3, 9, 10 and 12, respectively. The LOD scores were 3.40, 2.68. 2.75 and 3.08, respectively. Among them, additive effects of the QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 10 were 1.65 and 1.43, on chromosomes 9 and 12 were ?1.44 and ?1.58, respectively. Allelopathy characteristics of another three common rice varieties were also studied.

  1. FEASIBILITY OF EXPORT OF RICE BY BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nurun Nabi; Aziz, Abdul

    1992-01-01

    The paper has examined the feasibility of rice export as a dual trade with the import of wheat. It has indicated that the need for such a trade arises from the likely surplus of rice that might be generated in the future due to higher growth of production of rice than its consumption, and deficit of wheat from the stagnancy of production against higher growth rate of its consumption. At the current self sufficiency of rice production, the export of rice is desirable from two stand points: fir...

  2. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis of twenty-six rice samples analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the ongoing work on the safety and security of foods grown locally and imported into Jamaica, twenty five rice brands available on the Jamaican market and one sample of locally grown brown rice were collected and analysed for 36 elements using a combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence, flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Quality control for each of the techniques was provided by analysis of reference materials and inter-comparisons of common elements. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis performed on the raw data set identified white, parboiled and brown rice as the major clusters. The element and cluster median concentration in μg/g (for polished, parboiled and brown respectively) for each of the three clusters were Al (8.7, 11.3, 14.9), As (0.20, 0.21, 0.15), Br (12.1, 0.9, 3.4), Ca (60.4, 409.1, 112.5), Co (0.1, 0.09, 0.11), Cr (0.11, 0.10, 0.11), Cs (0.012, 0.004, 0.018), Eu (0.004, 0.004, 0.003), Cu (2.2,2.7, 3.6), Fe (13, 17, 20), K (894,1,815,2,538), La (0.009, 0.014, 0.015), Mg (340, 504, 1,303), Mn (9.7, 14.9, 28.5), Mo (0.7, 1.1, 0.8), Na (5.1, 9.9, 16.9), P (936, 2,328, 3,670), Rb (4.5, 6.1, 7.3), S (1,088,1,308, 1,321), Sb (0.004, 0.006, 0.005), Sc (0.001, 0.002, 0.002), Se (0.09, 0.17, 0.16), Sm (0.001, 0.003, 0.001), Sr (2.0, 1.9, 2.9), V (0.036, 0.041, 0.058), Zn (17.9, 15.3, 22.8). The use of agglomerative hierarchical clustering has proven to be a rapid method for the analysis of the dataset, correctly clustering rice by process that is, polished, parboiled and brown, with sub-clusters that further identified location, cultivars and an adulterated sample. The data validated here has been used to estimate the elemental contribution of rice to the Jamaican diet. (author)

  3. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  4. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas. PMID:26974480

  5. Rice price instability in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mili, Jobaida Yeasmin

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, the global attention was concentrated at the food price stability because of the rapid increase in cereal and other food prices. This rapid increase of food price has become a burden for the developing countries as well as for Bangladesh where households spend a large share of their income on food. Among the cereals rice has a strategic importance because it is the central to food security and economic and political stability of the country. Fluctuation in rice prices is not rar...

  6. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  7. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  8. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Gu; Jing Chen; Lu Chen; Zhiqin Wang; Hao Zhang; Jianchang Yang

    2015-01-01

    While the yield potential of rice has increased but little is known about the impact of breeding on grain quality, especially under different levels of N availability. In order to investigate the integrated effects of breeding and N levels on rice quality 12 japonica rice cultivars bred in the past 60 years in the Yangtze River Basin were used with three levels of N:0 kg N ha−1, 240 kg N ha−1, and 360 kg N ha−1. During the period, milling quality (brown rice percentage, milled rice percentage, and head rice percentage), appearance quality (chalky kernels percentage, chalky size, and chalkiness), and eating and cooking quality (amylose content, gel consistency, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback) were significantly improved, but the nutritive value of the grain has declined due to a reduction in protein content. Micronutrients, such as Cu, Mg, and S contents, were decreased, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Na, Ca, K, P, B contents were increased. These changes in grain quality imply that simultaneous improvements in grain yield and grain quality are possible through selection. Overall, application of N fertilizer decreased grain quality, especially in terms of eating and cooking quality. Under higher N levels, higher protein content was the main reason for deterioration of grain quality, although lower amylose content might contribute to improving starch pasting properties. These results suggest that further improvement in grain quality will depend on both breeding and cultivation practices, especially in regard to nitrogen and water management.

  9. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei; Gu; Jing; Chen; Lu; Chen; Zhiqin; Wang; Hao; Zhang; Jianchang; Yang

    2015-01-01

    While the yield potential of rice has increased but little is known about the impact of breeding on grain quality, especially under different levels of N availability. In order to investigate the integrated effects of breeding and N levels on rice quality 12 japonica rice cultivars bred in the past60 years in the Yangtze River Basin were used with three levels of N: 0 kg N ha-1, 240 kg N ha-1,and 360 kg N ha-1. During the period, milling quality(brown rice percentage, milled rice percentage, and head rice percentage), appearance quality(chalky kernels percentage, chalky size, and chalkiness), and eating and cooking quality(amylose content, gel consistency, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback) were significantly improved, but the nutritive value of the grain has declined due to a reduction in protein content. Micronutrients, such as Cu, Mg, and S contents, were decreased, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Na, Ca, K, P, B contents were increased. These changes in grain quality imply that simultaneous improvements in grain yield and grain quality are possible through selection. Overall, application of N fertilizer decreased grain quality, especially in terms of eating and cooking quality. Under higher N levels, higher protein content was the main reason for deterioration of grain quality, although lower amylose content might contribute to improving starch pasting properties. These results suggest that further improvement in grain quality will depend on both breeding and cultivation practices, especially in regard to nitrogen and water management.

  10. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  11. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  12. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  13. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  14. The genetics analysis of rice mutant R917 with resistance to rice blast (pyricularia oryza)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice mutant R917 with resistance to rice blast was selected by induced mutation with irradiation. The F2 segregation of R917/NF6, XS11, XS861 crosses with resistance to rice blast ZB15, ZC13, ZE3 showed that the rice blast resistance is controlled by one dominant gene. The identification of the disease resistance for the progenies of R917 crosses with XS11, XS861 showed that R917 could be used as a good material for resistance to rice blast in rice breeding

  15. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  16. Influence of the nonexchangeable potassium of mica on radiocesium uptake by paddy rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot cultivation experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of the nonexchangeable potassium (K) of mica on radiocesium (137Cs) uptake by paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari), and to evaluate the potential of mica application as a countermeasure to reduce radiocesium transfer from soil to paddy rice. The increase in the exchangeable K concentrations of soils, measured before planting, due to mica (muscovite, biotite, and phlogopite) application was negligible. However, in trioctahedral mica (biotite and phlogopite)-treated soil, the release of nonexchangeable K from the mica interlayer maintained the soil-solution K at a higher level during the growing season in comparison to the control, and consequently decreased the 137Cs transfer factor for brown rice (TF). The sodium tetraphenylboron (TPB)-extractable K concentration of the soils, measured before planting, was strongly negatively correlated with the TF, whereas the exchangeable K concentration of the soils, also measured before planting, was not correlated with the TF. Therefore, we conclude that TPB-extractable K is more reliable than exchangeable K as a basis of fertilizer recommendations for radiocesium-contaminated paddy fields. Phlogopite-treated soils exhibited higher TPB-extractable K concentrations and lower TF values than biotite-treated soils. We thus conclude that phlogopite application is an effective countermeasure to reduce radiocesium uptake in paddy rice. - Highlights: • Nonexchangeable K of added trioctahedral mica decreased 137Cs uptake by paddy rice. • TPB-extractable K would be a more reliable indicator than exchangeable K. • Phlogopite would be a good amendment for radiocesium-contaminated paddy fields

  17. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  18. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special atten...

  19. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special...

  20. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  1. Brown fat and vascular heat dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Current efforts to treat obesity and associated disorders focus on the stimulation of energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis, for instance through activating brown adipose tissue or more recently “beige” or “brite” fat, a relatively novel type of adipose tissue with putative thermogenic potential. In this commentary, we aim to provide an alternative perspective on the current trend of analyzing and manipulating thermogenesis, brought about by our recent publication, in which we invest...

  2. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  3. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  4. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  5. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies. PMID:24175575

  6. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  7. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  8. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  9. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  10. Hydrothermal modification of rice starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice starch of long grain and waxy cultivars were annealed (ANN) in excess water at 50 oC for 4 hrs. They were also modified under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) conditions at 110 oC, and various moisture contents (20%, 30%, and 40%) for 8 hrs. These treatments altered the pasting and gelling prope...

  11. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  12. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  13. RiceDB: A Web-Based Integrated Database for Annotating Rice Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; SHI Qing-yun; CHEN Ming; WU Ping

    2007-01-01

    RiceDB, a web-based integrated database to annotate rice microarray in various biological contexts was developed. It is composed of eight modules. RiceMap module archives the process of Affymetrix probe sets mapping to different databases about rice, and aims to the genes represented by a microarray set by retrieving annotation information via the identifier or accession number of every database; RiceGO module indicates the association between a microarray set and gene ontology (GO) categories; RiceKO module is used to annotate a microarray set based on the KEGG biochemical pathways; RiceDO module indicates the information of domain associated with a microarray set; RiceUP module is used to obtain promoter sequences for all genes represented by a microarray set; RiceMR module lists potential microRNA which regulated the genes represented by a microarray set; RiceCD and RiceGF are used to annotate the genes represented by a microarray set in the context of chromosome distribution and rice paralogous family distribution. The results of automatic annotation are mostly consistent with manual annotation. Biological interpretation of the microarray data is quickened by the help of RiceDB.

  14. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  15. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  16. Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; LIN YongJun; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops as the staple food for more than half of the world's population.Rice improvement has achieved remarkable success in the past half-century,with the yield doubled in most parts of the world and even tripled in certain regions,which has contributed greatly to food security globally.Rapid population growth and economic development pose a constantly increased food requirement.However,rice yield has been hovering in the past decade,which is mainly caused by the absence of novel breeding technologies,reduction of genetic diversity of rice cultivars,and serious yield loss due to increasingly severe occurrences of insects,diseases,and abiotic stresses.To address these challenges,Chinese scientists proposed a novel rice breeding goal of developing Green Super Rice to improve rice varieties and realize the sustainable development of agriculture,by focusing on the following 5 classes of traits:insect and disease resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality and yield potential.As a modern breeding approach,transgenic strategy will play an important role in realizing the goal of Green Super Rice.Presently,many transgenic studies of rice have been conducted,and most of target traits are consistent with the goal of Green Super Rice.In this paper,we firstly review technical advances of rice transformation,and then outline the main progress in transgenic rice research with respect to the most important traits:insect and disease-resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality,yield potential and herbicide-tolerance.The prospects of developing transgenic rice are also discussed.

  17. International rice trade and security stocks: Prospects for an expanded Asian international rice reserve:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Childs, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the recent experience with international rice reserves in Asia and re-examines the roles of national stocks and international trade in stabilizing domestic rice prices and availability in importing countries.

  18. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  19. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-kun; HUANG Jian-li; HU Chao-xing; HOU Mao-lin

    2014-01-01

    It is predicted that the current atmospheric CO2 concentration will be doubled and global mean temperature will increase by 1.5-6°C by the end of this century. Although a number of studies have addressed the separate effects of CO2 and temperature on plant-insect interactions, few have concerned with their combined impacts. In the current study, a factorial experiment was carried out to examine the effect of a doubling CO2 concentration and a 3°C temperature increase on a complete generation of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice (Oryza sativa). Both elevated CO2 and temperature increased rice stem height and biomass of stem parts. Leaf chlorophyll content increased under elevated CO2, but only in ambient temperature treatment. Water content of stem parts was reduced under elevated temperature, but only when coupled with elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 alone increased biomass of root and elevated temperature alone enhanced leaf area and reduced ratio of root to stem parts. Brown planthopper (BPH) nymphal development was accelerated, and weight of and honeydew excretion by the F1 adults was reduced under elevated temperature only. Longevity of brachypterous females was affected by a signiifcant interaction between CO2 and temperature. At elevated temperature, CO2 had no effect on female longevity, but at ambient temperature, the females lived shorter under elevated CO2. Female fecundity was higher at elevated than at ambient temperature and higher at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. These results indicate that the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 may enhance the brown planthopper population size.

  20. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  1. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  2. Partial Reform of World Rice Trade: Implications for the U.S. Rice Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences for the United States of a partial reform of world rice trade. It is argued that likely trade reform would occur in the japonica rice producing countries of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the European Community. Multilateral rice trade liberalization would have strong effects for medium grain rice in the United States. The strength of these effects might not be felt for a couple of years after the liberalization has begun because of minimal Japanese impor...

  3. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  4. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  5. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, A.; Gore, J; Musser, F.; Cook, D; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities ...

  6. The chemical cross talk between rice and barnyardgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    The chemical cross talk between rice and barnyardgrass which is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation was investigated. Allelopathic activity of rice was increased by the presence of barnyardgrass seedlings or barnyardgrass root exudates. Rice allelochemical, momilactone B, concentration in rice seedlings and momilactone B secretion level from rice were also increased by the presence of barnyardgrass seedlings or barnyardgrass root exudates. As momilactone B possesses strong growt...

  7. Commercialization of transgenic rice in China: potential environmental biosafety issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Rong Lu; Qiang Fu; Zhicheng Shen

    2008-01-01

    The development and commercialization of transgenic rice with novel traits in China may offer more opportunities for promoting rice productivity. Owing to the significance of rice as a major food crop in China, the enhancement of rice production is important for national food security. If left unaddressed, the potential biosafety concerns over the extensive release and commercial cultivation of transgenic rice may hamper the development and application of this technology in rice improvement. ...

  8. Oscillating Transcriptome during Rice-Magnaporthe Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T R; Das, Alok; Thakur, Shallu; Devanna, B N; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Vijayan, Joshitha; Kumar, Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice. Deciphering molecular mechanism of host-pathogen interactions is of great importance in devising disease management strategies. Transcription being the first step for gene regulation in eukaryotes, basic understanding of the transcriptome is sine qua non for devising effective management strategy. The availability of genome sequences of rice and M. oryzae has facilitated the process to a large extent. The current review summarizes recent understanding of rice-blast pathosystem, application of transcriptomics approaches to understand the interactions employing different platforms, major determinants in the interaction and possibility of using certain candidate for conditioning enhanced disease resistance (Effector Triggered Immunity and PAMP Triggered Immunity) and downstream signalling in rice. A better understanding of the interaction elements and effective strategies hold potential to reduce yield losses in rice caused by M. oryzae. PMID:26363736

  9. Uptake of trace element by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of trace element in rice paddy field ecosystem is of great significance as rice is a staple food of India particularly in Meghalaya. In general, cultivating system is an important factor for the plant uptake of trace element from soil. Rice paddy fields have a unique ecosystem from Radioecology point of view. Rice is usually planted under flood conditions in order to provide the best environment for its growth. In the present study, rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from the fields to obtain Transfer Factor under equilibrium condition in the field existing around Uranium mineralization zone. Obtaining local soil to rice uptake is important because it depends on climate and soil properties. The objective of the present study is to generate the transfer parameter in the paddy field ecosystem to predict the behaviour of trace elements in the paddy located in the area adjoining the uranium mines in Meghalaya. (author)

  10. Detecting relationships between amylose content and amino acid contents of indica rice with conditional approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chun Hai Shi; Qiong Qiong Zhu; Ke Ming Wang; Guo Ke Ge; Jian Guo Wu; Zhen Ghao Xu

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between the genetic effects of endosperm, cytoplasm and maternal plant on amylose content (AC) and amino acid contents of indica rice was studied using unconditional and conditional analysis methods. The results indicated that the protein content (PC) and brown rice weight (WBR) could significantly affect the relationships between AC and amino acid contents of rice. The phenotypic and genotypic covariances between AC and amino acid contents were most significantly negative under the interference of PC or WBR, but most of the relationships for the paired traits were not significant after excluding the influence of PC or WBR on AC. For the conditional genetic relationship analysis of different genetic systems including endosperm, cytoplasm and maternal plant, visible changes were found in many genetic correlation components between AC and amino acid content after eliminating the influences of PC, especially, for the endosperm or maternal additive effects, endosperm additive or dominance interaction effects and maternal additive interaction effects. The relationships of the paired traits conditioned on WBR were mainly controlled by the endosperm dominance or additive interaction effects.

  11. OsWRKY53, a versatile switch in regulating herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-04-01

    WRKY proteins, which belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores by regulating defense-related signaling pathways. Recently, a rice WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY53 has been reported to function as a negative feedback modulator of OsMPK3/OsMPK6 and thereby to control the size of the investment a rice plant makes to defend against a chewing herbivore, the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. We investigated the performance of a piecing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, on transgenic plants that silence or overexpress OsWRKY53, and found that OsWRKY53 activates rice defenses against BPH by activating an H2O2 burst and suppressing ethylene biosynthesis. These findings suggest that OsWRKY53 functions not only as a regulator of plants' investment in specific defenses, but also as a switch to initiate new defenses against other stresses, highlighting the versatility and importance of OsWRKY53 in herbivore-induced plant defenses. PMID:27031005

  12. Green-tuff landslide areas are beneficial for rice nutrition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Kazue

    2006-12-01

    Japanese Islands are covered with weathered volcanic rocks and soils. Terraced rice field are located in green-tuff areas which are very fertile but where landslides occur associated to strong earthquakes. The Xray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses of the soils in landslide area identified predominant smectite and Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, Mn and Fe are main components. The rice leaf showed that S, Cl, K and Ca play important roles for nutrients in the area. Drainpipe systems have set up in the green- tuff areas to reduce the risks of landslides. Reddish brown microbial mats inhabited bacteria and diatom in the drainpipe outlets. The microbial mats are rich in Fe and PO4(3-). The iron bacteria in the ground water have a high metabolic rate suggesting that the weathering materials were produced by not only physical and chemical influence but also by microorganism. Many microorganisms attach to mineral surfaces and show their high impact in the water mineral chemistry in the landslide area. Bacteria in the green-tuff over landslide area play important roles for sustainable agriculture including rice nutrition. PMID:17143410

  13. Rice Yield and Water Use as Affected by Soil Management Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; XIE Hong-Tu; LIANG Wen-Ju; WEN Da-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,to study the effects of soil management practices on water use and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in an aquic brown soil during 2001 and 2002. A completely random experimental design with three replications was employed, having four soil management practices as treatments, namely: an undisturbed plow layer (CK), a thin plastic film (TN), a thick plastic film (TI) and subsoil compacting (CP). Results indicated no significant differences arong all treatments for rice biomass and grain yields. Also, water consumption was about the same for treatments TN and CK, however the treatments TI and CP were much lower with more than 45% and 40% of the irrigation water in the treatments TI and CP, respectively,saved each year compared to CK. Therefore, water use efficiency was higher in the treatments TI and CP. These results will provide a scientific basis for the water-saving rice cultivation.

  14. Comparison of Grain Quality Characteristics Between F1 Hybrids and Their Parents in Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-ming; ZHOU Kun-lu; YANG He-hua; XU Qiu-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen widespread elite indica parents including seven CMS lines and nine restorer lines, and their 63 F1 hybrids were chosen to compare the eleven traits of grain quality. Overall results showed that the frequency of negative over-dominance, dominance and partial dominance was much higher than that of positive ones and heterosis, indicating that the values of F1 hybrids were generally lower than the means of their parents in quality characteristics. There existed apparent disparity in grain quality performance among F1 hybrids varied with the traits. The characteristics of chalky area percentage, chalky grain percentage, gel consistency and head rice recovery had a great variation in all kinds of tested heterosis indices including the mid-parent heterosis index, over high-value parent heterosis index and over low-value parent heterosis index, which suggested that special attention should be paid to the selection of F1 hybrids in these traits in breeding. The mean values of F1hybrids were significantly lower than those of their higher parents in all the traits but close to or significantly lower than those of their mid-parent values except for kernel length and amylose content; and significantly higher than those of their lower parents except for brown rice recovery, milled rice recovery and gel consistency.

  15. Assessment of Various Factors Involved in the Tissue Culture System of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaukat ALI; XUE Qing-zhong; ZHANG Xian-yin

    2004-01-01

    To optimize conditions for an efficient embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration from mature seeds of japonica rice cultivar Xiushui 11 and indica cultivar XC95, different factors such as plant growth regulators, casein hydrolysate,carbohydrate source and concentration, and various gelation conditions including gel type for callus induction and phyta gel concentration for shoot regeneration were studied in detail to determine their role in the system. Overall, induction of embryogenic callus in case of Xiushui 11 was the most efficient (67.2%) in the media supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D, 3% sucrose and 0.8%agar while in case of XC95, 2 mg/L of 2,4-D combined with 0.5 mg/L of BAP and NAA generated the best result (61.2%). Inclusion of 0.3% agarose (pure form) or phyta gel further enhanced the callus induction efficiency (80%) in Xiusui 11. Higher concentration (300-500 mg/L) of casein hydrolysate was found to significantly inhibit the browning of calli in XC95. Role of cytokinin and phyta gel concentration was critical for shoot regeneration in both classes of rice. Increased strength of phyta gel was observed to enhance the shoot regeneration frequency. The optimal concentration of 2 mg/L and 3 mg/L for KT was necessary for higher differentiation frequency supplemented with 0.5% and 0.6% phyta gel in case of japonica and indica rice, respectively.

  16. Obtaining transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease by controlled cell death strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Shengji; GU Hongya; QU Lijia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of the two-component system, composed of Barnase and Barstar which encode RNase and a specific inhibitor to the RNase respectively, is adopted to obtain transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease. In this study, two chimeric promoters, induced by rice blast fungus pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea), are fused with Barnase respectively to construct two plant expression vectors, pWBNBS and pPBNBS together with the Barstar driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The resistance of the transgenic rice lines to rice blast fungus disease and rice blight disease are evaluated. The results show that (1) the expression of Barnase is induced in rice leaves when inoculated with the spores of Magnaporthe grisea; (2) the induced expression level of Barnase surpasses the level of Barstar, which elicits a similar hypersensitive response (HR) in the leaves, and the transgenic plant shows high resistance to the rice fungal blast disease; and (3) transgenic rice plants also show obvious resistance to rice bacterial blight disease. Taken together, these results suggest that the transgenic rice plants harboring this two-component system acquire relatively broad spectrum resistance against pathogens, especially high resistance to rice fungal pathogen.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  18. Factors affecting the outcrossing rate between Clearfield rice and red rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercialization of imazethapyr-resistant (Clearfield[TM], CL) rice in the southern United States has raised serious concerns about gene flow to red rice, producing imazethapyr-resistant red rice populations. Our objectives were to determine the impact of planting date, CL cultivars, and red ri...

  19. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (Fv) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10-2 to 8.1 x 10-1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10-1. The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (Fr) was 0.03 for 210Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10-3. The study has shown that the transfer of 210Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  20. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.