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Sample records for brown rice

  1. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  2. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  3. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY... Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown...

  4. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  5. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  6. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  7. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  8. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  10. Content Variations of the Secondary Compounds in Rice Plants and Their Influence on Rice Resistance to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying; TONG Xiao-li; HUANG Feng-kuan

    2006-01-01

    Content variations of the four components in the plants of rice ASD7, IR36 (resistant to brown planthopper) and TN1 (susceptible to brown planthopper), and their influence on rice resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) were investigated. The resistance diversity of rice to BPH biotype Ⅱ at different plant ages was chiefly attributed to the content variability of the secondary compounds. The contents in the leaf sheath were the lowest as compared with other parts of rice plant. It might explain the reason that BPH has a preference for feeding on leaf sheath aggregately from chemical point of view.

  11. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 μg/kg and 0.52–2.62 μg/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 μg/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 μg/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 μg/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 μg/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 μg/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 μg/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  12. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  13. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  14. Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Chemical Engineeringg Dept., Biotechnology Unit, IIT Kharagpur, (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw was taken for the present investigation and their efficiency on biomethanation has been tested. Rice straw was treated with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P{sub C}) and brown rot fungus Polyporus ostreiformis (P{sub O}). Biogas and methane production was increased by about 34.73% and 46.19% in P{sub C}-treated straw and 21.12% and 31.94% in P{sub O}-treated straw respectively. VFA production has also been increased in P{sub C} and P{sub O} treated straw compared to control straw which were 76.73% and 30.69% respectively. Reduction of COD has also been found during biomethanation. The rate of reduction of COD during the initial period of digestion was 59.01%, 55.55% and 26.00% in P{sub C}-treated, P{sub O}-treated and control straw respectively after 21 days of digestion. (orig.) With 12 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs.

  15. Effect of flour-blasting of brown rice on reduction of cooking time and resulting texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long grain non-parboiled, long grain parboiled, and American basmati-type brown rice were bombarded with parboiled rice flour sufficient to create microperforations in the water-resistant outer coat of the seed. These microperforations in the treated rice significantly increased the rate of hydratio...

  16. Transgenic rice homozygous lines expressing GNA showed enhanced resistance to rice brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mature seed-derived calli from two elite Chinese japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Eyi 105 and Ewan 5 were co-transformed with two plasmids, pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1, containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment. 61 independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 329 bombarded calli. 79% transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that 36 out of 48 gna-containing transgenic plants expressed GNA (75 %) at various levels with the highest expression being approximately 0.5% of total soluble protein. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From the R2 generations whose R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation patterns,we identified five independent homozygous lines containing and expressing all the three transgenes. Insect bioassay and feeding tests showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) by decreasing BPH survival and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.These BPH-resistant lines have been incorporated into rice insect resistance breeding program. This is the first report that homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing GNA, developed by genetic transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection, conferred enhanced resistance to BPH, one of the most damaging insect pests in rice.

  17. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql (EPA); (Bangladesh); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  18. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  19. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    1998-08-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  20. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Beong Ou Lim; Jeong Eun Jo; Da Hye Kim; Trishna Debnath; Sa Ra Park

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed...

  1. Impact of germination on the structures and in vitro digestibility of starch from waxy brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Su-Yeon; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Han, Hye Min; Jun, Wujin; Hong, Young-Shick; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro digestibility as well as the molecular and crystalline structures of waxy rice starches isolated from brown rice, germinated brown rice (GBR), ultrasonicated GBR, and heat-moisture treated GBR were investigated. The germinated brown rice starch (GBRS) had a lower average molecular weight and a higher proportion of DP 6-12 in amylopectin than brown rice starch (BRS). The relative crystallinity, intensity ratio of the band at 1,047 cm(-1) and 1,022 cm(-1), gelatinization temperature and pasting temperature of waxy rice starch were reduced by germination. However, the ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS increased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. The digestibility of starch from brown waxy rice was increased by germination. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents were 50.5%, 42.4%, and 7.1% in BRS, and 69.0%, 27.9% and 3.1% in GBRS, respectively. The ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS reduced RDS content and increased RS content in raw and gelatinized starches. The decrease in starch digestibility of cooked GBR was more pronounced after heat-moisture treatment than after ultrasonication. PMID:26582341

  2. Improvement in shelf life of rough and brown rice using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IR heating and tempering treatments on storage stability of rough and brown rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium grain rice variety M206 with initial moisture content of 25.03±0.21% (d.b.) were used. They were dried using infrared (IR...

  3. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Khalili; Mehdi Sadravi; Shahram Naeimi; Vahid Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that ...

  4. 糙米和发芽糙米吸水动力学研究%Kinetics of water absorption of brown rice and germinated brown rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 张晖; 郭晓娜; 钱海峰

    2011-01-01

    Application of the Peleg model was investigated for predicting water absorption by brown rice and germinated brown rice during soaking between temperature(T)of 25℃ and 65℃ for20~140min.The results showed that: Peleg equation could adequately describe the hydration characteristics of brown rice and germinated brown rice under the experimental conditions with the mean relative percentage deviation modulus(E)of less than 10%. For each variety,Peleg' s rate constant K, decreased significantly as the hydration temperature increased from 25℃ to 65℃.However,there was no obvious trend for Peleg capacity constant K2.%采用Peleg方程,探讨了糙米和发芽糙米在不同温度(25~65℃)和不同时间间隔下(20~140min)的吸水动力学性质.实验结果表明:Peleg方程能较好地描述糙米和发芽糙米在实验条件下的吸水性质,且相对误差(E)小于10%.在糙米和发芽糙米的吸水模型中,Peleg方程参数K1均随温度升高而减小,K2无明显变化趋势.

  5. Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsono, Y; Illman, R J; Clarke, J M; Trimble, R P; Topping, D L

    1993-09-01

    Adult male pigs were fed on a diet containing (% of energy) fat 25 starch 55 from white rice and providing 20 g fibre/pig d (diet WR). In two other groups rice bran was added to the diet to provide 43 g fibre/d. One group received the diet unmodified (diet RB), but in another (diet RO) heat-stabilized unrefined rice oil replaced the palm oil. In a further group brown rice replaced white rice and provided 37 g fibre/pig per d (diet BR). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar with diets WR, RB and BR. With diet RO the concentration was significantly lower than with diets WR and BR but was not different from diet RB. Plasma high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerols were unaffected by diet. In all groups, digesta mass rose from the caecum to the proximal colon but fell in the distal colon. Diet WR gave the lowest digesta mass while diet BR gave a significantly higher mass along the large bowel length. RB- and RO-fed pigs had equal masses of digesta which were intermediate between BR- and WR-fed pigs at all sampling sites. Pools of individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the proximal large bowel were unaffected by diet. Pools of total and individual VFA in the median and distal colon were lowest with diets WR and RB and significantly higher with diet BR. In these regions of the colon pools of acetate in RO-fed pigs did not differ from those in the BR-fed group but were higher than in other groups. However, pools of propionate and butyrate with the RO diet were significantly lower than with diet BR and the same as with diets WR and RB. Portal venous VFA concentrations were unaffected by diet. The higher large bowel digesta masses and VFA with diet BR may reflect the escape of starch from the small intestine. PMID:8260477

  6. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  7. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  8. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (pbatter.

  9. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer. PMID:27409632

  10. Dietary Toxicity Evaluation of Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss the reference safety of the Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine (BRSRKRW and provide scientific basis for rational development and utilization of the wine. In order to evaluate the toxicity of BRSRKRW in vivo, acute and subchronic toxicity of BRSRKRW in SD rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of BRSRKRW at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, or 31.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw, were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, BRSRKRW at 1.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw were administered for 30 days. The results showed that BRSRKRW did not affect weight gain in growing rats, in the level of hematological parameters, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid in blood and histopathological damages of the liver. Overall, the study suggests that the risk of drinking BRSRKRW toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  11. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  12. Analysis of Heterosis, Combining Ability and Heritability of Cadmium Content in Brown Rice of Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were used as parents in an incomplete diallet cross and six restorer lines of rice design (Nc II design). Thirty hybrid combinations with the same growth period were selected as experimental ma- terials to investigate the heterosis, combined ability and heredity of Cd content in brown rice of indica hybrid rice. According to the results, Cd content in brown rice showed a significantly negative heterosis; the general combining ability and specific combination ability of Cd content in CMS and restorer lines both reached extremely significant level (P〈0.01), indicating that both genetic improvement of parents and e- valuation of combinations are important to the breeding of hybrid combinations with low accumulation of Cd; the broad-sense heritabitity and narrow-sense heritability of Cd content were both relatively high with slight differences, which respectively reached 97.73% and 80.10%, indicating that Cd content in brown rice mainly de- pends on the additive action of genes; in addition, parent improvement showed bet- ter effect on the selection of early generation.

  13. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yangrong; Chen Mulong [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hainan Institute of Geological Survey, Haikou 570206 (China); Bi Xiangyang, E-mail: bixy@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); He Yusheng [Hainan Institute of Geological Survey, Haikou 570206 (China); Ren Limin [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xiang Wu; Qiao Shengying; Yan Sen [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Ma Zhendong [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 {mu}g/kg, with a mean (92 {mu}g/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As{sub i} in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. - Highlights: > Arsenic concentration in brown rice from Hainan was lower than most published data. > Grain As was affected by soil As speciation, OM, and P. > Humic acid and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions were important pools for rice plant. > Grain arsenic rises steeply at lower soil As concentrations and gently at higher concentrations. - Arsenic in brown rice grain from Hainan, China showed low concentrations and correlated most closely to soil humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions.

  14. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. - Highlights: → Arsenic concentration in brown rice from Hainan was lower than most published data. → Grain As was affected by soil As speciation, OM, and P. → Humic acid and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions were important pools for rice plant. → Grain arsenic rises steeply at lower soil As concentrations and gently at higher concentrations. - Arsenic in brown rice grain from Hainan, China showed low concentrations and correlated most closely to soil humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions.

  15. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition. PMID:26988508

  16. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition.

  17. Characterizing and Estimating Fungal Disease Severity of Rice Brown Spot with Hyperspectral Reflectance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-yu; HUANG Jing-feng; TAO Rong-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale farming of agriculture crops requires real-time detection of disease for field pest management.Hyperspectral remote sensing data generally have high spectral resolution, which could be very useful for detecting disease stress in green vegetation at the leaf and canopy levels. In this study, hyperspectral reflectances of rice in the laboratory and field were measured to characterize the spectral regions and wavebands, which were the most sensitive to rice brown spot infected by Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann). Leaf reflectance increased at the ranges of 450 to 500 nm and 630 to 680 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface, and decreased at the ranges of 520 to 580 nm, 760 to 790 nm, 1550 to 1750 nm, and 2080 to 2350 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface respectively. The sensitivity analysis and derivative technique were used to select the sensitive wavebands for the detection of rice brown spot infected by B. oryzae. Ratios of rice leaf reflectance were evaluated as indicators of brown spot. R669/R746 (the reflectance at 669 nm divided by the reflectance at 746 nm, the following ratios may be deduced by analogy), R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732, R535/R746, R521/R718, and R569/R718 increased significantly as the incidence of rice brown spot increased regardless of whether it's at the leaf or canopy level. R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732 were the best three ratios for estimating the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf and canopy levels. This result not only confirms the capability of hyperspectral remote sensing data in characterizing crop disease for precision pest management in the real world, but also testifies that the ratios of crop reflectance is a useful method to estimate crop disease severity.

  18. General Utility of Brown Rice%糙米的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫男; 王静

    2012-01-01

    Brown rice nowadays is an healthy grain that accepted by people by reason of its rich basic nu- tritions and funcional composition than milling rice. The paper aims that how to make use of the brown rice Systematicly, the high nutrition value and application potential and the problem in edible quality like the odor, taste, sensory deficiencies as well as improving methods for these problems and its products processing and utilization of the status was introduced. Besides, the paper discussesd that the issues like storage of brown rice, the standard-settings of nutritions as well as how to form a system of brown rice products, for specific issues, the prospects of comprehensive development and utilization of the brown rice was discussed.%糙米因含有比精白米更多的基本营养素及主要功能性成分而成为当今人们公认的健康谷物.以综合利用糙米为目的,介绍了糙米及发芽糙米丰富的营养成分情况,糙米食用品质所存在的气味、口感、感官等方面的缺陷以及这些问题的改良方法,糙米及其制品的加工利用的研究现状.同时进一步探讨糙米改良前后所存在的储运、营养素标准制订、糙米制品如何形成体系的一些较宏观的问题,针对具体问题,对糙米的综合开发利用的前景进行展望.

  19. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. PMID:24973509

  20. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (pyogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  1. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hye; Ahn, Sung-Il; Lim, Chan-Mook; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (pyogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  2. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  3. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-01-01

    Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  6. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  7. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong; WU Li-juan; WANG Ying; CHENG Zhao-bang; JI Ying-hua; FAN Yong-jian; ZHOU Yi-jun

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease,a simple and reliable method was developed,through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants.The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible rice variety.For the ability to acquire RBSDV and transmit the virus to healthy plants by SBPH,there was no significant difference between frozen infected leaves and in vitro infected leaves.The novel method could be applied to identification of rice variety resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease,facilitating the breeding process for rice black-streaked dwarf disease resistance.

  8. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Nikolić; Jelena Dodić; Mirjana Mitrović; Miodrag Lazić

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w) were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat fl...

  9. Localization and speciation of mercury in brown rice with implications for pan-Asian public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Anderson, Christopher W N; Wang, Jianxu; Zhao, Lei

    2014-07-15

    Cultivation of paddy rice for human consumption is a dominant agricultural activity throughout Asia. High levels of mercury (Hg) in rice grain pose a potential threat to human health, although the extent of risk is dependent on the chemical speciation of Hg inside the grain. We have investigated the speciation and localization of Hg in three fractions of rice grain (hull, bran, and white rice) collected from a Hg-contaminated region in China. On a mass basis, the majority of inorganic mercury (IHg) in a rice grain is found in hull and bran. However, the majority of the more toxic species methyl mercury (MeHg) is found in edible white rice. Our data show that during grain processing, most of the IHg (∼78%) is eliminated, but the majority of the MeHg remains in the food product (∼80%). Synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) mapping shows strong localization of Hg at the surface of brown rice grains, corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. We infer that this Hg is predominantly IHg absorbed from the atmosphere. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data we propose that IHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine, and is associated with phytochelatins. Consequently, IHg is largely immobile and restricted to the outer layers of rice grain. MeHg in bran is primarily bound to cysteine and is associated with proteins. However, this MeHg-cysteine association behaves like a mobile nutrient and is actively transported to the endosperm during seed ripening. Concentration of MeHg-cysteine in white rice has implications for public health. There is growing evidence for Hg contamination of rice throughout Asia due to point and diffuse sources of Hg pollution. The magnitude of the associated risk must be quantified through better understanding of the localization and speciation of mercury in rice. Our work makes an effort to contribute to this understanding. PMID:24925231

  10. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangrong; Chen, Mulong; Bi, Xiangyang; He, Yusheng; Ren, Limin; Xiang, Wu; Qiao, Shengying; Yan, Sen; Li, Zhonggen; Ma, Zhendong

    2011-07-01

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As(i) in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. PMID:21549462

  11. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  13. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  14. Analysis of Antioxidant Activity of Chinese Brown Rice by Fourier-Transformed Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a rapid method using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for analyzing the antioxidant activity of brown rice as total phenol content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Brown rice (n=121) collected from five producing areas was analyzed for TPC and DPPH by reference methods. The NIR reflectance spectra were measured with compact powders of samples and no treatment was used. Full-spectrum par...

  15. ECO FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR CONTROLING BROWN SPOT DISEASE IN RICE

    OpenAIRE

    M. SRINIVASARAO*, M. PRAMANICK, A. HALDER AND S. DAS1

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Brown spot of paddy (Helminthosporium oryzae) is prevalent in all rice growing areas of the country especially in heavy monsoon areas of West Bengal. The indiscriminate use of chemical fungicides to control the disease is not only hazardous to living beings but also adversely affects the environment. Successful control of the diseases by different tree biomass and by using bio control agents which had no adverse effect on the environment is one of the challenging objectives in or...

  16. Estimation of the Age and Amount of Brown Rice Plant Hoppers Based on Bionic Electronic Nose Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sai Xu; Zhiyan Zhou; Huazhong Lu; Xiwen Luo; Yubin Lan; Yang Zhang; Yanfang Li

    2014-01-01

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analy...

  17. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; He, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating pest of rice. Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. To date, 29 major BPH resistance genes have been identified from indica cultivars and wild rice species, and more than ten genes have been fine mapped to chromosome regions of less than 200 kb. Four genes (Bph14, Bph26, Bph17 and bph29) have been cloned. The increasing number of fine-mapped and cloned genes provide a solid foundation for development of functional markers for use in breeding. Several BPH resistant introgression lines (ILs), near-isogenic lines (NILs) and pyramided lines (PLs) carrying single or multiple resistance genes were developed by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABC). Here we review recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of BPH resistance in rice. Prospect for developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum BPH resistance are discussed. PMID:27300326

  18. Development of NIRS models to predict protein and amylose content of brown rice and proximate compositions of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Torit Baran; Sharma, Srigopal; Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu

    2016-01-15

    With the escalating persuasion of economic and nutritional importance of rice grain protein and nutritional components of rice bran (RB), NIRS can be an effective tool for high throughput screening in rice breeding programme. Optimization of NIRS is prerequisite for accurate prediction of grain quality parameters. In the present study, 173 brown rice (BR) and 86 RB samples with a wide range of values were used to compare the calibration models generated by different chemometrics for grain protein (GPC) and amylose content (AC) of BR and proximate compositions (protein, crude oil, moisture, ash and fiber content) of RB. Various modified partial least square (mPLSs) models corresponding with the best mathematical treatments were identified for all components. Another set of 29 genotypes derived from the breeding programme were employed for the external validation of these calibration models. High accuracy of all these calibration and prediction models was ensured through pair t-test and correlation regression analysis between reference and predicted values. PMID:26258697

  19. Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bao-hua; YANG Yang; SHI Yong-feng; LIN Lu; CHEN Jie; WEI Yan-lin; Hei LEUNG

    2013-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)induced IR64 mutant bank.The mutant,designated as Ibsl1 (light brown spotted-leaf 1),displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions.Agronomic traits including plant height,growth duration,number of filled grains per panicle,seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected.Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene,tentatively named Ibsl1(t),which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6.By developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers,the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588.The Ibsl1(t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identified near the chromosomal region.The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.

  20. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae) using some phenolic antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Y.M.; Abdel-Fattah, G.M.; Ismail, A.E.; Rashad, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone). The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains. PMID:24031243

  1. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  2. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  3. Bacterial Community in Different Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; WANG Xin; YE Gong-yin; LU Zhong-xian

    2014-01-01

    The structures of bacterial communities in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) from different geographic and resistant virulent populations were analyzed by using denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that the bacterial communities in BPH nymph from the first to the fifth instars varied with nymphal growth and development. The bacterial communities in the first-instar BPH nymph were similar to those in adults. Nine geographic BPH populations were divided into three groups based on the cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprint. The first group was from the Philippines;the second group was from Thailand and Hainan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces of China; and the third group was from Vietnam and Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces of China. BPH populations adapted to different resistant rice varieties. The BPH populations from Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) differed with those of the susceptible rice variety TN1.

  4. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back...

  5. Cloning and characterization of rice RH3 gene induced by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolan; WENG Qingmei; YOU Aiqing; ZHU Lili; HE Guangcun

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have showed that the histone H3 gene is correlated with development, cell speciality and stress response. The RH3 full-length cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library of rice infested by brown planthopper (BPH) with EST (Accession no. BU572343) screened from rice SSH library as probe. This gene encodes histone H3 protein including 136 amino acids, with one amino acid different from a kind of disease resistance-related protein in rice (AF467728). At the position 126, the aspartic acid is replaced by lysine. The time course results showed that the expression of the RH3 began to increase at 8 h after BPH-feeding, and got to its peak at 96 h. Regulations of the gene expression in treatments with stress/defense signal molecules were analyzed by Northern blot. Water deficit and Pyricularia grisea increased the expression of RH3 while ABA down-regulated the gene. The enhanced accumulation of RH3 transcripts in the vascular bundle and short cell of stem after BPH feeding was revealed by RNA in situ hybridization. It is the first time to report that RH3 is correlated with the response of rice to BPH.

  6. Developmental Analysis of Genetic Behavior of Brown Rice Width in indica-japonica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; SHI Chun-hai; YE Shen-hai; QI Yong-bin

    2006-01-01

    The developmental genetic behaviors of brown rice width (BRW) have been studied in indica-japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), in which seven indica male sterile lines and five japonica restorer lines were applied, by using the developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid in cereal crops. The BRW of indica-japonica hybrid rice was co-determined by gene expression of triploid endosperm, cytoplasm, diploid maternal plant and their genotype ×environmental interaction effects. Unconditional analysis showed that the endosperm additive and maternal additive effects were predominant for the development of BRW from early- to late-stage of the grain development, but the endosperm dominant effect together with maternal effect and cytoplasmic effect became the major factor determing the BRW at the ripening stage. Moreover,conditional analysis found that there were new onset and offset of gene expression at different developmental stages of BRW in indica-japonica hybrid rice. Maternal and cytoplasm general heritabilities and their interaction heritabilities were more important compared to other components of heritability for BRW at all the five developmental stages.

  7. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  8. Preparation the germinated brown rice yogurt%发芽糙米酸奶发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊秀花; 王步江; 何新益; 张爱琳

    2012-01-01

    论文以发芽糙米和奶粉为主要原料,发芽糙米经液化、糖化、乳酸发酵等工艺,研究添加了发茅糙米对酸奶的发酵特性以及品质的影响。实验结果表明:在配方为发芽糙米用量10%,脱脂酸奶的用量15%,食用蔗糖3%,酸奶接种量5%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间为11h时,含菌量是对照的5倍,达到4.1×10^8cfu/mL,乳酸菌含量比对照组增加了5倍之多且风味良好,说明发芽糙米具有一定的益菌作用,发芽糙米酸奶具有一定的开发价值。%This paper was studied on fermented yogurt were investigated using germinated brown rice as raw material by processes of liquefying, saccharification and lactic acid fermentation. Preliminary germinated brown rice that are explored in the increase of germinated brown rice yogurt. The optimal fermentation conditions of lactic acid fermented yogurt were investigated using germinated brown rice as raw material through experimental design. The optimum conditions were as followed: germinated brown rice content 10%, skimmed milk powder content 15%, sugar content 3%, inoculum of yogurt 3%, fermentation temperature 42 ℃ and fermentation time 11 h. The results showed that content of lactic acid bacteria increased when content of germinated brown rice increased.

  9. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  10. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application

  11. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canxing; Duan; Jiaojiao; Yu; Jianyu; Bai; Zhendong; Zhu; Xiaoming; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The small brown planthopper(SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén(Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice(Oryza sativa L.) in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid(SA) synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation(hpi) increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid(JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase(POD), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  12. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is a serious pest of rice (Oryza sativa L. in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid (SA synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation (hpi increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid (JA synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase (POD, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  13. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  15. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus obliquus (IO is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H2O2-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  16. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

  17. A novel multi-biofunctional protein from brown rice hydrolysed by endo/endo-exoproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamassakul, Orrapun; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2016-06-15

    Brown rice, which is a less allergenic food grain and contains essential amino acids, was hydrolysed by bromelain and PROTEASE FP51® to improve its functionalities and taste for food applications. The hydrolysate prepared by bromelain (eb-RPH) had high protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, low molecular weight peptides, hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) and flavor amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid). The eb-RPH exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic (ABTS˙(+)) radical-scavenging activities of 76.62% and 52.96%, respectively, and possessed a better foaming capacity (221.76%) and emulsifying capacity (32.34%) than the hydrolysate prepared by PROTEASE FP51® (ep-RPH) did. The eb-RPH gave the desired taste, which is attributed to volatile flavor compounds (benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) and non-volatile flavor compounds, such as monosodium glutamate, 5'-guanosine monophosphate and 5'-inosine monophosphate (0.07, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL(-1), respectively). Brown rice peptides generated by bromelain were novel bioactive peptides with multifunctional properties. PMID:27186602

  18. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  19. Pyramiding blast, bacterial blight and brown planthopper resistance genes in rice restorer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhi-juan; Yang Shu-dong; ZENG Yu-xiang; LIANG Yan; YANG Chang-deng; QIAN Qian

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast, bacterial blight (BB) and brown planthopper (BPH) are the three main pests of rice. This study investigated pyr-amiding genes resistant to blast, BB and BPH to develop restorer lines. Ten new lines with blast, BB and/or BPH resistance genes were developed using marker-assisted selection (MAS) technique and agronomic trait selection (ATS) method. Only HR13 with resistance genes to blast, BB and BPH was obtained. In addition to blast and BB resistance, four lines (HR39, HR41, HR42, HR43) demonstrated moderate resistance to BPH, but MAS for BPH resistance genes were not conducted in developing these four lines. These data suggested that there were unknown elite BPH resistance genes in the Zhongzu 14 donor parent. A more effective defense was demonstrated in the lines withPi1 andPi2 genes although the weather in 2012 was favorable to disease incidence. Blast resistance of the lines with a single resistance gene,Pita, was easily inlfuenced by the weather. Overal, the information obtained through pyramiding multiple resistance genes on developing the restorer lines is helpful for rice resistance breeding.

  20. Identification of rice cultivars with low brown rice mixed cadmium and lead contents and their interactions with the micronutrients iron,zinc, nickel and manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Xun Wang; Xiaoli Qi; Lu Huang; Zhihong Ye

    2012-01-01

    Paddy fields in mining areas are usually co-contaminated by a cocktail of mixed toxic heavy metals (e.g.,Cd and Pb in Pb/Zn mines).However,previous studies on rice cultivars screened for effective metal exclusion have mostly focused on individual metals,and have been conducted under pot-trial or hydroponic solution conditions.This study identified rice cultivars with both low Cd and Pb accumulation under Cd- and Pb-contaminated field conditions,and the interactions of the toxic elements Cd and Pb with the micronutrient elements Fe,Zn,Mn and Ni were also studied.Among 32 rice cultivars tested,there were significant differences in Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg) and Pb (0.25-3.15 mg/kg) levels in their brown rice,and similar results were also found for the micronutrient elements.Significant decreases in concentrations of Fe and Mn were detected with increasing Cd concentrations and a significant elevation in Fe,Mn and Ni with increasing Pb concentrations.A similar result was also shown by Cd and Ni.Three cultivars were identified with a combination of low brown rice Cd and Pb,high micronutrient and grain yield (Wufengyou 2168,Tianyou 196 and Guinongzhan).Present results suggest that it is possible to breed rice cultivars with low mixed toxic element (Cd,Pb) and high micronutrient contents along with high grain yields,thus ensuring food safety and quality.

  1. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Dong Bin, E-mail: dongbin@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shang Lihai, E-mail: shanglihai@vip.gyig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yin Runsheng, E-mail: yinrunsheng2002@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yuan Xiaobo, E-mail: xiantao_131@163.com [College of Resources and the Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, total Hg (Hg{sub T}) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of Hg{sub T} (water-saving: 3.3 {+-} 1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110 {+-} 9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3 {+-} 0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12 {+-} 2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg contents (Hg{sub T}: r{sup 2} = 0.97, MeHg: r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of Hg{sub T} and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p < 0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p > 0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II). - Highlights: > First time that Hg{sub T} and MeHg were characterized in both brown and white rice. > MeHg translocation into the endosperm was more efficient than inorganic Hg(II). > In this respect, MeHg behaved like dimethylarsinic acid and organic Se species. > In white rice, Hg{sub T} and MeHg were positively correlated with soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg. > Uptake rates of Hg{sub T} and MeHg were independent of irrigation methods and Hg content. - Methylmercury was more efficiently translocated to the endosperm than inorganic mercury.

  2. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  3. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs. PMID:27178300

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  5. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

  6. Serum vitamin B12 levels in young vegans who eat brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H

    1995-12-01

    A nutritional analysis was conducted on the dietary intake of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet including brown rice for from 4 to 10 years, and on that of an age-matched control group. In addition, their serum vitamin B12 levels and other data (red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) were determined in the laboratory. In vegans' diets, 2-4 g of nori (dried laver), which contained B12, were consumed daily. Not a single case of symptoms due to B12 deficiency was found. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the examination data, including B12 levels (p vegans from suffering B12 deficiency.

  7. Silicon, acibenzolar-S-methyl and potassium phosphite in the control of brown spot in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Juliane Telles Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of silicon (Si, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, and potassium phosphite (Phi on the potentiation of rice resistance to infection by Bipolaris oryzae. The treatments included the soil amended with Si (1.25 g of calcium silicate per kg of soil, spraying of plants with ASM (500 mg∙L–1, Phi (5 mL∙L–1, and distilled water (control 24 h before inoculation with B. oryzae. The treatments Si supply and the spraying of ASM and Phi were effective in reducing the area under brown spot progress curve and the number of lesions per cm2 of leaf. Polyphenoloxidases activity was higher for plants supplied with Si. On plants sprayed with ASM, the activities of polyphenoloxidases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chitinases, and β-1,3-glucanases increased. The spraying of plants with Phi did not increase the activities of the studied defense enzymes. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that brown spot symptoms can be greatly reduced with the use of Si, ASM, and Phi.

  8. Preventive effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran against N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in male hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hara, Akira; HIRATA, AKIHIRO; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to have the potential to prevent chemical carcinogenesis of the colon, liver, esophagus, urinary bladder, stomach and lungs in rodents. The present study examined the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in hamsters. Five-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into seven groups. Groups 1–5 were subcutaneously injected with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight...

  9. Proximate, functional and pasting properties of FARO 44 rice, African yam bean and brown cowpea seeds composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Iwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available FARO 44 rice, brown cowpea and African yam bean seeds were processed into flours and their proximate, functional and pasting properties were assessed. Functional properties—loose bulk density, packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, foam capacity, gelation capacity and swelling index ranged from 0.63 to 0.69 g/ml, 0.84 to 1.00 g/ml, 0.63 to 1.32%, 0.46 to 1.48%, 42.50 to 56.78%, 10.40 to 18.17%, 50.93 to 57.90°C and 0.45 to 0.67, respectively. Proximate and amylose composition ranged as follows; Moisture: 8% (75% rice:25% African yam bean to 14% (100% rice; Protein: 12.86% (100% wheat to 28.13% (50% rice:50% African yam bean; Fat: 1.64% (100% rice to 5.79% (100% cowpea; Ash: 1% (100% cowpea, 75% rice:25% African yam bean, 50% rice:50% African yam bean to 1.97% (25% rice:75% African yam bean; Crude fibre: 0.95% (100% wheat to 6.27% (100% African yam bean; Carbohydrate: 52.62% (50% rice:50% African yam bean to 72.58% (100% wheat and Amylose: 17.13% (100% rice to 28.07% (100% African yam bean. Pasting properties—peak, trough, breakdown, final, peak time and pasting temperature ranged from 128.50 to 245 RVU, 85.08 to 159.25 RVU, 22.08 to 106.75 RVU, 123.58 to 294.33 RVU, 33.50 to 135.08 RVU, 5.18 to 5.92 min and 79.95 to 84.75°C.

  10. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  11. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  12. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products.

  13. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (P< 0.01) increase in both the energy density and the protein content, having increased 12 folds and 24 folds, respectively. The essential amino acids including lysine and methionine were highly augmented. The resultant medida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  14. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage. PMID:23912113

  15. Performance of Fatty Liver Development in Response to Brown Rice and Corn-Based Diets in Overfed Landes Geese(Anser anser)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi; HE Rui-guo; WANG Yu-lian; SUN Yun-zi; ZHOU Ying; YANG Zheng-mei; ZHANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The effect of brown rice and corn-based diets on fatty liver weight, carcass traits, lipids accumulation and liver composition of Landes geese (Anser anser) after feeding the same amount of each diet was investigated. After 2 weeks overfeeding,besides body weight and body weight gain increased significantly, the fatty liver weights were increased dramatically from 94.67 to 554.67 and 754.00 g in corn treatment and rice treatment, respectively, and the accumulation lipids in adipose tissues reached up to or close to 2 folds of initial weight in both treatments. Liver weight was greater in brown rice group than in corn group(P<0.05). Compared to before overfeeding, triacylglycerols (TG) in geese fatty liver increased dramatically and predominated (from 9.08% to close to or more than 90% of hepatic lipids), whereas phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) decreased sharply in both treatments (P<0.05). However, the percentages of lipids, TG and PL in fatty liver were higher in brown rice treatment than in corn treatment, and that of CE was lower (P<0.05). It indicates that overfeeding chiefly results in lipids accumulation in goose fatty liver and adipose tiss ues. Brown rice-based diet induces greater fatty liver, and brown rice is one of high quality overfeeding ingredients instead of corn.

  16. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

  17. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  18. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, T; Nakajima, K; Uno, Y; Sakano, A; Murakami, M; Narahara, Y; Fujii, T [Department of Food Sci., Niigata University Pharm. Appl. Life Sci. (NUPALS), Niigata, Niigata, 956-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, M [Niigata Industrial Creation Organization (NICO), Niigata, Niigata, 950-0078 (Japan); Ueno, S, E-mail: shige@nupals.ac.j [Grad. School of Agric. Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25{sup 0}C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  19. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  20. 糙米意大利面的制备%Optimization the preparation process of brown rice pasta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段维; 王立; 钱海峰; 张晖; 齐希光

    2015-01-01

    The producing process of brown rice pasta was optimized.The basic materials were brown japonica rice and brown indica rice with a ratio of 1∶1 and 8% soy protein isolate.Double screw extruder was used in making pasta.The best formula for raw material is:brown japonica rice flour 50 g,brown indica rice flour 50 g,soy protein isolate 8 g,guar gum 0.4%,sodium alginate 0.4%,xanthan gum 0.4%,monoglyceride 0.8%.And the best extrusion condition is:moisture 28% (The initial moisture content of raw materials is adjusted to 12%),screw speed 120 r/min,and temperature 120 ℃.The brown rice pasta has the similar properties with commercial pasta.%以粳/籼糙米混合粉质量比(1∶1)为基本原料,加8%的大豆分离蛋白,采用双螺杆挤压技术优化了糙米意大利面的制备工艺.实验中,采用单因素试验和正交试验相结合的方法,研究了双螺杆挤压机挤压参数和添加剂对糙米意大利面蒸煮品质和质构的影响.结果表明:双螺杆挤压机的最佳工艺参数为,原料初始水分调12%,加水量28%,三区四区挤压温度120℃、螺杆转速120 r/m、喂料速度8 kg/h;优化后添加剂的复配添加量(糙米粉干基计)为,瓜尔胶0.4%、海藻酸钠0.4%、黄原胶0.4%、单硬脂酸甘油酯0.8%;此优化条件下,所制备的糙米意大利面与市售意大利面相比较(煮8 min),蒸煮损失为6.54%,与市售意大利面相当(6.51%);硬度为2 597.34 g,稍大于市售意大利面的硬度(2 365.56 g);表面黏附性为-7.53 g·s,稍小于市售意大利面的表面黏附性(-7.89g·s).

  1. Optimization of Brown Rice Germination Process with Cellulase Treatment%纤维素酶预处理糙米发芽工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 贾富国; 杨瑞雪; 付倩; 王吉泰; 韩珊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the taste of the cooked germinated brown rice, the research of the pre - treating technology for cellulose - immersing brown rice was explored to provide conditions for germination and appropriate degradation of the cortex crude fiber. Influences of the enzyme concentration, the enzyme temperature and enzymolys-is time on the germinating rate of brown rice, and the variation of hardness were studied by quadratic regression rotary combination experiments. The GAB A content of germinated brown rice was taken as the index for evaluation and the comparative test was carried out with traditional process of soaking and germination. The results showed that experimental factors had significant effects on the germinating rate of brown rice and hardness of germinated brown rice. And the optimum parameter combination in the germination rate of germinated brown rice was that the enzyme concentration being 0. 4 mg/mL, enzyme temperature being 33 ℃ , and enzyme time being 110 min. Under such conditions , the germination rate of brown rice can reach up to higher than 90% of that soaking in a traditional way, and the hardness of germinated brown rice can be reduced by 14. 1%. The GAB A content in germinated brown rice by the cellulase pretreatment is a little lower than that by traditional immersion. The cortex crude fiber degradation of germinated brown rice proved to be the reason for the decline of hardness with scanning electron microscope analysis.%为解决发芽糙米蒸煮后口感差的问题,提出酶溶液浸泡糙米提供发芽条件的同时适当降解皮层粗纤维预处理工艺.研究酶浓度、酶解温度以及酶解时间对糙米发芽率及发芽糙米硬度的影响规律,采用二次旋转组合试验方法设计试验.并以GABA含量为考核指标,将酶预处理工艺与传统浸泡工艺进行了对比试验.结果表明:试验因素对糙米发芽率及发芽糙米硬度变化影响显著;酶预处理工艺优化参

  2. Comparing gene expression profiles between Bt and non-Bt rice in response to brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3,834 and 3,273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and

  3. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  4. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio. PMID:27213275

  5. Bebidas saborizadas obtidas de extratos de quirera de arroz, de arroz integral e de soja Flavored drinks obtained from extracts of broken rice and brown rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de desenvolver bebidas elaboradas com extratos de quirera de arroz e de arroz integral e comparar as características químicas e sensoriais destas com bebida elaborada com extrato de soja. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com três tratamentos (bebidas de extrato de quirera de arroz, extrato de arroz integral e extrato soja. As seguintes análises foram realizadas: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, valor energético, cálcio, magnésio, cobre, manganês, ferro e zinco. Também determinou-se a aceitabilidade e a intenção de compra. A bebida elaborada com o extrato de soja contém maiores teores de cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos e minerais em relação ao extrato de quirera de arroz, que possui o maior teor de carboidratos e valor energético. Todas as bebidas obtiveram boa aceitação, com intenção de compra pela população entrevistada acima de 95%, sendo que mais de 99% dos provadores comprariam a bebida elaborada com o extrato de arroz integral (tratamento de maior aceitação. As bebidas elaboradas com extrato de arroz integral ou de quirera de arroz são uma alternativa viável para as pessoas que possuam intolerância à lactose do leite de origem animal e/ou alergia às proteínas da soja.The aim of this work was to develop drinks based on extracts of broken rice and brown rice and to compare their chemical and sensory characteristics with a drink made of soy extract. A totally randomized design was applied, with three treatments (broken rice extract, brown rice extract and soy extract drinks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ash, protein, lipids, total carbohydrates, caloric value, calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc, besides the determination of consumer acceptability and buying intention. The soy-based drink has the highest ash, protein, lipids and mineral contents when compared to broken rice extract, which in

  6. Natural food science based novel approach toward prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: recent studies on brown rice and γ-oryzanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are dramatically increasing, and there is a strong need for more effective and safer therapies. However, some of drugs show limited efficacy and considerable adverse effects. Furthermore, artificial energy-dense foods and non-caloric foods may promote overeating and weight gain. In this context, a natural food-based approach may represent a valuable means of tackling the obesity-diabetes syndrome. Although recent studies have shown that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and prevents obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that one of the major components of brown rice, γ-oryzanol (Orz), plays an important role in the metabolically beneficial effects of brown rice. Orz acts as a chemical chaperone and decreases high fat diet (HFD)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus, thereby leading to a significant shift in preference from fatty to healthy foods. Orz also decreases HFD-induced ER stress in pancreatic β-cells and improves β-cell function. Notably, Orz directly acts on pancreatic islets and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This evidence highlights food preference as a promising therapeutic target in obesity-diabetes syndrome and suggests that brown rice and Orz may have potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans.

  7. 提高非膨化糙米粉的冲调稳定性研究%Improving the stability of unexpanded brown rice flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 卢镜竹

    2012-01-01

    采用高压蒸、煮,焙炒3种方式熟制糙米粉,对其冲调稳定性进行研究。通过正交试验得出:高压蒸、煮糙米粉添加单甘脂0.50%,黄原胶0.50%,CMC-Na 0.40%,卡拉胶0.30%;焙炒糙米粉添加单甘脂0.55%,黄原胶0.50%,CMC-Na 0.20%、卡拉胶0.20%,可明显提高其冲调稳定性,最终得到食用品质较好的非膨化糙米粉。%Brown rice powder with high pressure steamed and high pressure boiled and roasted, then,study their stability. Through orthogonal test that the high pressure steamed, boilded brown rice powder with glyceryli monostearici 0.50%, xanthate gum 0.50%, CMC-Na 0.40%, carrageenan 0.30%; Roasted brown rice powder with glyceryli monostearici 0.55%, xanthan gum 0.50%, CMCNa 0.20%, carrageenan 0.20%, can obviously increase the stability, and ultimately get eat better quality of unexpanded brown rice flour.

  8. Heavy Metals in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Soil After Long-Term Irrigation of Wastewater Discharged from Domestic Sewage Treatment Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. CHUNG; C. H. SONG; B. J. PARK; J. Y. CHO

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a plastic film house to evaluate the translocation and uptake of heavy metals (Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn) into brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the heavy metals residues in soils which had previously been irrigated with domestic wastewater for a long time (3 years).The range of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn was 5.10 ± 0.01,0.105 ± 0.017,5.76 ± 0.42,and 23.56 ± 1.40 mg kg-1,respectively in the domestic wastewater-irrigated soil,and 0.370 ± 0.006,0.011 ±0.001,0.340 ± 0.04,and 2.05 ± 0.18 mg kg-1,respectively,in the domestic wastewater-irrigated brown rice.The results indicated that application of domestic wastewater to arable land slightly increased the levels of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn in soil and brown rice (P < 0.01).The concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were lower than the recommended tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.However,the continuous monitoring and pollution control of hazardous materials from domestic wastewater are needed in order to prevent excessive build-up of heavy metals in the food chain.

  9. Low-temperature brown rice storage by using renewable energy from snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, S.; Kawamura, S.; Fujita, H.; Doi, T.; Okada, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural Science; Homma, K. [Itogumi Construction Co. Ltd, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsuchiya, F. [Obihiro Univ. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in Japan to determine whether renewable energy generated from snow can be used to replace the cooling system and electricity used for cooling a rice storehouse that maintained the grain temperature below 15 degrees C. However, the low-temperature storage system required a cooling system and electricity to cool rice in summer. In this study, a snow pile using 890 t of snow was made at the beginning of March next to the rice storehouse. The shape of the snow pile was a trapezium, 17 x 23 m at the bottom and 4 x 10 m at the top and 5 m in height. The snow pile was covered with 200 to 300 mm of wood chips to act as an insulation layer. Approximately 27 per cent of the energy for cooling the rice storehouse could be replaced by using the snow pile in summer. The quality of stored rice was almost similar to that of freshly harvested rice. The study showed that renewable energy generated from snow piles can be used for cooling a high-quality rice storehouse without using electricity.

  10. Effects of Yamase climatic condition during the pollen mother cell developmental stage on concentrations of Cs and Sr in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the Yamase climatic condition on the concentration of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in brown rice were examined in relation to the soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L cv. Yumeakari) were cultivated in an artificial climate chamber, and exposed to a simulated Yamase condition for 3 or 7 d during the pollen mother cell developmental stage. In these simulated treatments, temperature and light intensity were set to 5degC lower and 50% lower than the respective control values. Fog was generated with visibility of 70±30 m. Concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and the other minor elements in brown rice samples were analyzed. Measured Cs and Sr concentrations were found to be unaffected by the Yamase treatments, while concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo were increased. (author)

  11. 不同品种糙米粉糊化特性比较研究%Compare of the paste properties of different varieties of brown rice flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎莎; 吴娜娜; 李兴峰; 谭斌

    2016-01-01

    以5种直链淀粉含量差异较大的糙米粉为原料,以水合特性、糊化黏度特性和热特性为分析指标,研究比较它们糊化性质的差异性,为加工糙米制品选取原料提供基础。结果表明,不同直链淀粉含量的糙米粉糊化性质差异较大,直链淀粉含量越高,其糙米粉吸水指数、水溶性及膨胀势越低,糙米粉糊化所需能量越多,粘度和回生值越低,衰减值越小,糊化所需时间差异不大。%Taking five kinds of non - glutinous brown rice flour with quite different amylose contents as raw materials,and hydration characteristics,pasting viscosity and thermal characteristics were determined to compare the differences of their pasting properties to provide a foundation for selecting raw materials to process brown rice products. The results showed that pasting properties of brown rice flour with different amylose contents were quite different. The water absorption index,water solubility,swelling power,vis-cosity,regenerative value and attenuation value of brown rice flour decreased with the increasing of amy-lose content,because brown rice flour required more energy to paste. But the pasting time has no signifi-cantly difference.

  12. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks. PMID:27570269

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  14. Effect of soaking process on the germination rate of brown rice%浸泡工艺对糙米发芽率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温坤芳; 林亲录; 吴跃; 杨涛; 吴伟; 梁盈; 肖华西

    2012-01-01

    以早籼稻为原料,研究了其糙米的浸泡工艺对其发芽率的影响.浸泡工艺因素选取用水量、浸泡温度、浸泡时间以及浸泡液添加剂.结果表明,浸泡时用水量为糙米质量的8倍以上适宜糙米发芽,吸水率在24%~29%;适宜发芽的浸泡温度和时间组合分别为35℃浸泡6h,30℃浸泡8h;浸泡温度与时间组合在30℃浸泡8~10 h,此时发芽率最高;在浸泡液中添加赤霉素或Ca2,当浸泡液中赤霉素浓度为0.1 mmol/L时,糙米发芽率最高;当浸泡液中Ca2+浓度为1.0 mmol/L时,糙米发芽率最高.同时还测定了糙米和发芽糙米中主要物质还原糖、总糖、蛋白质、γ-氨基丁酸含量,并进行对比.%The effect of soaking process of early indica rice on the germination rate of brown rice was studied, factors including water addition,soaking temperature,time and soak additive. The result showed that:The water addition of more than 8 timesthe brown rice amount was suitable for germination, water absorption at 24%~299/o ;The suitable condition of soaking temperature and time for germination were 35℃ for 6 h.and 30℃ for 8 h, respectively ;The germination rate was the highest at 30℃ soaking for 8 ~ 10 h. Adding gibberellin or Ca2+ in soak, with gibberellin concentration of 0. 1 mmol/L in soak, the germination rate of brown rice was the highest; With Ca2+ concentration of 1. 0 mmol/L in soak,that of brown rice was also the highest. And reducing sugar, total sugar, protein, γ-aminobutyric acid content in brown rice and germinated brown rice were determined and compared.

  15. Characterizing and estimating rice brown spot disease severity using stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least-square regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Detecting plant health conditions plays a key role in farm pest management and crop protection. In this study,measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance in rice crop (Oryzasativa L.) was conducted on groups of healthy and infected leaves by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann) through the wavelength range from 350 to 2 500 nm. The percentage of leaf surface lesions was estimated and defined as the disease severity. Statistical methods like multiple stepwise regression, principal component analysis and partial least-square regression were utilized to calculate and estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf level. Our results revealed that multiple stepwise linear regressions could efficiently estimate disease severity with three wavebands in seven steps. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) for training (n=210) and testing (n=53) dataset were 6.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component could explain approximately 80% of the variance of the original hyperspectral reflectance. The regression model with the first two principal components predicted a disease severity with RMSEs of 16.3% and 13.9% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Partial least-square regression with seven extracted factors could most effectively predict disease severity compared with other statistical methods with RMSEs of 4.1% and 2.0% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Our research demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate the disease severity office brown spot using hyperspectral reflectance data at the leaf level.

  16. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Il Jeon; Chang-Hwa Jung; Jeong-Yong Cho; Dong Ki Park; Jae-Hak Moon

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods: EtOAc extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAc, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results: The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAc extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions:Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB.

  17. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer. PMID:26769704

  18. Highly Sensitive and Speciifc Monoclonal Antibody-Based Serological Methods for Rice Ragged Stunt Virus Detection in Rice Plants and Rice Brown Planthopper Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) is a serious rice disease in Asia, causing serious yield losses on rice. The capsid protein(CP) gene of the major outer capsid protein of RRSV was expressed inEscherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pMAL-C2X expression vector. The recombinant protein was used as the immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. A hybridoma cell line 8A12 secreting monoclonal antibody (MAb) against RRSV was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells (Sp 2/0) with spleen cells from the immunized BALB/c mice. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb 8A12 can speciifcally react with RRSV CP. Using the MAb, an antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), a dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA), and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) assay were developed to detect RRSV. The established ACP-ELISA, dot-blot ELISA and IC-RT-PCR methods could detect RRSV in infected rice tissue crude extracts with dilutions of 1:40960, 1:1280 and 1:655360 (w/v, g mL-1), respectively. The ACP-ELISA and dot-blot ELISA methods could detect RRSV in infected insect vector crude extracts with dilutions of 1:12800 and 1:1600 (an individual planthopper µL-1), respectively. The ifeld survey revealed that Rice ragged stunt disease occurs on rice in Hainan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi and Zhejiang in China.

  19. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariga Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR or white rice (WR diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV, sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase activity. Results Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p +/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively. The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT with low-density lipoprotein (LDL in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Conclusion PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the toxicity of HT-modified LDL and to directly

  20. Development of tea polyphenols brown rice sponge cake%茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红利; 吴跃; 李安平; 张燕秋

    2015-01-01

    以糙米粉和蛋糕粉为主要原料,研究茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方。通过单因素和正交试验考察了蛋糕粉、茶多酚、白砂糖和牛奶添加量对茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕感官品质和质构品质的影响,优化了茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方,确定了其最佳配方:蛋糕粉添加量20%,茶多酚添加量0.8%,白砂糖添加量80%,牛奶添加量40%,鸡蛋添加量180%,食用油添加量10%(以糙米粉与蛋糕粉的总量为基准)。按此配方所制得的糙米海绵蛋糕不含其他添加剂,表面呈金黄色,外形规范,隆起正常,而且营养价值高,具有焙烤米香风味,咀嚼性好,不易形成碎渣,爽口、有弹性,存放时间延长。%The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake was studied by using brown rice powder andcake powder as themain rawmaterials.The single factor andorthogonal test examined the effectsof the addition amountofcake powder,tea polyphenols,sugar andmilkon the sensory quality and structure qualityof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake.The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake wasoptimized and the best formula was 20%cake powder,0.8% tea polyphenols,80%sugar,40%milk,180% egg and 10%oil(basedon the total amountof brown rice powder andcake powder).Thecakemade withoutother additiveshad golden surface,appearance specification and normal uplift. In addition,ithadhigh nutritional value,baked rice fragrant flavor,goodchewiness,not easily broken slag formation,prolong storage time and was refreshing and elastic.

  1. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703-409 versus 637-407 J/g; 33.0-21.0 versus 20.1-11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64-3.47 versus 8.27-4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7-5.1 versus 8.4-6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60-2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  2. 糙米发芽工艺参数的研究%Study on the Technological Parameters of Brown Rice Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁泉

    2016-01-01

    通过对浸泡温度、浸泡时间、发芽温度及发芽时间对稻谷发芽率的影响进行研究,并应用正交试验对影响糙米发芽的多因素进行优化,结果发现:浸泡温度30℃、浸泡时间10 h、发芽温度30℃和发芽时间16 h条件下糙米的发芽率最高,同时生产成本大幅降低、生产效率得到显著提高。%In this paper, the effect of soaking temperature, soaking time, germination temperature, and germination time on germination rate. Was studied, and teh multi factors of brown rice germination were optimized using orthogonal test. The re-sults showed that the optimum conditions of germinated brown rice was soaking temperature was 30 ℃, soaking time for 10 h, and germination temperature for 30 ℃and the germination time for 16 h. Under above conditions, the brown rice germi-nation rate is highest. Moreover, the production cost is greatly reduced, and the production efficiency are improved signifi-cantly.

  3. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  4. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  5. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  6. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  7. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  8. 发芽糙米淀粉理化特性研究%The Study on Physicochemical Properties of Germinated Brown Rice Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧萍; 李常钰; 王超超; 宋伟

    2012-01-01

    采用富集γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的优选糙米发芽工艺条件,通过碱酶两步法提取糙米淀粉,研究发芽对糙米淀粉结构和理化特性的影响.结果表明:糙米发芽后,淀粉膨胀度增大,且随温度升高而提高;透明度升高了57.14%;峰值黏度基本不变;冻融稳定性提高,凝沉特性得到改善;淀粉凝胶的凝胶粘性有所提高,硬度和胶凝性有所降低;碘兰值减小,说明糙米发芽后其直链淀粉含量降低或聚合度减小;电镜分析结果显示,发芽后糙米淀粉颗粒变得圆滑,棱角较发芽前不明显.综上得出,发芽对糙米淀粉的理化特性具有一定的改善作用.%With the optimal germination conditions on brown rice of GABA enrichment,two - step by alkali and enzyme was used to extract the starch from the brown rice,ar.d the changes of starch structure of brown rice and physi-cochemical properties after germination were studied in the paper. The results showed that;The swelling power was increased after germination,and increased with the temperature rising;the transparency was increased by 57. 14% ;the peak viscosity was inhibited obviously and the freeze - thawing stability was enhanced strongly after germination; the adhesiveness of starch gelatin was increased after germination, hardness and gumminess were both decreased; iodine blue value was decreased;it indicated that the amylose content or the degree of polymerization decreased after germination; electron microscopy analysis showed that germinated brown rice starch granules were round, and the angular were not obvious after germination. It showed that germination could improve the physicochemical properties of brown rice starch.

  9. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (pprotein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  10. Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Foissac, X; Carss, A; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    2000-04-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)] displays toxicity to the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. A 26kDa GNA-binding polypeptide from N. lugens midgut was identified by lectin blotting and affinity chromatography, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. This polypeptide is the most abundant binding protein for GNA in the N. lugens midgut. A cDNA (fersub2) encoding this protein was isolated from an N. lugens cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to ferritin subunits from Manduca sexta and other arthropods, plants and vertebrates, and contains a putative N-glycosylation site. Native ferritin was purified from whole insects as a protein of more than 400kDa in size and characterized biochemically. Three subunits of 20, 26 and 27kDa were released from the native complex. The 26kDa subunit binds GNA, and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that of fersub2. A second cDNA (fersub1), exhibiting strong homology with dipteran ferritin, was identified as an abundant cDNA in an N. lugens midgut-specific cDNA library, and could encode the larger ferritin subunit. The fersub1 cDNA carries a stem-loop structure (iron-responsive element) upstream from the start codon, similar to structures that have been shown to play a role in the control of ferritin synthesis in other insects.

  11. Purification and identification of Se-containing antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Se-enriched brown rice protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fusheng; Fang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    As a further study of Se-containing proteins (Se-Pro) derived from Se-enriched brown rice (Se-BR), this paper aimed to purify and identify Se-containing antioxidative peptides (Se-antioxi-Peps) from Se-Pro hydrolysates. The total Se content in Se-BR was 6.26μg/g DW, and selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine were identified as the main organic Se species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Se-Pro was extracted and hydrolyzed by four types of proteases, and Alcalase was chosen as the optimum enzyme according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysate with 17.08% DH possessing the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was separated into five fractions (F1 to F5). Fractions F3 to F5, which had high antioxidative activities, were further separated. Sub-fractions F3-3, F4-2, and F5-1 were chosen to evaluate antioxidative activities and analyze Se species. The Se-antioxi-Pep with the sequence SeMet-Pro-Ser was identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. PMID:25977046

  12. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  13. Study on antioxidant activity of brown rice during gemination%糙米发芽过程中体外抗氧化活性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅晴; 吴跃; 林亲录; 徐红利

    2016-01-01

    以湘晚籼13和星2号两种稻谷品种为原料,采用糙米快速发芽技术,研究糙米发芽过程中抗氧化活性变化,其中抗氧化活性综合了目前广泛采用的六种方法,分别为DPPH自由基清除、铁离子还原力、羟基自由基清除、ORAC(氧化自由基吸收能力)荧光法、总抗氧化能力测定(ABTS)法、抑制脂质过氧化能力。结果表明,随着糙米的发芽,其体内的抗氧化活性物质在发生改变,此变化过程中会达到一个最佳状态,得出发芽14 h的湘晚籼13糙米和发芽12 h的星2号糙米抗氧化活性最好。%With 13 XiangLate Indica andStar 2 two rice varieties asmaterial,using brown rice quick germination technology,thechangeof antioxidant activity in vitroof brown rice gemination was studied.The antioxidant activity was acombinationof six kindsofmethods,including DPPH radical scavenging,iron reducing power,hydroxyl radical scavenging,ORAC(oxide free radical absorptive capacity) fluorescencemethod, determinationof total antioxidantcapacity(ABTS)method and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation.The results showed that with brown rice germinated,its antioxidant activity in the bodymaterial was inchange,thischange would reach a best state,antioxidant activityof brown rice was best when 13 XiangLate Indica germinated 14h andStar 2 germinated 12h.

  14. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinated brown rice (GBR is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies.

  15. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  16. 循环加湿工艺降低发芽糙米爆腰增率并提高得率%Decreasing crack additional percentage and improving yield in preparation of germinated brown rice with cyclic moisture conditioning treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 郑先哲; 贾富国; 左彦军; 王爱芳; 王吉泰; 韩燕龙; 刘扬

    2013-01-01

      为解决传统浸泡工艺制取发芽糙米过程爆腰率过高等问题,提出以循环加湿替代传统浸泡的一种发芽糙米生产新工艺。该研究以糙米为原料,采用二次正交旋转中心组合设计试验,研究循环加湿工艺中单次加湿量、间隔时间和温度对爆腰增率和发芽糙米得率的影响规律,建立了各因素对爆腰增率和发芽糙米得率影响的数学模型。用Excel软件和Design Expert软件处理试验数据,结果表明:单次加湿量、间隔时间和温度对爆腰增率和发芽糙米得率影响显著,得到优化参数组合为:单次加湿量1.2%~1.6%、间隔时间45~75 min、温度30℃,该条件下爆腰增率低于33%、发芽糙米得率大于90%。循环加湿处理后爆腰增率比传统浸泡处理降低20%~70%,发芽糙米得率提高1%~16%。研究结果可为改进发芽糙米生产工艺提供参考。%Compared with the polished rice and brown rice, germinated brown rice is rich inγ-aminobutyric acid. Germinated brown rice prepared by the traditional soaking treatment has the problem that crack percentage is extremely high, resulting in lower-quality germinated brown rice. Therefore, research to improve the quality of the germinated brown rice is necessary. Based on the use of moisture conditioning technology to improve the quality of brown rice, this study proposes a new method for the preparation of germinated brown rice. According to the principle of natural moisture absorption and germination of the rice seeds in the soil, germinated brown rice is prepared by gradually increasing the moisture content, until the moisture content is suitable for germination. The experiment of moisture conditioning for brown rice was carried out in a self-made test bed. Spray humidification was carried out according to certain amount of single humidification. Sealing was carried out at a certain temperature in accordance with a pre-set time interval. The

  17. IGF-1 induction by acylated steryl β-glucosides found in a pre-germinated brown rice diet reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Usuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathology of diabetic neuropathy involves oxidative stress on pancreatic β-cells, and is related to decreased levels of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Acylated steryl β-glucoside (PR-ASG found in pre-germiated brown rice is a bioactive substance exhibiting properties that enhance activity of homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase, reducing oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. The biological importance of PR-ASG in pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here we examined the effects of PR-ASG on IGF-1 and glucose metabolism in β-cells exposed to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a pre-germinated brown rice (PR-diet was tested in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic rats fed control diets, the PR-diet fed rats showed an improvement of serum metabolic and neurophysiological parameters. In addition, IGF-1 levels were found to be increased in the serum, liver, and pancreas of diabetic rats fed the PR-diet. The increased IGF-1 level in the pancreas led us to hypothesize that PR-ASG is protective for islet β-cells against the extensive injury of advanced or severe diabetes. Thus we examined PR-ASG to determine whether it showed anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative effects on the insulin-secreting β-cells line, INS-1; and additionally, whether PR-ASG stimulated IGF-1 autocrine secretion/IGF-1-dependent glucose metabolism. We have demonstrated for the first time that PR-ASG increases IGF-1 production and secretion from pancreatic β-cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that PR-ASG may affect pancreatic β-cells through the activation of an IGF-1-dependent mechanism in the diabetic condition. Thus, intake of pre-germinated brown rice may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes, in particular diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. PMID:27283689

  19. Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, X; Thi Loc, N; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.

    2000-04-01

    Transgenic rice plants expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were screened for resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens; GLH), a major homopteran pest of rice. Survival was reduced by 29% and 53% (P<0.05) respectively, on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific (phloem and epidermal layer) or constitutive. Similar levels of resistance in GNA-expressing transgenic rice were previously reported for rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH). GNA binding to glycoproteins in gut tissues showed that BPH contained more "receptors" than GLH, and that the binding affinity was stronger, particularly in the midgut. Subsequent toxicity of GNA is thus unlikely to be directly related to the amount of lectin bound. GNA was not detected in the honeydew of either insect species when they were fed on GNA-expressing plants, in contrast to results from artificial diet studies. This result suggests that GNA is not being delivered to the insect efficiently. When offered a free choice vs control plants, BPH nymphs tended to avoid plants expressing GNA; avoidance was less pronounced and took longer to develop on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific, In contrast to BPH, GLH nymphs were attracted to plants expressing GNA, whether constitutively or in a tissue-specific manner.

  20. 糙米芽制备及其在红曲保健酒中的应用%Studies on the preparation of brown rice bud and its application in red starter health wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 肖连冬

    2012-01-01

    对糙米芽制备及其红曲保健酒的生产工艺条件进行研究.通过单因素及正交试验,确定糙米发芽、糙米芽汁制备及复合菌种发酵等过程的最佳工艺条件.结果表明,糙米芽制备适宜的工艺条件为25℃浸泡10 h、30℃下发芽24h;糙米芽汁制备中,采用70℃液化2h、55℃糖化2h所得糙米汁质量较高;酵母接种量为0.5%(m/V),红曲霉接种量为15% (V/V),在32℃下发酵5d,可得到色香味俱佳的糙米芽红曲保健酿造酒.%This paper inquire into production process conditions of brown rice germination and brown rice bud red starter health wine. Single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were adopted to study brown rice germination, preparation of brown rice bud extract and fermentation by mixed strains. The experimental results showed that the optimum brown rice germination conditions were 25 ℃ soak 10 h and 30 ℃ germinate 24 h ; The optimum conditions of preparation of brown rice bud extract were 70 ℃ liquefying 2 h and 55 ℃ saccharification 2 h; when yeast inoculum quantity was 0.5% (m/V), monascus inoculation quantity was 15% (V/V) and 32 ℃ fermentation 5d , the red starter Health Wine which was coloury , refreshing . tasty, and nourishing was obtained.

  1. Screening of browning inhibitor in the extraction of rice bran protein%米糠蛋白提取中褐变抑制剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 刘颖; 窦博鑫

    2012-01-01

    米糠蛋白是一种低过敏性的优质植物性蛋白,但制备过程中常伴随褐变反应的发生,导致制备出的米糠蛋白成品颜色深,限制了米糠蛋白在食品及相关领域的广泛应用。本文以米糠为原料,分别采用碱法和复合法提取米糠蛋白,在提取米糠蛋白的过程中分别加入各种不同的抑制剂,以抑制褐变反应。碱法提取米糠蛋白过程中,最佳抑制剂为1.5%的次氯酸钠,色素抑制率为64.2%,蛋白提取率为53.7%;复合法中,以3.0%的抗坏血酸、1.0%的次氯酸钠和o.15%的L-半胱氨酸为最佳复配抑制剂的情况下,提取出的米糠蛋白颜色浅,此时色素抑制率为69.87%,蛋白提取率曲80.06%,褐变抑制效果显著,蛋白提取率高。%Rice bran protein is hypoallergenic and high-quality plant protein. Browning reactions often occur with extraction process of rice bran protein,and the color of protein production is dark that limits the applications of rice bran protein.Rice bran was used as the raw material and many kinds of inhibitors were added in the extraction process of rice bran protein to prevent the browning of rice bran.In the alkali extraction process,the best inhibitor was sodium hypochlorite,the protein extraction rate was 53.7% and inhibitory rate of pigment was 64.2%.1n the compounding extraction process, the best inhibitor was the mixture of 3.0% ascorbic acid, 1.0% Sodium hypochlorite and 0.15% L-Cysteine. Under this condition, inhibition rate of pigment was 69.87% and protein extraction rate was 80.06%.

  2. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown sp......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming....... disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts......, the ETHE of C. citrinus was the most active and inhibited 80-85 % of the fungal growth followed by the CWE of C. citratus with 77 % and 36 % diameter reduction against B. oryzae and A. padwickii, respectively at 10 000 mu g/ml. Under laboratory conditions, seed treatment with the EO of C. citrinus reduced...

  3. Comparative chemical screening and genetic analysis reveal tentoxin as a new virulence factor in Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the causal agent of brown spot disease on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, Lieselotte; Van Poucke, Christof; Di Mavungu, Diana Jose; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Vleesschauwer, David; Turgeon, B Gillian; De Saeger, Sarah; Höfte, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Brown spot disease, caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, is currently considered to be one of the most important yield reducers of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Despite its agricultural importance, little is known about the virulence mechanisms deployed by the fungus. Therefore, we set out to identify novel virulence factors with a role in disease development. This article reports, for the first time, the production of tentoxin by C. miyabeanus as a virulence factor during brown spot disease and the identification of the non-ribosomal protein synthetase (NRPS) CmNps3, responsible for tentoxin biosynthesis. We compared the chemical compounds produced by C. miyabeanus strains differing in virulence ability using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HRMS). The production of tentoxin by a highly virulent strain was revealed by principal component analysis of the detected ions and confirmed by UHPLC coupled to tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The corresponding NRPS was identified by in silico genome analysis and confirmed by gene deletion. Infection tests with wild-type and Cmnps3 mutants showed that tentoxin acts as a virulence factor and is correlated with chlorosis development during the second phase of infection. Although rice has previously been classified as a tentoxin-insensitive plant species, our data demonstrate that tentoxin production by C. miyabeanus affects symptom development. PMID:26456797

  4. 糙米储藏品质评价数学模型的建立%ESTABLISHMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING BROWN RICE STORAGE QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉荣; 贾少英; 周显青

    2011-01-01

    为对糙米储藏过程中的劣变进行及时调控,选用2个粳糙米样品,测定不同储藏条件下的脂肪酸值、发芽率、生活力、电导率、降落数值等生理生化指标,进行各指标间的相关性分析,采用灰色关联度分析法对各项指标进行储藏品质敏感指标的筛选,并以各项敏感指标为自变量,以碾磨后的大米食味值为因变量,采用逐步回归的方法建立敏感指标与糙米最终食味值间的数学模型.结果表明:脂肪酸值、电导率对粳糙米储藏品质有显著影响,其中脂肪酸值对储藏品质敏感度最大,电导率次之;辽星糙米储藏品质评价的数学模型为y =92.57 +0.83X脂肪酸值-2.08X电导率,盐丰糙米储藏品质评价的数学模型为Y=-99.42+4.03X脂肪酸值-1.44X电导率.%In order to control the deterioration during brown rice storage, the paper selected two Japonica brown rice samples (liaoxing and yanfeng) to measure the physiological and biochemical indexes under different storage conditions, such as fatty acid value, germination rate, viability, electrical conductivity and falling number, and analyzed the correlation among the indexes. The storage quality sensitive indexes were screened by using grey correlative degree analysis method, and a mathematical mode was established by a gradual regression method selecting the sensitive indexes as the independent variables and the taste value of the milled rice as dependent variables. The results showed that the fatty acid value and the electrical conductivity had significant influences on the storage quality of brown rice, wherein the storage quality evaluation model of liaoxing was F=92.57+0.83X 2.08Z (dearicai Otduoivity); and the storage quality evaluation model of yanfeng was F-99.42+4.03A' (Wy1-44A (eleoricai conductivity)-

  5. Prediction of Cadmium uptake by brown rice and derivation of soil–plant transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Guo, H.Y.; Liu, T.S.; Chiang, C.F.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) levels in paddy fields across Taiwan have increased due to emission from industry. To ensure the production of rice that meets food quality standards, predictive models or suitable soil tests are needed to evaluate the quality of soils to be used for rice cropping. Levels of Cd in soil

  6. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  7. Tagging of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in F2s of IR50 × Ptb33 of Rice by Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkateswarlu YADAVALLI; Gajendra P. NARWANE; M. S. R. KRISHNA; Nagarajan POTHI; Bharathi MUTHUSAMY

    2012-01-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stǎl) is one of the most damaging pests causing hopper burn in rice,and thereby reducing the productivity and also the quality of the product.The effective management strategy to control this pest is the identification and transfer of desirable genes to local rice cultivars.The most important approach for developing resistant cultivars is the identification of markers,which can help in marker-assisted selection of more durable resistant genotype.The susceptible parent IR50 and the resistant parent Ptb33,and their F2 populations were used in bulked segregant analysis for identification of resistant genes with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) primers.The primers OPC7 and OPAG14 showed both dominant and susceptible specific banding pattern so called co-dominant markers.Moreover,OPC7697 and OPAG14660 showed resistant specific bands and thus being in coupling phase,whereas OPC7846 and OPAG14650 showed susceptible specific genotypic bands in bulked segregant analysis.Therefore,the coupling phase markers,OPC7697 and OPAG14680.are considered to be more useful in marker-assisted selection of rice genotypes in crop improvement.

  8. Detection of three herbicide, and one metabolite, residues in brown rice and rice straw using various versions of the QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Chung, Hyung Suk; Kim, Sung-Woo; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    A single-run analytical method was developed to analyze the three herbicides azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, and mesotrione and its metabolite (4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA)) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Samples extracted using various versions of Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe "QuEChERS" (original unbuffered, acetate (AOAC), and citrate (EN) buffered) methods gave poor recoveries of all the tested analytes in both matrices. The extraction efficiency was improved when primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent was removed from the purification step, with the best recovery being achieved for EN-QuEChERS, which was subsequently used throughout the study. Overall, a determination coefficients (R(2))⩾0.995 was achieved at matrix-matched calibration curves at various concentration ranges. The recovery rates at three fortification levels (limit of quantification (LOQ), 1/2 maximum residue limit (1/2MRL), and MRL) ranged from 78 to 114.5, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<18% for all the tested analytes in both matrices. The LOQs for all herbicides were lower than the MRL set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), Republic of Korea. Field trials with the recommended, or double the recommended dose, revealed that the herbicides can safely be applied to rice, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples at 110days. PMID:27211669

  9. Toxicity and physiological effects of neem pesticides applied to rice on the Nilaparvata lugens Stål, the brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Choi, Man-Young; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Seo, Hong-Yul; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy

    2009-09-01

    The effects of two different neem products (Parker Oil and Neema) on mortality, food consumption and survival of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were investigated. The LC(50) (3.45 ml/L for nymph and 4.42 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 4.18 ml/L for nymph and 5.63 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) and LC(90) (8.72 ml/L for nymph and 11.1 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 9.84 ml/L for nymph and 13.07 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) were identified by probit analysis. The LC(90) (equal to recommended dose) was applied in the rice field. The effective concentration of both Parker Oil and Neema took more than 48 h to kill 80% of the N. lugens. Fourth instar nymph and adult female N. lugens were caged on rice plants and exposed to a series (both LC(50) and LC(90)) of neem concentrations. Nymph and adult female N. lugens that were chronically exposed to neem pesticides showed immediate mortality after application in laboratory experiment. The quantity of food ingested and assimilated by N. lugens on neem-treated rice plants was significantly less than on control rice plants. The results clearly indicate the neem-based pesticide (Parker Oil and Neema), containing low lethal concentration, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of N. lugens. PMID:19500844

  10. Development of a Novel Rice Germplasm in Resistant Brown Planthopper from Space-induced Rice Mutants and Analysis of Its Genetic Traits and Biological Characteristics%航天诱变水稻抗褐飞虱新种质的培育、遗传分析与生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 彭选明; 彭伟正; 庞伯良; 马明勇; 符伟; 刘录祥

    2012-01-01

    利用“实践八号”育种卫星搭载“玉香油占”干种子,在褐飞虱爆发条件下,从M2代中首次获得农艺综合性状优良的抗褐飞虱水稻突变体PR955.遗传分析表明,PR955的抗褐飞虱性状受1对显性基因控制.米质检测分析表明,PR955的出糙率、精米率、整精米率均达国家一等优质米标准,综合评定为二等优质米.%The dry seeds of rice variety Yuxiangyouzhan were carried by recoverable satellite shijian-8. Under the eruption of rice brown planthopper in Changsha in 2008, resistance-brown planthopper mutant PR955 was selected from M2 population on ground. PR955 had elite comprehensive agronomic traits. Genetic analysis and chi-square test showed that resistance character controlled by an dominance major gene. Indicated after the grain quality detection and analysis result that, PR955 reaches national high quality rice level of standards in brown rice rate, milled rice rate, as well as head milled rice rate. Its rice qualifies the second grade high-quality rice according to the high-quality rice standards of the Department of agriculture.

  11. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra.

  12. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra. PMID:26433461

  13. Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.; Bharathi, M; Spence, J; Powell, K S.

    1998-07-01

    Rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) were fed on artificial diet containing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), which has been shown to be toxic towards this insect pest. In addition to decreasing survival, the lectin affected development, reducing the growth rate of nymphs by approximately 50% when present at a concentration of 5.3&mgr;M. Immunolocalisation studies showed that lectin binding was concentrated on the luminal surface of the midgut epithelial cells within the planthopper, suggesting that GNA binds to cell surface carbohydrate moieties in the gut. Immunolabelling at a lower level was also observed in the fat bodies, the ovarioles, and throughout the haemolymph. These observations suggest that GNA is able to cross the midgut epithelial barrier, and pass into the insect's circulatory system, resulting in a systemic toxic effect. Electron microscope studies showed morphological changes in the midgut region of planthoppers fed on a toxic dose of GNA, with disruption of the microvilli brush border region. No significant proteolytic degradation of GNA was observed either in the gut or honeydew of planthoppers fed on lectin-containing diet. The presence of glycoproteins which bind GNA in the gut of the brown planthopper was confirmed using digoxigen-labeled lectins to probe blots of extracted gut polypeptides.

  14. Optimization for GABA Accumulation in Germinated Brown Rice via Box-Behnken Method%Box-Behnken法优化发芽糙米富集γ-氨基丁酸条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩涛; 陈野; 纪绪前; 郑晓晨; 宋佳; 刘环

    2013-01-01

      用糙米作为原料,控制发芽条件以富集γ-氨基丁酸.通过单因素和Box-Behnken响应面试验考察浸泡温度与时间、发芽温度与时间等因素对γ-氨基丁酸富集的影响,得出糙米发芽的最优工艺参数.通过响应面建立浸泡温度与时间、发芽温度与时间等因素与γ-氨基丁酸含量间的二次回归多项式,该多项式可较准确地预测在糙米发芽过程中的γ-氨基丁酸含量.结论显示,在浸泡温度34℃、浸泡时间21 h、发芽温度33℃以及发芽时间26 h的条件下,发芽糙米γ-氨基丁酸含量可达189.58 mg/100 g,为未发芽糙米的2.21倍.%An optimization for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation of germinated brown rice was produced by controlling germination conditions of brown rice used as raw material. Effects of soaking temperature and time as well as germination temperature and time on GABA accumulation in germinated brown rice were investigated via single factor test and central composite design. Interactive effects of the germination parameters were analyzed by response surface method. A quadratic polynomial model was established for GABA content in germinated brown rice based on the above variables, which showed high reliability in predicting GABA content during germination. The optimum conditions for germination were gained as follows: soaking temperature 34℃, soaking time 21 h, germination temperature 33 ℃ and germination time 26 h. Under the optimal conditions, the GABA content in germinated brown rice reached 189.58 mg/100 g, which was 2.21 times higher than that in dried brown rice.

  15. Impact Evaluation of Insect-Resistant Transgenic Rice on the Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Its Non-Target Insect,the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Homptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mao; YE Gong-yin; YAO Hong-wei; HU Cui; SHU Qing-yao

    2003-01-01

    The feeding and oviposition behavior of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens on two transgenic indica rice homogenous genotypes (B1 and B6) with cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis and transgenic restored line of hybrid rice (MSA) with SCK gene (a modified CpTI gene) were measured, compared with those on their corresponding non-transgenic parental cultivars Jiazao935 and Minghui86 performed by BPH. Under the selection condition of host plants by BPH, loading percentage, oviposition preference and laying egg number of BPH both on transgenic cry1Ab rice and transgenic SCK rice were not significantly different from those on their controls, while their total number of probing wound caused by PBH expect for feeding on B1 plants was markedly more than that on the control. In contrast, under the non-selection condition, total number of probing wound caused by BPH on either transgenic cry1Ab rice or transgenic SCK rice was pronouncedly more than those on their controls. Conversely, their honeydew amount excreted by BPH after feeding for 24 h was significantly less than those on the control. As a conclusion, three tested transgenic rice genotypes with insect resistance acted adverse effect on BHP feeding, and no marked effect on BPH oviposition.

  16. 冻融法改善糙米食味品质的研究%The study of improving the eating quality of brown rice by freeze-thaw treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋敏; 杨志明; 王兆刚; 付湘晋

    2015-01-01

    Brown rice is rich in nutrition,but it has not been accepted by the majority of consumers because of its poor eating quality. The effect of freeze–thaw treatment on the eating quality of brown rice was investigated in the present paper. The results showed that the brown rice was frozen at –23 ℃ for 1 h,followed by thawing at 40 ℃ for 30 min,and freeze–thaw treated as this for 3 times. The water absorption,iodine blue value,and sensory grade increased from 203.67%,0.019 8,and 50 to 317.90%, 0.195 7,and 69,respectively. Thus,the freeze–thaw treatment can improve the eating quality of brown rice effectively.%糙米富含营养,但是直接蒸煮食用口感差,不被大多数消费者接受。该文研究了冻融处理对糙米食用品质的影响。结果表明:糙米经过–23℃冷冻1 h,再40℃解冻30 min,如此循环3次冻融处理,可使糙米食用品质明显改善;糙米饭的吸水率为203.67%、碘蓝值为0.0198、感官评分50分;冻融处理后,其吸水率为317.90%、碘蓝值为0.1957、感官评分69分。

  17. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL SEED TREATMENT IN THE CONTROL OF BLAST DISEASE AND BROWN SPOT OF RICE EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES NO CONTROLE DE BRUSONE (Pyricularia oryzae) E MANCHA PARDA (Helminthosporium oryzae) DO ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Valácia Lemes da Silva; Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Meire Aparecida Damaceno

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of controlling blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) and brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) of rice (Oryza sativa), different fungicides were tested, through seeds treatment, at field culture in low land soil. The results showed, preliminarily and in general terms that fungicides dichlofluanid and terbuconazole propitiated in the stand increase superior to 30% when confronted with standard fungici...

  18. Screening Varieties of Brown Rice with Mineral-rich Elements and Their Sub-microscope Structures%高矿质元素糙米品种筛选与亚显微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李明; 华泽田; 陈雅蕾; 杨剑; 刘雅婷

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从20种糙米中以蛋白质和矿质元素( Ca、Fe、Se)为主要指标对糙米的营养价值进行初步筛选,并观察筛选品种的形态结构,为功能稻米的选育提供依据.[方法]凯氏定氮法测定蛋白质含量,原子吸收光谱和原子荧光光谱法比较矿质元素含量差异,SPSS软件分析相关性,扫描电子显微镜观察筛选品种的形态.[结果]筛选出高Fe、高蛋白糙米ZT11(Fe 17.29 μg/g,蛋白质9.80%)和高Ca、高Se糙米小品比71(Ca 65.50 μg/g,Se 0.050μg/g).蛋白质含量与Fe含量在0.01水平有显著正相关性.糙米横断面有一定的差异,蛋白质含量一定程度上影响糙米品种米糠层的分布情况.[结论]筛选的富Fe、Ca、Se糙米具有广阔的市场前景、保健效果和附加价值.%[Objective] The nutritional quality of 20 varieties of brown rice was preliminarily screened using protein content and mineral ele ments (Ca, Fe, Se) concentrations as main indicators, the morphology was also observed,so as to provide a theoretical and material basis for functional rice breeding. [Method ] Protein content of brown rice was determined using Kjeldahl nitrogen determination method. Mineral ele ments such as Ca, Fe, Se concentrations were compared by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respective ly. The correlation between protein content and mineral element concentration was analyzed by SPSS software. And the morphology was ob served by scanning electron microscope. [ Result] Two varieties of brown rice were filtered out, that is, varieties of ZT11 brown rice with rich Fe concentration of 17.29 μg/g and high protein content of 9. 80 % , Xiaopinbi 71 with rich-Ca (65.50 μg/g) and Se concentrations (0.050 μg/g). Protein content is found to be significantly positive correlation with Fe content by SPSS analysis ( P < 0.01). Cross section of varieties of brown rice had distinctly differences. Protein content of brown rice had a certain

  19. Comparison of the RVA Profiles between the Milled and Brown Rice Flour%糙米粉与精米粉的淀粉粘滞性比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洁; 张晶; 刘周; 石英尧

    2013-01-01

    Aims at strains including few seeds which is difficult to process the milled rice,meanwhile it has a problem of detecting the RVA profiles.Selecting a various RVA profiles of forty-one rice varieties as material,using them to analyze the relationship,difference and law on the RVA profiles of the milled and brown rice flour.The main results were as follows:the RVA profiles have some difference on the milled and brown rice flour.Peak viscosity(PKV),consistence(CSV),Break-down (BDV) and Setback(SBV) about the brown rice flour are less than the milled rice flour,determination coefficient in proper order were 0.565,0.572,0.455 and 0.639.Pasting temperature(PAT) about the brown rice flour are higher than the milled rice flour.Their determination coefficient is 0.366.The overall trend of the regularity is the basic stable.In the breeding,middle and early generation of individual choice,using brown rice is as reference on individual choice.The results of the study provide a reference for quality direct identification of rice breeding.%研究针对育种中株系种子量少,难加工成精米,用精米粉测淀粉粘滞性难的问题,选用淀粉粘滞性有一定差异的41个水稻品种(组合、系)为材料,分析用糙米粉和精米粉测定的淀粉粘滞性.结果表明,糙米粉与精米粉的特征值有一定差异,糙米粉测定峰值粘度、回复值、崩解值、消减值普遍小于精米粉,决定系数分别为0.565、0.572、0.455、0.639,糙米粉糊化温度大于精米粉,两者之间的决定系数为0.366,糙米粉和精米粉总体趋势的规律性是基本稳定的.在育种的中、早世代的单株选择中,可以用糙米粉测定稻米淀粉粘滞性作为参考进行单株选择.研究结果为水稻育种中、早代的单株的品质直接鉴定选择提供了依据.

  20. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  1. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koda, Risa; Hama, Shinji; Yamada, Ryosuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing α-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks. PMID:23273281

  2. 灰飞虱胁迫下水稻防卫相关基因的表达%Expression of Rice Defence Genes under Small Brown Planthopper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万昌; 余娇娇; 段灿星; 朱振东; 王晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (Homoptera: Delphacide), is an economically important pest in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China. Real-time PCR was used to determine transcriptional level of rice defence genes after SBPH infestation using specific primers. The expression levels of SA synthesis-related genes PAL, NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4 were higher in the resistant variety "Mudgo" than in the susceptible variety "Kittake" after SBPH feeding. The expression level of gene PAL in 12 h-infestation rice was 6.914 times of that in untreated rice. The expression amount of PAL in Mudgo increased more rapidly and in higher levels, which were 42.848, 70.743, and 69.193 times over the expression amounts of Kittake at 24, 48, and 72 h after SBPH infestation, respectively. The expression levels of NPR1 in Mudgo were 4.690, 6.231, and 4.112 times over those in Kittake after SBPH infestation for 12, 36, and 72 h, respectively. There were significant differences in transcriptional levels of the jasmonate (JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 after 36 h-infestation between Mudgo and Kittake. The expression level was substantially lower in Mudgo than in Kittake at subsequent time points. In addition, the expression level of receptor gene EIN2 in ethylene signaling pathway was higher in Kittake than in Mudgo after SBPH feeding. The above results indicated that SBPH feeding activated the salicylic acid signaling pathway in resistant Mudgo and induced the defenses in susceptible Kittake associated with a JA/ethylene-dependent pathway. Genes PAL and NPR1 play a considerable role in the regulation of Mudgo expressing resistance to SBPH.%运用荧光定量PCR方法及特异性引物,对不同时间(12、24、36、48和72 h)灰飞虱胁迫下抗虫和感虫水稻品种中主要防卫途径的相关基因进行转录水平上定量分析.灰飞虱取食后,与水杨酸合成途径相关的基因PAL、NPR1、EDS1和PAD4在抗灰飞虱品种Mudgo

  3. INFLUENCE OF STORAGE METHODS ON PROCESSING AND EATING QUALITY OF INDICA BROWN RICE%不同储藏方式对籼糙米加工食用品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 童茂彬; 张来林; 古争艳

    2013-01-01

    研究常规储藏和气调储藏对籼糙米加工食用品质的影响.结果表明:随着储藏时间的延长和储藏温度的升高,籼糙米的整精米率、黏度、蒸煮品质和质构特性均逐渐降低,且温度越高其变化趋势越明显.低温时两种储藏方式对加工食用品质的影响基本相同,而在高温条件下,气调储藏对品质的影响则小于常规储藏.这说明与气体的环境成分影响相比,温度对籼糙米加工食用品质的影响更显著,即低温对保持糙米加工食用品质有明显效果,气调对延缓高温影响有一定的作用.%In this paper, we studied the influences of conventional storage and controlled atmosphere storage on the processing and eating quality of indica brown rice. The results showed that the head rice rate, viscosity, cooking quality and texture characteristics of indica brown rice decreased gradually as the storage time prolonged and the storage temperature rose, and the storage temperature had a large influence. At low temperature, the two storage methods had the substantially identical influences on the processing and cooking quality; and the controlled atmosphere storage had a smaller influence than the conventional storage at high temperature. The results indicated that the temperature had a significant influence on the processing and cooking quality of indica brown rice in comparison with gas composition, that is to say, low temperature had significant effect on keeping the processing and cooking quality of indica brown rice, and controlled atmosphere storage had a certain effect in suppressing the influence of high temperature.

  4. Studies on Resistance to Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines%转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 姚剑虹; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2000-01-01

    Mature seed-derived callus from japonica rice cv. Eyi 105 was co-transformed with two plasmids,pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1,containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt),the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment.Twenty-six independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 152 bombarded callus. Seventy-three percent of transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southen blot analysis.Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From R2 generations with their R1 parent plants showing 3∶1 Mendelian segregation patterns, three independent homozyous lines expressing all the three transgenes were identified. Insect bioassay results showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to brown planthopper.%利用基因枪法将含潮霉素抗性基因、GUS报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因的2个质粒pWRG1515和pRSSGNA1共同转化粳稻品种鄂宜105的成熟胚诱导的愈伤组织. 从轰击的152块愈伤组织中共再生出26株独立转基因植株.PCR/Southern印迹法分析发现,73%的转基因植株含有所有3个外源基因.遗传分析证实外源基因在转基因植株后代中以孟德尔方式遗传.从其R1代亲本为孟德尔3∶1方式遗传的R2代中,鉴定出3个表达所有3个外源基因的独立转基因植株纯系.抗虫鉴定结果发现这些纯系对褐飞虱具有明显的抑制作用.

  5. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  6. Research Progress in Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in the Germinated Brown Rice%γ-氨基丁酸在发芽糙米中检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞萍; 贾成莉; 吕庆銮; 李秀娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed nutritional value and research status of germinated brown rice, introduced determination methods of γ-arninobutyric acid, for explore high pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry, paper chromatography method and colorimetry.%综述了发芽糙米的营养价值和研究状况,介绍γ-氨基丁酸检测方法,如:高效液相法、LC—MS、纸层析法、比色法等。

  7. Isolation and purification of polyphenols in pre-germinated brown rice by macroporous resin%树脂分离纯化萌发糙米中多酚的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯会绒; 孙兆远

    2012-01-01

    比较了AB-8、X-5、NKA、NKA-2、S-85种大孔树脂对萌发糙米多酚的吸附和解吸性能,结果表明,AB-8树脂具有较好的吸附性能和解吸效果;确定了AB-8树脂分离萌发糙米多酚的适宜操作条件为:上柱料液浓度为O.4716mg/mL,流速为2.0mL/min,以蒸馏水和浓度为70%乙醇进行洗脱,解吸速率N2.0mL/min,得到萌发糙米多酚纯度为63.25%。AB-8树脂可用于萌发糙米多酚的分离纯化。%Adsorption capacity and static desorption rate of adsorption resins such as AB-8, X-5, NKA, NKA-2, S-8 for polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice were assayed. AB-8 resin had the best adsorption capacity and static desorption rate for polyphenols. The optimal conditions of isolation and purification for polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice by AB-8 resin were obtained. The crude polyphenols extract solution with the concentration of 0.4716 mg/mL was first subjected to AB-8 resin adsorption at the flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. Then the impurities were eluted down by distilled water and 70% ethanol at the desorption rate of 2.0 mL/min. The purity of resulting polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice was 63.25%. The polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice could be isolated and purified by AB-8 resin.

  8. 超声波辅助酶处理对糙米理化特性的影响%The Influence of Ultrasound-Assisted Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈战强; 代飞云; 陈琴; 刘茂雪; 郭襄; 汤晓智

    2013-01-01

    A novel ultrasound-assisted enzymatic technology was developed to approximately process cellulose cortex of brown rice.The total sugar content change,the viscosity properties of brown rice flour,the water absorption and cooking properties of brown rice after enzyme treatment were tested.With the increasing time for cellulase,pectinase and their complex to hydrolyze cellulose cortex of brown rice under ultrasound,the total sugar content was continuously increasing,and after 2.5 h of treatment,it reached 61.41 mg,77.58 mg and 95.31 mg respectively,which was 1.16,1.06 and 1.47 times higher than that in the enzyme treatment without ultrasound assistance,respectively.It was demonstrated that the low-frequency ultrasound have certain stimulative effect for the three enzymes on hydrolyzing cellulose cortex of brown rice,especially for the complex enzyme.The peak viscosity,trough viscosity and final viscosity were all increased,and with the decomposition of cellulose cortex of brown rice,the water absorption capability of treated brown rice was enhanced,as well as the moisture content after being balanced.The hardness,adhesiveness,chewiness and resilience of cooked brown rice have a significantly negative correlation (P < 0.05) with the total sugar content hydrolyzed and the correlation coefficients were-0.828、-0.837、-0.853、-0.827,respectively.In a word,ultrasound assisted enzymatic treatment can be used to improve the efficiency of the enzyme reaction,reduce the processing time and enhance the physicochemical properties and cooking quality of brown rice to a greater extent.%利用超声波辅助酶对糙米的纤维素皮层进行了适当的处理,研究了酶处理后处理液中总糖的变化、糙米粉的黏度特性、糙米的吸水率以及糙米的蒸煮特性.随着处理时间的延长,纤维素酶、果胶酶、纤维素酶和果胶酶的复合酶3种酶液在超声波辅助下分解纤维素皮层得到的总糖量都不断增加,2.5h

  9. Effects of Transgenic Brown Rice on Nutritional of Broiler Chicken%转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料的营养安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海峰; 刘阳; 邢福国

    2011-01-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was employed to evaluate whether the transgenic brown rice used in broiler' s diet had any deleterious effects on gowth performance, on organ index, on carcass trait, on composition of muscle of broiler chicken. Three hunder sixty one-day old broilers were divided into three groups. One group was fed a diet containing transgenic brown rice and the other group was fed a diet containing corresponding nontransgenic brown rice. Three group was fed a diet containing corn. Growth Performance and organ index at the 21 and 42 day of age were determined, carcass trait and composition of muscle were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that no significant difference were observed(P>0.05) in the growth performance, in organ index and carcass trait and composition of muscle in two phases between the two groups. No histopathological damages were detected. From this study, it was concluded that there were no adverse effects of the transgenic brown rice on the broiler chicken' s health.%为了研究转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料的营养安全性,将360只1日龄肉仔鸡随机分成3组.一组饲喂含转基因糙米日粮,另一组饲喂含非转基因糙米日粮,第三组饲喂非转基因玉米日粮.试验期42 d.测定肉仔鸡的生产性能,器官指数,屠体性状,肌肉成分,21,42 d测定生产性能,器官指数.42 d测定屠体性状和肌肉成分.结果显示,转基因糙米对肉仔鸡的生产性能、器官指数、屠体性状、肌肉成分和健康状况在试验期内未产生明显的有害影响(P>0.05).

  10. 富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶品质控制的研究%Quality Control on Germinated Brown Rice Yoghurt Rich in Ferulic Acid- and γ-GABA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿欣; 杜江; 肖军霞

    2011-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a brown rice product which is the brown rice germinates to a certain length af-ter being cultured under a certain temperature and humidity combined with bud, bran and endosperm. It has shown many important physiological functions, such as reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, preventing obesity etc. Germi-nated brown rice yoghurt is a novel fermented dairy product which is prepared with germinated brown rice, fresh milk, sugar and together with ready-to-use yoghurt starter. The influence of the amount of germinated brown rice, milk, sug-ar, the starter and fermentation time on the quality of the yoghurt were studied in this paper. The optimum conditions were determined by orthogonal test and the nutritional components of the yoghurt including ferulic acid andγ-GABA were investigated finally. It was shown that the ratio of germinated brown rice to milk was 1:1.5, the amount of sugar was 7%, and the amount of starter was 0.008%. Under these conditions, the germinated brown rice yoghurt with abundant nutrition, sour-sweet agreeable to the taste and unique flavor was obtained, its content of femlic acid and γ-GABA were 5.02 mg/g and 4.54 mg/g, respectively.%目的:以发芽糙米、鲜牛奶及白砂糖为主要原料,利用直投式发酵剂制作富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶.方法:研究发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比、糖添加量、发酵剂接入量、发酵时间等因素对成品酸奶品质的影响.结果:通过正交试验等得到最佳工艺条件:发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比1:1.5,糖添加量7%.发酵剂接入量0.008%.在此条件下得到的发芽糙米酸奶中阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的含量分别为5.02 mg/g和4.54 mg/g.结论:在最佳工艺条件下获得了营养丰富、酸甜适宜和风味独特的发芽糙米酸奶制品.

  11. Effect of addition amount of extruded brown rice flour on the properties of noodles%膨化糙米粉添加量对面条特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜娜; 杨庭; 谭斌; 刘明; 刘艳香; 田晓红; 汪丽萍; 翟小童

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of extruded brown rice flour were mixed with wheat flour at content of 0,10%, 20%,30%,40% and 50%,respectively,to research the effect of the addition amount of brown rice flour on the cooking quality and texture property of the noodles. The results showed that along with the in-creasing of the addition amount of brown rice flour,the water absorption of noodle dry matter significantly decreased(P < 0. 05),cooking loss rate of dry matter increased,cross - breaking strength of dried noo-dles increased at first and then decreased,and the hardness,chewiness and elasticity of cooked noodles decreased. The noodles,prepared with extruded brown rice flour with the moisture content of 30%,tem-perature of 80 ℃,screw speed of 220 r/ min,had lower cooking loss rate,higher water adsorption,hard-ness,chewiness and elasticity than that prepared with extruded brown rice flour with moisture content of 25%,temperature of 120 ℃,screw speed of 220 r/ min.%将两种不同挤压条件制得的膨化糙米粉分别以0、10%、20%、30%、40%和50%的比例添加到小麦粉中,研究糙米粉添加量对面条蒸煮品质和质构性质的影响。结果表明,随着挤压膨化糙米粉(EBR)添加量的增加,面条干物质吸水率显著降低(P <0.05),干物质损失率增加,干面条的折断强度先升高后降低,熟面条硬度、耐咀性、弹性等质构参数降低。添加由物料水分30%、挤压温度80℃、螺杆转速220 r/ min条件下挤压制备的膨化糙米粉的面条干物质吸水率高而损失率相对较小,同时面条的硬度、咀嚼性以及弹性要高于添加由物料水分25%、挤压温度120℃、螺杆转速220 r/m i n条件下挤压制备的膨化糙米粉的面条。

  12. 糙米粉对小麦面团流变学及饼干品质特性的影响%Influence of Brown Rice Flour on Wheat Dough Rheological Properties and Cookie Quality Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓智; 扈战强; 周剑敏; 方勇; 沈新春; 胡秋辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Effects of brown rice flour on the thermomechanical and dynamic rheological properties of wheat flour dough as well as physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were investigated. The aim of the research is to provide a basis for further utilization of brown rice in developing new food products.[Method]Mixolab and dynamic rheometer were employed to study the effects of brown rice flour replacement on rheological properties of wheat flour dough. The dough microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cookies were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of brown rice flour replacement on cookie quality characteristics. [Result] With the addition of brown rice flour, the water absorption of the flour dough and the degree of protein weakening increased, while dough development time and stability time decreased. The addition of brown rice flour diluted the concentration of gluten and destroyed the continuous state of the flour dough, which resulted in being difficult to form the stable gluten network structure, and subsequently leading to higher degree of protein weakening under double effects of mechanical force and heating. The increase of replacement ratio of brown rice flour decreased the temperature of starch gelatinization, peak and break down viscosity of the mixed flour, and setback value of the starch due to the higher degree of starch hydrolysis. It was shown from dynamic rheological studies that with the addition of brown rice flour, the dough remained viscoelastic system and storage modulus and loss modulus increased, while tanδof the dough decreased, indicating higher degree of molecular cross-linking and elastic proportion in the mixed system. From SEM, with the addition of 10% brown rice flour, the dough microstructure became loose with small cracks and starch granules distributed unevenly. Irregular shape of rice starch granules could be observed and their adhesion force to dough surface significantly

  13. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Bint Mahmud,4 Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed,1 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Aminu Ishaka11Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Usmanu, Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.Methods: Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA, and γ-oryzanol (ORZ at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (mRNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β, calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k, complement protein (C3, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70, and interleukin (IL-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry.Results: The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001. GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg, EST (0.2 mg/kg, and ORZ (200 mg/kg (P<0.05. Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg compared

  14. 糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物的残留测定%Determination on Residues of Carbosulfan and Its Metabolites in Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 贺敏; 余苹中; 贾春虹; 赵尔成; 朱晓丹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to monitor and estimate the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycar-bofuran in brown rice. [ Method] A method was established for the simultaneous determination of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in brown rice by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) purification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. The tested pesticides components to be measured in the samples were extracted by using the mixed solvent of ethyl-acetate and cyclohexane (1:1,V/V), purified by GPC and neutral Al2O, solid phase extraction (SPE) , and finally detected by GC-MS. [Result]The lowest limit of detection ( LOD) was 2.0 × 10-11 g for carbosulfan and carbofuran and 1.0 × 10 -l0 g for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. The lowest quantification limit was 0. 1 mg/kg for three compounds. The average recovery of each components was 77.8% -94.6% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.86% -6.58%. [ Conclusion] The sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the GPC purification and GC-MS detection method for determining the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in brown rice ave all accord with the demands of the pesticide residue analysis, and it is suitable to detect the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites in brown rice.%[目的]监测与评价糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物克百威、3-羟基克百威的残留量.[方法]建立凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)净化、气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)同时测定糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物克百威、3-羟基克百威残留的方法.样品中的待测农药组分采用环己烷-乙酸乙酯(1∶1,V/V)提取,GPC和中性氧化铝(Al2O3)小柱净化,GC-MS测定.[结果]丁硫克百威和克百威的最低检测量均为2.0×10-11g,3-羟基克百威为1.0×10-10g;最低检出质量分数均为0.1 mg/kg,各组分的添加回收率为77.8% ~94.6%,变异系数为3.86%-6.58%.[结论]

  15. Phosphatase activities in rice-planting meadow brown soil and their responses to fertilization%草甸棕壤水稻田磷酸酶活性及对施肥措施的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈菊培; 陈振华; 陈利军

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activities of phosphomonoesterase (acid-, neutral-, and alkaline-), phosphodiesterase and phosphotriesterase in a rice-planting meadow brown soil at the lower reach of Liao River, and their responses to different fertilization treatments. The results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total P and organic P contents among all treatments, but soil available P content was significantly higher in treatment OM than in other treatments. Soil acid-and neutral phosphomonoesterase had a higher activity than alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase, while phosphotriesterase had the lowest activity. No significant difference was found in phosphatase activities between different fertilization treatments. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity had a significant correlation with soil total P and available P contents, while soil phosphodiesterase activity significantly correlated with soil organic P content.

  16. 不同储藏条件下糙米质构和蒸煮品质的规律变化及相关性研究%Correlation of Changes Between Cooking Quality and Texture of Brown Rice Under Different Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 陈瑞; 刘璐

    2011-01-01

    Under different storage conditions, the brown rice cooking quality and texture changes were studied.Storage conditions were as follows: oxygen concentration 2%, 5%, 21%, temperature 15℃, 20℃, 30℃, and moisture 13.5%, 14.5%,15.5%.Rice texture such as the hardness, viscosity, adhesion, elasticity was measured by frame index germplasm; rice water absorption,swelling, rice water pH, cooking and other indicators of dry rice soup, rice texture quality analysis of indicators, and the relationship between cooking quality indicators were measured and analyzed.Results showed that brown rice and brown rice swelling elasticity were significantly positive correlation, the correlation coefficient was 0.817, the expansion of rice indicated the rise of rice, a large expansion rate indicated good elasticity of rice; hardness, water absorption, viscosity and brown rice were significant positive correlation.Rice of the correlation coefficients were 0.728 and 0.932 respectirely; brown rice and rice soup in the adhesion of dry matter were significantly correlated and correlation coefficient was 0.719.%对不同储藏条件下糙米中质构和蒸煮品质的变化规律进行研究.储藏条件为:氧气浓度分别是2%、5%、21%,温度分别为15℃、20℃、30℃,水分含量分别为13.5%、14.5%、15.5%.以此来进行糙米模拟储藏试验.用质构仪测定米饭的硬度、黏度、黏着性、弹性4种质构指标;用蒸煮法测定大米吸水率、膨胀率、米汤pH、米汤干物质等蒸煮指标,分析研究大米质构品质指标与蒸煮品质指标的相互关系.研究表明,糙米的弹性与糙米的膨胀率呈显著的正相关,相关系数为0.817,米饭的膨胀率表示米的涨性,膨胀率大,米饭的弹性好;硬度、黏度与糙米的吸水率成显著的正相关.粳米的相关系数分别为0.728、0.932;糙米的黏着性与米汤中的干物质呈显著的相关性,相关系数为0.719.

  17. EFICIÊNCIA DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE MANCHA PARDA (Bipolaris oryzae EM ARROZ (Oryza sativa EFFICIENCY OF FUNGICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF RICE (Oryza sativa BROWN SPOT (Bipolaris oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Guicherit

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Em situações nas quais a brusone tem pouca importância na sanidade da lavoura de arroz, o controle da mancha parda (Bipolaris Oryzõe pode mostrar-se altamente eficiente com pulverizações de fungicidas no campo. Assim, realizou-se um experimento em Indiara (GO com o objetivo de comparar a eficácia de diferentes produtos fungicidas no controle da mancha parda em condições pouco favoráveis à brusone. Foram comparados difenoconazole, propiconazole e tryfloxystrobin em diferentes combinações e dosagens, e os resultados mostraram que, em situações nas quais a brusone tem pouca importância na sanidade da lavoura do arroz, o controle da mancha parda pode mostrar-se altamente eficiente com pulverizações de fungicidas no campo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Helminthosporium oryzae; controle químico; patógeno; doença.

    In situations where the blight (Pyricularia grisea is not limiting the rice crop, the brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae control can be extremely efficient with field sprayings. This experiment was conduced in Indiara (GO aiming to compare the efficiency of different fungicides in one or two dosages in the control of brown spot under low blight conditions. All treatments showed efficiency in the control of brown spot, with no signifficant difference among them.

    KEY-WORDS: Chemical control; pathogens; disease.

  18. 水稻淡褐斑叶突变体lbsll的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉保华; 杨杨; 施勇烽; 林璐; 陈洁; 黄奇娜; 魏彦林; Hei LEUNG; 吴建利

    2012-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. The mutant, designated as lbs.ll (light brown spotted-leaf 1), displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions. Agronomic traits including plant height, growth duration, seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively termed lbsll (t), which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6. With developed SSR markers, the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588. The Ibsll (t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been i-dentified near the chromosomal region. The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.%通过EMS诱变籼稻品种IR64获得一个稳定遗传的淡褐色斑点叶突变体lbsll(light broun spotted leaf1).在自然条件下,突变体播种后10~14 d,叶片上出现淡褐色斑点,随后逐渐扩散至全叶,第1叶至剑叶上均有淡褐色斑,为全生育期性状.斑点性状的表达对株高、生育期、结实率和千粒重等农艺性状具有显著的影响.遗传分析结果表明,该淡褐色斑点叶性状受一个隐性核基因控制.将突变体lbsll与正常叶色水稻Morobereken杂交构建F2定化群体,利用SSR标记,最终将该淡褐叶基因lbsll(t)定位在第6染色体短臂上一个约130 kb的区段上.定位的结果和发展的群体为该基因的进一步精细定位和克隆奠定了基础.

  19. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  20. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  1. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  2. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. PMID:16206236

  3. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  4. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae using some phenolic antioxidants Controle da macha-parda do arroz (Bipolaris oryzae pelo emprego de antioxidantes fenólicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Shabana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone. The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS and disease incidence (DI on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains.Bipolaris oryzae é o agente causador da doença mancha-parda do arroz e é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas. Três antioxidantes fenólicos (ácido salicílico, ácido benzóico e hidroquinona foram avaliados para o controle dessa doença do arroz. A atividade antifúngica destes compostos foi avaliada in vitro contra B. oryzae em diferentes concentrações e a eficiência de sua aplicação exógena no controle da mancha-parda foi avaliada em condições de campo. Nos ensaios in vitro, os ácidos benzóico e salicílico a 9 mM inibiram completamente a multiplicação de B. oryzae. Em condições de campo, a aspersão de ácido benzóico a 20 mM causou uma redução significativa na gravidade e incidência da doença na folhas da planta, além de aumentar significativamente o rendimento dos grãos e seus componentes. Algumas respostas bioqu

  5. Genetic Analysis and Preliminary Mapping of Two Recessive Resistance Genes to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Li-yuan; PENG Suo-tang; WEI Xing-hua; Yu Ping; XU Qun; YUAN Xiao-ping; Yu Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; WANG Cai-hong; WAN Guo; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    An F2 population derived from the cross of WB01,an introgression line resistant to brown planthopper (BPH) originated from Oryza rufipogon Griff.and a susceptible indica variety 9311,was developed for genetic analysis and gene mapping.The population with 303 Fz:3 families was genotyped by 141 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and used for gene mapping.Two softwares,Mapmaker/Exp 3.0 and Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0 were applied to detect QTLs.Totally,two QTLs resistant to BPH,named temporarily as bph22(t) and bph23(t),were identified to locate on chromosomes 4 and 8,individually had LOD values of 2.92and 3.15,and explained 11.3% and 14.9% of the phenotypic variation,respectively.

  6. Effects of Improved Agent on Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soil and Brown Rice%组配改良剂对土壤和水稻糙米重金属积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓燕; 熊云武; 裴东辉; 黄雷; 刘登彪; 任重; 龚亚龙; 赵亮; 许建新

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study remediation effect of improved agent on Cd contaminated paddy soils .[Method] A field experiment of improved agent was conducted on a contaminated paddy soil in Chunhua Town ,Changsha County,Hunan Province.Setting up 4 treatments,in-cluding T1 :without improved agent(CK); T2:quick lime (0.1%),fertilizing in soil preparation process; T3:TH01 (0.4%) + quick lime (0.1%),fertilizing in soil preparation process; T4:TH02(0.4%),fertilizing in soil preparation process,quick lime(0.1%) applying at early tillering stage.Effects of adding improved agent on rice yield,heavy metal content and soil heavy metal content were studied.[Result] Rice tiller and grain biomass had no significant difference among 4 treatments; Cd content was lowest in T 3 treatment,Cd content reduced 45.22% and 38.14% in T3 and T4 ,compared with T2 ,Cd content reduced 36.16% and 27.91% in T3 and T4 .In different growth period,stems,leaves and roots Cd content showed linear correlationship with ammonium acetate Cd content .[Conclusion] In order to reduce brown rice Cd content,agro-nomic measures or adding passivator,could be implemented to reduce ammonium acetate Cd content in time after the booting stage of rice into the filling stage.%[目的]研究组配改良剂对 Cd 污染稻田的修复效果。[方法]在湖南省长沙县春华镇污染稻田进行了组配改良剂的田间试验,设4个处理,分别为 T1:未添加改良剂(CK);T2:生石灰(0.1%)翻耕整地时混施;T3:TH01(0.4%)+生石灰(0.1%)翻耕整地时混施;T4:翻耕整地时混施 TH02(0.4%),分蘖前期撒施生石灰(0.1%)。研究添加改良剂对水稻产量、重金属含量和土壤重金属含量的影响。[结果]4个处理间水稻分蘖情况、子粒生物量差异不明显;T3处理子粒的 Cd 含量最低,且 T3、T4处理水稻子粒的 Cd 含量分别降低了45.22%、38.14%,而与 T2处理相比,T3、T4

  7. GNA Confers Resistance to Rice Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines by Both Bioassay and Feeding Tests%生物鉴定和喂养试验证明GNA赋予转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 万丙良; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2001-01-01

    Two transgenic rice pure lines, generated by particle bombardment, were challeng ed by the first-instar nymphs of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) biotype I using the standard BPH bioassay and feeding test protocol essen tially the same as described by Rao et al. (1998). Both lines contained and expressed the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene(hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene(gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus niv alis) lectin gene (gna). Insect bioassay and feeding test results showed t hat both lines had significant deterrent effect on BPH by decreasing BPH surviva l and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.%参照Rao等(1998)的褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养方法,用水稻褐飞虱生物Ⅰ型的一龄若虫食喂, 用基因枪法获得2个转基因水稻纯系. 这2个纯系均含有并表达潮霉素抗性基因(hpt)、 gusA报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因(gna). 褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验表明,水稻 纯系对褐飞虱具有显著的抑制作用. 具体表现为降低褐飞虱成活率和繁殖力、延缓褐飞虱发 育以及减少褐飞虱进食量. 通过褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验证明,表达GNA的转基因水稻纯系对严重危害水稻生产的褐飞虱具有抗性作用.

  8. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES NO CONTROLE DE BRUSONE (Pyricularia oryzae E MANCHA PARDA (Helminthosporium oryzae DO ARROZ EFFECT OF CHEMICAL SEED TREATMENT IN THE CONTROL OF BLAST DISEASE AND BROWN SPOT OF RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de controlar brusone (Pyricularia oryzae e mancha parda (Helminthosporium oryzae do arroz (Oryza sativa, diferentes fungicidas foram testados, através do tratamento de sementes, a nível de campo em solo de várzea (glei pouco húmico. Os resultados mostraram, preliminarmente e de modo geral, que os fungicidas dichlofluanid e terbuconazole propiciaram aumento no “stand” superiores a 30% quando comparados com o fungicida padrão mancozeb e a testemunha. Com relação ao nível de infecção nas plantas, o terbuconazole foi o que melhores resultados apresentou. E quanto à produção não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos com o fungicida terbuconazole individualmente ou em mistura com dichlofluanid mostraram-se superiores às testemunhas.

    With the objective of controlling blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae and brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae of rice (Oryza sativa, different fungicides were tested, through seeds treatment, at field culture in low land soil. The results showed, preliminarily and in general terms that fungicides dichlofluanid and terbuconazole propitiated in the stand increase superior to 30% when confronted with standard fungicide mancozeb and testimony with regard to infection level at plants the best results were presented by terbuconazole. Refering to production there was no significative difference between both treatments. Treatments with fungicide terbuconazole individually or in mixture with dichlofluanid showed superiority over testimonies.

  9. 糙米不同皮层成分变化规律的探讨%A Study on the Change Regularity of Different Cortex Components of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喆; 苏健

    2012-01-01

    Brown rice as raw material was lightlymilled with multiple passages under the same pressure and time, the cortex compo-nents were determined to get the change regularity of different cortex components.The results showed that the moisture, protein and starch content from outer cortex to inner cortex presented an increasing change; while the ash, fat, dietary fiber and phytic acid content presented a decreasing trend.The periearp and seed coat contained more minerals, fat and dietary fiber, and the aleurone layer con- ained more dietary fiber and phytic acid, while the sub aleurone layer contained higher protein.%以糙米为原料,通过相同压力和时间,分多次对糙米进行碾白,将每次碾下的皮层成分进行检测,得出各成分变化规律。实验结果表明,糙米籽粒从外皮层到内皮层,水分、蛋白质以及淀粉含量均呈上升趋势,而灰分、脂肪、膳食纤维和植酸含量呈下降趋势;果皮和种皮中含有较多矿物质、脂肪和膳食纤维,糊粉层中含膳食纤维和植酸较多,而亚糊粉层中蛋白质含量较高。

  10. 浸泡及发芽条件对糙米吸水率·发芽率和γ-氨基丁酸含量的影响%Effect of the Soaking Treatment and Germination Condition on the Germination Rate and the Content of γ-aminobutyric Acid of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏红; 王俊伟; 邵洋; 刘虹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The processing technique for the highest germination rate and content of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) of brown rice was explored. [ Method]The effect of the soaking treatment and the germination condition on the water absorption,germination rate and level of GABA of brown rice was experimented with the design of single factor and orthogonal method. [ Results ] The brown rice soaked in the water with 40 ℃ was with fastest ability I n water-absorption and it would be saturated after 20-24 hours,which absorption rate of water was 29.0% to 32.0%. The optimal condition of brown rice seed germination was:the temperature of seed-soaking was 35 ℃ ;the time of seed-soaking,48 h;the temperature of seed germination,35 ℃;and the time of seed germination,24 hours. The best condition for the content of GABA in brown rice was the temperature of seed-soaking was 35 ℃ ;the time of seed-soaking,24 hours;the temperature of seed germination,30 ℃ and the time of seed germination ,20 hours. [ Conclusion ] It had important significance in the determination of the optimum condition of brown rice seed germination and the exploration of the intrinsic link between the water absorption,germination rate and the content of GABA in the process of seed germination.%[目的]探索使糙米的发芽率和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量达到最佳的工艺条件.[方法]采用单因素和正交试验法研究浸泡条件和发芽条件对糙米的吸水率、发芽率以及GABA含量的影响.[结果]在40℃浸泡温度条件下糙米吸水快,在20~24 h后水分趋于饱和,吸水率达29.0%-32.0%.糙米发芽的最佳条件为:浸泡温度35℃、浸泡时间48h、发芽温度35℃、发芽时间24h.糙米中GABA含量的最佳富集条件为:浸泡温度35℃、浸泡时间24h、发芽温度30℃、发芽时间20 h.[结论]研究结果对确定糙米发芽的最佳工艺条件及揭示发芽过程中吸水率、发芽率以及GABA含量之间的内在联系具有重要意义.

  11. Pyramiding the Blast Resistant Gene Pi9 and the Brown Planthopper Gene Bph18(t) to Develop Restorer Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%聚合抗稻瘟病基因Pi9和抗褐飞虱基因Bp h18(t)选育水稻恢复系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文清; 裴庆利; 梁云涛; 刘丕庆; 赵开军; 王春连; 林纬; 杨培忠; 于洁

    2014-01-01

    水稻(Oryza sativa L.)作为粮食作物,在全世界粮食生产中具有极其重要的地位。稻瘟病、褐飞虱等病虫害的发生严重危害着水稻的安全生产,培育并利用水稻抗性品种能经济有效地预防水稻病虫害的发生,因此,培育抗性品种在水稻安全生产中尤为重要。本研究以具有抗稻瘟病基因Pi9的抗病品系75-1-127为抗病亲本,以携带有抗褐飞虱基因Bph18(t)的水稻材料C4064为抗虫亲本,以性状优良的恢复系测679作为轮回亲本,进行杂交、回交和自交,并辅以田间多代选择。在分离群体中,使用与Pi9紧密连锁的SCAR标记pB8跟踪目标基因Pi9,利用与Bph18(t)紧密连锁的标记KC16跟踪目标基因Bph18(t)。通过分子标记辅助选择、农艺性状评价和抗病抗虫鉴定,选育出聚合了Pi9和Bph18(t)基因、对稻瘟病和褐飞虱的抗性水平接近抗病亲本或抗虫亲本的恢复系。%Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a cereal crop, plays an ultimately important role in the global food production. The occurrence of the rice disease and pest such as the rice blast (RB) and the brown planthopper (BPH) can seve-rely damage the safe production of rice, and the development and application of the resistant varieties can prevent the occurrence of the rice disease and pest economically and effectively, so the development of the resistant variety is crucial in the safe production of rice. In this study, we used the disease resistant line 75-1-127 carrying rice blast resistant gene Pi9 as the disease-resistant parent, the BPH-resistant line C4064 harboring brown planthopper resistant gene Bph18(t) as the BPH-resistant parent, and the elite restoring line Ce679 as recurrent parents, to hy-bridize, backcross, selfcross and field select for multiple generations. The Pi9-linked SCAR marker pB8 was used to select Pi9, and the Bph18(t)-linked marker KC16 was used to select Bph18(t) in the segregating populations. By

  12. Effect of Brown Rice Protein and Its Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in High-fat Diet on Syrian hamsters%糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对喂食高脂饲料叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; Wally Yokoyama; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brown rice protein(BRP) and BRP hydrolysates(BRPH)on lipoprotein metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets compared to casein.The supplements of brown rice protein and its hydrolysates reduced hepatic total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content of hamster.Meanwhile,the BRP and BRPH diet increased the fecal total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content.Moreover,BRPH significantly reduced the hamster body weight compared to control.%以动物性蛋白酪蛋白为对照,研究了糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响。糙米蛋白及其酶解产物降低了仓鼠肝脏中总脂肪、总胆固醇和游离胆固醇含量,同时增加了粪便中脂肪及胆固醇的排出量。糙米蛋白酶解产物还可以显著降低仓鼠的体重。

  13. 超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应%Density Restriction Effects of Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population in Super Rice Yongyou NO. 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐森富; 王会福; 汪恩国; 陈伟强

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应.[方法]在超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号不同生育期即分蘖期、孕穗期、灌浆期分别接入不同虫量褐飞虱,调查并分析超级稻褐飞虱神群繁殖速率及其变化动态.[结果]分蘖期:褐飞虱孕穗期、灌浆期种群教量随分蘖期种群基数的增加而逐渐增加;当灌浆期褐飞虱种群密度升高达到一定限度(>250头/丛)时,其乳熟期种群教量随该密度的加大而呈下降趋势;超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群发展呈现中间快、两头慢的特点.孕穗期:褐飞虱种群发展在孕穗至灌浆期是随着其基数密度升高而升高,但到乳熟期相关性表现却不显著;超级稻中后期褐飞虱种群仍具有高繁殖能力,对水稻产量潜存极大威胁.灌浆期:褐飞虱种群密度<70头/丛时,其种群发展仍随着其基数密度升高而升高,对产量仍潜存较大威胁.[结论]研究结果为建立和健全褐飞虱监测预警体系、经济有效生态控制超级稻褐飞虱发生危害、提高褐飞虱持续控制能力提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] The paper was to study the density restriction effects of reproductive rate of rice brown planthopper (BPH) population in super indics and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6. [ Method ] Different amounts of BPH were inoculated into super indica and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6 during tillering, booting and filling stage, respectively. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of BPH in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. [ Result ] Tillering stage: the population quantity of BPH during booting and filling stage gradually increased with the increase of cardinal number of its population at tillering stage; when the population density of BPH during grain filling stage reached a certain limit ( > 250 head/cluster), the population density at milking stage showed decrease trend with the increase of such

  14. Processing rice bran to yield added-value oil based extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Nantiyakul, Nantaprapa

    2012-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product from rice milling, is an excellent source of natural antioxidants. Lipids in rice bran appear as small spherical droplets called oil bodies. This work attempted to recover the oil bodies from rice bran (fresh, stored and heat-treated) and to determine their chemical, biochemical and physical properties ex vivo. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy, oil bodies were observed mainly in the sub-aleurone and aleurone layer of brown rice. Oil bodies were successfu...

  15. Rice-Traditional Medicinal Plant in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umadevi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.

  16. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds identified in rice, their antioxidant activity and their potential beneficial effects on health. In vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the rice grains with different pericarp colour (light brown, red and black showed potential beneficial effects on health related to the polyphenol content of the grain, such as reduction of oxidative stress, aid in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and complications of diabetes, among others.

  17. 地上部植食者褐飞虱对不同水稻品种土壤线虫群落的影响%Aboveground herbivory by the brown planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens)affects soil nematode communities under different rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘满强; 胡锋; 黄菁华; 陈小云; 王峰; 葛成; 苏昱; 邵波; 汤英; 李辉信

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground-belowground communities play an important role in regulating terrestrial ecological processes; however, the interactions between rice varieties, herbivory and the soil community are often ignored. A pot experiment with a full 2×2 factorial design was conducted to examine the impacts of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and rice variety (susceptible or resistant) on the soil nematode community. The results showed that, after nine days, aboveground herbivory significantly (P<0.05) increased total abundance, numbers of nematode genera and the number of free-living nematodes (such as bacterivores, fungivores, and predators), under the rice varieties susceptible to the brown planthopper (Guangsi and Shanyou63), whereas an opposite trend was observed under the rice varieties resistant to the brown planthopper (Shanyou559 and IR36). In the presence of planthoppers, herbivorous nematodes significantly increased under the most susceptible rice variety Guangsi but significantly decreased under the most resistant rice variety IR36. Both planthopper and rice variety had negligible influences on ecological indices of the soil nematode community, including nematode channel ratio (NCR), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), maturity index (MI), enrichment index (El) and structure index (SI). This might be due to domination by bacterivores of the soil nematode community and the short length of exposure to aboveground herbivory for our pot experiment (only nine days). In conclusion, the brown planthopper strongly affects the abundance, composition as well as trophic structure of nematode community, but the direction (i.e. stimulation or depression) and magnitude of influences interacts with the rice variety. Our results imply that short-term aboveground herbivory may impose profound impacts on the structure and functions of rice paddy ecosystem.%地上和地下部生物群落的交互作用对于调控陆地生态过程具有重要

  18. Effect of potassium application on root uptake of radiocesium in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011, the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice that has been produced in some area has exceeded the provisional regulation value. In order to decrease the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice, we investigated the effect of the application of potassium fertilizer in rice paddy fields on the root uptake of radiocesium. The observed concentration ratio of 134Cs to 137Cs was 0.81 at the time of sample collection, and the mean concentrations of radiocesium in the soils at depths of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm were 5879 Bq kg-1 DW, 3223 Bq kg-1 DW and 1835 Bq kg-1 DW, respectively. The results showed that the vertical distribution of radiocesium was not uniform, although the rice paddy fields had been plowed. The concentration of radiocesium at a depth of 0-5 cm in soil collected from the 5 different rice paddy fields was in the range of 2465-7823Bq kg-1 DW, showing an approximately 3-fold variation between the upper and lower limits of the range. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice cultivated in 5 different fields, was in the range of 52-485 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice was found to be not correlated with that in the soil, and the soil-to-brown rice transfer factor was found to lie in the range of 0.0075-0.11. However, the radiocesium in brown rice decreased with an increase in exchangeable potassium in the soil. The concentration of radiocesium in brown rice also decreased from 370 to 138 Bq kg-1 upon the application of a top dressing of potassium fertilizer. Thus, the application of potassium fertilizer is shown to reduce the concentration of radiocesium in brown rice. (author)

  19. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination. PMID:27339205

  20. Changes in physical, cooking, textural properties and crystallinity upon iron fortification of red rice (Jyothi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shruti; Mr, Asha; A, Jayadep

    2016-02-01

    The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice. The cooking parameters for control and fortified brown rice viz. cooking time, volume expansion water uptake were quite close to the control sample. The cooking time for fortified rice was 1-2 min high as compared to control, other parameters remained same. In case of milled rice, the cooking time and volume expansion for control milled rice and fortified was almost same; however the water uptake was higher for fortified milled rice as compared to control milled rice. The texture of fortified brown rice was hard as compared to fortified milled rice, although the taste was found satisfactory. The colour was significantly different in brown and milled rice. X-ray diffraction results revealed the polycrystalline nature of the fortified sample, was somewhat less crystalline as compared to control sample. PMID:27162381

  1. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched. PMID:26515534

  2. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  3. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  4. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  5. 不同储藏期籼糯糙米制作的汤圆食用品质的变化%Changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷凡; 田春庄; 王月慧

    2016-01-01

    利用质构仪检测籼糯糙米储藏后制成的速冻汤圆食用品质的变化,分成常规组(15、25、35℃)和气调储藏组(自然空气封入、N2 气体封入、CO2 气体封入、真空),整个储藏期为 1 8 0 d,每隔 3 0 d后制成速冻汤圆,检测其各项指标,并对产品进行感官评价.结果显示:各项指标受温度影响均较大,气调方式对其影响不明显;通过汤圆的感官评价发现,储藏前期温度和气调方式对汤圆的食用品质影响不大;在 35℃下 60 d时汤圆的食用品质开始下降,而气调储藏的汤圆食用品质尚佳;其他温度下 90 d后的汤圆食用品质开始下降,气调方式无显著影响.表明15℃低温条件下,气调储藏能更好地保持籼糯糙米制作的汤圆良好的食用品质,且温度越高,气调效果越明显.%The changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods were determined using texture analyzer.In this experiment,the long-grain glutinous brown rice were stored in different temperature (15,25 and 35℃)and controlled atmosphere storage (air sealed,N2 sealed,CO2 sealed,vacuum sealed), for 180 d,and every 30 d,the brown rice were made frozen sweet dumpling,the various indexes and the sensory quality were measured.The experimental results showed that the indicators were extremely influenced by temperature,the controlled atmos-phere storage had no obvious influences.Through the sensory evaluations of sweet dumplings,we found that temperature and controlled atmosphere storage had little effects on the edible quality of the dumplings in the early period;at 35℃ the edible qual-ity of sweet dumplings declined after 60 d,but the dumplings in controlled atmosphere storage had no changes;the edible quality of sweet dumplings began to decline after 90 d under other temperature conditions,the controlled atmosphere storage had no ob-vious effects.It indicated that 1 5℃ low temperature

  6. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  7. Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Rahman, M Arifur; Miah, M A M

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption. PMID:17599387

  8. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Genotype on Rice Grain Macronutrients and Micronutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhao-miao; NING Hui-feng; BI Jun-guo; QIAO Jiang-fang; LIU Zheng-hui; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2014-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) input features China’s intensive rice production system. To elucidate N and genotype effects on accumulation of macronutrients and micronutrients in grains of japonica rice, and to discuss its significance in rice production, a three-year field experiment involving six japonica rice varieties and seven N treatments were performed. Macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) concentrations in brown and milled rice were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For macronutrients, no consistently significant effect of N was detected in both brown and milled rice. For micronutrients, N showed significant effect, especially in lowering Zn accumulation in brown and milled rice. In addition, N tended to increase Fe concentration in milled rice. Genotype showed larger effect on distribution of minerals in milled rice than N. The high-yielding variety, Wuyunjing 7, accumulated larger proportion of Mg, K, and Zn in the milled rice as compared with the other five varieties, and could be of value for rice breeding programs aiming at high nutritional quality. The results demonstrated differences in response to N between macronutrients and micronutrients, and are of significance for coping with‘hidden hunger’ both in humans and crops through agronomical practices.

  9. Transfer of radioiodine into rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that 129I levels near the spent fuel reprocessing plants are obviously higher than those in the other areas. At present commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant is under planning in the north of Japan mainland. For the safety assessment before the new-construction of the plant, it is required to obtain transfer factors of the nuclide to rice grains through deposition-translocation and rootuptake routes. Results obtained showed that contribution from dry deposition (I2 gas deposition)-translocation should be more significant than that from wet-deposition-translocation, but sometimes comparable or preferably less significant than that from root uptake route. In this paper, however, discussion is focused on I2 gas deposition translocation to rice grains, gaseous iodine deposition to hull surfaces and subsequent infiltration to brown rice should be more critical than leaf absorption-translocation. Excretion of the nuclide from hull surfaces was hardly recognized. Thus the transfer factor of gaseous 129I to rice grains was successfully obtained by using grain number deposition velocity (Vs) and distribution ratio of I between rough rice and rice grain. Ther Vs is given as following: Vs = the amount of iodine deposited on unit number of rough rice per unit time divided by iodine concentration in unit volume of air. Experimentally obtained Vs is about 5x10-3cm3.(grain.sec)-1. And the transfer factor of gaseous iodine (I2) to polished rice is calculated as about 4x102cm3.(grain)-1

  10. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  12. The deposition of radioiodine onto rice plant from atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose estimations are usually made with the aid of assessment models in which model parameters such as the transfer factors of radionuclides from one environmental compartment to another are involved. In simple models the parameters are often described as the concentration ratio of a radionuclide between two compartments, when the system is under equilibrium condition. In this paper, the authors introduce the values of the parameters of radioiodine obtained by tracer experiments. Laboratory experiments on the transfer parameters of radionuclides from the atmosphere to rice plant were carried out in the atmosphere-to-crops system (deposition pathway). It is known that the typical chemical species of gaseous iodine in the atmosphere are elemental iodine (I2) and methyliodide (CH3I). The deposition characteristics of both chemical species of gaseous iodine to rice grains were obtained. Mass normalized deposition velocity (VD) and grain number normalized deposition velocity (VS) of gaseous elemental iodine (I2) and also methyliodide (CH3I) on unhulled rice were measured. Both VD and VS of methyliodide were about one percent of those of elemental iodine. Distribution pattern of methyliodide between unhulled rice and brown rice was significantly lower than that of elemental one. For wet deposition, we investigated the retention of radioiodines (iodide [I-] and iodate [IO3-] on rice grains and their translocation from the surface of the grains to brown rice. Though the ears were dipped into the solution containing 125I- or 125IO3- more than 15 min., both iodine species in the solutions were hardly taken up to the rice grains. The transfer rates of iodide and iodate, which are defined as 'the amount of the iodine in brown rice' divided by 'the amount of iodide in unhulled rice' were about 0.015 and 0.04, respectively. The rates were not changed with time after the radioiodine application. (author)

  13. Breeding of transgenic rice lines with GNA and Bar genes resistance to both brown planthopper and herbicide%导入GNA和Bar基因获得抗褐飞虱和抗除草剂的转基因水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恒秀; 赵志鹏; 王玲; 刘巧泉; 龚志云; 顾铭洪

    2007-01-01

    褐飞虱(brown planthopper,BPH)是世界上,尤其是我国及许多亚洲国家水稻生产的最主要害虫之一。培育抗稻飞虱的水稻品种是一种最经济有效的防治方法,同时可以避免化学农药的使用对环境造成的破坏。一些植物凝集素(phytohem agglutinin,PHA)对褐飞虱具有毒性,其中又以雪花莲凝集素(galanthus nivals agglutinin,GNA)对褐飞虱的毒性最强,对哺乳动物毒副作用极低。

  14. Miracle Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A pioneering agricultural scientist helps China find its way out of a food deficit BIG YIELDS: Despite the remarkable accomplishments he has already achieved, Yuan Longping is still working hard to improve the hybrid rice strain he has developed

  15. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  16. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  17. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  18. 有色稻米Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn含量及与种皮颜色相关分析%Evaluation and Correlation Analysis on Mineral Concentrations and Pigment Content in Pericarp of Color Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭咏梅; 段延碧; 李少明; 黄平; 涂建; 李华慧; 萧凤回; 谭学林

    2011-01-01

    The different color rice were evaluated based on four mineral concentrations of brown rice from 61 accessions harvested from Mile experiment farm under the uniform ecological conditions by A AS method. The results showed that the Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn concentration of the color rice was higher than that of the write rice, and the four mineral concentrations in brown rice was Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. In addition,Fe and Zn concentration of color rice were affected by pigment content in pericarp of it, Cu and Mn of color rice were not influenced by pigment content in pericarp of it. Fe concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice > green rice > brown rice > red rice > yellow rice, Zn concentration of the color rice was in turn green rice > red rice > black rice > brown rice > yellow rice, Cu concentration of the color rice was in turn black rice > brown rice > red rice > yellow rice > green rice, Mn concentration of the color rice was in turn brown rice > black rice > red rice > yellow rice > green rice. There were some differences among Fe, Zu, Cu and Mn average concentrations in brown rice of the different color rice, black rice and brown rice rich on Fe,Zn,Cu and Mn,green rice rich on Fe and Zn,red rice rich on Zn and Cu. Four concentration of yellow rice were lower than that of the other color rice.%用AAS方法测定了弥勒县相同生态条件下种植的27份有色稻和34份普通稻糙米4种矿质元素含量,并对有色米和普通米Fe、Zn、Cu和Mn含量进行了比较研究.结果表明,有色稻米4种矿质元素含量明显高于无色稻米,其差异均达显著水平,其含量高低依次为Zn> Fe> Cu> Mn;对黑、褐、红、黄、绿5种不同种皮颜色的稻米4种矿质元素含量进行比较研究,发现稻米Fe含量高低依次为黑>绿>褐>红>黄,Zn含量依次为绿>红>黑>褐>黄,Cu含量依次为黑>褐>红>黄>绿,Mn含量依次为褐>黑>红>黄>绿;并且Fe和Mn含量在不同颜色稻

  19. Analysis of Metal Element Distributions in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds and Relocation during Germination Based on X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of Zn, Fe, K, Ca, and Mn

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke; Liao, Haibing; Jie ZHANG; Yang, Xiaoe; Labavitch, John M.; Chen, Wenrong

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of mineral localization within rice grains is important for understanding the role of different elements in seed development, as well as for facilitating biofortification of seed micronutrients in order to enhance seeds’ values in human diets. In this study, the concentrations of minerals in whole rice grains, hulls, brown rice, bran and polished rice were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The in vivo mineral distribution patterns in rice grains and shifts ...

  20. EffectsofDifferentEcologicalConditionsonGrainQualityandRVAProfileCharaCteriSticSofJaponicaRiceVarietiesfrOmYunnanPlateauofChinaandKorea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua ZHU; Pingrong YUAN; Guozhen ZHAO; Zhenxi SU; Xinhua LIAO; Seajun YANG; Luyuan DAI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice quality under different environmental conditions in Yunnan Plateau. [Method] Ten Yunnan japonica rice varieties and six Korean japoni- ca rice varieties were selected to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on grain quality characteristics and starch RVA profile characteristic values of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice. [Result] The coefficient of variation of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice reached the maximum in setback viscosity (SBV). The coefficients of variation of brown rice length (BRL), chalkiness rate (CR), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), final viscosity (FLV), setback vis- cosity (SBV) and peak time (PET) of Yunnan japonica rice varieties were significant- ly higher than those of Korean japonica rice, while other grain quality characteristics were contrary. With the increasing altitudes, BRL, brown rice width (BRW), length- width ratio (L/W), whiteness (WH), AC, ADV, FLV and consistence viscosity (CTV) of Yunnan japonica rice and BRL, BRW, WH, PC, peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosi- ty (HTV) and breakdown viscosity (BDV) of Korean japonica rice were significantly reduced , while CR, PC, HTV and PeT of Yunnan japonica rice and L/W, AC, ADV and CTV of Korean japonica rice significantly increased, but CR of Korean japonica rice showed no significantly variation. PKV, BDV and pasting temperature (PAT) of Yunnan japonica rice and PaT of Korean japonica rice showed an upward trend af- ter an initial drop with the increasing altitudes, while SBV of Yunnan japonica rice and FLV and PeT of Korean japonica rice were contrary. [Conclusion] This study provided theoretical basis for breeding of japonica rice in Yunnan Plateau.

  1. Development of techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions, 1: Storage of rough rice at country elevator with natural heat radiation in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-farm experiment in which 361 metric tons of rough rice was stored in a silo from November until July was conducted at a country elevator in Hokkaido to develop new techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions. The temperature of the rough rice near the inner silo wall decreased to below ice point (-5°C) due to natural heat radiation in winter, which the temperature of the rough rice in the center of the silo was maintained at almost the same temperature as that at the beginning of storage (5°C). Ventilation in the upper vacant space of the silo prevented moisture condensation on the inside surface of the silo during storage. When the cold rough rice was unloaded from the silo in summer, an unheated forced-air drier was used to increase the temperature of rough rice to above the dew point temperature of surrounding air. During the unloading and rewarming process, the moisture content of the rough rice increased due to moisture condensation on the grain from the air. However, the husks first absorbed the condensation and then the moisture slowly permeated into the brown rice kernel. Thus the rewarming process didn't cause any fissures in the brown rice. The results of the experiment indicate that condensation on rough rice doesn't give rise to any problems

  2. Bionomics of brown planthopper biotype 2 from field and greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two biotype 2 populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens stal, were used in this experiment. One was purified by determining the weight of honeydew excreted on susceptible rice variety TN1 and resistant rice varieties Mudgo (bearing resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (bearing resistant gene bph2) by female adult in paddy field in Guangxi Province, south China, and the other was obtained from greenhouse and continuously reared on rice resistant variety Mudgo in IRRI, Philippines. One newly hatched nymph was introduced into the test tube containing two 60 day old rice plants and cultured at 26± 1℃ , L∶ D =12 h∶ 12 h. Sixty replications were set up for each tested rice variety. The number and instar of nymphes were recorded every day. The body weight and honeydew excreted by female adult emerged within 24 h and 72 h, the number of eggs laid, and newly hatched nymph on different resistant rice varieties were measured. The hatchability, net reproductive rate, female adult nutritional indices such as relative growth rate (RGR)and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) were calculated.

  3. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and germinated for four different days (1- 4 days. Total phenolic compounds, phytic acid, á-tocopherol, á- tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol were investigated compared with those of ungerminated brown rice. The antioxidant activity of germinated rice was evaluated through four different methods, the 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay and linoleic acid emulsion system-thiocyanate method. Results: The results showed that the germination for 2 days or longer, after soaking, yielded significantly higher level of total phenolic, á-tocopherol, á-tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol than those of ungerminated brown rice and soaked rice, whilst the concentration of phytic acid was reduced significantly when germination time was increased. The samples germinated for one day or longer also revealed greater antioxidant activity than those of ungerminated rice. Conclusion: The level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of germinated rough rice were affected by germination time. Germination for 2 and 3 days was the optimum time for germination rough rice to obtain high concentration of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity. The germination process of rough rice could be a potential method to obtain functional germinated rice flour with high bioactive compounds and health beneficial properties and could be applied to produce

  4. EFFECT OF GROWTH PROMOTOR AND BIOPROTECTOR ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATED RICE AND BROWN SPOT INCIDENCE USO DE PROMOTOR DE CRESCIMENTO E DE BIOPROTETOR NA CULTURA DO ARROZ IRRIGADO E SEU EFEITO SOBRE A INCIDÊNCIA DA MANCHA-DE-GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fascin Berni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercial products, one containing plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and micorrhizae, and the other containing micronutrients and aminoacids, on the development of irrigated rice. One kilogram of the biological product Biosol (trade mark was added to the seeds at sowing time (1kg / ha and the biofertilizer Greensol (trade mark was sprayed by airplane (200 ml / ha in association with fungicides, when 5% of panicles had been emitted. The treatments used were T1: Control; T2: Greensol; T3: Biosol + Greensol and T4: Biosol. Five parameters were evaluated: number of shoots per meter, dry weight 90 days after sowing, grain yield, empty grains percentage and incidence of brown spot disease (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan. Number of shoots per meter was uniform in all treatments. Grouped analysis indicated superiority of all treatments with Biosol over the control for the parameters of dry weight of plants and roots. Treatments T3 and T4 presented superior yields. In these treatments empty grain percentage was lower than the control. Brown spot severity index indicated that all treatments were better than control and T3 and T4 treatments had the lowest disease index.

    KEY-WORDS: Helminthosporium oryzae; Oryza sativa; disease control; rice.

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de dois produtos comerciais sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre a incidência da mancha-de-grãos causada por Helminthosporium oryzae. Um dos produtos consistia de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas (RPCPs e micorrizas (Biosol e o outro era constituído por micronutrientes e amino

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals. PMID:26891000

  6. STUDY ON RESIDUES OF 14C-FENITROTHION IN MODEL RICE-FISH ECOSYSTEM AND FIELD RICE-FISH ECOSYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of 14C-fenitrothion in a model rice-fish ecosystem and field rice-fish ecosystem were studied.When equal amounts of the pesticide were applied.the extractable residues in brown rice (equivalent to 34.3±1.9ug/kg fenitrothion) and rice stems and leaves(20.9±1.5ug/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-15times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem(4.48±0.13ug/kg and 1.27±0.34ug/kg respectively).Residues in upper part of the soil (6.50±0.1-8.10±0.2ug/kg)and lower part of the soil(1.30±0.1-1.50±0.1ug/kg)of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-40 times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem (0.17±0.01ug/kg).The extractable residues in paddy water of the model ecosystem (0.30±0.01ug/kg)were similar to that of the field ecosystem(0.20±0.02ug/kg),When the fenitrothion was sprayed on the rice plants.residues in brown rice,fish body.soil and paddy water were lower than those when the pesticide was sprayed on the surface of the soil.

  7. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health.

  8. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk & leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants.

  9. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    OpenAIRE

    Noppawat Pengkumsri; Chaiyavat Chaiyasut; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi; Chalermpong Saenjum; Sasithorn Sirilun; Sartjin Peerajan; Prasit Suwannalert; Sophon Sirisattha; Khontaros Chaiyasut; Periyanaina Kesika

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO) was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe) methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by H...

  10. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  11. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  12. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  13. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  14. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  15. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  16. A taxonomic investigation on egg parasitoid, Anagrus of rice planthopper in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Exploitation and utilization of beneficial arthropods viz. insects and spiders to regulate pest populations has a good prospect in China. The role of non_rice habitats in maintaining the population of natural enemies of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) has been investigated in Zhejiang Province since 1994. The work focused primarily on the egg parasitoids genus Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Plants laden with eggs of the brown planthopper were exposed 2 d every week in the rice fields and grassy areas dominated by Digitaria spp. Then, the plants were retrieved and brought back to the laboratory for parasitoid rearing. Newly emerged parasitoids were preserved in alcohol solution for further identification.

  17. Factors Affecting Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN En-hui; ZHANG Ping; ZUO Shi-min; LI Ai-hong; ZHANG Ya-fang; CHEN Zong-xiang; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    Several important factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation were studied with several predominant commercial indica and japonica rice cultivars. As far as indica rice callus was concerned, CC medium was the best and the quality of callus was improved with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0 mg/L ABA. It decreased the percentage of browning calli and improved the callus growing state by addition of a certain amount of sorbitol to the subculture medium. NB medium was the best for callus initiation of japonica rice, but the improvement in the quality of callus of japonica subspecies was not obvious by adding ABA. During the period of subculture, to a certain degree, increasing the sucrose concentration could improve the proportion of hygromycin resistant calli. Furthermore, the transformation efficiency would be higher by applying selection pressure in the selection stage, removing selection pressure during the plantlet differentiation period and applying selection pressure again during seedling hardening period. Besides, suitable combination of plant hormones was beneficial for callus differentiation. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation system had been established for several rice cultivars and a lot of transgenic rice plants had been obtained.

  18. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area.

  19. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfu Zeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day, respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10−4. The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  20. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  1. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  2. Use of rice seedlings to estimate uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radiocesium to plants from the soil is affected by many environmental factors, and it is difficult to determine the contribution of uptake among these factors. In addition, these environmental factors should be investigated independently for each field. The aim of this study was to develop a practical and simple method for the estimate of uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants. Rice seedlings were used to estimate the root uptake of radiocesium from seven different soils. To confirm that the seedlings were the effective indicator, the concentration of 137Cs in the seedlings was compared with that in brown rice and sunflower. The seedlings were cultivated for a week from germination in a phytotron and the concentrations of 137Cs in the seedlings above ground were determined. To obtain brown rice and sunflower, rice and sunflower were cultivated either in a pot (1/5000 a Wagner pot, 4000 cm3) placed in a glasshouse or in a paddy field in Fukushima prefecture for two to four months. The concentration of 137Cs in the rice seedlings ranged from 150 to 1900 Bq kg-1, and that in brown rice and sunflower ranged from 2 to 880 Bq kg-1 and from 580 to 3900 Bq kg-1, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the measured concentration of 137Cs in rice seedlings and the measured concentration of 137Cs in brown rice and sunflower was 1.0 (p 137Cs from soil to plants over a longer period of time. (author)

  3. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  4. Effects of Different Lead Compounds on Growth and Heavy Metal Uptake of Wetland Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAI-MAN; ZHENGCHUN-RONG; 等

    1991-01-01

    Effects of different lead compounds,PbCl2,Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(OAc)2,on the rice growth and uptake of lead and some microelements by wetland rice were studied.The results showed that the seed germination,rice seedling growth,chlorophyl content,grain yield and uptake of Pb,Cu,Zn,Fe and Mn by rice plant were affected by the chemical forms of Pb compunds added in soil to a certain degree.The germination rate and the amount of chlorophyl decreased remarkably with increasing Pb concentration,the root extension was restrained obviously by the presence of Pb,and the effect of PbCl2 was more evident than that of Pb(NO3)2 or Pb(OAc)2.The pot incubation test with yellow brown soil and redsoil showed that there was no significant regularity in effect of Pb on grain yield,but the difference in the influence of various Pb compounds on yield was clearer.The effect on the amount of Pb in straw and brown rice was in the sequence of Pb(NO3)2>Pb(OAc)2>PbCl1.In case the content of Pb in brown rice was 0.5mg/kg,the relative loading capacities of yellow brown soil for Pb added as PbCl2,Pb(OAc)2 and Pb(NO3)2 were 100,90 and 60 respectively.Pb uptake by wetland rice was closely related to the chemical species of Pb in soil,but there was no comparability among chemical forms of different Pb compounds in the same soil.The uptake of Cu,Zn,Fe and Mn by wetland rice was markedly affected by the addition of Pb,and different Pb compounds varied in their impacts on the uptake of other metals by different organs of wetland rice,e.g.the concentration of Fe in root increased significantly (r=0.92**),while opposite was true for Fe in brown rice (r=-0.92**) due to the application of Pb(OAc)2 in soil.These results demonstrate that the effect of accompanying anions of Pb on the physiological and biochemical processes of wetland rice was rather complex.

  5. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  6. Transgenic Cry1Ab rice does not impact ecological fitness and predation of a generalist spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized.

  7. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk and leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- Highlights: • Distribution patterns indicated different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. • Soil is an important source for both THg and MeHg to rice plants. • Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants. -- The distribution patterns indicate different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation in rice plants

  8. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L. Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg. The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis, with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg, campesterol (116–242 mg/kg, ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data, identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.

  9. Effect of Instant Cooked Giant Embryonic Rice on Body Fat Weight and Plasma Lipid Profile in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Tae Hyeong Kim; Rico, Catherine W.; Mi Young Kang

    2014-01-01

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic tri...

  10. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-01-01

    The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum ...

  11. Impact of drought and detection of potential donors for reproductive stage tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafina Haque, A.Anandan, S.K.Pradhan, and O.N.Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, 48 drought tolerant lines along with two susceptible genotypes of upland and lowland rice ecologies were tested at Central Rice Research Institute during dry season of 2011 and 2012, to identify the reproductive stage drought tolerant lines and to exploit the genetic variations. In support of various estimates of morpho-physiological parameters, genotypes Nan Te Hao, Purbachi (Chinese 1, Saita, NSIC Rc 222, Binnatoha, CO18, Ai Jiao Nan Te, Brown Gora, Black Gora (NCS 12, Jhona 349, Kalakeri are adjudged as good donors for reproductive stage drought tolerance in rice.

  12. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  13. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  14. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  15. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  16. Association Analysis of the Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhao; Eun-Jin Park; Jong-Wook Chung; Yong-Jin Park; III-Min Chung; Joung-Kuk Ahn; Gwang-Ho Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with the amino acid content of rice (Oryza sativa L.). SSR markers were selected by prescreening for the relationship to amino acid content. Eighty-four rice landrace accessions from Korea were evaluated for 16 kinds of amino acids in brown rice and genotyped with 25 SSR markers. Analysis of population structure revealed four subgroups in the population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and distributions are of fundamental importance for genome-wide mapping associations. The mean r2 value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.033. LD between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). A total of 42 marker-trait associations with amino acids (P < 0.05) were identified using 15 different SSR markers covering three chromosomes and explaining more than 40% of the total variation. These results suggest that association analysis In rice is a viable alternative to quantitative trait loci mapping and should help rice breeders develop strategies for improving rice quality.

  17. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen. PMID:27436950

  18. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  19. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  20. A preliminary study on the uptake of radioiodine by rice plants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway from the environment to man. However, 129I reaches man through several pathways because of its long half life of 1.6 x 107 years. Root uptake of 129I is one of the most important pathways of this nuclide. In Japan, rice is thought to be the most critical crop on the pathway. In this paper, uptake of radioiodine from irrigation water by rice plant was investigated. Rice plants, Oryza sativa cv. Nihonbare, were grown under flooded condition in Wagner pots containing soil collected in Tokai-mura. Iodine-131 was added as a tracer into the surface water in the pots at three different growing stages, heading, dough-ripe and yellow-ripe stages, respectively, and the plants were cultivated until the harvest time in a plant growth chamber. At the harvest time, concentration of 131I in each organ of rice plant was measured with a NaI scintillation counter. The profile of 131I in the soil was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows; (1) Activities of 131I in leaf blade and sheath of lower part were generally higher than those of upper part. Compared to the 131I activity of the flag leaf, the ratios of the activity in rachis-branch, hull and brown rice were 1.0-0.5, 0.1 and 1-5 x 10-3, respectively. These may suggest that iodine taken up by the roots scarcely re-translocated into rice. (2) Ratio of 131I in brown rice and hull was about 1 : 4. (3) Activity ratio ('concentration of 131I in brown rice'/'average concentration of that in the soil' during 6 days uptake experiment.) was 4-5 x 10-4. (author)

  1. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  2. Variability, heritability and genetic advance studies in some indigenous genotypes of basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Allam, H.K. Jaiswal , A. Qamar , Challa Venkateshwarlu and Y.S. Reddy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation conducted with 25 rice genotypes comprising both Basmati and non-basmati types revealed significant differences among the genotypes for the yield, its components and some grain quality characteristics. The magnitude of differences between PCV and GCV was relatively low for all the traits, indicating less environmental influence. The GCV was higher for the characters alkali spread value, yield per plant and effective panicles. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, effective panicles per plant, spikelets per panicle, filled grains per panicle, test weight, yield per plant, brown rice length, brown rice L/B ratio, kernel length, kernel L/B ratio, kernel length after cooking, elongation ratio and alkali spread value indicating the additive gene effects in the genetic control of these traits and can be improved by simple selection in the present breeding material.

  3. Food—Security Indexes Related to Combined Pollution of Chromium and Phenol in Soil—Rice Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUQIXING; ZHUYINMEI; 等

    1997-01-01

    The pot-culture method combined with chemical and staistical analyses was used to get basic data for determination of the food-seurity indexes related to combined pollution of Cr and phenol in soil-rice systems. Regression analyses accordig to the experimental result indicated that the critical concentrations of Cr and phenol in brown rice were 0.37 and 0.33 mg kg-1 ,respectively,under the condition of Cr-phenol combined pollution.

  4. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  5. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  6. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.

  7. Eco-Friendly Management of Rice Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amanut Ullah Razu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of BAU-Biofungicide (2%, a product of Trichoderma harzianum, Garlic (Allium sativum clove extract (5%, Allamanda(Allamanda cathartica leaf extract (5%, Bion (25ppm, Amistar (0.1% and Tilt 250EC (0.1% were evaluated for eco-friendly managementof diseases of rice cv. BRRI Dhan-49 under field and laboratory conditions from July,2013 to March,2014. The field experiment was carriedout following Randomised Complete Block Design and the laboratory experiments were done following Completely Randomized Design.Brown spot, Narrow brown leaf spot, Bacterial leaf blight and Sheath blight were recorded in the field. The lowest incidence of brown spotand narrow brown leaf spot was observed in plots treated with BAU-Biofungicide and that of bacterial leaf blight was observed in plots sprayedwith Allamanda leaf extract. In case of sheath blight, the lowest incidence was observed in BAU-Biofungicide sprayed plots. The highest grainyield (3680.34kg/ha was recorded in plots sprayed with BAU-Biofungicide which is 40.56% higher over control. The highest seed germination(% was recorded when seeds were treated with Garlic clove extract (89.29% followed by BAU-Biofungicide (87.30%. The prevalence ofseed-borne fungi was investigated by blotter method. The identified seed-borne fungal species were Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum,Fusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Maximum reduction of seed-borne infection of pathogenswas obtained by treating seeds with BAU-Biofungicide (2% of seed weight.

  8. A hydroponic rice seedling culture model system for investigating proteome of salt stress in rice leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dea-Wook; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jung, Young-Ho; Shibato, Junko; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kim, Du Hyun; Shim, Ie-Sung; Usui, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By using an in vivo hydroponic rice seedling culture system, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of a model rice japonica cultivar Nipponbare to salt stress using proteomics and classical biochemical methods. Yoshida's nutrient solution (YS) was used to grow rice seedlings. YS-grown 18-day-old seedlings manifested highly stable and reproducible symptoms, prominently the wilting and browning of the 3rd leaf, reduced photosynthetic activity, inhibition in overall seedling growth, and failure to develop new (5th) leaf, when subjected to salt stress by transferring them to YS containing 130 mM NaCl for 4 days. As leaf response to salt stress is least investigated in rice by proteomics, we used the 3rd leaf as source material. A comparison of 2-DE protein profiles between the untreated control and salt-stressed 3rd leaves revealed 55 differentially expressed CBB-stained spots, where 47 spots were increased over the control. Of these changed spots, the identity of 33 protein spots (27 increased and 5 decreased) was determined by nESI-LC-MS/MS. Most of these identified proteins belonged to major metabolic processes like photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation and photorespiration, suggesting a good correlation between salt stress-responsive proteins and leaf morphology. Moreover, 2-DE immunoblot and enzymatic activity analyses of 3rd leaves revealed remarkable changes in the key marker enzymes associated with oxidative damage to salt stress: ascorbate peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were induced, and catalase was suppressed. These results demonstrate that hydroponic culture system is best suited for proteomics of salt stress in rice seedling.

  9. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  10. Nutritional Components Analysis of Germ-remaining Rice%胚芽米营养成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞超; 林轩; 周美园; 王忠华

    2013-01-01

    The germ-remaining rice, brown rice and polished rice were used to detect the nutrient compositions (such as moisture, ashes, protein, amylose, micronutrient elements, etc). Meanwhile the difference of composition contents among three samples were also compared and analyzed. The result showed that the difference of main nutrient content between germ-remaining rice and brown rice was not significant, but protein, ash, mineral and amino acid contents in both rice were significantly higher than those in polished rice. It indicated that the germ-remaining rice has the similar nutritional value to the brown rice. Because the brown rice has more the content of aleurone and affects the eating flavor after cooking. Therefore, the germ-remaining rice has either rich nutrition components or better eating flavor, which provide the scientific clue to the use and development of the germ-remaining rice.%以来自相同水稻品种的胚芽米、糙米和精米为材料,对其营养成分(如水分、灰分、蛋白质、氨基酸、直链淀粉、微量元素等)进行了测定,同时对三者进行了比较与分析。结果发现,胚芽米的蛋白质、灰分、微量元素及氨基酸含量均显著多于精米,而与糙米相比相差不大。这说明胚芽米具有糙米类似的营养价值。但由于糙米含有较多的糊粉,蒸煮后口感粗糙不适合食用,因此,胚芽米既含有丰富的营养成分,又具有较好的口感,为进一步开发与利用提供了一定的科学依据。

  11. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  12. Rice Varietal Improvement and International Exchange of Rice Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Rice is the most important food grain in developing countries. Rapid population growth in developing countries during the 1950s and 1960s presented a massive challenge to rice producers. Rice production would have to be expanded at historically unprecedented rates to maintain per capita rice consumption levels. That challenge was met. Rice production expanded more rapidly than population. The challenge was met primarily by increased yields per hectare of land. This paper documents the role of...

  13. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioca and rice flour respectively, with the addition of brown sugar, and analyses its technological, nutritional and sensory properties. The following physical, physicochemical and nutritional properties were analyzed: dough texture profile, cookie weight, diameter and volume, acidity, water activity, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, ash content and moisture. A sensory evaluation was held using an affective test with 90 judges and a structured nine-point hedonic scale ranging from 'like extremely' to 'dislike extremely' for the attributes scent, color, texture, taste and overall impression in addition to purchase intent. The results indicate that cookies made of tapioca and rice flours with the addition of brown sugar have technological, physicochemical and nutritional profiles within legal standards; however, the fiber contents were below recommendations. The sensory evaluation showed good acceptance of the cookies, with average scores above 7.0. This study is part of an attempt to raise further discussions regarding the production of new low-cost bakery products that are nutritionally enriched, viable and easily accessible to all, including to people with celiac disease.

  14. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  15. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  16. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  17. A Century of Rice Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Halos, Saturnina C.

    2005-01-01

    Rice innovations are technologies and practices extensively adopted so as to change production practices and productivity. This paper documents the changes in rice productivity, policy and institutions in the last 100 years and identifies the technological change that may have affected rice productivity. One hundred years has totally changed rice production practices and improved productivity. Technical innovations that helped improved rice productivity include irrigation, pest management not...

  18. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  1. Transfer to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical foods for the intake of radionuclides by humans is rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is the dominant staple food crop in humid tropical and sub-tropical countries across the globe. Cultivation methods have important effects on plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Most rice is produced under flooded conditions, i.e. in fields with a water layer of 5-15 cm deep on soil. This is unlike the situation in unsaturated fields where the soil conditions are significantly different, meaning that the soil-to-rice transfer factors (Fvs) need to be discussed separately from Fv values of other cereals grown under unsaturated field conditions. In this section, rice refers to the crop grown on wet paddy fields; since water management is the dominant method for rice cultivation this is the most common type. Rice Fv values were collected from papers in international journals, books and proceedings with peer reviewing processes and Fv values based on dry weight rice grain were summarized here. Fv data for fallout isotopes (e.g. 90Sr and 137Cs), neutron activation products (e.g. 54Mn, 60Co, etc.) or naturally existing radionluclides (e.g. 210Pb, 226Ra, 238U, etc.) and those for naturally existing stable elements under agricultural field conditions were listed. (author)

  2. Cry1Ab rice does not impact biological characters and functional response ofCyrtorhinus lividipennispreying onNilaparvata lugens eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yang; LAI Feng-xiang; SUN Yan-qun; HONG Li-ying; TIAN Jun-ce; ZHANG Zhi-tao; FU Qiang

    2015-01-01

    One concern about the use of transgenic plants is their potential risk to natural enemies. In this study, using the eggs of the rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, as a food source, we investigated the effects of Cry1Ab rice on the biological characteristics and functional response of an important predatorCyrtorhinus lividipennis. The results showed that the survival ability (adult emergence rate and egg hatching rate), development (egg duration, nymphal developmental duration), adult fresh weight, adult longevity and fecundity ofC. lividipennis on Bt rice plants were not signiifcantly different compared to those on non-Bt rice plants. Furthermore, two important parameters of functional response (instantaneous search rate and handling time) were not signiifcantly affected by Bt rice. In conclusion, the tested Cry1Ab rice does not adversely impact the biological character and functional response ofC. lividipennis.

  3. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    Background In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities. PMID:27032671

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. Concentration of radiocaesium in rice and irrigation water, and soil management practices in Oguni, Date, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Ohse, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of radiocaesium ((134) Cs and (137) Cs) in brown rice collected from Oguni, Date, Fukushima in 2011 was over 500 Bq kg(-1) , which was the provisional regulation value in 2011, and rice cultivation was prohibited in 2012. Rice culture was resumed following the application of K fertilizer as a countermeasure in 2013. The concentration of (137) Cs in soils and irrigation water in 2013 was in the range of 1200 to 4000 Bq kg(-1) (n = 31) and 0.078 to 1.1 Bq L(-1) (n = 7), respectively. The concentration of (137) Cs in the dissolved fraction in irrigation water filtered with 0.45 µm pore-size membrane filter was a relatively constant at 0.019 to 0.038 Bq L(-1) (n = 7). The concentration of (137) Cs in brown rice cultivated in the paddy fields after implementing the countermeasure was 1.1 to 24 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (n = 29), which was lower than the Standard Limits (100 Bq kg(-1) ). However, the concentration of Cs in rice cultivated under a similar agricultural management as in 2011 and prior to the Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings' (TEPCO) Fukushima accident was over the Standard Limits. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:659-661. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640411

  6. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  7. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  8. Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stripe Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to map the quantitative trait loci for rice stripe resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed based on the lines to rice stripe were investigated by both artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, and the ratios of ranged from 0 to 134.08 and from 6.25 to 133.6 under artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, respectively,and showed a marked bias towards resistant parent (Zhaiyeqing 8), indicating that the resistance to rice stripe was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). QTL analysis showed that the QTLs detected by the two inoculation methods were completely different.Only one QTL, qSTV7, was detected under artificial inoculation, at which the Zhaiyeqing 8 allele increased the resistance to rice stripe, while two QTLs, qSTV5 and qSTV1, were detected under natural infection, in which resistant alleles came from Zhaiyeqing 8and Wuyujing 3, respectively. These results showed that resistant parent Zhaiyeqing 8 carried the alleles associated with the resistance to rice stripe virus and the small brown planthopper, and susceptible parent Wuyujing 3 also carried the resistant allele to rice stripe virus. In comparison with the results previously reported, QTLs detected in the study were new resistant genes to rice stripe disease. This will provide a new resistant resource for avoiding genetic vulnerability for single utilization of the resistant gene Stvb-i.

  9. Genome-wide mapping of virulence in brown planthopper identifies loci that break down host plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yinhua; Liu, Bingfang; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Hangjin; Zhou, Xi; Qin, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2014-01-01

    Insects and plants have coexisted for over 350 million years and their interactions have affected ecosystems and agricultural practices worldwide. Variation in herbivorous insects' virulence to circumvent host resistance has been extensively documented. However, despite decades of investigation, the genetic foundations of virulence are currently unknown. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) pest in the world. The identification of the resistance gene Bph1 and its introduction in commercial rice varieties prompted the emergence of a new virulent brown planthopper biotype that was able to break the resistance conferred by Bph1. In this study, we aimed to construct a high density linkage map for the brown planthopper and identify the loci responsible for its virulence in order to determine their genetic architecture. Based on genotyping data for hundreds of molecular markers in three mapping populations, we constructed the most comprehensive linkage map available for this species, covering 96.6% of its genome. Fifteen chromosomes were anchored with 124 gene-specific markers. Using genome-wide scanning and interval mapping, the Qhp7 locus that governs preference for Bph1 plants was mapped to a 0.1 cM region of chromosome 7. In addition, two major QTLs that govern the rate of insect growth on resistant rice plants were identified on chromosomes 5 (Qgr5) and 14 (Qgr14). This is the first study to successfully locate virulence in the genome of this important agricultural insect by marker-based genetic mapping. Our results show that the virulence which overcomes the resistance conferred by Bph1 is controlled by a few major genes and that the components of virulence originate from independent genetic characters. The isolation of these loci will enable the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the rice-brown planthopper interaction and facilitate the development of durable approaches for controlling this most

  10. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  11. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  12. RICE BRAN WAX-A NOVEL EXCEPIENT FOR PHARMACEUTICAL TOPICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Basarkar UG*

    2013-01-01

    The crude rice bran wax was obtained from M/S Bajaj rice mills, Gondia (MS) which was dark brown in color & contains nonwaxy impurities & fixed oil. After purification around 38gm wax obtained which was almost white, light in weight and non-sticky. No instances of skin irritation or sensitization symptoms such as edema / rending of the skin were observed on the skin of Albino rabbits even after 24 hrs. Therefore wax was nontoxic & safe to use in pharmaceutical preparations. In the...

  13. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  14. Differential Response of Grain Quality to Cold Water Irrigation in Cold Tolerant and Sensitive Lines of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Long-zhi; PIAO Zhong-ze; Koh Hee-jong

    2005-01-01

    Three rice varieties and several F3 lines with high and low cold tolerance, selected from F3 segregation lines of two crosses Milyang 23/Tong 88-7 and Milyang 23/TR22183 were used to analyze the effects of cold tolerance on the response of grain quality to cold water irrigation. The result showed that cold water irrigation led to the decrease of rice grain size. The length, length-width ratio and weight of brown rice grain were more sensitively affected by cold water irrigation than the width and thickness. The shape of brown rice grain was not significantly affected by the selection for cold tolerance at the seedling stage (CTS). The gel consistency, amylose content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, breakdown viscosity and consistency viscosity were decreased, while alkali digestibility value and protein content were increased by cold water irrigation. Under normal irrigation condition the physicochemical properties of milled rice and viscogram components of milled rice flour were not significantly different between lines with high and low cold tolerance. Under cold water irrigation the amylose content, peak viscosity, hot viscosity, final viscosity of rice lines with high CTS or high cold tolerance at the booting stage (CTB) were higher, while the protein content, setback viscosity, breakdown ratio and setback ratio were lower, than those of rice lines with low cold tolerance. This implied that the cold water response of rice grain quality was less sensitive in the lines with high cold tolerance than in the lines with low cold tolerance, and the varietal improvement for cold tolerance would be important for grain quality improvement at the same time.

  15. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  16. Determination of total strontium in uruguayan rice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rivero Huguet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr is found naturally as a non-radioactive element and has 16 known isotopes. Naturally occurring Sr is found as four stable isotopes: Sr-84, -86, -87, and -88. Twelve other isotopes are radioactive. Sr-90 is the most important radioactive isotope in the environment, discovered mostly after the nuclear experiments conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. In the present work, 86 rice samples (Oryza saliva L. and 7 rice husk samples were digested by dry ashing for the purpose of determining the total Sr levels by ICP-OES. The mean concentrations found were: 0.281 µg g-1 for milled, 0.287 µg g-1 for parboiled milled, 0.564 µg g-1 for brown, 0.73 µg g-1 for parboiled brown, and 1.16 µg g-1 for paddy rice, and 3.44 µg g-1 for the rice husks. Validation of the method was conducted with a certified reference material, NIST CAM 8418 Wheat Gluten, and the recovery obtained ranged from 89-98%. As the outer layers (aleurone, pericarp of the grain are removed, the Sr concentration decreases. It can then be assumed that most of the Sr is stored in these layers. Although no extensive data exist for Sr levels in rice, the values obtained are in good agreement with the results reported for Sr in brown rice from Japan (0.25-0.72 µg g-1 and with non-contaminated foodstuffs from other parts of the world. Thus, the Uruguayan rice has Sr levels that match non-contaminated samples and its consumption presents no health threat.Publicado en: Atomic Spectroscopy.-- 2006, 27(3:80-85

  17. Modeling moisture movement in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

  18. Genomic resources for the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens: Transcriptome pyrosequencing and microarray design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Bass; Martin Bay Hebsgaard; Joseph Hughes

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens is a pest of cultivated rice throughout Asia and is controlled using insecticides and/or resistant rice varieties.This species has developed resistance to many classes of insecticide and biotypes have developed that are virulent against formerly resistant rice cultivars.Insects use a suite of detoxification enzymes,including cytochrome P450s,glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases to defend themselves against plant secondary metabolites and pesticides.Pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform was used to produce a substantial expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset to complement the existing Sanger sequenced ESTs in GenBank.A total of 78 959 reads were combined with the 37 392 publically available Sanger ESTs; these assembled into 8 911 contigs and 10 620 singletons.Analysis of the distribution of tentative unique genes (TUGs) with the gene ontology for biological processes and molecular functions suggests that the 454 and Sanger EST assembly is broadly representative of the N.lugens transcriptome.The brown planthopper transcriptome was found to contain 31 TUGs encoding P450s,nine encoding glutathione S-transferases and 26 encoding carboxyl/cholinesterases and many of these are putatively involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics.The Agilent eArray platform was used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray populated with probes for ~ 19 000 unigene sequences,including all those known to encode detoxification enzymes.The genomic resources developed in this study will be useful to the community studying this crop pest and will help elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying insecticide resistance and planthopper adaptation to resistant rice cultivars.

  19. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  20. [Response of yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency to nitrogen fertilizer from mechanical transplanting super japonica rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ya-Jiang; Meng, Tian-Yao; Ge, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Dai, Qi-Gen; Huo, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Five super japonica rice cultivars were grown by mechanical transplanting in field and seven N treatments with total N application rate of 0, 150, 187.5, 225, 262.5, 300 and 337.5 kg x hm(-2) respectively were adopted to study the effects of N rate on rice yield, quality and N use efficiency. The differences between N requirement for obtaining the highest yield and for achieving the best economic benefit were compared. With the increase of N fertilizer rate, the yields of five super japonica rice cultivars increased firstly and then descended, achieving the highest yield at the N level of 300 kg x hm(-2) ranging from 10.33-10.60 kg x hm(-2). Yield increase mainly attributed to the large number of spikelet, for the total spikelet number of each rice cultivar reached the maximum value at the 300 kg x hm(-2) N level. With the increase of N application, the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein content of the five super japonica rice cultivars were all increased, and the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein con- tent were higher at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 3.3%-4.2%, 2.9%-6.0%, 4.4%-33.7% and 23.8%-44.3%, respectively. While the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value of the five rice cultivars were all decreased, and the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value were lower at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 12.4%-38.9%, 10.3%-28.5% and 20.3%-29.7%, respectively. The chalkiness increased firstly and then decreased while the change of chalky rate varied with the cultivars. With the increase of N application, the N use efficiency, agronomic N use efficiency and physiological N use efficiency decreased while the N uptake of grain increased significantly. If the cost of N fertilizer was taken into account, the N fertilizer amount to obtain the optimal economic benefits would be 275.68 kg x hm(-2) with the corresponding yield of 9.97 t x hm

  1. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  2. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  3. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  4. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  5. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  6. Rice bran stabilization by improved internal and external heating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice bran stabilization was conducted by internal (microwave), external (oven drying and steam retorting) heating and non-heating (60Co irradiation) treatments to improve currently used methods. Two commercial rice varieties cultivated in Louisiana, one long grain (Lemont) and a medium grain (Nato), were milled to collect bran samples. The bran was analyzed for its proximate composition and various physical and thermal characteristics. The rice bran stabilized by four methods was packed in brown paper bags and stored in an extremely unfavorable environment (33 ± 2 degree C, 75 ± 5% relative humidity) to test the efficacy of each of the four stabilization methods. Bran treated by microwave heating was found to be very stable. At the end of the four week storage period, free fatty acids (FFA) increased only from 4.0% to 4.9% in long grain bran and 4.6% to 6.2% in medium grain bran, while in untreated bran it increased from 4.0% to 68% and 4.6% to 56.8%, respectively. Bran stabilized by microwave heating was as well as steam retorted bran in terms of FFA and better in color and nutrition. Oven dried bran was found to be unstable at high temperature and under high humidity conditions, and so was the bran stabilized by irradiation. Heat transfer efficiency analysis revealed that microwave heating is superior to either external heating methods for bran stabilization. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the initial moisture content, weight of the rice bran and microwave heating time are three important variables for the inactivation of bran peroxidase and lipase. Given the microwave heating strength constant, optimum stabilization effect was obtained with 21% initial moisture content in rice bran

  7. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  8. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic compounds in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Su; Nakamura, Kozo; Cui, Tong; Kayahara, Hiroshi

    2005-01-21

    A method has been developed for the determination of 6'-O-feruloylsucrose, 6'-O-sinapoylsucrose, ferulic acid, sinapinic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic (3-caffeoylquinic) acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid in rice. The rice samples were extracted with 70% ethanol, filtered, and defatted. The defatted aqueous solution was subjected to solid-phase extraction using a C18 silica gel cartridge; no analyte was lost in this procedure. The 70% acidic methanol elution was analyzed directly by HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS. Phenolic compounds were separated with a C18 reversed-phase column by gradient elution using 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid in purified water (A)--acetonitrile (B) (0 min, 5% B; 5 min, 9% B; 15 min, 9% B; 22 min, 11% B; and 38 min, 18% B) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. Detection limits ranged from 0.10 to 0.35 ng per injection (5 microl). Relative standard deviations of 0.22-3.95% and recoveries of 99-108% were obtained for simultaneous determination of these phenolic compounds. This method was applied to analysis of phenolic compounds in brown rice and germinated brown rice soaked in 32 degrees C water for varying durations. PMID:15700463

  10. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  11. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  12. BASIS RISK FOR RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Yoshie Saito; Turner, Steven C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a cross hedging model for rice that minimizes basis risk and accounts for the existence of the nonstationary nature of basis. Basis is treated as an endogenous variable and model for basis risk are developed.

  13. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  15. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  16. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  17. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  18. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  19. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  20. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  1. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  2. The improvement of cisantana rice variety through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous improvement for rice through breeding is necessary to obtain new varieties with good quality and quantity. Cisantana variety hairy tips could be improved by mutation breeding. Seeds of Cisantana variety was irradiated by gamma rays (60Co) at doses of 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 kGy respectively at the Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation (CAIR) - Batan, Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. There after the irradiated seeds were planted as M1 plants at the CAIR’S experiment field in the dry season of 2000. Selection was carried out at the M2 generation and stressed on early maturity and bald spike. This was done at the experiment field at Pusakanegara - Subang in the Wet season of 2001/2002. From this population 19 mutants having early maturity and bald spike lets were selected. Purification in the next generation obtained 10 mutants which were homogeneous and without segregation. From these 10 mutants two mutant lines Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ were further tested. These two mutant lines showed good productivity and adaptability when tested at several locations. The resistance test for brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight disease showed that these two mutant lines are resistant to biotype 1 and 2, and medium resistant to biotype 3 of brown plant hopper, and also resistant to strain 3 and medium resistant to strain IV of bacterial leaf blight disease. These two mutant lines have good rice quality and were gelatinous. The Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ mutant lines were released as new rice varieties by the Minister of Agriculture and officially address as Mira-1 at 2006 and Bestari at 2008, respectively. (author)

  3. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-zhen; LIU Ji-xin; YANG Sea-jun; YEA Jong-doo; LIAO Xin-hua; SU Zhen-xi; SHI Rong; JIANG Cong; DAI Lu-yuan

    2009-01-01

    The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  4. Influence of growing location and cultivar on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of rough rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK H. ARTHUR; RUSTY C. BAUTISTA; TERRENCE J. SIEBENMORGEN

    2007-01-01

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations (Hazen, MO; Essex and Newport, AR, USA), and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations (Jonesboro and Lodge Corner, AR, USA), were harvested and assayed for susceptibility to Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), the lesser grain borer, and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rice weevil, on rice held at 27℃ 57% and 75% relative humidity (RH).Separate samples from the same harvest lots were also analyzed for the physical characteristics of brown rice yield, percentage whole kernels and kernel thickness. Progeny production and feeding damage of R. dominica were significantly different among long-grain cultivars within two of the three locations (P < 0.05), but not for location or RH (P ≥ 0.05), while progeny production of S. oryzae was different among cultivars, location, and RH (P < 0.05). On medium-grain rice, both cultivar and location were significant for progeny production of R. dominica, but not RH, while cultivar and RH were significant for progeny production of S. oryzae, but not location. On both rice types, feeding damage of R. dominica followed the same trends and was always strongly positively correlated with progeny production (P < 0.05), but for S. oryzae there were several instances in which progeny production was not correlated with feeding damage (P ≥ 0.05). Physical characteristics of both rice types were statistically significant (P < 0.01) but actual numerical differences were extremely small, and were generally not correlated with progeny production of either species. Results indicate that the location in which a particular rice cultivar is grown, along with its characteristics, could affect susceptibility of the rice to R. dominica and S. oryzae.

  5. Survey of Recent Innovations in Aromatic Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Napasintuwong, Orachos

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides situations of aromatic rice demand, and international standards. The history and recent developments of traditional and evolved aromatic rice varieties, namely Basmati rice and Jasmine rice, are reviewed. The emerging aromatic rice innovations from developed countries such as the U.S. and other Asian countries generate a threat to these traditional aromatic rice producers such as India, Pakistan, and Thailand. Under WTO Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights...

  6. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  7. Promising medium duration multiple resistant rice culture CB 05 022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pushpam,S. Robin, S.Rajeswari, K. Mohanasundaram and K. Thiagarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available CB 05022, the medium duration rice culture with the parentage of CO 43/ ADT 39 was developed at Department of Rice,TNAU, Coimbatore. The culture was evaluated at station trials and it gave 21.8% increased yield over ADT (R 46. Thisculture was evaluated under AICRIP in irrigated transplanted low land ecosystem as IET 20884 for two years 2006-2008.Under IVT-IM the culture recorded a mean grain yield of 5485 kg/ha which was 21, 22% increase over the checks Jayaand Triguna respectively. Again the culture was tested under IVT-L during kharif 2009 wherein it recorded a mean grainyield of 5551 kg/ha which was 11.4% increase over Savitri. In the region wise performance, this culture ranked first inEastern region and fifth in Western region. In overall basis, it ranked second among all entries. The culture was alsotested under Disease Screening Nursery during 2009 and it showed multiple disease resistance again leaf blast, neck blastand brown spot. The culture is having good quality characteristics of intermediate amylose and GT, soft GC, high milling(70.7% and head rice recovery (60.6. The culture is now under third year of testing under AICRIP. Owing to highyielding, multiple resistance to major diseases, this culture has great scope for exploitation under our varietalimprovement programmes.

  8. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  9. Rice: The First Crop Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    Rice was the first sequenced crop genome, paving the way for the sequencing of additional and more complicated crop genomes. The impact that the genome sequence made on rice genetics and breeding research was immediate, as evidence by citations and DNA marker use. The impact on other crop genomes was evident too, particularly for those within the grass family. As we celebrate 10 years since the completion of the rice genome sequence, we look forward to new empowering tool sets that will further revolutionize research in rice genetics and breeding and result in varieties that will continue to feed a growing population. PMID:27003180

  10. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  11. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  12. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  13. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  14. Rice and Philippine Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Intal, Ponciano S.; Garcia, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Rice has been a pivotal political commodity since the Commonwealth because of its importance as a staple food and calorie source for majority of the population, especially in the low-income groups, as well as a source of employment and income to a wide range of people that comprise the demand and supply chain. As a result, food security and price stability continue as twin priority objectives of the government regimes in the Philippines. Using a political economy perspective, this paper estab...

  15. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation.

  16. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation. PMID:25903182

  17. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  18. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  19. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  20. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  1. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice. PMID:22286805

  2. Multi-mycotoxin screening reveals separate occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a in Asian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Layne, Jeff; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2015-04-01

    The determination of important regulated mycotoxins in rice has been reported previously but not in the individual matrix of white, brown, red, and basmati rice with respect to the matrix effect, recovery, and stability. A total of 190 Asian rices were examined for regulated mycotoxin contamination by the LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in the matrix effect was observed for fumonisins. Methanol improved the limits of detection (LOD) for HT-2 from 50 μg/kg to 2.3 μg/kg by promoting ionization efficiency of the ammonium-adduct. LOD and limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 18 μg/kg and 0.2-31 μg/kg, respectively. All analytes degraded by more than 50% on storage, except fumonisins. Acetic acid (1%) provided significant improvement (p < 0.05) in recovery for all analytes in selected white rice from Thailand and China. Mean recovery ranged from 70 to 120%. RSD values were lower than 15% for all analytes. Five AFB1 and single OTA positive samples were detected. No correlation between mycotoxin contamination and rice species (r = 0) exists.

  3. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Talukdar

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population and a genome wide association (GWA study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity. However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  4. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  5. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  6. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  19. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  20. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge : Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Master plan for Browns Park NWR that discusses the history, wildlife goals, recreation goals, habitat goals, recreational and operational facilities, and estimated...

  1. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  6. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  7. Inorganic arsenic in rice bran and its products are an order of magnitude higher than in bulk grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Islam, Rafiqul M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    Rice is more elevated in arsenic than all other grain crops tested to date, with whole grain (brown) rice having higher arsenic levels than polished (white). It is reported here that rice bran, both commercially purchased and specifically milled for this study, have levels of inorganic arsenic, a nonthreshold, class 1 carcinogen, reaching concentrations of approximately 1 mg/kg dry weight, around 10-20 fold higher than concentrations found in bulk grain. Although pure rice bran is used as a health food supplement, perhaps of more concern is rice bran solubles, which are marketed as a superfood and as a supplement to malnourished children in international aid programs. Five rice bran solubles products were tested, sourced from the United States and Japan, and were found to have 0.61-1.9 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. Manufactures recommend approximately 20 g servings of the rice bran solubles per day, which equates to a 0.012-0.038 mg intake of inorganic arsenic. There are no maximum concentration levels (MCLs) set for arsenic or its species in food stuffs. EU and U.S. water regulations, set at 0.01 mg/L total or inorganic arsenic, respectively, are based on the assumption that 1 L of water per day is consumed, i.e., 0.01 mg of arsenic/ day. At the manufacturers recommended rice bran solubles consumption rate, inorganic arsenic intake exceeds 0.01 mg/ day, remembering that rice bran solubles are targeted at malnourished children and that actual risk is based on mg kg(-1) day(-1) intake.

  8. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  9. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  10. Effect of N level on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice intercropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Lu, Guoli; Cu, Yiou; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zheng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Plant N nutrition plays an important role on plant metabolisms and crop diseases resistance. Intercropping can increase grain yields greatly and provide an ecological approach to disease control. Field trails of using two rice varieties with different resistance to rice blast, Huangkenuo (HKN) and Hexi-41(HX41), was carried out to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer rate on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice mono-cropping and intercroppi...

  11. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  12. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  13. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  14. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  15. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petenko A. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  16. CURRENT STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR RICE BLAST DISEASE IN THE RICE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae is a major disease affecting rice production grown in upland and wetland rice. Application of biotechnological approach to protect against the disease may be an alternative strategy to chemical control

  17. Competition Reform in the Philippine Rice Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.; Dela Pena, Beulah

    2015-01-01

    The rice sector is regulated by the National Food Authority, with imports under a statutory monopoly. Consistent with previous studies done on the rice supply chain, a rapid appraisal finds that the domestic paddy and rice supply chain is highly competitive. Entry into import business is however severely curtailed. Welfare analysis indicates that in 2013, if quantitative restrictions were eliminated and rice imports were allowed to freely enter the country, rice imports would have increased t...

  18. Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno V. Aguilar; Jr.,

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a basic question : How central is rice to the Filipino, what are its implications for understanding the way we approach and regard rice, and what do they indicate about Filipino culture? To answer this question, the paper focuses on the structural position of most Filipinos vis--vis rice. The paper argues that, at present, most Filipinos relate to rice as consumers rather than as producers of rice. From that perspective, the paper explores certain cultural practices that...

  19. Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno V. Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a basic question: How central is rice to the Filipino, what are its implications for understanding the way we approach and regard rice, and what do they indicate about Filipino culture? To answer this question, the paper focuses on the structural position of most Filipinos vis-à-vis rice. The paper argues that, at present, most Filipinos relate to rice as consumers rather than as producers of rice. From that perspective, the paper explores certain cultural practices that...

  20. Price relations between international rice markets

    OpenAIRE

    John, Adam

    2014-01-01

    International rice markets are seen as volatile due to the thin nature of the market which is believed to be exacerbated by a low level of substitution between major rice export markets. In other words, this perceived lack of price transmission amongst international rice markets is believed to further thin out an already thin world rice market. The paper tests for price transmission between five major rice exporting markets representing Asia and the Americas over the past decade. It uses a ve...

  1. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  2. Response of rice yields in Ghana: some prescriptions for future rice policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boansi, David

    2013-01-01

    With local rice production lagging well behind demand as a result of low productivity of farmers’ fields, this study analyzed the response of rice yields in Ghana to major internal and external factors which have direct and indirect effects on production and to producers. Yield of rice was found to increase with producer price of rice, irrigated area, labor availability and world price of rice to producer price of rice ratio. It however decreases with increases in harvested area and price of ...

  3. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  4. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  5. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  6. Cloning of heat shock protein genes from the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, and their expression in relation to thermal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hun Kim; Sang-Chul Lee; Do-Yeon Kwak; Kyeong-Yeoll Lee

    2008-01-01

    Three heat shock protein (HSP) genes (hsp7O, hsc70, hsp90) were partially cloned from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), which are serious pests of the rice plant. Sequence comparisons at the deduced amino acid level showed that the three HSPs of planthoppers were most homologous to corresponding HSPs of dipteran and lepidopteran species. Identities of both heat shock cognate 70 and HSP90 were higher than HSP70 in both species. Identity of the HSP70 between the two planthopper species was only 81%, a value much lower than seen among fly and moth groups. Effects of heat and cold shocks were demonstrated on expression of the three hsp genes in the two planthopper species. Heat shock (40℃) upregulated the hsp90 level but did not change the hsc70 level in either the nymph and adult stages of either species. On the other hand, the hsp70 level was only upregulated in L. striatellus. This heat shock response was prompt and lasted only for 1 h after treatment. In contrast, cold shock at 4℃did not change the expression levels of any hsp in either species.

  7. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  8. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  9. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  10. Difenoconazole Residues in Rice and Paddy System%苯醚甲环唑在水稻和稻田中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 王冬兰; 张存政; 吴长付; 刘贤进

    2011-01-01

    To determine the safety of difenoconazole in rice and paddy system, residual dynamics in rice plant, paddy water and soil, final residual levels in brown rice, rice husk, rice stem, and paddy soil were investigated in three typical rice planting areas Changsha, Changchun and Hangzhou in China.The half-lives of difenoconazole at higher dosage (112.5 g/hm2 , spraying for one time) in rice plant, paddy water, and paddy soil were 6.1-8.9 d, 5.3-6.2 d and 3.8-4.1 d, respectively in different rice planting area.Residual levels of difenoconazole in brown rice were below the limit of detection 28 d after treatment (<0.01 mg/kg) in all treatments.However, the residual levels of difenoconazole in rice culm were higher than those in brown rice and rice husk, and the final residual levels of difenoconazole in paddy soil were below the limit of detection (<0.01 mg/kg) in all treatments.Based on the actual production, difenoconazole residues in brown rice, rice culm and rice husk were safe according to the recommended dosage, times and interval.In spite of that, the use of difenoconazole should be avoided in ricefish culture model, so as to prevent side effects on aquatic organisms such as fish.%为明确苯醚甲环唑在稻田系统的使用安全性.调查了我国3个不同水稻种植区域(湖南长沙、吉林长春和浙江杭州)苯醚甲环唑在稻田系统中的残留消解动态以及在糙米、稻壳,水稻茎秆和上壤中的最终残留量.按高剂量(112.5 g/hm)施药1次后,苯醚甲环唑在不同种植区域水稻植株、稻田水和土壤中的半衰期分别为6.1~8.9 d,5.3~6.2 d和3.8~4.1 d.各试验点最终残留结果表明,施药后28 d采样时糙米中苯醚甲环唑的最终残留量均<0.01 mg/kg,水稻茎秆中含量最高,上壤中均未检出苯醚甲环唑(<0.01 mg/kg).结合牛产实际,按该试验设计的施药剂量、施药次数和采收间隔期,糙米、水稻茎秆和稻壳中苯醚甲环唑的残留量是安全的,但

  11. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  12. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum freezer respectively. The optimum ferrous sulphate added to the rice was 0.05% and the developed formulation of dried porridge consisted of ferrous sulphate rice (67.80%, chicken fillet (20%, chicken blood (3%, green shallot (0.7%, young ginger (1%, edible fern (0.5%, pepper powder (0.5%, sucrose (3%, salt (3% and monosodium glutamate (0.5%.The dried porridge had a high iron content of 10.18 mg/50 g and the shelf life was three months at room temperature when stored in either aluminum foil laminated bag or metalite bag.

  13. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  14. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  15. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  16. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  17. Functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis to eggs ofNilaparvata lugens are not affected by genetically modiifed herbicide-tolerant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-bin; LONG Li-ping; HUANG Qian; LING Yan; CHEN Yu-chong; XIAO Guo-ying; HUANG Suo-sheng; WU Bi-qiu; HUANG Feng-kuan; CAI Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    To safely and sustainably utilize genetic breeding techniques for crop production, greater understanding of the potential effects of geneticaly modiifed herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the ecological functions of predators is required. In the laboratory, we examined the functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to eggs of brown plan-thopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), which were reared on GMHT rice Bar68-1; the untransformed parental cultivar, D68; or a BPH-susceptive rice variety, Taichung Native 1. Al stages of nymphs and female adultof C. lividipennis, either on GMHT rice or control plants, exhibited typical type II functional responses when fed on BPH eggs; the attacking rate and handling time ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice Bar68-1 was not signiifcantly different from that on D68. The numerical responses ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice or controls ift Beddington’s model; there were no signiifcant differences in the parameters of numerical responses between GMHT rice Bar68-1 and D68. The results indicated that the functional and numerical responses ofC. lividipennis to BPH eggs are not affected by GMHT rice Bar68-1.

  18. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  19. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  1. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  2. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  3. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-long; ZHANG Yu-ping; ZHANG Qian-yuan; ZHU De-feng; CHEN Qi

    2011-01-01

    The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant,however,is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process.Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages.Firstly,the simulations of geometrical shape,the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted.Then,by using an improved model for bending deformation,the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated,and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created.Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures,and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures.Finally,the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved.The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective,and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  4. Facilitation of Rice Stripe Virus Accumulation in the Insect Vector by Himetobi P Virus VP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is the main vector for rice stripe virus (RSV, which causes serious rice stripe disease in East Asia. To characterize the virus-vector interactions, the SBPH cDNA library was screened with RSV ribonucleoprotein (RNP as bait using a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction between RSV-RNP and the Himetobi P virus (HiPV, an insect picorna-like virus VP1 protein was identified. The relationships between HiPV and RSV in SBPH were further investigated, and the results showed that the titer of RSV was commonly higher in single insect that exhibited more VP1 expression. After the VP1 gene was repressed by RNA silencing, the accumulation of RSV decreased significantly in the insect, whereas the virus acquisition ability of SBPH was unaffected, which suggests that HiPV VP1 potentially facilitates the accumulation of RSV in SBPH.

  5. Effects and Mechanisms of P and K Nutrients on Yield and Protein Content of Fodder Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiang-ru; YU Tie-qiao

    2002-01-01

    Effects and mechanisms of P and K nutrients on yield and protein content of Weiyou 56, a fodder hybrid rice combination, were studied through pot experiment and biochemical analysis. The results showed that the increase of P and K nutrients enhanced the activities of PEP carboxylase (PEPC), glutamine synthase (GS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in leaves, sucrose synthase (SS), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGP) and GS in grains, and the chlorophyll content in leaves, soluble sugar and starch content in grains,protein N and total N content in leaves and grains. Howerer, they decreased soluble sugar content in leaves and led to an increase of protein content in brown rice, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. Excessive P nutrients slightly reduced SPS and ADPG activity in leaves and grains respectively.

  6. A significant contribution of mutation techniques to rice breeding in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mutation techniques in rice breeding was first introduced to Indonesia in 1966 by Dr. B.H. Siwi, after his fellowship training in Sweden awarded by the IAEA. However the first mutant rice variety, Atomita 1, was not officially released until 1982, though in between several mutant lines performed very well in regional and national trials, with early maturity and high yield. The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) is the only institute in the country that has the mission of research and development on mutation techniques for plant breeding. From 1982 to 2004, there have been 14 mutant rice varieties (11 lowland, 2 upland, and 1 tidal swamp rice variety) which were officially released in Indonesia, constituting more than 10% of the total number of released rice varieties during this time period. The number of variety itself cannot totally reflect the significant contribution of mutation techniques to the improvement of rice varieties in Indonesia; more importantly, are the improved traits in the new varieties, i.e. resistance to various biotypes of plant brown hoppers, tolerance to soil stresses (salinity, acidity, and high Fe concentration), in addition to other common traits such as early maturity (earlier than parent variety up to two months) and high yielding. Mutation techniques have proven particularly useful in traditional variety improvement, because no other techniques succeeded in improving their yield, disease resistance, or maturity, while keeping their quality characters unchanged. The breeding of a new mutant line, Pandanputri, and its superior performance to its parent variety is given as an example. (author)

  7. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengjie Hu; Younan Ouyang; Longhua Wu; Libo Shen; Yongming Luo; Peter Christie

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd.In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend.Compared to arsenate,there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted,and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil.In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions.Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha.The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment.Thus,water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice.Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  8. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  9. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200mg/L), Zn (1800mg/L) and Pb (1200mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains+3mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd accumulation in

  10. Genotype × Environment Interactions for Agronomic Traits of Rice Revealed by Association Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fei-fei; TANG Fu-fu; SHAO Ya-fang; CHEN Ya-ling; TONG Chuan; BAO Jin-song

    2014-01-01

    Agronomic traits are important determinants to rice yield, which are controlled by complex genetic factors as well as genotype by environment (G × E) interaction effects. The G × E effects for agronomic traits of rice have been dissected with various approaches, but not with the current available approach, the association studies. In this study, a total of 32 655 single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to carry out associations with 14 agronomic traits among 20 rice accessions in two environments. The G × E interaction effects for all the agronomic traits were at highly significant levels (P<0.01), accounting for 3.4%-22.3% of the total sum of squares except for the length of brown rice. Twenty three putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including five previously known and several new promising associations, were identified for 10 of 14 traits. Analysis of the relationships between the traits for which QTLs and the genotype effects could be identified suggested that the higher the genotypic effect, the higher the possibility to identify QTLs for the given trait. The new QTLs detected in this study will facilitate dissection of the complex agronomic traits and may give insight into the G × E effects with association mapping.

  11. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  12. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  13. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  14. The mutation reversion of induced waxy gene of rice in Indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some induced waxy gene lines such as Nanhui 175wxR, Xianghui 288wxR, Minghui 86wxR, Shuhui 527wxR, Minghui 63wxR, II-32wxB, Longtepu wxB and D62wxB, which developed through irradiation induction of the parents of hybrid rice in indica, were selected as the materials, and the properties of endosperm of their inbred descendant brown rice were identified by visual estimation and by the method of 1% KI-I2 determination. It was the first time to discover the reversion of induced waxy mutants (waxy endosperm reversed to non-waxy ones) in rice, and the reversion frequency was between 0 to 6.34 x 10-5, with a average of 3.74 x 10-5 Genetic analysis indicated that induced waxy mutants reversion gene was dominant. Except for 1000-grain weight, no significant difference in other traits was found among the induced waxy mutants, the waxy mutants reversion and the wilds. A new core seed production and seed purity control techniques of the parents of waxy hybrid rice was also put forward in this paper. (authors)

  15. Breeding, characterization and application of a new early season indica rice variety Zhefu 910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new early season indica rice variety, Zhefu 910, was officially registered by the Municipal Crop Variety Registration Committee of Xiangtan, Hunan Province in 1999, and the Provincial Crop Variety Registration Committee of Zhejiang Province in 2000, respectively. It was bred by pedigree selection of a cross between an early season indica variety Zhefu 219 and a late season indica rice variety Chang-si-ruan-zhan. The F, dried seeds of this cross were treated with 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 300 Gy before germination. In regional yield trials Zhefu 910 gained yield increase of 5.5% - 6.4% (significant at 5% probability) and 6.9%-9.8% over control in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Biochemical analysis revealed that the crude protein content of brown rice of Zhefu 910 was as high as 13.2%. Therefore, Zhefu 910 could be also regarded as a high protein content rice variety. The main characteristics of Zhefu 910 and its cultivation techniques are described in this paper

  16. Studies of Improving the Frequency of Indica Rice Transformation by Biolistic Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the frequency of indica rice transformation by biolistic bombardment, suitable culture conditions for embryonic calli,an optimal selection scheme for resistant calli and seedlings, and optimum bombardment parameters a investigated by using 14 commercially important indica rice cultivars. The main results show that the CC medium with 36g/L mannitol is a scheme subculture medium in which the browning of indica rice calli can be mitigated significantly; The concentration of 30~40mg/L Hyg or 150~200mg/L G418 or 10~20 mg/L Basta is suitable for selection of resistant calli; The transformation parameters of 100μg gold powder absorbing 0.2μg DNA per shot and 900 psi helium pressure and 6 cm bombardment distance and bombarded twice for each plate give the best result; Keeping the target calli on osmotic medium containing 60g/L mannitol from 12 ~24h before bombardment to 24~48h after it can increase the efficiencies of transformation . Furthermore, some transgenic indica rice plants are obtained using this optimized transformation system.

  17. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins. PMID:27285791

  18. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  20. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  1. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  2. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  3. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  4. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  5. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  6. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  7. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  8. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  9. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  10. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  11. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF RICE BIOTECHNOLOGY ON OPTIMAL RICE CROP ROTATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Annou, Mamane Malam; Thomsen, Michael R.; Hansen, James M.; Wailes, Eric J.; Cramer, Gail L.

    2001-01-01

    Availability of new herbicide-resistant biotech rice varieties may affect traditional rice rotation practices to control red rice and enhance yields. This research evaluates the adoption of biotech rice and its effects on the current practice of crop rotation in the Mississippi River Delta region. The optimal utilization of biotech rice rotation is analyzed using a nonlinear mathematical programming model with mixed integers. Optimal rotation was found to be sensitive to the technology fee, r...

  13. Perspective Rice 2020:A Call For An I nternational Coordinated Effort In Rice Fu nctional Genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Zhang; Jiayang Li; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han; Xing Wang Deng

    2008-01-01

    We describe a call for an international coordinated effort in rice functional genomics in the form of a project named RICE2020.The mission of the project will be:to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020,to identify functional diversity of alleles for agriculturally useful genes from the primary gene pool of rice,and to apply the findings of functional genomics research to rice genetic improvement.

  14. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by ...

  15. Stuies on histological changing rice during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian haifeng; Houyiming; Yao huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The changing of rice endosperm cell during aging was inspected and analyzed by tissue section method in this paper, which was considered as the main causation of the descending of the eating quality of aged rice. A new effective method of improving the eating quality of aged rice was also carried out through enzymatic treatment which was based on the changing of histological structure of aged rice.

  16. The Volatility of Thai Rice Price

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Baharom; Radam, Alias; Habibullah, M.S.; Hirnissa, M.T

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the varying volatility of world rice price for the period 1961 to 2008 using monthly data. The paper provides estimates of two GARCH models, namely, GARCH and EGARCH which were used to capture the stochastic variation and asymmetries in the world rice price. The results indicate that EGARCH model gives better estimate of the volatility of world rice price. Furthermore the EGARCH model was able to describe the asymmetric volatility in the world price of rice...

  17. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  18. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri;

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  19. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  20. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  1. Farmers acquire skills in paddy rice cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Huye- A joint initiative that brings Rwanda and China to deepen technology transfer into the economy within agriculture has embarked on training rice farmers for the purposes of boosting rice production. China-Rwanda Agriculture Technology Demonstration Center (RATDC) has trained 43 rice farmers in agricultural technology as a way of helping them improve their productivity.

  2. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  3. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  4. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  5. Retative Factovs for Rice Crackle Duing Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jihuan

    2001-01-01

    The crackle of rice emerges frequently during drying from heating power. Various factors affecting rice crackle were analysed and discussed. It showed that the effective way to reduce the rice drying crackle should be proper drying temperature and speed as well as rational drying technology.

  6. Relative Factors for Rice Crackle During Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJihuan

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The crackle of rice emerges frequently during drying from heatingpower. Various factors affecting rice crackle were analysed and discussed. Itshowed that the effective way to reduce the rice drying crackle should beproper drying temperature and speed as well as rational drying technology.

  7. Origin of Weedy Rice as Revealed by Hybridizations among Cultivated Rice and its Wild Relatives%栽培稻及其近缘野生种间杂交揭示杂草稻的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红云; 陈丽娟; 熊海波; 朱骞; 石瑜敏; 王威豪; 刘百龙; 徐家星; 文建成; 李东宣

    2012-01-01

    通过水稻种间、亚种间和品种间的杂交,在套袋隔离和自然授粉两种条件下,对其杂交亲本主要农艺性状类型及杂交后代群体中杂草稻发生频率、类型及主要特征以及杂草稻的发生趋势进行调查分析,直接验证和重演杂草稻起源的主要路径.杂草稻的主要特征为:颖壳褐色或金色,种皮红色,散穗、易落粒,中长芒或无芒.结果表明,如果以近缘野生种为亲本,在其F2群体中比较容易发生类似杂草稻的单株;杂交组合中杂草稻出现频率的大小依次为:杂草稻或野生稻/粳稻(44.16%)>杂草稻或野生稻/籼稻(27.84%)>籼稻/粳稻(3.30%)>籼稻/籼稻(1.41%)>梗稻/粳稻(0).这一结果显示杂交亲本间遗传差异越大,在后代中出现杂草稻类型植株的频率就越高.套袋条件下,后代中杂草稻出现的频率为10.70%,而不套袋情况下为4.90%.%The objectives of this study are to explore the occurrence and development of weedy rice by investigating the frequency of weedy rice, which occurred in the progenies of crosses amount wild rice species, typical weedy rice,rice subspecies and cultivars. The results of this study indicated that wild and weedy rice showed brown or golden color of glum with or without awns and red pericarp, spreading type of panicles and shattering easily. A-nalysis for qualitative characteristics in F2 population suggested that the hybrid combinations with one of its parental line, which genetically nearer to its ancestry lines, would be prone to produce more weedy rice like plants. The frequencies of occurrence of weedy rice like plants in F2 population varied depending on the genetic similarities between the two parents. The more different between two parental lines are the more frequent weedy rice like plants produced. The sequence is as: weedy rice or wild rice/Japonica (44. 16%) > weedy rice or wild rice/Indica (27.84%) >Indica/Japonica (3. 30%) > Indica/Indica( 1. 41

  8. Herbivory-induced glucose transporter gene expression in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shingo; Nakamura, Yuki; Hattori, Makoto; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Noda, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) feeds on rice phloem sap, containing high amounts of sucrose as a carbon source. Nutrients such as sugars in the digestive tract are incorporated into the body cavity via transporters with substrate selectivity. Eighteen sugar transporter genes of BPH (Nlst) were reported and three transporters have been functionally characterized. However, individual characteristics of NlST members associated with sugar transport remain poorly understood. Comparative gene expression analyses using oligo-microarray and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the sugar transporter gene Nlst16 was markedly up-regulated during BPH feeding. Expression of Nlst16 was induced 2 h after BPH feeding on rice plants. Nlst16, mainly expressed in the midgut, appears to be involved in carbohydrate incorporation from the gut cavity into the hemolymph. Nlst1 (NlHT1), the most highly expressed sugar transporter gene in the midgut was not up-regulated during BPH feeding. The biochemical function of NlST16 was shown as facilitative glucose transport along gradients. Glucose uptake activity by NlST16 was higher than that of NlST1 in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. At least two NlST members are responsible for glucose uptake in the BPH midgut, suggesting that the midgut of BPH is equipped with various types of transporters having diversified manner for sugar uptake. PMID:26226652

  9. STRUCTURE AND CONDUCT OF THE WORLD RICE MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hyunsoo; Kennedy, P. Lynn; Hilbun, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the world rice market through a Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework utilizing annual data from 1970 to 2007. Since World War Two, the world rice market has been very unstable, with rice prices experiencing volatile swings in both rice price and rice availability. Therefore, a SCP framework can provide crucial insight into the world rice market for policy makers. Also, this paper describes the effects of total production, export rice price, and...

  10. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  11. Improvement of potato based cropping patterns by inclusion of short duration Mungbean and T. Aman rice in Monga prone areas of Rangpur

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Islam

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to compare the improved cropping patterns against the farmers existing potato based cropping patterns having no mungbean/brown manure crop for higher yield, economic return and income generation in agricultural field in the off period following RCBD design with three replications at farmer’s field at Paikan Gangachara, Rangpur district during September- October. The treatments (cropping patterns) were T1 = T. aman rice (BINA 7) - Potato - Mungbean (BARI mungbean...

  12. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  13. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    OpenAIRE

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological control") or manipulation of indigenous organisms (Chapter 1). Integrated pest management (IPM) combines biological control with other forms of pest control, such as cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods. However, n...

  14. Delicious, healthy dishes incorporating whole grain wheat, brown rice and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing problems with poor dietary habits, especially among the aging population. Increased fiber from foods such as whole grains are beneficial in preventing metabolic disease and in promoting health. However, products derived from whol...

  15. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains. PMID:24447030

  16. Rice bran proteins: properties and food uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J

    1996-07-01

    Rice bran, a good source of protein and fat, is at present underutilized as a food material. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 27.3 million t. The presence of enzyme lipase in rice bran causes rapid deterioration of oil to free fatty acids and glycerol. Various stabilization techniques involving heat treatment, low-temperature storage, chemical treatment, control of relative humidity during storage, and simultaneous milling and extraction were evolved to inactivate lipase. Multiple forms of rice bran lipase have been identified. Fractional classification of proteins reveals a high percentage of albumins and globulins. Proteins can be extracted from full-fat or defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and acid or heat precipitation. Extraction procedures influence the protein content of concentrates, which ranged from 19.4 to 76.1% in concentrates from full-fat rice bran and 17.5 to 85.0% in concentrates from defatted rice bran. The PER of rice bran ranges from 1.59 to 2.04 and that of protein concentrates from 1.99 to 2.19. Available lysine contents of protein concentrates ranged from 54 to 58.8%. The essential amino acid profiles of protein concentrates indicate that threonine and isoleucine are limiting amino acids. Various functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates have also been investigated that are known to be influenced by drying technique and stabilization treatment of rice bran. Rice bran has been used in food as full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, and in the form of rice bran oil and protein concentrates. Full-fat and defatted rice bran have been used in bakery products, breakfast cereals, wafers, as a protein supplement, binder ingredients for meats and sausages, and as a beverage base. Incorporation of protein concentrates have been studied in bread, beverages, confections, and weaning foods. PMID:8841730

  17. Effects of microbial xylanase on digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice coproducts fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, fiber, and GE by weanling pigs and the concentration of DE and ME in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, and broken rice is improved if microbial xylanase is added to the diet. Eighty pigs (13.6 ± 0.8 kg initial BW) were allotted to 10 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 40 pigs. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal and 4 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each of the 4 rice coproducts were formulated. The rice coproducts and corn and soybean meal were the only sources of energy in the diets. Five additional diets that were similar to the initial 5 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units of xylanase (Econase XT-25; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) were also formulated. All diets also contained 1,500 units of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue 5G; AB Vista). The DE and ME and the ATTD of DM, OM, fiber, and GE in diets and ingredients were calculated using the direct method and the difference method, respectively. Results indicated that the concentrations of DE and ME (DM basis) in FFRB and DFRB increased ( < 0.05) if xylanase was used. Broken rice had a greater ( < 0.05) concentration of DE and ME than FFRB and DFRB if no xylanase was added to the diets, but if xylanase was used, no differences in ME among FFRB, brown rice, and broken rice were observed. The ATTD of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in ingredients with xylanase than in ingredients without xylanase and there was a tendency ( = 0.067) for the ATTD of OM to be greater if xylanase was used. The ATTD of NDF in FFRB was greater ( < 0.05) when xylanase was added than if no xylanase was used, whereas the ATTD of NDF in DFRB was not affected by the addition of xylanase. In conclusion, if no xylanase was used, broken rice and brown rice have greater concentrations of DE and ME than FFRB

  18. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  19. Genetic analysis of rice allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A double haploid population derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used in this study. The inhibited effect of water-soluble extract of 123 DH pure lines leaves on the lettuce roots growth was investigated, and the QTLs analysis of rice allelopathy was carried out. Totally, four QTLs related to rice allelopathy were detected, and they were on chromosomes 3, 9, 10 and 12, respectively. The LOD scores were 3.40, 2.68. 2.75 and 3.08, respectively. Among them, additive effects of the QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 10 were 1.65 and 1.43, on chromosomes 9 and 12 were ?1.44 and ?1.58, respectively. Allelopathy characteristics of another three common rice varieties were also studied.

  20. FEASIBILITY OF EXPORT OF RICE BY BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nurun Nabi; Aziz, Abdul

    1992-01-01

    The paper has examined the feasibility of rice export as a dual trade with the import of wheat. It has indicated that the need for such a trade arises from the likely surplus of rice that might be generated in the future due to higher growth of production of rice than its consumption, and deficit of wheat from the stagnancy of production against higher growth rate of its consumption. At the current self sufficiency of rice production, the export of rice is desirable from two stand points: fir...

  1. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  2. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas. PMID:26974480

  3. Rice price instability in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mili, Jobaida Yeasmin

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, the global attention was concentrated at the food price stability because of the rapid increase in cereal and other food prices. This rapid increase of food price has become a burden for the developing countries as well as for Bangladesh where households spend a large share of their income on food. Among the cereals rice has a strategic importance because it is the central to food security and economic and political stability of the country. Fluctuation in rice prices is not rar...

  4. 低支链淀粉品种米的储藏性和食味品质评价%Storability and sensory qualities for rice with low amylose content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱硕; 川村周三; 程献丽

    2012-01-01

    Changes of physiological properties and sensory qualities for stored rice are critical to acceptance of consumers.In this research,effects of storage temperatures on the storability and sensory qualities for Yumepirika (a low amylose content rice variety) were invesgated.Storability of rough rice was superior to that of brown rice in terms of changes in free fat acidity.In low temperature storage,there were 2.9 and 15.8 mg increase in the free fat acidity for rough rice and brown rice,which indicated that brown rice was necessary to be stored in even lower temperature.Sensory test showed that brown rice in the room temperature storage had the lowest overall flovar value and stickiness value.With storage in the super-low temperature and low temperature for two years,rice vitality and sensory qualities were maintained at similar values compared to the reference sample.%储藏米的生理品质与食味品质变化程度对于消费者的认可度至关重要.本研究讨论了不同储藏温度对低直链淀粉品种米(Yumepirika)的储藏性和食味品质影响.稻谷具有比糙米更加优越的储藏性.在低温条件下储藏,稻谷脂肪酸含量增加2.9 mg,糙米脂肪酸含量增加15.8 mg,这表明低支链淀粉糙米应该在更低的温度下保存.食味试验表明室温条件下储藏的糙米具有最低黏度值和综合评价值.经过2a的储藏期,超低温储藏和低温储藏能够保持米的活力和食味品质与基准米相似的水平.

  5. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Gu; Jing Chen; Lu Chen; Zhiqin Wang; Hao Zhang; Jianchang Yang

    2015-01-01

    While the yield potential of rice has increased but little is known about the impact of breeding on grain quality, especially under different levels of N availability. In order to investigate the integrated effects of breeding and N levels on rice quality 12 japonica rice cultivars bred in the past 60 years in the Yangtze River Basin were used with three levels of N:0 kg N ha−1, 240 kg N ha−1, and 360 kg N ha−1. During the period, milling quality (brown rice percentage, milled rice percentage, and head rice percentage), appearance quality (chalky kernels percentage, chalky size, and chalkiness), and eating and cooking quality (amylose content, gel consistency, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback) were significantly improved, but the nutritive value of the grain has declined due to a reduction in protein content. Micronutrients, such as Cu, Mg, and S contents, were decreased, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Na, Ca, K, P, B contents were increased. These changes in grain quality imply that simultaneous improvements in grain yield and grain quality are possible through selection. Overall, application of N fertilizer decreased grain quality, especially in terms of eating and cooking quality. Under higher N levels, higher protein content was the main reason for deterioration of grain quality, although lower amylose content might contribute to improving starch pasting properties. These results suggest that further improvement in grain quality will depend on both breeding and cultivation practices, especially in regard to nitrogen and water management.

  6. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei; Gu; Jing; Chen; Lu; Chen; Zhiqin; Wang; Hao; Zhang; Jianchang; Yang

    2015-01-01

    While the yield potential of rice has increased but little is known about the impact of breeding on grain quality, especially under different levels of N availability. In order to investigate the integrated effects of breeding and N levels on rice quality 12 japonica rice cultivars bred in the past60 years in the Yangtze River Basin were used with three levels of N: 0 kg N ha-1, 240 kg N ha-1,and 360 kg N ha-1. During the period, milling quality(brown rice percentage, milled rice percentage, and head rice percentage), appearance quality(chalky kernels percentage, chalky size, and chalkiness), and eating and cooking quality(amylose content, gel consistency, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback) were significantly improved, but the nutritive value of the grain has declined due to a reduction in protein content. Micronutrients, such as Cu, Mg, and S contents, were decreased, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Na, Ca, K, P, B contents were increased. These changes in grain quality imply that simultaneous improvements in grain yield and grain quality are possible through selection. Overall, application of N fertilizer decreased grain quality, especially in terms of eating and cooking quality. Under higher N levels, higher protein content was the main reason for deterioration of grain quality, although lower amylose content might contribute to improving starch pasting properties. These results suggest that further improvement in grain quality will depend on both breeding and cultivation practices, especially in regard to nitrogen and water management.

  7. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  8. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  9. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  10. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  11. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  12. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  13. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  14. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  15. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  16. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, T E

    2000-06-01

    Alternative models using fish species have been tested in liver toxicity and carcinogenesis bioassays. Similar models have not been developed for skin. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) has shown potential as a model for skin carcinogenesis studies due to its sensitivity to environmental chemical pollutants. The present study is an initial morphologic and biochemical characterization of the normal and neoplastic brown bullhead skin to assess its suitability as a model of skin carcinogenesis. Brown bullhead were removed from Back River in the Chesapeake Bay region, an area historically polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Histology, histochemistry, and electron microscopy were used to stage the morphologic development and progression of neoplasia in skin. The distribution of keratin, a family of structural proteins with altered expression in mammalian tumorigenesis, was analyzed with one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose blots of extracts from normal skin. Keratin expression in skin and other organs was also assessed with immunohistochemistry using AE1, AE3, and PCK 26 antibodies, and the proliferation index in skin and neoplasms with PCNA antibody. Skin lesions appeared to progress from hyperplasia through carcinoma, and the proliferation index was increased in papilloma. Also in papilloma, intercellular interdigitations appeared increased and desmosomes decreased which may in future studies correlate with changes in expression of other molecular markers of neoplastic progression. Both Type I and Type II keratin subfamilies were detected in skin using gel electrophoresis with the complimentary keratin blot-binding assay. For further development of the brown bullhead model, future studies can compare and relate these baseline data to alterations in expression of keratin and other markers in fish neoplasms and to molecular events which occur in man. PMID:10930121

  17. The genetics analysis of rice mutant R917 with resistance to rice blast (pyricularia oryza)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice mutant R917 with resistance to rice blast was selected by induced mutation with irradiation. The F2 segregation of R917/NF6, XS11, XS861 crosses with resistance to rice blast ZB15, ZC13, ZE3 showed that the rice blast resistance is controlled by one dominant gene. The identification of the disease resistance for the progenies of R917 crosses with XS11, XS861 showed that R917 could be used as a good material for resistance to rice blast in rice breeding

  18. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  19. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  20. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  1. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  2. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  3. RiceDB: A Web-Based Integrated Database for Annotating Rice Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; SHI Qing-yun; CHEN Ming; WU Ping

    2007-01-01

    RiceDB, a web-based integrated database to annotate rice microarray in various biological contexts was developed. It is composed of eight modules. RiceMap module archives the process of Affymetrix probe sets mapping to different databases about rice, and aims to the genes represented by a microarray set by retrieving annotation information via the identifier or accession number of every database; RiceGO module indicates the association between a microarray set and gene ontology (GO) categories; RiceKO module is used to annotate a microarray set based on the KEGG biochemical pathways; RiceDO module indicates the information of domain associated with a microarray set; RiceUP module is used to obtain promoter sequences for all genes represented by a microarray set; RiceMR module lists potential microRNA which regulated the genes represented by a microarray set; RiceCD and RiceGF are used to annotate the genes represented by a microarray set in the context of chromosome distribution and rice paralogous family distribution. The results of automatic annotation are mostly consistent with manual annotation. Biological interpretation of the microarray data is quickened by the help of RiceDB.

  4. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  5. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  6. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  7. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  8. Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; LIN YongJun; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops as the staple food for more than half of the world's population.Rice improvement has achieved remarkable success in the past half-century,with the yield doubled in most parts of the world and even tripled in certain regions,which has contributed greatly to food security globally.Rapid population growth and economic development pose a constantly increased food requirement.However,rice yield has been hovering in the past decade,which is mainly caused by the absence of novel breeding technologies,reduction of genetic diversity of rice cultivars,and serious yield loss due to increasingly severe occurrences of insects,diseases,and abiotic stresses.To address these challenges,Chinese scientists proposed a novel rice breeding goal of developing Green Super Rice to improve rice varieties and realize the sustainable development of agriculture,by focusing on the following 5 classes of traits:insect and disease resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality and yield potential.As a modern breeding approach,transgenic strategy will play an important role in realizing the goal of Green Super Rice.Presently,many transgenic studies of rice have been conducted,and most of target traits are consistent with the goal of Green Super Rice.In this paper,we firstly review technical advances of rice transformation,and then outline the main progress in transgenic rice research with respect to the most important traits:insect and disease-resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality,yield potential and herbicide-tolerance.The prospects of developing transgenic rice are also discussed.

  9. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  10. International rice trade and security stocks: Prospects for an expanded Asian international rice reserve:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Childs, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the recent experience with international rice reserves in Asia and re-examines the roles of national stocks and international trade in stabilizing domestic rice prices and availability in importing countries.

  11. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-kun; HUANG Jian-li; HU Chao-xing; HOU Mao-lin

    2014-01-01

    It is predicted that the current atmospheric CO2 concentration will be doubled and global mean temperature will increase by 1.5-6°C by the end of this century. Although a number of studies have addressed the separate effects of CO2 and temperature on plant-insect interactions, few have concerned with their combined impacts. In the current study, a factorial experiment was carried out to examine the effect of a doubling CO2 concentration and a 3°C temperature increase on a complete generation of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice (Oryza sativa). Both elevated CO2 and temperature increased rice stem height and biomass of stem parts. Leaf chlorophyll content increased under elevated CO2, but only in ambient temperature treatment. Water content of stem parts was reduced under elevated temperature, but only when coupled with elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 alone increased biomass of root and elevated temperature alone enhanced leaf area and reduced ratio of root to stem parts. Brown planthopper (BPH) nymphal development was accelerated, and weight of and honeydew excretion by the F1 adults was reduced under elevated temperature only. Longevity of brachypterous females was affected by a signiifcant interaction between CO2 and temperature. At elevated temperature, CO2 had no effect on female longevity, but at ambient temperature, the females lived shorter under elevated CO2. Female fecundity was higher at elevated than at ambient temperature and higher at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. These results indicate that the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 may enhance the brown planthopper population size.

  12. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  13. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  14. A generalized three-dimensional Hoek-Brown strength criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Hoek-Brown strength criterion has been widely used in rock mechanics and rock engineering, it does not take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. Much evidence, however, has been accumulating to indicate that the intermediate principal stress does influence the rock strength in many instances. Therefore, researchers have developed three-dimensional (3D) versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. In this paper, three existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are reviewed and evaluated. The evaluation shows that all of the three 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion have limitations. To address the limitations, a generalized 3D Hoek-Brown criterion is proposed by modifying the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. The proposed 3D criterion not only inherits the advantages of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion but can take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. At a 2D stress state (triaxial or biaxial), the proposed 3D criterion will simply reduce to the form of the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. To validate the proposed 3D strength criterion, polyaxial or true triaxial compression test data of intact rocks and jointed rock masses has been collected from the published literature. Predictions of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion are in good agreement with the test data for a range of different rock types. The difference of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion from and its advantages over the existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are also discussed. It should be noted that the proposed 3D criterion is empirical in nature because it is an extension of the 2D Hoek-Brown strength criterion, which is empirical. Because of the non-convexity of the yield surface for a biaxial stress state, the proposed 3D criterion may have problems with some stress paths.

  15. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  16. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  18. Partial Reform of World Rice Trade: Implications for the U.S. Rice Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences for the United States of a partial reform of world rice trade. It is argued that likely trade reform would occur in the japonica rice producing countries of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the European Community. Multilateral rice trade liberalization would have strong effects for medium grain rice in the United States. The strength of these effects might not be felt for a couple of years after the liberalization has begun because of minimal Japanese impor...

  19. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, A.; Gore, J; Musser, F.; Cook, D; Catchot, A.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities ...

  20. Commercialization of transgenic rice in China: potential environmental biosafety issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Rong Lu; Qiang Fu; Zhicheng Shen

    2008-01-01

    The development and commercialization of transgenic rice with novel traits in China may offer more opportunities for promoting rice productivity. Owing to the significance of rice as a major food crop in China, the enhancement of rice production is important for national food security. If left unaddressed, the potential biosafety concerns over the extensive release and commercial cultivation of transgenic rice may hamper the development and application of this technology in rice improvement. ...