WorldWideScience

Sample records for brown rice

  1. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  2. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  3. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY... Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown...

  4. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  5. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  6. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  7. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  8. Occurrence of aflatoxins contamination in brown rice from pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas A...

  9. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  10. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  11. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 μg/kg and 0.52–2.62 μg/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 μg/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 μg/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 μg/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 μg/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 μg/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 μg/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  12. Effect of flour-blasting of brown rice on reduction of cooking time and resulting texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long grain non-parboiled, long grain parboiled, and American basmati-type brown rice were bombarded with parboiled rice flour sufficient to create microperforations in the water-resistant outer coat of the seed. These microperforations in the treated rice significantly increased the rate of hydratio...

  13. Transgenic rice homozygous lines expressing GNA showed enhanced resistance to rice brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mature seed-derived calli from two elite Chinese japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Eyi 105 and Ewan 5 were co-transformed with two plasmids, pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1, containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment. 61 independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 329 bombarded calli. 79% transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that 36 out of 48 gna-containing transgenic plants expressed GNA (75 %) at various levels with the highest expression being approximately 0.5% of total soluble protein. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From the R2 generations whose R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation patterns,we identified five independent homozygous lines containing and expressing all the three transgenes. Insect bioassay and feeding tests showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) by decreasing BPH survival and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.These BPH-resistant lines have been incorporated into rice insect resistance breeding program. This is the first report that homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing GNA, developed by genetic transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection, conferred enhanced resistance to BPH, one of the most damaging insect pests in rice.

  14. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql (EPA); (Bangladesh); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  15. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    1998-08-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  16. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer.

  17. Improvement in shelf life of rough and brown rice using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IR heating and tempering treatments on storage stability of rough and brown rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium grain rice variety M206 with initial moisture content of 25.03±0.21% (d.b.) were used. They were dried using infrared (IR...

  18. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  19. Study on the Relationship between the Moisture Content of Brown Rice and Milling Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Shigang; JIA Fuguo; NAN Jingfu

    2006-01-01

    An experiment about rice milling was made to study on the relationship between the different moisture content of brown rice and the energy consumption, the broken rice rate, the crack rate and the head rice yield. It could be concluded that the head rice yield increased at first falls and then along with the raise of moisture content and it could reach the maximum 70.78% when moisture content was 15.5%; the energy consumption of rice milling decreased along with the increase of moisture contents; the broken rice rate fell at first and then increased along with the raise of moisture contents and it could reach the minimum 4.28% when the moisture content was 15.5%.

  20. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  1. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (pbatter.

  2. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  3. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  4. Analysis of Heterosis, Combining Ability and Heritability of Cadmium Content in Brown Rice of Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were used as parents in an incomplete diallet cross and six restorer lines of rice design (Nc II design). Thirty hybrid combinations with the same growth period were selected as experimental ma- terials to investigate the heterosis, combined ability and heredity of Cd content in brown rice of indica hybrid rice. According to the results, Cd content in brown rice showed a significantly negative heterosis; the general combining ability and specific combination ability of Cd content in CMS and restorer lines both reached extremely significant level (P〈0.01), indicating that both genetic improvement of parents and e- valuation of combinations are important to the breeding of hybrid combinations with low accumulation of Cd; the broad-sense heritabitity and narrow-sense heritability of Cd content were both relatively high with slight differences, which respectively reached 97.73% and 80.10%, indicating that Cd content in brown rice mainly de- pends on the additive action of genes; in addition, parent improvement showed bet- ter effect on the selection of early generation.

  5. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition.

  6. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Characterizing and Estimating Fungal Disease Severity of Rice Brown Spot with Hyperspectral Reflectance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-yu; HUANG Jing-feng; TAO Rong-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale farming of agriculture crops requires real-time detection of disease for field pest management.Hyperspectral remote sensing data generally have high spectral resolution, which could be very useful for detecting disease stress in green vegetation at the leaf and canopy levels. In this study, hyperspectral reflectances of rice in the laboratory and field were measured to characterize the spectral regions and wavebands, which were the most sensitive to rice brown spot infected by Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann). Leaf reflectance increased at the ranges of 450 to 500 nm and 630 to 680 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface, and decreased at the ranges of 520 to 580 nm, 760 to 790 nm, 1550 to 1750 nm, and 2080 to 2350 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface respectively. The sensitivity analysis and derivative technique were used to select the sensitive wavebands for the detection of rice brown spot infected by B. oryzae. Ratios of rice leaf reflectance were evaluated as indicators of brown spot. R669/R746 (the reflectance at 669 nm divided by the reflectance at 746 nm, the following ratios may be deduced by analogy), R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732, R535/R746, R521/R718, and R569/R718 increased significantly as the incidence of rice brown spot increased regardless of whether it's at the leaf or canopy level. R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732 were the best three ratios for estimating the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf and canopy levels. This result not only confirms the capability of hyperspectral remote sensing data in characterizing crop disease for precision pest management in the real world, but also testifies that the ratios of crop reflectance is a useful method to estimate crop disease severity.

  8. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in Thailand by consumption of brown and color rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panrapee, Iamtaweejaroen; Phakpoom, Kooprasertying; Thanapoom, Maneeboon; Nampeung, Anukul; Warapa, Mahakarnchanakul

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intake of the Thai population through consumption of contaminated brown and color rice. A total of 240 rice samples from two harvesting periods were collected in June/July 2012 (period I) and in December 2012/January 2013 (period II) and analyzed for AFB1 by HPLC with fluorescence detection (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.093 ng/g). Exposure assessment was based on AFB1 levels in rice and food intake data for rice according to Thai National Consumption. Frequency and levels of AFB1 were higher in period I (59%, quality and safety of Thai rice largely comply with the requirement for both exports and domestic consumption. According to the Thai National Consumption data, the estimated AFB1 intake via rice consumption in period I and period II was 0.80 and 0.12 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The potential risk for cancer, based on the recommendation of the JECFA, was estimated to be 0.011 person/year/100,000 people at a mean consumption. Although the risk via consumption of Thai rice seems to be low, the maximum levels of AFB1 in this staple food suggest that careful monitoring and surveillance of AFB1 contamination in rice is essential to ensure the safety of rice.

  9. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Brown Rice for Iron and Zinc Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendragouda Patil., Diwan J. R ., Nidagundi J. M., Lokesha R., Ravi. V, Boranayak M. B and Dikshith S

    2015-01-01

    Biofirtification is one of the sustainable approaches for improving the F2 and Zn content and their bioavailability in rice grain. Screening germplasm for Fe and Zn content is the initial step of biofortificaton. Sixty accessions of rice genotypes for Fe and Zn concentration. Iron concentration ranged from 3.38 ppm to 36.99 ppm and zinc from 3.32 ppm to 42.49 ppm. Genotypes having high Fe and Zn content are selected for further breeding programme.

  12. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  13. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Ning

    Full Text Available It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae, including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  14. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangrong; Chen, Mulong; Bi, Xiangyang; He, Yusheng; Ren, Limin; Xiang, Wu; Qiao, Shengying; Yan, Sen; Li, Zhonggen; Ma, Zhendong

    2011-07-01

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As(i) in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations.

  15. Effect of different germination conditions on antioxidative properties and bioactive compounds of germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, You-Tung; Pao, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Shwu-Tzy; Chang, Chi-Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR). We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.), Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9) and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10), as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C), long soaking time (72 h), darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR). We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol). Higher temperature (36°C) is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives.

  16. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Elham; Sadravi, Mehdi; Naeimi, Shahram; Khosravi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  17. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  18. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  19. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S. VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K. L. HEONG; HU Cui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages,and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determined in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the increase of nitrogen content in rice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer.

  20. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  1. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  2. Production of optically pure D-lactic acid from brown rice using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Hama, Shinji; Kihara, Maki; Noda, Hideo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of D-lactic acid was performed using brown rice as both a substrate and a nutrient source. An engineered Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain, in which the ʟ-lactate dehydrogenase gene was disrupted, produced 97.7 g/L D-lactic acid from 20% (w/v) brown rice without any nutrient supplementation. However, a significant amount of glucose remained unconsumed and the yield of lactic acid was as low as 0.75 (g/g-glucose contained in brown rice). Interestingly, the glucose consumption was significantly improved by adapting L. plantarum cells to the low-pH condition during the early stage of SSF (8-17 h). As a result, 117.1 g/L D-lactic acid was produced with a high yield of 0.93 and an optical purity of 99.6% after 144 h of fermentation. SSF experiments were repeatedly performed for ten times and D-lactic acid was stably produced using recycled cells (118.4-129.8 g/L). On average, D-lactic acid was produced with a volumetric productivity of 2.18 g/L/h over 48 h.

  3. Computer Vision for Screening Resistance Level of Rice Varieties to Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nurfadhilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper is one of the most important insect pest that threatens the stability of national rice production in Indonesia. One of the efforts to save rice production is by using brown planthopper resistant variety. Currently the determination approach is still conventional based on Standard Seedboxes Screening Test from IRRI with assistance of experienced experts in the scoring process resistance level.In this study, a prototype of application system to predict resistance levels by image color approach was developed. The method consists of collecting images data, preparation process (background and objects segmentation, and determination of area proportion which has been infected (sick and dead and healthy, based on ‘A’ value from CIELab color space laboratory. According to proportion value distribution, the rule of rice resistance to brown planthopper assessment based on image was developed. The rule is mostly similar with IRRI standard rules. All of images were assessed based on the rule and then the model was developed with an error rate of 17.02%.

  4. 糙米豆奶的研制%Preparation of brown rice soybean milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 高航

    2014-01-01

    以大豆、酶解糙米粉为原料,探讨了糙米豆奶的制备工艺条件。通过正交试验确定了糙米豆奶产品配方及乳化稳定剂的复配方案。结果表明,糙米豆奶最适配料为大豆9.0%、酶解糙米粉3.0%、白砂糖6.0%、棕榈油1.5%,糙米豆奶最佳稳定剂为微晶纤维素0.3%、卡拉胶0.013%、聚甘油脂肪酸酯0.10%、磷脂0.10%。%Soybean and enzymatic hydrolysis of brown rice powder were used as raw material. The manufacture process conditions of brown rice soybean milk were discussed. By orthogonal experimental study, the product formulations and emulsion stabilizers were determined. They were as follows:soybean was 9.0%, enzymatic hydrolysis of brown rice powder was 3.0%, white sugar was 6.0%, palm oil was 1.5%, microcrystalline cellulose was 0.3%, carrageen was 0.013%, polyglyc-erol fatty acid ester was 0.10%, and phospholipids was 0.10%.

  5. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuZhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YuXiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HuCui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determincd in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research institute (1RRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the in crease of nitrogen content inrice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury, of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility' to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer

  6. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  7. Physical mapping of Bph3, a brown planthopper resistance locus in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapong Jairin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, a destructive phloem feeding insect pest, is an important objective in rice breeding programs in Thailand. The broad-spectrum resistance gene Bph3 is one of the major BPH resistance genes identified so far in cultivated rice and has been widely used in rice improvement programs. This resistance gene has been identified and mapped on the short arm of chromosome 6. In this study, physical mapping of Bph3 was performed using a BC3F3 population derived from a cross between Rathu Heenati and KDML105. Recombinant BC3F3 individuals with the Bph3 genotype were determined by phenotypic evaluation using modified mass tiller screening at the vegetative stage of rice plants. The recombination events surrounding the Bph3 locus were used to identify the co-segregate markers. According to the genome sequence of Nipponbare, the Bph3 locus was finally localized approximately in a 190 kb interval flanked by markers RM19291 and RM8072, which contain twenty-two putative genes. Additional phenotypic experiment revealed that the resistance in Rathu Heenati was decreased by increasing nitrogen content in rice plants through remobilization of nitrogen. This phenomenon should be helpful for identifying the Bph3 gene.

  8. Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bao-hua; YANG Yang; SHI Yong-feng; LIN Lu; CHEN Jie; WEI Yan-lin; Hei LEUNG

    2013-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)induced IR64 mutant bank.The mutant,designated as Ibsl1 (light brown spotted-leaf 1),displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions.Agronomic traits including plant height,growth duration,number of filled grains per panicle,seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected.Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene,tentatively named Ibsl1(t),which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6.By developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers,the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588.The Ibsl1(t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identified near the chromosomal region.The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.

  9. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae) using some phenolic antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Y.M.; Abdel-Fattah, G.M.; Ismail, A.E.; Rashad, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone). The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains. PMID:24031243

  10. Effect of zinc sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed zinc concentration, bioavailability, and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Wang, Yuyan; Lu, Lingli; Wu, Chunyong; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-02-22

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population and, hence, the main source of a vital micronutrient, zinc (Zn). Unfortunately, the bioavailability of Zn from rice is very low not only due to low content but also due to the presence of some antinutrients such as phytic acid. We investigated the effect of germination and Zn fortification treatment on Zn bioavailability of brown rice from three widely grown cultivars using the Caco-2 cell model to find a suitable fortification level for producing germinated brown rice. The results of this study showed that Zn content in brown rice increased significantly (p 0.05) on germination percentage of rice was observed when the Zn supply was lower than 150 mg/L. Zn fortification during the germination process has a significant impact on the Zn content and finally Zn bioavailability. These findings may result from the lower molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and higher Zn content in Zn fortified germinated brown rice, leading to more bioavailable Zn. Likewise, a significant difference (p world population, we recommend germinated brown rice fortified with 100 mg/L ZnSO(4) as a suitable concentration to use in the germination process, which contains high Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability. In the current study, the cultivar Bing91185 fortified with Zn through the germination process contained a high amount as well as bioavailable Zn, which was identified as the most promising cultivar for further evaluation to determine its efficiency as an improved source of Zn for target populations.

  11. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  12. Bacterial Community in Different Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; WANG Xin; YE Gong-yin; LU Zhong-xian

    2014-01-01

    The structures of bacterial communities in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) from different geographic and resistant virulent populations were analyzed by using denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that the bacterial communities in BPH nymph from the first to the fifth instars varied with nymphal growth and development. The bacterial communities in the first-instar BPH nymph were similar to those in adults. Nine geographic BPH populations were divided into three groups based on the cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprint. The first group was from the Philippines;the second group was from Thailand and Hainan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces of China; and the third group was from Vietnam and Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces of China. BPH populations adapted to different resistant rice varieties. The BPH populations from Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) differed with those of the susceptible rice variety TN1.

  13. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (Pmedida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  14. Cloning and characterization of rice RH3 gene induced by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolan; WENG Qingmei; YOU Aiqing; ZHU Lili; HE Guangcun

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have showed that the histone H3 gene is correlated with development, cell speciality and stress response. The RH3 full-length cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library of rice infested by brown planthopper (BPH) with EST (Accession no. BU572343) screened from rice SSH library as probe. This gene encodes histone H3 protein including 136 amino acids, with one amino acid different from a kind of disease resistance-related protein in rice (AF467728). At the position 126, the aspartic acid is replaced by lysine. The time course results showed that the expression of the RH3 began to increase at 8 h after BPH-feeding, and got to its peak at 96 h. Regulations of the gene expression in treatments with stress/defense signal molecules were analyzed by Northern blot. Water deficit and Pyricularia grisea increased the expression of RH3 while ABA down-regulated the gene. The enhanced accumulation of RH3 transcripts in the vascular bundle and short cell of stem after BPH feeding was revealed by RNA in situ hybridization. It is the first time to report that RH3 is correlated with the response of rice to BPH.

  15. Developmental Analysis of Genetic Behavior of Brown Rice Width in indica-japonica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; SHI Chun-hai; YE Shen-hai; QI Yong-bin

    2006-01-01

    The developmental genetic behaviors of brown rice width (BRW) have been studied in indica-japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), in which seven indica male sterile lines and five japonica restorer lines were applied, by using the developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid in cereal crops. The BRW of indica-japonica hybrid rice was co-determined by gene expression of triploid endosperm, cytoplasm, diploid maternal plant and their genotype ×environmental interaction effects. Unconditional analysis showed that the endosperm additive and maternal additive effects were predominant for the development of BRW from early- to late-stage of the grain development, but the endosperm dominant effect together with maternal effect and cytoplasmic effect became the major factor determing the BRW at the ripening stage. Moreover,conditional analysis found that there were new onset and offset of gene expression at different developmental stages of BRW in indica-japonica hybrid rice. Maternal and cytoplasm general heritabilities and their interaction heritabilities were more important compared to other components of heritability for BRW at all the five developmental stages.

  16. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  17. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  18. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  19. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is a serious pest of rice (Oryza sativa L. in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid (SA synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation (hpi increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid (JA synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase (POD, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  20. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canxing; Duan; Jiaojiao; Yu; Jianyu; Bai; Zhendong; Zhu; Xiaoming; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The small brown planthopper(SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén(Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice(Oryza sativa L.) in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid(SA) synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation(hpi) increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid(JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase(POD), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  1. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  3. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  4. Pyramiding blast, bacterial blight and brown planthopper resistance genes in rice restorer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhi-juan; Yang Shu-dong; ZENG Yu-xiang; LIANG Yan; YANG Chang-deng; QIAN Qian

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast, bacterial blight (BB) and brown planthopper (BPH) are the three main pests of rice. This study investigated pyr-amiding genes resistant to blast, BB and BPH to develop restorer lines. Ten new lines with blast, BB and/or BPH resistance genes were developed using marker-assisted selection (MAS) technique and agronomic trait selection (ATS) method. Only HR13 with resistance genes to blast, BB and BPH was obtained. In addition to blast and BB resistance, four lines (HR39, HR41, HR42, HR43) demonstrated moderate resistance to BPH, but MAS for BPH resistance genes were not conducted in developing these four lines. These data suggested that there were unknown elite BPH resistance genes in the Zhongzu 14 donor parent. A more effective defense was demonstrated in the lines withPi1 andPi2 genes although the weather in 2012 was favorable to disease incidence. Blast resistance of the lines with a single resistance gene,Pita, was easily inlfuenced by the weather. Overal, the information obtained through pyramiding multiple resistance genes on developing the restorer lines is helpful for rice resistance breeding.

  5. Identification of rice cultivars with low brown rice mixed cadmium and lead contents and their interactions with the micronutrients iron,zinc, nickel and manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Xun Wang; Xiaoli Qi; Lu Huang; Zhihong Ye

    2012-01-01

    Paddy fields in mining areas are usually co-contaminated by a cocktail of mixed toxic heavy metals (e.g.,Cd and Pb in Pb/Zn mines).However,previous studies on rice cultivars screened for effective metal exclusion have mostly focused on individual metals,and have been conducted under pot-trial or hydroponic solution conditions.This study identified rice cultivars with both low Cd and Pb accumulation under Cd- and Pb-contaminated field conditions,and the interactions of the toxic elements Cd and Pb with the micronutrient elements Fe,Zn,Mn and Ni were also studied.Among 32 rice cultivars tested,there were significant differences in Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg) and Pb (0.25-3.15 mg/kg) levels in their brown rice,and similar results were also found for the micronutrient elements.Significant decreases in concentrations of Fe and Mn were detected with increasing Cd concentrations and a significant elevation in Fe,Mn and Ni with increasing Pb concentrations.A similar result was also shown by Cd and Ni.Three cultivars were identified with a combination of low brown rice Cd and Pb,high micronutrient and grain yield (Wufengyou 2168,Tianyou 196 and Guinongzhan).Present results suggest that it is possible to breed rice cultivars with low mixed toxic element (Cd,Pb) and high micronutrient contents along with high grain yields,thus ensuring food safety and quality.

  6. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Dong Bin, E-mail: dongbin@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shang Lihai, E-mail: shanglihai@vip.gyig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yin Runsheng, E-mail: yinrunsheng2002@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yuan Xiaobo, E-mail: xiantao_131@163.com [College of Resources and the Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, total Hg (Hg{sub T}) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of Hg{sub T} (water-saving: 3.3 {+-} 1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110 {+-} 9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3 {+-} 0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12 {+-} 2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg contents (Hg{sub T}: r{sup 2} = 0.97, MeHg: r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of Hg{sub T} and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p < 0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p > 0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II). - Highlights: > First time that Hg{sub T} and MeHg were characterized in both brown and white rice. > MeHg translocation into the endosperm was more efficient than inorganic Hg(II). > In this respect, MeHg behaved like dimethylarsinic acid and organic Se species. > In white rice, Hg{sub T} and MeHg were positively correlated with soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg. > Uptake rates of Hg{sub T} and MeHg were independent of irrigation methods and Hg content. - Methylmercury was more efficiently translocated to the endosperm than inorganic mercury.

  7. Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaphachoat, Parawee; Wei, Bi-Yin; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Wang, I-Wen; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Yu, Su-May; Yen, Ming-Liang; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu

    2012-04-01

    A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth, low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library. This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes, TDC-1 and TDC-3, were activated. Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine, which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5' hydroxylase (T5H) in rice plants. Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth, darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286. The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer, but not tryptamine. These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth, low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin, which when converted to serotonin dimer, leads to a dark brown plant color.

  8. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  10. Serum vitamin B12 levels in young vegans who eat brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H

    1995-12-01

    A nutritional analysis was conducted on the dietary intake of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet including brown rice for from 4 to 10 years, and on that of an age-matched control group. In addition, their serum vitamin B12 levels and other data (red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) were determined in the laboratory. In vegans' diets, 2-4 g of nori (dried laver), which contained B12, were consumed daily. Not a single case of symptoms due to B12 deficiency was found. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the examination data, including B12 levels (p vegans from suffering B12 deficiency.

  11. 发芽糙米干燥工艺研究%Study on Drying Technique for Germinated Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉东; 唐淑芬; 姚妙爱; 张红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]得到发芽糙米干燥的最佳工艺.[方法]以稻谷为原料制得发芽糙米,采用普通热风干燥与微波干燥2种不同的干燥方式,普通热风干燥设置55、65和75℃,微波干燥设置低火、中火和高火,对发芽后的糙米进行干燥,记录发芽糙米达到安全储藏水分的时间.然后对达到安全储藏水分的发芽糙米进行加工性能、感观质量和营养成分的研究.[结果]微波干燥时中火干燥4 min与普通热风干燥65℃干燥1.5h都能达到发芽糙米的安全储藏水分,同时发芽糙米的加工性能、感官及营养品质较好.[结论]微波干燥中火干燥4min为发芽糙米的最佳干燥工艺条件,其次是普通热风干燥65℃干燥1.5h.%[Objective] The aim was to obtain the best drying technology of germinated brown rice. [ Method] Rice was taken as the raw material to make germinated brown rice, and using two different drying methods of common hot-air drying and microwave drying. Drying of germinated brown rice at three different temperatures of 55 , 65 and 75 ℃ for common hot-air drying, low temperature, moderate temperature and high temperature for microwave drying, after that we recorded the time to safety storage moisture. Then we studied on germinated brown rice of processing performance, sensory quality and nutrition ingredient. [ Result] When the processing performance, sensory quality and nutrition ingredient of the germinated brown rice was optimum, the microwave drying time was 4 min and the common hot-air drying was 1.5 h at 65 ℃.[ Conclusion] Thus microwave drying temperature drying at 4 min was the best condition of germinated brown rice, followed by ordinary drying at 65 ℃ for 1.5 h.

  12. Optimization with two enzymes for the technology process parameters of rice milkmixed beverage prepared with broken rice and brown rice%双酶法优化复合碎米-糙米乳饮料工艺条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单斌; 朱建华; 全小丽; 刘惠贞

    2011-01-01

    以碎米和糙米为原料,采用双酶法对米乳饮料生产的工艺条件进行了研究,并优化了生产配方.结果表明,米汁生产的最佳工艺条件为烘烤温度180℃,烘烤时间碎米20min,糙米25min;按碎米∶水=1∶6(m∶V)、糙米∶水=1∶8(m∶V)加水糊化;碎米汁加高温α-淀粉酶14U/g,糙米汁加酶20U/g,液化酶解,时间均为1h;米浆经离心、过滤后,取上清波,加入β-淀粉酶14U/mL,酶解20min.确定调配型米乳饮料的最佳配方:加水量30%(V∶V),碎米汁∶糙米汁为3∶2,阿拉伯胶0.3%(m∶V),奶粉0.5%(m∶V).所得之米乳饮料在60℃,50MPa下均质1次,稳定性最佳.%The influences were studied of the technological process conditions to rice milk beverage made with broken rice and brown rice. The results showed that optimum technological conditions of rice juice were as follows: roasting temperature 180 t , broken rice roasting time 20 min and brown rice roasting time 25 mint the ratio of broken rice to water 1 ' 6 . Ratio of brown rice to water 1 ' 8. The additive amount of bacteria a-amylase to broken and brown gelatinized rice 14 U/g and 20 U/g respectively. Both of the enzymatic hydrolysis were 1 h. The additive amount of p-amylase into the supernatant was 14 U/ml. And the enzymolysis was at 20 min. The optimal formula of rice milk beverage was determined: the additive a-mount of water 30% (V : V), the ratio of broken rice juice to brown rice juice 3 ? 2, gum arabic 0. 3% (m : V), milk powder 0. 5% (m : V). The beverage was of better stability under the condition ofonce homogenization at 50 Mpa, 60 ℃

  13. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedick, Nicole M; Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Malik, Vasanti S; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. This article describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25-65 y with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) and habitual rice consumption ≥200 g/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere.

  14. Determination of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice straw, rice husk, brown rice and soil using liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry following extraction with QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhurui; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Chen, Jiaojiao; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Kankan; Hu, Deyu

    2016-10-01

    A fast and simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in soil, rice straw, rice husk and brown rice. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was used for extraction, and liquid chromatography with tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for quantification. The matrix-matched calibration plots were linear in the range between 25 and 5000 μg/L for soil, rice straw, rice husk and brown rice samples. All determination coefficients (R(2) ) were ≥0.9962. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.5 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries at three fortification levels ranged between 79.5 and 97.9% with relative standard deviations <11%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of dissipation study samples. For field experiments, the half-lives of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice straw were 11.93 and 5.83 days, respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable for the routine monitoring of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mapping of two new brown planthopper resistance genes from wild rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A brown planthopper (BPH) resistance line, B5, derived its resistance genes from the wild rice Oryza officinalis Wall exwatt, was hybridized with Taichung Native 1, a cultivar highly susceptible to BPH. A mapping population composed of randomly selected 167 F2 individuals was used for determining the BPH resistance genes by the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). Bulked segregant analysis was conducted to identify RFLP makers linked to the BPH resistance genes in B5. The results indicat-ed that the markers linked to BPH resistance are located at two genomic regions on the long arm of chromosome 3 and the short arm of chromosome 4, respectively. The existence of the two loci was further assessed by the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We located the two loci at a 3.2 cM interval between G1318 and R1925 on chromosome 3 and a 1.2 cM interval between C820 and S11182 on chromosome 4. Comparison with the BPH genes that have been reported indicated that the BPH resistance genes in B5 are novel. These two genes may be useful BPH resistance resource for rice breeding. Furthermore, the mapping of the two genes is useful for cloning the BPH resistance genes.

  16. Research on Antioxidant Activity of Brown Rice Ferment Extract%糙米酵素提取物抗氧化活性作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景松; 姜忠丽

    2015-01-01

    在发芽糙米中加入峰蜜,利用酵母发酵制备成糙米酵素,并对糙米酵素提取物的抗氧化活性进行研究。结果表明:糙米酵素提取物清除DPPH自由基、清除超氧阴离子及羟基自由基的能力较强,与常用抗氧化剂BHT相差不大。%In the article, it expounded the method of adding honey in germinated brown rice, used yeast fermentation to produce brown rice ferment, and studied antioxidant activity of brown rice ferment extract. The result showed that the clearance ability of brown rice ferment extract to DPPH free radical, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical is very strong and no big difference comparing to ordinary antioxidant BHT.

  17. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  18. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  19. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products.

  20. Analysis of Antioxidant Activity of Chinese Brown Rice by Fourier-Transformed Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshu Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a rapid method using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy for analyzing the antioxidant activity of brown rice as total phenol content (TPC and radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE. Brown rice (n=121 collected from five producing areas was analyzed for TPC and DPPH by reference methods. The NIR reflectance spectra were measured with compact powders of samples and no treatment was used. Full-spectrum partial least squares (FS-PLS and interval PLS (iPLS were used as the regression methods to relate the antioxidant activity values to the NIR data. The spectral range of 4800–5600 cm−1 plus 6000–6400 cm−1 has the best correlation with TPC, while the range of 4400–5200 cm−1 plus 6000–6400 cm−1 is the most suitable for predicting DPPH. With standard normal variate (SNV transformation and the selected wavelength ranges, the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP is 0.062 mg GAE g−1 for TPC and 0.141 mg GAE g−1 for DPPH radical, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficients of predictions for TPC and DPPH are 0.962 and 0.974, respectively. The developed NIR method might have a potential application to quality control of brown rice in the domestic market.

  1. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  2. Performance of Fatty Liver Development in Response to Brown Rice and Corn-Based Diets in Overfed Landes Geese(Anser anser)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; ZHOU Qi; HE Rui-guo; WANG Yu-lian; SUN Yun-zi; ZHOU Ying; YANG Zheng-mei; ZHANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The effect of brown rice and corn-based diets on fatty liver weight, carcass traits, lipids accumulation and liver composition of Landes geese (Anser anser) after feeding the same amount of each diet was investigated. After 2 weeks overfeeding,besides body weight and body weight gain increased significantly, the fatty liver weights were increased dramatically from 94.67 to 554.67 and 754.00 g in corn treatment and rice treatment, respectively, and the accumulation lipids in adipose tissues reached up to or close to 2 folds of initial weight in both treatments. Liver weight was greater in brown rice group than in corn group(P<0.05). Compared to before overfeeding, triacylglycerols (TG) in geese fatty liver increased dramatically and predominated (from 9.08% to close to or more than 90% of hepatic lipids), whereas phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) decreased sharply in both treatments (P<0.05). However, the percentages of lipids, TG and PL in fatty liver were higher in brown rice treatment than in corn treatment, and that of CE was lower (P<0.05). It indicates that overfeeding chiefly results in lipids accumulation in goose fatty liver and adipose tiss ues. Brown rice-based diet induces greater fatty liver, and brown rice is one of high quality overfeeding ingredients instead of corn.

  3. 糙米储藏技术研究进展%Progress on brown rice storage technology research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建; 马海乐; 闫景坤

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of four storage methods for brown rice: normal temperature storage, low temperature storage, controlled atmosphere storage and fresh-keeping packaging. It highlights the progress on low temperature storage technology research by aspects of principle,realization method and low temperature warehouse design. It was considered that: ( I ) rice production areas should select suitable storage method for brown rice based on local climate characteristics and subsequent use; ( ii ) combined paddy rice and brown rice storage method should be confered for the high temperature and high humidity areas for energy consumption reduction and quality improvement; ( iii ) the design of low temperature warehouse and storage methodology should be optimized by further theoretical and experimental research and reduce storage costs; ( iV ) the nutritional value of brown rice should be propagandized.%概述了糙米的常温储藏、低温储藏、气调储藏和保鲜新技术等四种储藏方法,重点从低温储粮原理、实现方法、低温仓设计等三个方面介绍了糙米低温储藏技术的研究进展,分析认为:(1)我国不同水稻产区应当根据其气候特点与后续利用方式,选择适宜的糙米储藏方法;(2)对于高温湿热产区,建议探讨先稻谷储藏再糙米储藏的组合式储藏方法,以期降低储藏能耗,改善糙米品质;(3)进一步通过理论与试验研究,优化低温储藏方法,改善粮仓设计,降低储藏成本,从而突现糙米低温储藏的价值;(4)不断宣传糙米的营养价值.

  4. Drying characteristics of germinated brown rice%发芽糙米的干燥特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾富国; 韩珊; 曹银平; 姜鹏

    2013-01-01

    The influence of drying conditions ,in terms of drying temperature,air velocity and relative humidity,on the change trends moisture content of germinated brown rice was studied in a thin-drying experimental table.The experimental data was analyzed with software of Matlab and Excel. A mathematical model was developed to describe the thin-layer drying of germinated brown rice. The results showed that drying temperature and air velocity have obviously influence on the moisture content of germinated brown, and the relative humidity of air has the least effect. The model could illustrate and predict the changing pattern of germinated brown rice moisture under drying conditions,with correlation of 0.9854. The results provided a theoretical basis for the predication of moisture content change of germinated brown rice.%  为探讨干燥条件对发芽糙米含水率变化的影响,应用薄层干燥试验台,研究干燥温度、表现风速以及相对湿度对发芽糙米含水率变化的影响.利用Matlab软件和Excel软件处理试验数据,建立了相关的薄层干燥数学模型.结果表明,干燥温度和表现风速对发芽糙米含水率变化影响显著,而相对湿度对其影响较小;依据试验数据建立的薄层干燥数学模型可以描述和预测发芽糙米干燥过程中水分的变化规律,其相关系数为0.9854.试验结果可以为研究发芽糙米干燥过程中水分变化规律提供理论依据.

  5. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, T; Nakajima, K; Uno, Y; Sakano, A; Murakami, M; Narahara, Y; Fujii, T [Department of Food Sci., Niigata University Pharm. Appl. Life Sci. (NUPALS), Niigata, Niigata, 956-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, M [Niigata Industrial Creation Organization (NICO), Niigata, Niigata, 950-0078 (Japan); Ueno, S, E-mail: shige@nupals.ac.j [Grad. School of Agric. Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25{sup 0}C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  6. 糙米意大利面的制备%Optimization the preparation process of brown rice pasta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段维; 王立; 钱海峰; 张晖; 齐希光

    2015-01-01

    The producing process of brown rice pasta was optimized.The basic materials were brown japonica rice and brown indica rice with a ratio of 1∶1 and 8% soy protein isolate.Double screw extruder was used in making pasta.The best formula for raw material is:brown japonica rice flour 50 g,brown indica rice flour 50 g,soy protein isolate 8 g,guar gum 0.4%,sodium alginate 0.4%,xanthan gum 0.4%,monoglyceride 0.8%.And the best extrusion condition is:moisture 28% (The initial moisture content of raw materials is adjusted to 12%),screw speed 120 r/min,and temperature 120 ℃.The brown rice pasta has the similar properties with commercial pasta.%以粳/籼糙米混合粉质量比(1∶1)为基本原料,加8%的大豆分离蛋白,采用双螺杆挤压技术优化了糙米意大利面的制备工艺.实验中,采用单因素试验和正交试验相结合的方法,研究了双螺杆挤压机挤压参数和添加剂对糙米意大利面蒸煮品质和质构的影响.结果表明:双螺杆挤压机的最佳工艺参数为,原料初始水分调12%,加水量28%,三区四区挤压温度120℃、螺杆转速120 r/m、喂料速度8 kg/h;优化后添加剂的复配添加量(糙米粉干基计)为,瓜尔胶0.4%、海藻酸钠0.4%、黄原胶0.4%、单硬脂酸甘油酯0.8%;此优化条件下,所制备的糙米意大利面与市售意大利面相比较(煮8 min),蒸煮损失为6.54%,与市售意大利面相当(6.51%);硬度为2 597.34 g,稍大于市售意大利面的硬度(2 365.56 g);表面黏附性为-7.53 g·s,稍小于市售意大利面的表面黏附性(-7.89g·s).

  7. Advances in the Pathogen of Rice Brown Sheath Disease%我国水稻褐鞘病病原物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏

    2012-01-01

      In order to make workers of the agricultural science and technology know the general situation of the pathogens of rice brown sheath disease ,the symptoms of rice brown sheath disease were described ,and the pathogen of rice brown sheath disease were reviewed from fungus ,bacteria ,mites and insect .%  为了使农业科技工作者全面了解我国水稻褐鞘病病原物的研究概况,描述了水稻褐鞘病的症状,从真菌、细菌、螨类和昆虫4个方面对水稻褐鞘病的病原物进行了综述。

  8. Antioxidant Effect of Germinated Brown Rice%糙米发芽前后抗氧化活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新益; 刘金福; 何菲

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to study the change of total polyphenols and VC contents of germinated brown rice,the total polyphenols of brown rice and germinated brown rice were xtracted by water or by 80% alcohol assisted with ultrasonic wave-microwave.The ability of eliminating hydroxyl free radical and the antioxidant effect for edible oil of the polyphenols were determined.Results: The polyphenols extracted by 80% alcohol assisted with ultrasonic wave-microwave is superior to that extracted by water,and the polyphenols extraction rate of the former is 1.6 times as high as that of the later.The total polyphenols content of germinated brown rice is 0.3%,higher than that of the original brown rice by 87.5%.The VC content in germinated brown rice is 1.048 mg/100g,while not be detected before germination.The germinated brown rice has good ability of eliminating hydroxyl free radical,higher than the original brown rice by 40% ,and can delay edible oil rancidity effectively.%以超声波-微波辅助乙醇提取法和水提法比较糙米发芽前后总多酚的变化,以滴定法检测糙米发芽前后VC含量的变化,并对多酚提取物消除自由基的能力和对食用油脂的抗氧化作用进行了研究.研究结果表明,用超声波-微波辅助80%乙醇提取法优于水提法,总多酚的提取率提高了1.6倍.糙米经发芽后总多酚质量分数达0.3%,比糙米原料总多酚增加了87.5%;VC发芽前未被检出,发芽后增加到1.048 mg/100 g;发芽糙米清除羟基自由基效果比糙米原料高40%,能有效延缓食用油脂的酸败.

  9. 提高挤压膨化糙米粉的冲调分散性%Improving the dispersibility of extrusion brown rice powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 卢镜竹

    2012-01-01

    挤压膨化糙米粉冲调后具有营养丰富,米香突出,口感细腻爽滑等特点,但糊液粘稠度高,分散性差等带来食用上的不便。测得挤压膨化糙米粉稳定性好,分散性差。通过正交实验得出:挤压膨化糙米粉60目及添加麦芽糊精15%,蔗糖酯0.12%,单甘酯0.55%,可明显提高挤压膨化糙米粉冲调的分散性,改善其冲调性能。%By extrusion,brown rice powder after reconstitution was rich in nutrition,while rice smell was outstanding with the characteristics of a smooth delicate taste.But the paste liquid viscosity was high.And the poor water dissolved dispersion brought edible inconvenience.The results showed that the extrusion brown rice powder had good stability and poor dispersibility.Through orthogonal experiment:expanded brown rice powder 60 meshes,maltodextrin 15%,sucrose ester 0.12%,monoglyceride 0.55%,which could evidently improve the water dissolved dispersion of expanded brown rice powder.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of germinated brown rice against hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  11. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4-25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81-101% with relative standard deviations of 5-19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0-1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49-5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10-14.88 µg/kg of ZON.

  12. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Jiarong Meng; Juma Ibrahim Mabubu; Yu Han; Yueping He; Jing Zhao; Hongxia Hua; Yanni Feng; Gang Wu

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In t...

  13. Comparing gene expression profiles between Bt and non-Bt rice in response to brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3,834 and 3,273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and

  14. Effects of herbivore-induced rice volatiles on the host selection behavior of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that herbivore would react to volatiles produced by herbivore infested plant due to potential change, either positive or negative, in the acceptability of the host plant. This hypothesis was tested for the brown planthopper (BPH) in the laboratory. Sixteen components of the headspace volatiles from rice seedlings with different treatments were collected with SPME and Tenax-TA trap and analyzed with GC and GC-MS. Significant differences in volatile emissions were observed for rice plants with different treatments. Undamaged control plants, mechanically damaged plants and the plants infested by BPH for 1 or 2 d emitted much lower amounts of volatiles compared to the plants infested by BPH for 3 or 5 d. The plants infested by BPH for 3 or 5 d emitted several volatiles that were not detected in undamaged control plants, mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH for 1 or 2 d. Spodoptera litura infested plants released much higher amounts of volatiles than those in all other treatments, and the contents of several green leaf volatiles, methyl salicylate and terpenoids increased dramatically. In dual-choice flight tunnel experiments, adult BPH females showed no significant preference between the untreated healthy plants and mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH adult females. However, rice plants damaged by S. litura had a clearly repellent effects on BPH adult females compared to healthy undamaged plants, mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH.

  15. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  16. Bebidas saborizadas obtidas de extratos de quirera de arroz, de arroz integral e de soja Flavored drinks obtained from extracts of broken rice and brown rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de desenvolver bebidas elaboradas com extratos de quirera de arroz e de arroz integral e comparar as características químicas e sensoriais destas com bebida elaborada com extrato de soja. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com três tratamentos (bebidas de extrato de quirera de arroz, extrato de arroz integral e extrato soja. As seguintes análises foram realizadas: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, valor energético, cálcio, magnésio, cobre, manganês, ferro e zinco. Também determinou-se a aceitabilidade e a intenção de compra. A bebida elaborada com o extrato de soja contém maiores teores de cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos e minerais em relação ao extrato de quirera de arroz, que possui o maior teor de carboidratos e valor energético. Todas as bebidas obtiveram boa aceitação, com intenção de compra pela população entrevistada acima de 95%, sendo que mais de 99% dos provadores comprariam a bebida elaborada com o extrato de arroz integral (tratamento de maior aceitação. As bebidas elaboradas com extrato de arroz integral ou de quirera de arroz são uma alternativa viável para as pessoas que possuam intolerância à lactose do leite de origem animal e/ou alergia às proteínas da soja.The aim of this work was to develop drinks based on extracts of broken rice and brown rice and to compare their chemical and sensory characteristics with a drink made of soy extract. A totally randomized design was applied, with three treatments (broken rice extract, brown rice extract and soy extract drinks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ash, protein, lipids, total carbohydrates, caloric value, calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc, besides the determination of consumer acceptability and buying intention. The soy-based drink has the highest ash, protein, lipids and mineral contents when compared to broken rice extract, which in

  17. Natural food science based novel approach toward prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: recent studies on brown rice and γ-oryzanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are dramatically increasing, and there is a strong need for more effective and safer therapies. However, some of drugs show limited efficacy and considerable adverse effects. Furthermore, artificial energy-dense foods and non-caloric foods may promote overeating and weight gain. In this context, a natural food-based approach may represent a valuable means of tackling the obesity-diabetes syndrome. Although recent studies have shown that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and prevents obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that one of the major components of brown rice, γ-oryzanol (Orz), plays an important role in the metabolically beneficial effects of brown rice. Orz acts as a chemical chaperone and decreases high fat diet (HFD)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus, thereby leading to a significant shift in preference from fatty to healthy foods. Orz also decreases HFD-induced ER stress in pancreatic β-cells and improves β-cell function. Notably, Orz directly acts on pancreatic islets and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This evidence highlights food preference as a promising therapeutic target in obesity-diabetes syndrome and suggests that brown rice and Orz may have potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans.

  18. Heavy Metals in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Soil After Long-Term Irrigation of Wastewater Discharged from Domestic Sewage Treatment Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. CHUNG; C. H. SONG; B. J. PARK; J. Y. CHO

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a plastic film house to evaluate the translocation and uptake of heavy metals (Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn) into brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the heavy metals residues in soils which had previously been irrigated with domestic wastewater for a long time (3 years).The range of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn was 5.10 ± 0.01,0.105 ± 0.017,5.76 ± 0.42,and 23.56 ± 1.40 mg kg-1,respectively in the domestic wastewater-irrigated soil,and 0.370 ± 0.006,0.011 ±0.001,0.340 ± 0.04,and 2.05 ± 0.18 mg kg-1,respectively,in the domestic wastewater-irrigated brown rice.The results indicated that application of domestic wastewater to arable land slightly increased the levels of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn in soil and brown rice (P < 0.01).The concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were lower than the recommended tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.However,the continuous monitoring and pollution control of hazardous materials from domestic wastewater are needed in order to prevent excessive build-up of heavy metals in the food chain.

  19. 提高非膨化糙米粉的冲调稳定性研究%Improving the stability of unexpanded brown rice flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 卢镜竹

    2012-01-01

    采用高压蒸、煮,焙炒3种方式熟制糙米粉,对其冲调稳定性进行研究。通过正交试验得出:高压蒸、煮糙米粉添加单甘脂0.50%,黄原胶0.50%,CMC-Na 0.40%,卡拉胶0.30%;焙炒糙米粉添加单甘脂0.55%,黄原胶0.50%,CMC-Na 0.20%、卡拉胶0.20%,可明显提高其冲调稳定性,最终得到食用品质较好的非膨化糙米粉。%Brown rice powder with high pressure steamed and high pressure boiled and roasted, then,study their stability. Through orthogonal test that the high pressure steamed, boilded brown rice powder with glyceryli monostearici 0.50%, xanthate gum 0.50%, CMC-Na 0.40%, carrageenan 0.30%; Roasted brown rice powder with glyceryli monostearici 0.55%, xanthan gum 0.50%, CMCNa 0.20%, carrageenan 0.20%, can obviously increase the stability, and ultimately get eat better quality of unexpanded brown rice flour.

  20. 糙米全谷物食品研究现状与发展%Research status and development of brown rice whole-grain foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红周; 杨波涛; 李扬盛; 李盘欣

    2013-01-01

    Brown rice is used as one of the important raw materials of the production of whole grain products,and people pay more and more attention to its nutritional value and healthy function. In order to make full use of nutrition in brown rice and improve the eating quality,we can use a few processing new technology to produce brown rice whole–grain foods in the basis of no loss of nutrients,and the countries all over the world have carried out the related research of producing brown rice whole–grain foods. This paper briefly introduces the definition of whole–grain foods and its research status at home and abroad,and has systematically summarized the application and research progress of brown rice whole–grain foods. This paper also puts forward some opinions about the future development of brown rice whole–grain foods in our country in order to better promote the brown rice whole–grain food industry development.%  糙米作为全谷物食品重要原料之一,其营养价值与保健功能越来越受到人们重视。为充分利用糙米营养成分,在不损失营养成分基础上,可利用一些加工新技术生产糙米全谷物食品,进而改善其品质。世界各国相继开展开发糙米全谷物食品相关研究,该文简介全谷物食品定义及国内外研究现状,综述糙米全谷物食品开发应用研究进展,并对糙米全谷物食品在我国未来发展提出几点看法,以期能更好促进我国糙米全谷物食品发展。

  1. Evaluation of Rice Germplasm for Resistance to the Small Brown Planthopper(Laodelphax striatellus)and Analysis of Resistance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Can-xing; ZHANG Shi-xian; LEI Cai-lin; CHENG Zhi-jun; CHEN Qing; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight rice accessions were screened for resistance to the small brown planthopper(SBPH)resistance to SBPH were detected,accounting for 18.1%of the total accessions,which included 2 highly resistant,9 resistant and 14 moderately resistant varieties.Compared with indica rice,japonica rice was more susceptible to SBPH.Antixenosis test,antibiosis test and correlation analysis were performed to elucidate the resistance mechanism.The resistant check Rathu Heenati(RHT),highly resistant varieties Mudgo and Kasalath,and resistant variety IR36 expressed strong antixenosis and antibiosis against SBPH,indicating the close relationship between resistance level and these two resistance mechanisms in the four rice varieties.Antibiosis was the dominant resistance pattern in the resistant varieties Daorenqiao and Yangmaogu due to their high antibiosis but low antixenosis.Dular,ASD7 and Milyang 23 had relatively strong antixenosis and antibiosis,indicating the two resistance mechanisms were significant in these three varieties.The resistant DV85 expressed relatively high level of antixenosis but low antibiosis,whereas Zhaiyeqing 8 and Guiyigu conferred only moderate antibiosis and antixenosis to SBPH,suggesting tolerance in these three varieties.Antibiosis and antixenosis governed the resistance to SBPH in the moderately resistant accession 9311.Antixenosis was the main resistance type in V20A.Tolerance was considered to be an important resistance mechanism in Minghui 63 and Yangjing 9538 due to their poor antibiosis and antixenosis resistance.The above accessions with strong antibiosis or antixenosis were the ideal materials for the resistance breeding.

  2. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  3. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunishige Onuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA. In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively than in the non-treated group (70%. We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  5. Characterizing and estimating rice brown spot disease severity using stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least-square regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Detecting plant health conditions plays a key role in farm pest management and crop protection. In this study,measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance in rice crop (Oryzasativa L.) was conducted on groups of healthy and infected leaves by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann) through the wavelength range from 350 to 2 500 nm. The percentage of leaf surface lesions was estimated and defined as the disease severity. Statistical methods like multiple stepwise regression, principal component analysis and partial least-square regression were utilized to calculate and estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf level. Our results revealed that multiple stepwise linear regressions could efficiently estimate disease severity with three wavebands in seven steps. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) for training (n=210) and testing (n=53) dataset were 6.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component could explain approximately 80% of the variance of the original hyperspectral reflectance. The regression model with the first two principal components predicted a disease severity with RMSEs of 16.3% and 13.9% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Partial least-square regression with seven extracted factors could most effectively predict disease severity compared with other statistical methods with RMSEs of 4.1% and 2.0% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Our research demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate the disease severity office brown spot using hyperspectral reflectance data at the leaf level.

  6. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Il Jeon; Chang-Hwa Jung; Jeong-Yong Cho; Dong Ki Park; Jae-Hak Moon

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods: EtOAc extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAc, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results: The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAc extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions:Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB.

  7. STUDY IN FIELD TEST OF BROWN RICE STORAGE IN QUASI-LOW TEMPERATURE%糙米准低温实仓储存试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨牧; 石红兵; 惠春光; 刘小青; 杨杨; 王铁锤

    2012-01-01

    通过对仓房隔热保温处理,采用空调制冷控温、表层压盖等技术手段,实现糙米准低温条件储存,研究包打围散存和包装垛储存糙米的品质变化规律.试验结果表明,仓温控制在20℃以内,包打围散存和包装垛储存的糙米粮温保持在15℃以下,可以安全储存一年时间,糙米脂肪酸值低于27mgKOH/100 g、品尝评分值77分、发芽率保持在90%以上、整精米率大于87%.%Through the heat insulation treatment in warehouse, refrigeration temperature control, cover insur-face and other technical means, package around bulk storage and packaging storage, brown rice quality change have been studied. The results showed that brown rice could be safely stored for one year, brown rice fatty acid value was less than 27 mgKOH /100g, tasting assessment value was 77, germination percentage was more than 90%, whole refined rice rate was more than 87% in the warehouse temperature lower than 20°C and the brown rice temperature lower than 15℃.

  8. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariga Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR or white rice (WR diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV, sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase activity. Results Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p +/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively. The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT with low-density lipoprotein (LDL in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Conclusion PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the toxicity of HT-modified LDL and to directly

  9. 不同储藏条件下糙米保鲜效果的研究%STUDY ON PRESERVATION EFFECT OF BROWN RICE UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若兰; 田书普; 谭永清

    2001-01-01

    By determining falling number,free fatty acid value,total starch content and germination ratio under normal temperature,quasi-low temperature and controlled atmosphere for brown rice and white rice,preservation stability and effect of brown rice and white rice were studied.It showed that quasi-low temperature storage was superior to controlled atmosphere storage,and controlled atmosphere storage was superior to normal storage.Qualities of brown rice under same conditions are better than white rice,especially under quasi-low temperature storage.So quasi-low temperature storage is the best method to preserve brown rice and prevent rice aging.%通过对在常温、准低温、气调3种不同储藏方式下糙米与大米的降落值、脂肪酸值、总淀粉含量和糙米发芽率的测定,研究糙米与大米的储藏稳定性和3种储藏方法的保鲜效果.实验结果表明:糙米与大米的储藏品质变化因储藏方式不同有一定差异,同一品种准低温储藏优于气调储藏,气调储藏优于常规储藏;而相同储藏条件下的糙米与大米的陈化速度也存在差异,糙米储藏的各项品质指标均好于相同条件下的大米,特别是准低温储藏对糙米的保鲜效果明显,准低温储藏是本课题所选3种储藏方法中最有利于糙米保鲜、延缓品质陈化的技术.

  10. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties.

  11. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703-409 versus 637-407 J/g; 33.0-21.0 versus 20.1-11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64-3.47 versus 8.27-4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7-5.1 versus 8.4-6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60-2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  12. Development of tea polyphenols brown rice sponge cake%茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红利; 吴跃; 李安平; 张燕秋

    2015-01-01

    以糙米粉和蛋糕粉为主要原料,研究茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方。通过单因素和正交试验考察了蛋糕粉、茶多酚、白砂糖和牛奶添加量对茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕感官品质和质构品质的影响,优化了茶多酚糙米海绵蛋糕的配方,确定了其最佳配方:蛋糕粉添加量20%,茶多酚添加量0.8%,白砂糖添加量80%,牛奶添加量40%,鸡蛋添加量180%,食用油添加量10%(以糙米粉与蛋糕粉的总量为基准)。按此配方所制得的糙米海绵蛋糕不含其他添加剂,表面呈金黄色,外形规范,隆起正常,而且营养价值高,具有焙烤米香风味,咀嚼性好,不易形成碎渣,爽口、有弹性,存放时间延长。%The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake was studied by using brown rice powder andcake powder as themain rawmaterials.The single factor andorthogonal test examined the effectsof the addition amountofcake powder,tea polyphenols,sugar andmilkon the sensory quality and structure qualityof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake.The formulaof tea polyphenols–brown rice spongecake wasoptimized and the best formula was 20%cake powder,0.8% tea polyphenols,80%sugar,40%milk,180% egg and 10%oil(basedon the total amountof brown rice powder andcake powder).Thecakemade withoutother additiveshad golden surface,appearance specification and normal uplift. In addition,ithadhigh nutritional value,baked rice fragrant flavor,goodchewiness,not easily broken slag formation,prolong storage time and was refreshing and elastic.

  13. 糙米酵素红曲酒发酵工艺的研究%Study on the fermentation process of brown rice leaven and red koji wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜忠丽; 王俊伟; 庞文录

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation process model and process parameters of brown rice leaven and red koji wine were determined through the single factor and orthogonal test,and the sanitation index,sensory index, physico-chemical index and main function nutrients of the finished wine were analyzed. The flavor, color, function of the drink developed were excellent. It was concluded that the optimum parameters were as:the ratio of rice to brown rice leaven of 3:1 ,rice and brown rice leavenas 100% ,monas-cus amount of 10%, yeast dosage of 1. 0% , solid -liquid ratio of 1:1.5, fermentation temperature controled at 24~28℃ , fermentation time of 8 d.%通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了糙米酵素红曲酒的发酵工艺模型及工艺参数,分析成品酒卫生指标、感官指标、理化指标及主要功能性营养成分,开发出一种风味、色泽、功能性均上乘的饮品.通过实验最终得出:糙米酵素红曲酒的最适原料配比(大米:糙米酵素)为3∶1,以大米和糙米酵素为100%计,最适红曲添加量为10%,最适酵母加入量为1.0%,最佳原料与水的比例为1∶1.5,发酵温度控制在24~28℃,发酵8d.

  14. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-07-22

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible.

  15. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  16. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  17. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  18. 发芽糙米乳酸菌饮料的研制%Research on Lactobacillus beverage of germinated brown rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崑; 王晶晶; 于小磊; 张振

    2013-01-01

    以发芽糙米和鲜牛奶为主原料,经乳酸发酵后、调配成乳酸菌饮料.通过试验确定发芽糙米酶解最佳条件:即酶的添加量为7 μg/g,酶解时间为50 min,酶解温度为90℃.混合液最佳发酵条件为:发芽糙米浆∶牛奶为1∶2,接种量为6%,发酵温度45℃,发酵时间4.5h.选用复合稳定剂进行试验:即0.2%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)和0.3%海藻酸丙二醇酯(PGA).发芽糙米乳酸菌饮料的最佳条件为:发芽糙米混合发酵乳用量为50%,白砂糖为11%,柠檬酸为0.4%,感官评分为89分,γ-氨基丁酸含量为1.57 mg/(100 ml).%The germinated brown rice and fresh milk,as the main raw materials, were fermented by Lactobacillus and then blended into a kind of Lactobacillus beverage. The optimal enzymolysis conditions of germinated brown rice were determined as following: the addtive enzyme amount of 7 μg/g,enzymolysis time of 50 min,enzymolysis temperture of 90℃ ;the optimum fermentation condition of the mixed liquid was as follows : the ratio of germinated brown rice to milk of 1:2, inoculation amount of 6% .fermentation temperature of 45℃ .fermentation time of 4. 5 h;CMC-Na and PGA as stabilizer,the amount were 0. 2% and 0. 3% .respectively; the optimal parameters of the Lactobacillus beverage of germinated brown rice were: the fermented milk with germinated brown rice, white sugar and citric acid amount were 50%, 11% and 0. 4% , respectively. Under these conditions,the sensory score was 89 pints,theγ-GABA content was 1. 57 mg/(100 ml).

  19. 发芽糙米淀粉理化特性研究%The Study on Physicochemical Properties of Germinated Brown Rice Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧萍; 李常钰; 王超超; 宋伟

    2012-01-01

    采用富集γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的优选糙米发芽工艺条件,通过碱酶两步法提取糙米淀粉,研究发芽对糙米淀粉结构和理化特性的影响.结果表明:糙米发芽后,淀粉膨胀度增大,且随温度升高而提高;透明度升高了57.14%;峰值黏度基本不变;冻融稳定性提高,凝沉特性得到改善;淀粉凝胶的凝胶粘性有所提高,硬度和胶凝性有所降低;碘兰值减小,说明糙米发芽后其直链淀粉含量降低或聚合度减小;电镜分析结果显示,发芽后糙米淀粉颗粒变得圆滑,棱角较发芽前不明显.综上得出,发芽对糙米淀粉的理化特性具有一定的改善作用.%With the optimal germination conditions on brown rice of GABA enrichment,two - step by alkali and enzyme was used to extract the starch from the brown rice,ar.d the changes of starch structure of brown rice and physi-cochemical properties after germination were studied in the paper. The results showed that;The swelling power was increased after germination,and increased with the temperature rising;the transparency was increased by 57. 14% ;the peak viscosity was inhibited obviously and the freeze - thawing stability was enhanced strongly after germination; the adhesiveness of starch gelatin was increased after germination, hardness and gumminess were both decreased; iodine blue value was decreased;it indicated that the amylose content or the degree of polymerization decreased after germination; electron microscopy analysis showed that germinated brown rice starch granules were round, and the angular were not obvious after germination. It showed that germination could improve the physicochemical properties of brown rice starch.

  20. Cultivation, identification and quantification of one species of yeast-like symbiotes, Candida, in the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Pang; Sheng-Zhang Dong; Yun Hou; Ya-Lin Bian; Ke Yang; Xiao-Ping Yu

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l,which is one of the most destructive pests of rice,has been confirmed to harbor yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the fat body.Several morphologically different YLS have been previously isolated and cultured in vitro from BPH,but direct evidence is lacking to further clarify whether the cultured YLS were from BPH.In this study,one species of YLS was successfully cultured in vitro and simultaneously verified to exist in the fat body of BPH by sequence analysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The cultured YLS isolate in vitro was identified as a member of the genus Candida on the basis of 18S rDNA (ribosomal DNA) and 5.8S-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) rDNA sequence and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences from yeast.Therefore,this yeast isolate was named as Candida-like symbiotes.Candida-like symbiotes was found to exist in fat bodies,ovaries and newly laid eggs of the BPH,but not in the heads,thoraxes and mid-guts.In addition,the number of Candida-like symbiotes in 1 x 106 of purified YLS from BPH fat bodies was speculated to be (5.32 ± 0.22) × 104 on the basis of a quantitative PCR analysis.

  1. Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Foissac, X; Carss, A; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    2000-04-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)] displays toxicity to the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. A 26kDa GNA-binding polypeptide from N. lugens midgut was identified by lectin blotting and affinity chromatography, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. This polypeptide is the most abundant binding protein for GNA in the N. lugens midgut. A cDNA (fersub2) encoding this protein was isolated from an N. lugens cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to ferritin subunits from Manduca sexta and other arthropods, plants and vertebrates, and contains a putative N-glycosylation site. Native ferritin was purified from whole insects as a protein of more than 400kDa in size and characterized biochemically. Three subunits of 20, 26 and 27kDa were released from the native complex. The 26kDa subunit binds GNA, and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that of fersub2. A second cDNA (fersub1), exhibiting strong homology with dipteran ferritin, was identified as an abundant cDNA in an N. lugens midgut-specific cDNA library, and could encode the larger ferritin subunit. The fersub1 cDNA carries a stem-loop structure (iron-responsive element) upstream from the start codon, similar to structures that have been shown to play a role in the control of ferritin synthesis in other insects.

  2. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  3. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  4. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  5. 提高发芽糙米得率的复合酶预处理工艺优化%Optimization of compound enzymes solution pretreatment for improving germinated brown rice yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾富国; 蒋龙伟; 张亚雄; 曹斌; 曾勇

    2016-01-01

    为解决传统工艺生产发芽糙米浸泡时间长、生产效率低等问题,提出以纤维素酶和木聚糖酶的复合溶液代替蒸馏水浸泡发芽前糙米的新工艺。以糙米为原料,探究复合酶预处理工艺中酶解时间、酶解温度、复合酶浓度及配比对发芽糙米得率的影响规律,采用二次正交旋转中心组合设计试验,建立了各因素对发芽糙米得率影响的数学模型。结果表明:酶解时间、酶解温度、复合酶浓度及酶配比对发芽糙米得率影响显著(P<0.05),得到优化参数组合为:酶解时间135 min,酶解温度35℃,复合酶浓度0.57 g/L、纤维素酶和木聚糖酶质量比1.86:1,在此条件下,与传统工艺相比浸泡时间缩短62.5%、发芽糙米得率及γ-氨基丁酸含量分别提高约3.90%和3.86 mg/(100 g)。通过对酶解后糙米皮层微观结构的观察分析,糙米皮层在复合酶作用下部分降解,胚乳中淀粉更易与水分子相结合,从而吸水速率提升。研究结果可为发芽糙米生产提供参考。%The purpose is to solve the problems about long soak time of germinated brown rice as well as low production efficiency in traditional production process. A novel processing technology is developed using compound enzyme solution pretreatment with cellulase and xylanase rather than distilled water soak brown rice during the process of producing germinated brown rice. The brown rice’s tough cortex is mainly caused by the coarse fiber structure, whose major components are cellulose and araboxylan. The xylan layer with its covalent linkage to lignin and its noncovalent interaction with cellulose may play a significant role in maintaining the integrity of the cellulose in situ and protecting the fibers against degradation by cellulases. Using compound enzyme pretreatment to degrade some cortex resulted in a significant increase in water absorption rate over brown rice. What’s more, the brown

  6. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne;

    2013-01-01

    in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence......The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot......, tillering, panicles/plant and the grain yield by 25-55 % of the irrigated rice. In addition, the brown spot severity was reduced by 36-42 For the upland rice, the treatments led to similar results with the grain yield increase of 54-137 % and 20-80 % reduction in the brown spot severity. From our results...

  7. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  8. IGF-1 induction by acylated steryl β-glucosides found in a pre-germinated brown rice diet reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Usuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathology of diabetic neuropathy involves oxidative stress on pancreatic β-cells, and is related to decreased levels of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Acylated steryl β-glucoside (PR-ASG found in pre-germiated brown rice is a bioactive substance exhibiting properties that enhance activity of homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase, reducing oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. The biological importance of PR-ASG in pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here we examined the effects of PR-ASG on IGF-1 and glucose metabolism in β-cells exposed to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a pre-germinated brown rice (PR-diet was tested in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic rats fed control diets, the PR-diet fed rats showed an improvement of serum metabolic and neurophysiological parameters. In addition, IGF-1 levels were found to be increased in the serum, liver, and pancreas of diabetic rats fed the PR-diet. The increased IGF-1 level in the pancreas led us to hypothesize that PR-ASG is protective for islet β-cells against the extensive injury of advanced or severe diabetes. Thus we examined PR-ASG to determine whether it showed anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative effects on the insulin-secreting β-cells line, INS-1; and additionally, whether PR-ASG stimulated IGF-1 autocrine secretion/IGF-1-dependent glucose metabolism. We have demonstrated for the first time that PR-ASG increases IGF-1 production and secretion from pancreatic β-cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that PR-ASG may affect pancreatic β-cells through the activation of an IGF-1-dependent mechanism in the diabetic condition. Thus, intake of pre-germinated brown rice may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes, in particular diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities.

  10. Efficacy of soft-electron (low-energy electron) treatment for disinfestation of brown rice containing different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Horigane, Akemi K.; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Toru

    2009-07-01

    Soft electrons (low-energy electrons) have been reported to effectively disinfest grains contaminated with stored-product insects. In this study, brown rice grains infested with different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, were exposed to soft electrons. Soft electrons at an acceleration voltage of 170 kV effectively inactivated eggs, old larvae and pupae of the maize weevil, but could not completely inactivate young larvae. The locations of young larvae in rice grains were specified by magnetic resonance microimaging. Most of the larvae resided at the periphery of the grains while only a few at the center, which were assumed to get out of inactivation. This indicated that soft electrons with low penetration capacity could reach the most of weevil larvae in grains. Combination of soft-electron treatment and short time-low-dose phosphine fumigation achieved high mortality rate of S. zeamais.

  11. Efficacy of soft-electron (low-energy electron) treatment for disinfestation of brown rice containing different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Taro [National Food Research Institute, NARO Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: taroi@affrc.go.jp; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Horigane, Akemi K.; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Institute, NARO Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Soft electrons (low-energy electrons) have been reported to effectively disinfest grains contaminated with stored-product insects. In this study, brown rice grains infested with different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, were exposed to soft electrons. Soft electrons at an acceleration voltage of 170 kV effectively inactivated eggs, old larvae and pupae of the maize weevil, but could not completely inactivate young larvae. The locations of young larvae in rice grains were specified by magnetic resonance microimaging. Most of the larvae resided at the periphery of the grains while only a few at the center, which were assumed to get out of inactivation. This indicated that soft electrons with low penetration capacity could reach the most of weevil larvae in grains. Combination of soft-electron treatment and short time-low-dose phosphine fumigation achieved high mortality rate of S. zeamais.

  12. Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, X; Thi Loc, N; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.

    2000-04-01

    Transgenic rice plants expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were screened for resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens; GLH), a major homopteran pest of rice. Survival was reduced by 29% and 53% (P<0.05) respectively, on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific (phloem and epidermal layer) or constitutive. Similar levels of resistance in GNA-expressing transgenic rice were previously reported for rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH). GNA binding to glycoproteins in gut tissues showed that BPH contained more "receptors" than GLH, and that the binding affinity was stronger, particularly in the midgut. Subsequent toxicity of GNA is thus unlikely to be directly related to the amount of lectin bound. GNA was not detected in the honeydew of either insect species when they were fed on GNA-expressing plants, in contrast to results from artificial diet studies. This result suggests that GNA is not being delivered to the insect efficiently. When offered a free choice vs control plants, BPH nymphs tended to avoid plants expressing GNA; avoidance was less pronounced and took longer to develop on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific, In contrast to BPH, GLH nymphs were attracted to plants expressing GNA, whether constitutively or in a tissue-specific manner.

  13. Screening of browning inhibitor in the extraction of rice bran protein%米糠蛋白提取中褐变抑制剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 刘颖; 窦博鑫

    2012-01-01

    米糠蛋白是一种低过敏性的优质植物性蛋白,但制备过程中常伴随褐变反应的发生,导致制备出的米糠蛋白成品颜色深,限制了米糠蛋白在食品及相关领域的广泛应用。本文以米糠为原料,分别采用碱法和复合法提取米糠蛋白,在提取米糠蛋白的过程中分别加入各种不同的抑制剂,以抑制褐变反应。碱法提取米糠蛋白过程中,最佳抑制剂为1.5%的次氯酸钠,色素抑制率为64.2%,蛋白提取率为53.7%;复合法中,以3.0%的抗坏血酸、1.0%的次氯酸钠和o.15%的L-半胱氨酸为最佳复配抑制剂的情况下,提取出的米糠蛋白颜色浅,此时色素抑制率为69.87%,蛋白提取率曲80.06%,褐变抑制效果显著,蛋白提取率高。%Rice bran protein is hypoallergenic and high-quality plant protein. Browning reactions often occur with extraction process of rice bran protein,and the color of protein production is dark that limits the applications of rice bran protein.Rice bran was used as the raw material and many kinds of inhibitors were added in the extraction process of rice bran protein to prevent the browning of rice bran.In the alkali extraction process,the best inhibitor was sodium hypochlorite,the protein extraction rate was 53.7% and inhibitory rate of pigment was 64.2%.1n the compounding extraction process, the best inhibitor was the mixture of 3.0% ascorbic acid, 1.0% Sodium hypochlorite and 0.15% L-Cysteine. Under this condition, inhibition rate of pigment was 69.87% and protein extraction rate was 80.06%.

  14. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources.

  15. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7531-a) for the determination of trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder after drying and frozen pulverization of fresh brown rice obtained from a Japanese domestic market. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP high-resolution mass spectrometry, isotope-dilution ICP-MS, ICP optical emission spectrometry, and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Property values were provided for six elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd). The concentration range of the property values was from 0.280 mg kg(-1) of As to 31.8 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The combined relative standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, characterization, difference among analytical methods, dry-mass correction factor, and calibration standard. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.1% of Zn to 1.6% of As.

  16. Simple and rapid determination of free fatty acids in brown rice by FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with a second-derivative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Ahamed, Tofael; Noguchi, Ryozo; Takigawa, Tomohiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-15

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) content in brown rice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in conjunction with second-derivative treatment was proposed. Ground brown rice (10g) was soaked in toluene (20mL) for 30min, and the filtrate of the extract was placed in a 1mm CaF2 liquid cell. The transmittance spectrum of the filtrate was recorded using toluene for the background spectrum. The absorption band due to the CO stretching mode of FFAs was detected at 1710cm(-1), and the Savitzky-Golay second-derivative treatment was performed for band separation. A single linear regression model for FFA was developed using the 1710cm(-1) band in the second-derivative spectra of oleic acid in toluene (0.25-2.50gL(-1)), and the model displayed high prediction accuracy with a determination coefficient of 0.998 and a root mean square error of 0.03gL(-1).

  17. 糙米储藏品质评价数学模型的建立%ESTABLISHMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING BROWN RICE STORAGE QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉荣; 贾少英; 周显青

    2011-01-01

    为对糙米储藏过程中的劣变进行及时调控,选用2个粳糙米样品,测定不同储藏条件下的脂肪酸值、发芽率、生活力、电导率、降落数值等生理生化指标,进行各指标间的相关性分析,采用灰色关联度分析法对各项指标进行储藏品质敏感指标的筛选,并以各项敏感指标为自变量,以碾磨后的大米食味值为因变量,采用逐步回归的方法建立敏感指标与糙米最终食味值间的数学模型.结果表明:脂肪酸值、电导率对粳糙米储藏品质有显著影响,其中脂肪酸值对储藏品质敏感度最大,电导率次之;辽星糙米储藏品质评价的数学模型为y =92.57 +0.83X脂肪酸值-2.08X电导率,盐丰糙米储藏品质评价的数学模型为Y=-99.42+4.03X脂肪酸值-1.44X电导率.%In order to control the deterioration during brown rice storage, the paper selected two Japonica brown rice samples (liaoxing and yanfeng) to measure the physiological and biochemical indexes under different storage conditions, such as fatty acid value, germination rate, viability, electrical conductivity and falling number, and analyzed the correlation among the indexes. The storage quality sensitive indexes were screened by using grey correlative degree analysis method, and a mathematical mode was established by a gradual regression method selecting the sensitive indexes as the independent variables and the taste value of the milled rice as dependent variables. The results showed that the fatty acid value and the electrical conductivity had significant influences on the storage quality of brown rice, wherein the storage quality evaluation model of liaoxing was F=92.57+0.83X 2.08Z (dearicai Otduoivity); and the storage quality evaluation model of yanfeng was F-99.42+4.03A' (Wy1-44A (eleoricai conductivity)-

  18. Prediction of Cadmium uptake by brown rice and derivation of soil–plant transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Guo, H.Y.; Liu, T.S.; Chiang, C.F.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) levels in paddy fields across Taiwan have increased due to emission from industry. To ensure the production of rice that meets food quality standards, predictive models or suitable soil tests are needed to evaluate the quality of soils to be used for rice cropping. Levels of Cd in soil

  19. Effects of soaking, germination and fermentation on phytic acid, total and in vitro soluble zinc in brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rice is an important staple food in Asian countries. In rural areas it is also a major source of micronutrients. Unfortunately, the bioavailability of minerals, e.g. zinc from rice, is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytic acid. We investigated the eff

  20. Tagging of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in F2s of IR50 × Ptb33 of Rice by Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkateswarlu YADAVALLI; Gajendra P. NARWANE; M. S. R. KRISHNA; Nagarajan POTHI; Bharathi MUTHUSAMY

    2012-01-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stǎl) is one of the most damaging pests causing hopper burn in rice,and thereby reducing the productivity and also the quality of the product.The effective management strategy to control this pest is the identification and transfer of desirable genes to local rice cultivars.The most important approach for developing resistant cultivars is the identification of markers,which can help in marker-assisted selection of more durable resistant genotype.The susceptible parent IR50 and the resistant parent Ptb33,and their F2 populations were used in bulked segregant analysis for identification of resistant genes with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) primers.The primers OPC7 and OPAG14 showed both dominant and susceptible specific banding pattern so called co-dominant markers.Moreover,OPC7697 and OPAG14660 showed resistant specific bands and thus being in coupling phase,whereas OPC7846 and OPAG14650 showed susceptible specific genotypic bands in bulked segregant analysis.Therefore,the coupling phase markers,OPC7697 and OPAG14680.are considered to be more useful in marker-assisted selection of rice genotypes in crop improvement.

  1. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  2. Research Progress of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice%水稻抗褐飞虱基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝莉莉; 胡亮; 杜波

    2011-01-01

    综述了水稻抗褐飞虱基因的研究进展.褐飞虱是对水稻为害最严重的害虫之一.它栖息于稻丛基部,吸食韧皮部汁液.褐飞虱具有不同的生物型.在抗性品种的选择压力下,将产生一种新的生物型褐飞虱群体克服该抗性品种.因此,寻找新的抗性基因是培育新的抗褐飞虱水稻品种的关键.合适的水稻抗褐飞虱的鉴定方法是克隆水稻抗褐飞虱基因的基础.常用的方法有苗期集团鉴定、蜜露量测定、电子取食监测系统等.迄今为止,科学家已经在栽培稻和野生稻中定位了21个水稻抗褐飞虱基因,并且Bph14基因已经被武汉大学生命科学学院杂交水稻国家重点实验室成功克隆.该结果为克隆其他水稻抗褐飞虱基因以及研究水稻抗褐飞虱的分子机制奠定了基础.%The research progresses on brown planthopper (Nilap arv ata lugens Stal, BPH) resistance genes in rice were summarized. BPH is one of the most destructive pests in crop production worldwide. They gather at the base part of rice plant and suck assimilates from the phloem. BPH has various biotypos. Under the selection pressure of resistant variety, a new biotype of BPH might come out to overcome the resistance of the variety. Exploring new resistance gene is critical for developing resistant rice variety. Appropriate evaluation of germplasm for BPH resistance is the key to identify resistance genes correctly.There are several types of screening methods such as the standard seodbex screening technique, honey dew test, electronic monitoring system and so on. To date, 21 BPH-resistance genes have been identified from cultivated and wild rice species.Bph14 is the fast report of BPH-resistance gene in rice. These results provide basis for the clone of more BPH resistance genes and the study on molecular mechanism of rice resistance to BPH.

  3. Subcellular localization of the stripe disease-specific protein encoded by rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The stripe disease-specific protein (SP) encoded by the rice stripe virus (RSV) was successfully used as a localization signal of the virus in its vector, the small brown lanthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen. Immunogold parficles in large numbers were detected in various parts of the viruliferous females: the ovum, surface of chorion, the midgut lumen, and the columnar cells. Whereas there was none of these particles in the non-viruliferous females and males,and testis of viruliferous males. Endosymbionts (mycetocytes)were abundant, harboring ovaries of both viruliferous and non-viruliferous females, but none in the testis of males. The results provided us with the direct proof that RSV is a ciruculative and propagative plant virus and it was transovarially transmitted alongside with endosymbionts of its vector. Therefore, we deem it a nice lead for future studies on the mechanism of RSV transmission and functioning of its viral proteins.

  4. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra.

  5. 不同杀虫剂防治水稻褐飞虱田间药效评价%Control Effect of Different Insecticides on Rice Brown Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓霞; 周奋启; 陈银凤; 耿跃; 袁林泽; 徐蕾

    2014-01-01

    2013年对褐飞虱进行6种杀虫剂田间防治效果评价。结果表明:施药后5 d和10 d,22%氟啶虫胺腈SC、20%呋虫胺SG、25%噻虫嗪WG、50%吡蚜酮WG对褐飞虱的防效分别为77.9%~90.9%和77.0%~90.5%,20%异丙威EC、25%噻嗪酮WP的防效分别为40.1%~65.9%和20.6%~49.9%。22%氟啶虫胺腈SC、20%呋虫胺SG、25%噻虫嗪WG、50%吡蚜酮WG防效较好。建议在实践中,轮换使用噻虫嗪、吡蚜酮、呋虫胺、氟啶虫胺腈防治褐飞虱。%Fieldefficacies of 6 insecticides including sulfoxaflor, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, pymetrozine, isoprocarb, buprofezin on rice brown planthopper were investigated in 2013. The results indicated that on the 5th day and 10th day after treatment, sulfoxaflor 22% SC, dinotefuran 20% SG, thiamethoxam 25% WG, pymetrozine 50% WG could control rice brown planthopper effectively, with the efficiencies of 77.9%-90.9%, 77.0%-90.5%. The control effects of isoprocarb 20% EC, buprofezin 25% WP were 40.1%-65.9%, 20.6%-49.9%, and were significantly lower than sulfoxaflor 22% SC, dinotefuran 20% SG, thiamethoxam 25% WG, pymetrozine 50% WG.

  6. EXPERIMENT OF BROWN RICE STORAGE IN HIGH ATHTUDE AND LOW TEMPERATURE AREA%糙米在低温高海拔地区的储藏试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩蔼; 李琛; 彭真华; 赵志诚; 和敢武; 余旭

    2011-01-01

    The paper studied the storage environment and the quality of brown rice by adopting natural ventilation in low-temperature seasons and taking thermal insulation and airtight measures in high-temperature seasons based on the natural conditions of the high attitude and low temperature area. The results showed that the brown rice could be stored safely for 3 years when in-silo low-temperature environment was well controlled. After the 3-year storage, the increase amount of fatty acid value was 13.7 mg/100g,the annual average increase amount was 4.6 mg/100g, and the change range substantially met the set requirement (the change range equal to or smaller than 5 mg/100g every year, and the fatty acid value equal to or smaller than 37 mg/100 g), which met the requirement of moderate storage quality of hsien rice (≤37 mg/100 g). The germination rate of brown rice was slightly smaller than that of rice, but had little difference. Compared to rice stored for the same time period, the brown rice stored for 3 years had no significant change of the taste quality. The moisture content of the brown rice did not decrease but rose to reach the expected target.%利用低温高海拔地区的自然条件,采取低温季节自然通风和高温季节保温密闭措施,对糙米储藏环境及其品质进行了研究.结果表明:仓内低温环境控制良好,可以实现糙米安全储藏3 a.糙米储藏3 a后,脂肪酸值增量为13.7 mg/100 g,年平均增量为4.6 mg/100 g,变化幅度基本满足设定的变化要求(变化幅度≤5 mg/100 g·年,脂肪酸值≤37 mg/100 g),符合籼稻储存品质轻度不宜存(≤37 mg/100 g)的要求.糙米发芽率略低于稻谷,但差别不大.糙米储藏3 a与同期储藏的稻谷相比,食味品质变化不大;糙米水分未降低,反而有所升高,达到了预期的目标.

  7. Imidacloprid-induced transference effect on some elements in rice plants and the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samer Azzam; Fan Yang; Jin-Cai Wu; Jin Geng; Guo-Qing Yang

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of imidacloprid against insect pests has not only increased the rate of the development of target pest resistance but has also resulted in various negative effects on rice plants and Nilaparvata lugens resurgence. However, the effect of imidacloprid on elements in rice plants and the transference of these element changes between rice and N. lugens are currently poorly understood. The present study investigated changes of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg and Na contents in rice plants following imidacloprid foliar sprays in the adult female of N. lugens that develops from nymphs that feed on treated plants and honeydew produced by females. The results indicated that imidacloprid foliar spray significantly increased Fe and K contents in leaf sheaths. Generally, Fe, Mn, K and Na contents in leaf blades were noticeably decreased, but Ca contents in leaf blades for 10 and 30 mg/kg imidacloprid treatments were significantly increased. The contents of most elements except K and Mg in the adult females and honeydew were significantly elevated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Fe, Mn and Na in leaf blades and Fe and Mn in leaf sheaths could be proportionally transferred to N. lugens. The relationship between most elements in adult female bodies and in the honeydew showed a positive correlation coefficient. There were significant differences in the contents of some elements in rice plants and N. lugens from different regions.

  8. Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.; Bharathi, M; Spence, J; Powell, K S.

    1998-07-01

    Rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) were fed on artificial diet containing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), which has been shown to be toxic towards this insect pest. In addition to decreasing survival, the lectin affected development, reducing the growth rate of nymphs by approximately 50% when present at a concentration of 5.3&mgr;M. Immunolocalisation studies showed that lectin binding was concentrated on the luminal surface of the midgut epithelial cells within the planthopper, suggesting that GNA binds to cell surface carbohydrate moieties in the gut. Immunolabelling at a lower level was also observed in the fat bodies, the ovarioles, and throughout the haemolymph. These observations suggest that GNA is able to cross the midgut epithelial barrier, and pass into the insect's circulatory system, resulting in a systemic toxic effect. Electron microscope studies showed morphological changes in the midgut region of planthoppers fed on a toxic dose of GNA, with disruption of the microvilli brush border region. No significant proteolytic degradation of GNA was observed either in the gut or honeydew of planthoppers fed on lectin-containing diet. The presence of glycoproteins which bind GNA in the gut of the brown planthopper was confirmed using digoxigen-labeled lectins to probe blots of extracted gut polypeptides.

  9. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar 'ASD7' (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-12-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH.

  10. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar ‘ASD7’ (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH. PMID:26719745

  11. Study on drying characteristics and quality of germinated brown rice ;under microwave drying conditions%活性米微波干燥特性及品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先哲; 于洁; 张艳哲; 王磊; 王彦宇; 刘成海

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the drying efficient and quality of germinated brown rice in a continuous microwave dryer, drying power, drying time, wind speed and tempering ratio were selected as influencing factors, and moisture content, fissure rate,γ-aminobutyric acid content and chrominance of dehydrated germinated brown rice were considered as objective factors. Both single factor test and Box-Benhken central composite method were employed to investigate the effects of microwave drying parameters on the drying characteristics and quality of germinated brown rice and optimize microwave drying process parameters. The results showed that moisture remove of germinated brown rice occur at the constant rate stage under microwave drying, and microwave drying parameters present significant effects on the quality of the germinated brown rice. Process optimization parameters were obtained as drying power of 3.00 W·g-1, drying time of 4.00 min, wind speed of 2.00 m·s-1, tempering ratio of 1��4. Under the optimal microwave drying conditions, dried germinated brown rice was processed with moisture content of 14.35% germinated brown rice, fissure rate of 43.0%, γ-aminobutyric acid content of 16.10 mg·100 g-1, chrominance of L*value 57.98, chrominance of a*value-1 288.77 chrominance of b* value 22.09. The research results present the technical basis for the industrial yield of germinated brown rice with high efficient and quality.%为提高活性米干燥效率和品质,应用连续式微波干燥装置,以干燥功率、干燥时间、风速及缓苏比为试验因素,以含水率、爆腰率、γ-氨基丁酸含量和色度为评价指标,采用单因素试验与Box-Benhken中心组合试验相结合方法,研究微波干燥条件对活性米微波干燥特性及品质影响规律,优化活性米微波干燥工艺参数。结果表明,活性米微波干燥去水主要发生在恒速干燥阶段,干燥条件对活性米品质有显著影响;工艺优化

  12. INFLUENCE OF STORAGE METHODS ON STORAGE QUALITY OF INDICA BROWN RICE%不同储藏方式对籼糙米储藏品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童茂彬; 李岩; 董晓欢; 张来林; 古争艳

    2013-01-01

    We studied the storage quality indicators of Indica brown rice under conventional storage and controlled atmosphere storage at different temperatures. The results showed that: the viability, germination rate, and catalase activity of the Indica brown rice decreased gradually, and the fatty acid value, conductivity and MDA content increased gradually as the storage time prolonged and the storage temperature rose. At low temperature, no large difference in the quality of Indica brown rice existed between the two storage methods; but the quality indicators except for the viability and the germination rate of Indica brown rice under controlled atmosphere storage changed slowly in comparison with the conventional storage as the temperature rose. After storage at 35 ℃ for 120 days, the conductivity of Indica brown rice under conventional storage increased from 46.3 μS/cm to 97.6 μS/cm, and the conductivity of Indica brown rice under controlled atmosphere storage increased to 88.4 μS/cm. Accordingly, low temperature could well keep the quality of Indica brown rice, and controlled atmosphere storage could effectively suppress the influences of high temperature on the quality of Indica brown rice, but was not suitable for seed grains.%不同温度下,对常规储藏和气调储藏的籼糙米各项储藏品质指标的研究表明:随着储藏时间的延长和储藏温度的升高,籼糙米的生活力、发芽率、过氧化氢酶活动度逐渐降低;脂肪酸值、电导率和丙二醛含量逐渐升高.低温时,两种储藏方式对籼糙米品质影响区别不大,但随着温度的升高,除生活力和发芽率比常规储藏降低较快之外,充氮气调的其余指标均比常规储藏的变化缓慢.35℃下储藏120 d后,常规储藏糙米的电导率已由46.3 μS/cm增至97.6 μS/cm,而气调储藏仅增至88.4 μS/cm.因此,低温可较好地保持籼糙米的品质,充氮气调可以有效减缓高温对籼糙米品质的影响,但不适用于种子粮的储藏.

  13. 发芽糙米在不同储存温度下品质变化的研究%Study on the quality changes of storage of germinated brown rice at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐淑芬; 周玉东; 姚妙爱; 邵伯进

    2013-01-01

    By the simulation of germinated brown rice in the open state, through the comparison of moisture, fatty acid value, amylose, γ-GABA content and total bacteria, the quality change of germinated brown rice at 3 different storage temperature ( 5℃, room temperature (autumn) and 35℃) were studied. The results showed that: germinated brown rice during storage, temperature had little effect on amylose and water content,but the effect onγ-GABA, mould content and total bacteria was significant. Germinated brown rice stored at high temperature, the quality was deteriorating, so it should be stored at low temperature.%采用模拟发芽糙米在打开包装的状态,通过比较发芽糙米水分、脂肪酸值、直链淀粉、γ-氨基丁酸、霉菌含量和细菌总数的变化,研究发芽糙米在5℃、常温(秋季)、35℃3种不同储存温度下品质的变化.结果表明:发芽糙米在存放过程中,温度对其水分、直链淀粉含量影响较小;但是对其γ-氨基丁酸、霉菌含量和细菌总数影响显著.发芽糙米在高温下储存,品质极易变坏,低温有利于发芽糙米的储存.

  14. Screening Varieties of Brown Rice with Mineral-rich Elements and Their Sub-microscope Structures%高矿质元素糙米品种筛选与亚显微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李明; 华泽田; 陈雅蕾; 杨剑; 刘雅婷

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从20种糙米中以蛋白质和矿质元素( Ca、Fe、Se)为主要指标对糙米的营养价值进行初步筛选,并观察筛选品种的形态结构,为功能稻米的选育提供依据.[方法]凯氏定氮法测定蛋白质含量,原子吸收光谱和原子荧光光谱法比较矿质元素含量差异,SPSS软件分析相关性,扫描电子显微镜观察筛选品种的形态.[结果]筛选出高Fe、高蛋白糙米ZT11(Fe 17.29 μg/g,蛋白质9.80%)和高Ca、高Se糙米小品比71(Ca 65.50 μg/g,Se 0.050μg/g).蛋白质含量与Fe含量在0.01水平有显著正相关性.糙米横断面有一定的差异,蛋白质含量一定程度上影响糙米品种米糠层的分布情况.[结论]筛选的富Fe、Ca、Se糙米具有广阔的市场前景、保健效果和附加价值.%[Objective] The nutritional quality of 20 varieties of brown rice was preliminarily screened using protein content and mineral ele ments (Ca, Fe, Se) concentrations as main indicators, the morphology was also observed,so as to provide a theoretical and material basis for functional rice breeding. [Method ] Protein content of brown rice was determined using Kjeldahl nitrogen determination method. Mineral ele ments such as Ca, Fe, Se concentrations were compared by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respective ly. The correlation between protein content and mineral element concentration was analyzed by SPSS software. And the morphology was ob served by scanning electron microscope. [ Result] Two varieties of brown rice were filtered out, that is, varieties of ZT11 brown rice with rich Fe concentration of 17.29 μg/g and high protein content of 9. 80 % , Xiaopinbi 71 with rich-Ca (65.50 μg/g) and Se concentrations (0.050 μg/g). Protein content is found to be significantly positive correlation with Fe content by SPSS analysis ( P < 0.01). Cross section of varieties of brown rice had distinctly differences. Protein content of brown rice had a certain

  15. Comparison of the RVA Profiles between the Milled and Brown Rice Flour%糙米粉与精米粉的淀粉粘滞性比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洁; 张晶; 刘周; 石英尧

    2013-01-01

    Aims at strains including few seeds which is difficult to process the milled rice,meanwhile it has a problem of detecting the RVA profiles.Selecting a various RVA profiles of forty-one rice varieties as material,using them to analyze the relationship,difference and law on the RVA profiles of the milled and brown rice flour.The main results were as follows:the RVA profiles have some difference on the milled and brown rice flour.Peak viscosity(PKV),consistence(CSV),Break-down (BDV) and Setback(SBV) about the brown rice flour are less than the milled rice flour,determination coefficient in proper order were 0.565,0.572,0.455 and 0.639.Pasting temperature(PAT) about the brown rice flour are higher than the milled rice flour.Their determination coefficient is 0.366.The overall trend of the regularity is the basic stable.In the breeding,middle and early generation of individual choice,using brown rice is as reference on individual choice.The results of the study provide a reference for quality direct identification of rice breeding.%研究针对育种中株系种子量少,难加工成精米,用精米粉测淀粉粘滞性难的问题,选用淀粉粘滞性有一定差异的41个水稻品种(组合、系)为材料,分析用糙米粉和精米粉测定的淀粉粘滞性.结果表明,糙米粉与精米粉的特征值有一定差异,糙米粉测定峰值粘度、回复值、崩解值、消减值普遍小于精米粉,决定系数分别为0.565、0.572、0.455、0.639,糙米粉糊化温度大于精米粉,两者之间的决定系数为0.366,糙米粉和精米粉总体趋势的规律性是基本稳定的.在育种的中、早世代的单株选择中,可以用糙米粉测定稻米淀粉粘滞性作为参考进行单株选择.研究结果为水稻育种中、早代的单株的品质直接鉴定选择提供了依据.

  16. Technological Conditions for Producing Brown Rice Juice by Stepwise Enzymatic Hydrolysis Method%分步酶解法生产糙米汁饮料工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 刘伟; 刘咏红; 李志坚; 谭欢; 吴跃辉

    2012-01-01

    糙米经过烘烤、粉碎、糊化,分步酶解后离心,取上清液得到米汤.然后添加其他配料,制备成饮料.结果表明,糙米原汁生产工艺:发芽红糙米经烘烤、粉碎、糊化后,分布酶解.第一步酶解α-淀粉酶用量0.6%,反应时间30 min;第二步酶解纤维素酶用量0.3‰,反应时间30 min;第三步酶解糖化酶用量2‰,蛋白酶用量0.3‰,反应时间3.5 h,获得糙米原汁.成品最佳配方为:糙米原汁40%,蔗糖6%,柠檬酸1.5‰,蔗糖脂肪酸酯添加量为0.1‰,单甘酯0.12‰,黄原胶0.2‰,羧甲基纤维素钠0.3‰.%After be baked, crashed, gelatinized and stepwise enzymatic hydrolyzed, the brown rice solution was centrifuged to get supernatant. Then, the other ingredients were added to the supernatant to produce beverage. The results indicated that the technological conditions for raw juice of brown rice were as follows: germinated brown rice was baked, crushed and gelatinized, then stepwise enzymatic hydrolyzed. The first step used 0.6% α-amylase to enzymatic hydrolyze for 30 min; the second step used 0.3‰ cellulase to enzymatic hydrolyze for 30 min; the third step used 2‰ glucoamylase and 0.3‰ protease to enzymatic hydrolyze for 3.5 h; then the raw juice of brown rice was obtained. The optimal formula for finished product was as follows: 40% of raw juice of brown rice, 6% of saccharose, 1.5‰ of citric acid, 0.1‰ of sucrose fatty acid ester, 0.12‰ of monoglycerides, 0.2‰ of xanthan gum, and 0.3‰ of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium.

  17. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koda, Risa; Hama, Shinji; Yamada, Ryosuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-02-05

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing α-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks.

  18. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  19. 灰飞虱胁迫下水稻防卫相关基因的表达%Expression of Rice Defence Genes under Small Brown Planthopper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万昌; 余娇娇; 段灿星; 朱振东; 王晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (Homoptera: Delphacide), is an economically important pest in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China. Real-time PCR was used to determine transcriptional level of rice defence genes after SBPH infestation using specific primers. The expression levels of SA synthesis-related genes PAL, NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4 were higher in the resistant variety "Mudgo" than in the susceptible variety "Kittake" after SBPH feeding. The expression level of gene PAL in 12 h-infestation rice was 6.914 times of that in untreated rice. The expression amount of PAL in Mudgo increased more rapidly and in higher levels, which were 42.848, 70.743, and 69.193 times over the expression amounts of Kittake at 24, 48, and 72 h after SBPH infestation, respectively. The expression levels of NPR1 in Mudgo were 4.690, 6.231, and 4.112 times over those in Kittake after SBPH infestation for 12, 36, and 72 h, respectively. There were significant differences in transcriptional levels of the jasmonate (JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 after 36 h-infestation between Mudgo and Kittake. The expression level was substantially lower in Mudgo than in Kittake at subsequent time points. In addition, the expression level of receptor gene EIN2 in ethylene signaling pathway was higher in Kittake than in Mudgo after SBPH feeding. The above results indicated that SBPH feeding activated the salicylic acid signaling pathway in resistant Mudgo and induced the defenses in susceptible Kittake associated with a JA/ethylene-dependent pathway. Genes PAL and NPR1 play a considerable role in the regulation of Mudgo expressing resistance to SBPH.%运用荧光定量PCR方法及特异性引物,对不同时间(12、24、36、48和72 h)灰飞虱胁迫下抗虫和感虫水稻品种中主要防卫途径的相关基因进行转录水平上定量分析.灰飞虱取食后,与水杨酸合成途径相关的基因PAL、NPR1、EDS1和PAD4在抗灰飞虱品种Mudgo

  20. INFLUENCE OF STORAGE METHODS ON PROCESSING AND EATING QUALITY OF INDICA BROWN RICE%不同储藏方式对籼糙米加工食用品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 童茂彬; 张来林; 古争艳

    2013-01-01

    研究常规储藏和气调储藏对籼糙米加工食用品质的影响.结果表明:随着储藏时间的延长和储藏温度的升高,籼糙米的整精米率、黏度、蒸煮品质和质构特性均逐渐降低,且温度越高其变化趋势越明显.低温时两种储藏方式对加工食用品质的影响基本相同,而在高温条件下,气调储藏对品质的影响则小于常规储藏.这说明与气体的环境成分影响相比,温度对籼糙米加工食用品质的影响更显著,即低温对保持糙米加工食用品质有明显效果,气调对延缓高温影响有一定的作用.%In this paper, we studied the influences of conventional storage and controlled atmosphere storage on the processing and eating quality of indica brown rice. The results showed that the head rice rate, viscosity, cooking quality and texture characteristics of indica brown rice decreased gradually as the storage time prolonged and the storage temperature rose, and the storage temperature had a large influence. At low temperature, the two storage methods had the substantially identical influences on the processing and cooking quality; and the controlled atmosphere storage had a smaller influence than the conventional storage at high temperature. The results indicated that the temperature had a significant influence on the processing and cooking quality of indica brown rice in comparison with gas composition, that is to say, low temperature had significant effect on keeping the processing and cooking quality of indica brown rice, and controlled atmosphere storage had a certain effect in suppressing the influence of high temperature.

  1. 非浸泡复合酶法预处理改善糙米碾米性能%Improving milling quality of brown rice with compound enzyme solution humidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾富国; 史宇菲; 韩燕龙; 王会; 姚丽娜; 曾勇; 蒋龙伟; 张强

    2015-01-01

    Generally, lots of broken rice is generated and high energy consumption occurs during the rice milling processing, which bring adverse effect to the economic benefits of rice milling enterprises. Therefore, milling quality improvement is of important significance in practice for rice processing industry. Moisture conditioning treatment for the brown rice, which is an advanced technology, can increase head rice yield and reduce the milling energy consumption to some extent. It reduces the maximum compressive strength and maximum tensile strength with the increase of moisture content and generated moisture gradient within the rice by gradual penetration from the exterior into the interior of kernels. However, it does not fundamentally solve the problem caused by the resistant cortex of brown rice. The brown rice’s tough cortex is mainly caused by the coarse fiber structure, whose major components are cellulose and araboxylan. This study proposes a new process with composite enzyme of cellulase and xylanase instead of the conventional humidifying method. This method substantially decreases broken rice in the milling process and reduces the milling energy consumption to improve milling quality. The humidification of compound enzyme solution selectively degrades the cortex of brown rice, which can not only reduce the hardness of brown rice kernel and decrease the whitening pressure, but also facilitate the moisture penetration, which would boost cortex softening and increase the grain’s toughness. Moreover, the synergy of compound enzyme can improve the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis. A central composite rotatable orthogonal experimental design of response surface methodology with 4 factors and 5 levels was employed. Taking brown rice in storage with moisture content below 15%as raw material, the influences of the 4 parameters including cellulose-to-xylanase mass ratio, concentration of compound enzyme solution, adding liquid proportion and enzyme treating

  2. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of beta-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Saiful Yazan; Armania, Nurdin; Tze, Tan Hern; Azhar, Yaacob; Nordiana, Abdul Hadi; Norazalina, Saad; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Saidi, Moin; Maznah, Ismail

    2010-03-26

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p cancer.

  3. Studies on Resistance to Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines%转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 姚剑虹; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2000-01-01

    Mature seed-derived callus from japonica rice cv. Eyi 105 was co-transformed with two plasmids,pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1,containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt),the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment.Twenty-six independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 152 bombarded callus. Seventy-three percent of transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southen blot analysis.Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From R2 generations with their R1 parent plants showing 3∶1 Mendelian segregation patterns, three independent homozyous lines expressing all the three transgenes were identified. Insect bioassay results showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to brown planthopper.%利用基因枪法将含潮霉素抗性基因、GUS报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因的2个质粒pWRG1515和pRSSGNA1共同转化粳稻品种鄂宜105的成熟胚诱导的愈伤组织. 从轰击的152块愈伤组织中共再生出26株独立转基因植株.PCR/Southern印迹法分析发现,73%的转基因植株含有所有3个外源基因.遗传分析证实外源基因在转基因植株后代中以孟德尔方式遗传.从其R1代亲本为孟德尔3∶1方式遗传的R2代中,鉴定出3个表达所有3个外源基因的独立转基因植株纯系.抗虫鉴定结果发现这些纯系对褐飞虱具有明显的抑制作用.

  4. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  5. Research on the quality change of brown rice during the storage%糙米储藏期间品质变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭; 高树成; 林子木

    2016-01-01

    在农户储藏方式下,通过研究1年储藏期内糙米的水分含量、脂肪酸值、电导率、发芽率及品尝评分值的变化,探索储藏时间对辽宁省本地5种糙米品质的影响。结果表明:各种糙米样品在储藏期间各指标的变化趋势基本相同,脂肪酸值和电导率在储藏期间逐渐增高,发芽率呈现下降趋势,而品尝评分值先升高后降低,糙米水分含量变化受环境温湿度影响,呈上下波动趋势。%The effect of storage time on the quality of 5 varieties of Liaoning brown rice was researched via investigating the changes of moisture content,fatty acid value,conductivity,germination rate and tasting score of the samples which was stored by farmers for 1 year. The results showed that during the storage period the change tendency of the indexes of the samples was basically the same with each other;fatty acid value and conductivity increased gradually;germination rate showed a downward trend;the tasting scores increased first and then decreased;the moisture contents were influenced with fluctuation by the environmental temperature and humidity.

  6. 7 CFR 868.91 - Fees for certain Federal rice inspection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) (Rough or Brown rice) 36.60 (b) All other factors (per factor) (all rice) 17.60 Total oil and free fatty... inspection): (a) Rough rice $41.90 (b) Brown rice for processing 36.00 (c) Milled rice 26.00 Factor analysis for any single factor (per factor): (a) Milling yield (per sample) (Rough or Brown rice) 32.50 (b)...

  7. 糙米储藏陈化过程中生理生化指标变化特性%Changing characteristic of physical and chemical indices during brown rice storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉荣; 贾少英; 周显青

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨糙米储藏品质指标的变化规律及有效控制糙米仓储流通过程中的品质变化,选择2个粳型糙米样品进行实验室模拟低温、常温及高温储藏,条件分别为15、25及35℃,相对湿度为75%,储期为210d,每30 d取样1次,测定储藏过程中发芽率、生活力及脂肪酸值3项生理生化指标变化趋势并做动力学分析.结果显示,随储藏时间的延长,样品的发芽率、生活力这2项指标均呈下降趋势,且储藏温度越高下降趋势越剧烈,脂肪酸值在各储藏条件下随着储藏时间的延长均呈上升趋势.对各指标进行动力学分析后显示,一级动力学模型可以很好反映这3项指标的变化,并且糙米储藏中脂肪酸值的增加、发芽率及生活力的衰减随绝对温度倒数的变化均符合Arrhenius方程.这3项指标在储藏过程中均属于需能反应(△G>0),不同糙米品种相对应的活化能存在差异,辽星样品的3项指标反应活化均高于盐丰样品,且同一糙米品种的生活力与发芽率的活化能明显高于脂肪酸值.陈化动力学的运用可为仓储流通过程中糙米品质变化的预测和控制提供理论依据.%In order to investigate the quality changes of stored brown rice and control the quality changes during brown rice storage and circulating effectively, perpetrating simulating storage in laboratory with 2 kinds of round shaped brown rice, the storage conditions were 15℃、 25℃ and 35℃, relative humidity 75%, the germination rate, viability and fatty acid value were determinate every 30 d and lasted for 210 d. The results showed that germination rate and viability of brown rice increased with the storage time prolonging and the deterioration enhancing, while fatty acid value decreased. The kinetics analyzes results showed that these trends could be well reflected by first order kinetics, and all of these are suitable to Arrhenius equation. Different varieties of brown rice with

  8. Effect of γ-amino Butyric Acid and Phytic Acid Content in Germinated Brown Rice by Adding Exogenous Phytase%外源植酸酶对发芽糙米γ一氨基丁酸和植酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮; 曹龙奎

    2015-01-01

    Effects of adding exogenous phytase on germinated brown rice γ-amino butyric acid and phytic acid content were studied.γ-amino butyric acid content in germinated brown rice could be increase, and levels of phytase could be reduce by adding exogenous phytase, thus nutritional value of brown rice germination could be improve.%本文研究了添加外源植酸酶对发芽糙米γ一氨基丁酸和植酸含量的影响,通过添加外源植酸酶,可以增加发芽糙米γ一氨基丁酸含量,降低植酸酶含量,从而提高发芽糙米的营养价值。

  9. Research Progress in Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in the Germinated Brown Rice%γ-氨基丁酸在发芽糙米中检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞萍; 贾成莉; 吕庆銮; 李秀娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed nutritional value and research status of germinated brown rice, introduced determination methods of γ-arninobutyric acid, for explore high pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry, paper chromatography method and colorimetry.%综述了发芽糙米的营养价值和研究状况,介绍γ-氨基丁酸检测方法,如:高效液相法、LC—MS、纸层析法、比色法等。

  10. Isolation and purification of polyphenols in pre-germinated brown rice by macroporous resin%树脂分离纯化萌发糙米中多酚的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯会绒; 孙兆远

    2012-01-01

    比较了AB-8、X-5、NKA、NKA-2、S-85种大孔树脂对萌发糙米多酚的吸附和解吸性能,结果表明,AB-8树脂具有较好的吸附性能和解吸效果;确定了AB-8树脂分离萌发糙米多酚的适宜操作条件为:上柱料液浓度为O.4716mg/mL,流速为2.0mL/min,以蒸馏水和浓度为70%乙醇进行洗脱,解吸速率N2.0mL/min,得到萌发糙米多酚纯度为63.25%。AB-8树脂可用于萌发糙米多酚的分离纯化。%Adsorption capacity and static desorption rate of adsorption resins such as AB-8, X-5, NKA, NKA-2, S-8 for polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice were assayed. AB-8 resin had the best adsorption capacity and static desorption rate for polyphenols. The optimal conditions of isolation and purification for polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice by AB-8 resin were obtained. The crude polyphenols extract solution with the concentration of 0.4716 mg/mL was first subjected to AB-8 resin adsorption at the flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. Then the impurities were eluted down by distilled water and 70% ethanol at the desorption rate of 2.0 mL/min. The purity of resulting polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice was 63.25%. The polyphenols of pre-germinated brown rice could be isolated and purified by AB-8 resin.

  11. Effects of Transgenic Brown Rice on Nutritional of Broiler Chicken%转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料的营养安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海峰; 刘阳; 邢福国

    2011-01-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was employed to evaluate whether the transgenic brown rice used in broiler' s diet had any deleterious effects on gowth performance, on organ index, on carcass trait, on composition of muscle of broiler chicken. Three hunder sixty one-day old broilers were divided into three groups. One group was fed a diet containing transgenic brown rice and the other group was fed a diet containing corresponding nontransgenic brown rice. Three group was fed a diet containing corn. Growth Performance and organ index at the 21 and 42 day of age were determined, carcass trait and composition of muscle were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that no significant difference were observed(P>0.05) in the growth performance, in organ index and carcass trait and composition of muscle in two phases between the two groups. No histopathological damages were detected. From this study, it was concluded that there were no adverse effects of the transgenic brown rice on the broiler chicken' s health.%为了研究转Cry1Ac/sck基因糙米作为肉仔鸡日粮原料的营养安全性,将360只1日龄肉仔鸡随机分成3组.一组饲喂含转基因糙米日粮,另一组饲喂含非转基因糙米日粮,第三组饲喂非转基因玉米日粮.试验期42 d.测定肉仔鸡的生产性能,器官指数,屠体性状,肌肉成分,21,42 d测定生产性能,器官指数.42 d测定屠体性状和肌肉成分.结果显示,转基因糙米对肉仔鸡的生产性能、器官指数、屠体性状、肌肉成分和健康状况在试验期内未产生明显的有害影响(P>0.05).

  12. Studies on fatty acid value changes of brown rice in different storage conditions%不同储藏条件下糙米脂肪酸值变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 刘璐; 支永海; 陈瑞

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid values of brown rice stored in different moisture, temperature and oxygen concentration condition were determined regularly. The brown rice samples at 13.5%, 14.5%,15.5%,16.5% moisture content. The storage temperatures in thermo-tank were 30, 25, 20 and 15℃ respectively. The oxygen volume fractions were 2%, 5%, 8% and 21% respectively. The storage time was 180 days and the detection was conducted once every 30 days. The results indicate that with extension of storage time, the fatty acid values in brown rice samples show the change of increase firstly and then decrease. From analysis of variance, the effect of storage time, temperature, moisture and oxygen concentration on fatty acid value were very significant (P<0. 01). The moisture and the temperature was higher, the fatty acid value increased faster. Low oxygen concentration can delay the fatty acid value change From comparison of multiple differences, the fatty acid value of the brown rice stored in 4 different storage temperatures were very significant (P<0. 01). The fatty acid values of the brown rice stored at 20~30℃ and different moisture were very significant(P<0. 01); the difference of 15. 5% and 14. 5% is significant at 15℃ (P<0. 05), and other moisture gradient differences were very significant (P<0.01);brown rice with moisture of 16.5% was stored at 25℃; when the oxygen volume fractions were 8% and 21%, the differences of fatty acid value were not significant, but the differences of oxygen with other concentrations were extremely significant (P<0. 01);brown rice with moisture 14.5% was stored at 15℃, the differences of fatty acid value were extremly significant (P<0. 01) under the condition of oxygen with different volume fractions. Experimental results showed that the low temperature and low moisture for storage of brown rice could inhibit the increase in fatty acid value, and the low concentration oxygen could delay the decrease in

  13. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  14. Effect of addition amount of extruded brown rice flour on the properties of noodles%膨化糙米粉添加量对面条特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜娜; 杨庭; 谭斌; 刘明; 刘艳香; 田晓红; 汪丽萍; 翟小童

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of extruded brown rice flour were mixed with wheat flour at content of 0,10%, 20%,30%,40% and 50%,respectively,to research the effect of the addition amount of brown rice flour on the cooking quality and texture property of the noodles. The results showed that along with the in-creasing of the addition amount of brown rice flour,the water absorption of noodle dry matter significantly decreased(P < 0. 05),cooking loss rate of dry matter increased,cross - breaking strength of dried noo-dles increased at first and then decreased,and the hardness,chewiness and elasticity of cooked noodles decreased. The noodles,prepared with extruded brown rice flour with the moisture content of 30%,tem-perature of 80 ℃,screw speed of 220 r/ min,had lower cooking loss rate,higher water adsorption,hard-ness,chewiness and elasticity than that prepared with extruded brown rice flour with moisture content of 25%,temperature of 120 ℃,screw speed of 220 r/ min.%将两种不同挤压条件制得的膨化糙米粉分别以0、10%、20%、30%、40%和50%的比例添加到小麦粉中,研究糙米粉添加量对面条蒸煮品质和质构性质的影响。结果表明,随着挤压膨化糙米粉(EBR)添加量的增加,面条干物质吸水率显著降低(P <0.05),干物质损失率增加,干面条的折断强度先升高后降低,熟面条硬度、耐咀性、弹性等质构参数降低。添加由物料水分30%、挤压温度80℃、螺杆转速220 r/ min条件下挤压制备的膨化糙米粉的面条干物质吸水率高而损失率相对较小,同时面条的硬度、咀嚼性以及弹性要高于添加由物料水分25%、挤压温度120℃、螺杆转速220 r/m i n条件下挤压制备的膨化糙米粉的面条。

  15. 糙米粉对小麦面团流变学及饼干品质特性的影响%Influence of Brown Rice Flour on Wheat Dough Rheological Properties and Cookie Quality Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓智; 扈战强; 周剑敏; 方勇; 沈新春; 胡秋辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Effects of brown rice flour on the thermomechanical and dynamic rheological properties of wheat flour dough as well as physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were investigated. The aim of the research is to provide a basis for further utilization of brown rice in developing new food products.[Method]Mixolab and dynamic rheometer were employed to study the effects of brown rice flour replacement on rheological properties of wheat flour dough. The dough microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cookies were prepared and tested to investigate the effects of brown rice flour replacement on cookie quality characteristics. [Result] With the addition of brown rice flour, the water absorption of the flour dough and the degree of protein weakening increased, while dough development time and stability time decreased. The addition of brown rice flour diluted the concentration of gluten and destroyed the continuous state of the flour dough, which resulted in being difficult to form the stable gluten network structure, and subsequently leading to higher degree of protein weakening under double effects of mechanical force and heating. The increase of replacement ratio of brown rice flour decreased the temperature of starch gelatinization, peak and break down viscosity of the mixed flour, and setback value of the starch due to the higher degree of starch hydrolysis. It was shown from dynamic rheological studies that with the addition of brown rice flour, the dough remained viscoelastic system and storage modulus and loss modulus increased, while tanδof the dough decreased, indicating higher degree of molecular cross-linking and elastic proportion in the mixed system. From SEM, with the addition of 10% brown rice flour, the dough microstructure became loose with small cracks and starch granules distributed unevenly. Irregular shape of rice starch granules could be observed and their adhesion force to dough surface significantly

  16. RESEARCH ON STORAGE QUALITY OF BROWN RICE INFECTED BY SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS ( MOTSCHULSKY )%糙米被玉米象感染后其储藏品质变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉荣; 张玉杰; 周显青

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the effects of population density and infection time of Sitophilus zenmms (Motschulsky) on the storage qualities of brown rice, such as falling number, fatty acid value and POD by SPSS method. The results showed that the fatty acid value increased and the tailing number dropped as the population density increased and the infection time prolonged; the POD activity had no obvious change in 50 days, and dropped rapidly after 50 days; the fatty acid value and the falling number changed dramatically after 30 days when the population density exceeded 100 heads per 300 gram brown rice; the falling number and the fatty acid value of brown rice samples infected by Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) with different population densities had significant difference at different infection time; the falling number had significant negative correlation with the population density and the infection time; the fatty acid value had significant positive correlation with the population density and the infection time; and POD had negative correlation with the infection time.%以粳糙米为材料,设定不同的虫口密度,检测不同感染时间糙米的降落数值、脂肪酸值、POD等储藏品质指标,采用SPSS等方法分析虫口密度和感染时间对糙米储藏品质的影响.结果表明:随着虫口密度的增加和侵染时间的延长,脂肪酸值上升,降落数值下降;POD活性在前50 d无明显规律,50 d后迅速下降;虫口密度超过100头/300 g时,30 d后脂肪酸、降落数值就发生剧烈变化;不同虫口密度感染的糙米样品,其降落数值、脂肪酸值在不同感染时间呈现显著差异性;降落数值与虫口密度和感染时间呈显著负相关,脂肪酸值与虫口密度和感染时间呈显著正相关,POD与感染时间负相关.

  17. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Bint Mahmud,4 Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed,1 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Aminu Ishaka11Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Usmanu, Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.Methods: Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA, and γ-oryzanol (ORZ at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (mRNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β, calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k, complement protein (C3, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70, and interleukin (IL-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry.Results: The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001. GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg, EST (0.2 mg/kg, and ORZ (200 mg/kg (P<0.05. Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg compared

  18. Effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnaini, Rahmah Mastura; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice was studied. Brown rice was polished to 2%, 4% and 6% of polishing degree using embryo rice machine to produce three levels of embryo rice. All rice sample (brown rice, embryo rice 1 (2%), embryo rice 2 (4%), embryo rice 3 (6%) and white rice) were cooked using electric rice cooker. The raw and cooked rice samples were analyzed for antioxidant by total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Polishing degree and cooking treatment showed significant (p≤ 0.05) effects on both antioxidant activities (TPC, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging values) of the raw and cooked rice samples. Results showed that raw brown rice and raw embryo rice 1 were significantly higher than the other type of rice samples for TPC and FRAP values. In DPPH radical scavenging activities, raw brown rice had the highest value while white rice indicated the otherwise. Cooked brown rice demonstrated significantly higher of FRAP values (p≤ 0.05) than embryo rice 1, followed by embryo rice 2, embryo rice 3 and white rice. No significant differences were observed either between TPC values of cooked brown rice and cooked embryo rice 1 or between the DPPH radical scavenging values of cooked embryo rice 2 and cooked embryo rice 3. High positive correlations were determined between TPC, FRAP and DPPH assays (R2 > 0.70) of the samples. In overall, moderate level of antioxidant activities were detected in the raw and cooked rice samples.

  19. 电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法研究发芽对糙米重金属元素(镉、铅、砷)含量影响%Using ICP-MS to study the effect of germination on the content of heavy metal(Cd,Pb,As)in brown rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王啊娟; 付湘晋; 赵喜玲; 张桢敏; 刘雅晴

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metal content exceed the standard is a hidden hazard of our country's rice production. In brown rice,the heavy metal ions are mainly combined with the proteins,fibril,and phytic acid, which would be partly hydrolyzed by proteases,cellulose and phytase during the germination process of brown rice,thus,the combined state of the heavy metals may change into free states,and then emigrate from the internal of brown rice,resulting in reduce the heavy metal content of brown rice. Based on this consideration,this article collected 8 kinds of brown rice from the market as the sample, the microwave digestion,ICP–MS method was used to determine the content of heavy metal cadmium, lead,arsenic in the brown rice and germinated brown rice. The results showed that:among the 8 samples,3 samples' cadmium content exceed the standard,5 samples' lead,arsenic content exceed the standard,the highest content of cadmium,lead,arsenic exceed the standard 589.5%,641%,2625%, respectively;some samples also exist at the same time a variety of heavy metal exceed the standard of heavy metals (cadmium,lead,arsenic) exceed the standard of brown rice samples,germination reduce content of lead,arsenic,cadmium in brown rice for 89.0%~100%,60%~100%,6.2%~35.5%, respectively. In conclusion,germination can effectively reduce the content of lead and arsenic,but with less effectiveness to reduce the cadmium content.%  重金属含量超标是我国稻米生产面临严重食品安全隐患之一.糙米中重金属主要以蛋白、纤维、植酸结合态存在,在糙米发芽过程中,蛋白、纤维素、植酸在蛋白酶、纤维素酶、植酸酶作用下部分降解;由此,结合态重金属可能转变为游离态,从糙米内部迁移而出,从而可降低米中重金属含量.基于此,以市场收集8种糙米为样品,采用微波消解、ICP–MS法测定这些糙米发芽前后重金属镉、铅、砷含量,为糙米、发芽糙米产品安全食用提供参考.结果表明,8

  20. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  1. 糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物的残留测定%Determination on Residues of Carbosulfan and Its Metabolites in Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 贺敏; 余苹中; 贾春虹; 赵尔成; 朱晓丹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to monitor and estimate the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycar-bofuran in brown rice. [ Method] A method was established for the simultaneous determination of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in brown rice by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) purification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. The tested pesticides components to be measured in the samples were extracted by using the mixed solvent of ethyl-acetate and cyclohexane (1:1,V/V), purified by GPC and neutral Al2O, solid phase extraction (SPE) , and finally detected by GC-MS. [Result]The lowest limit of detection ( LOD) was 2.0 × 10-11 g for carbosulfan and carbofuran and 1.0 × 10 -l0 g for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. The lowest quantification limit was 0. 1 mg/kg for three compounds. The average recovery of each components was 77.8% -94.6% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.86% -6.58%. [ Conclusion] The sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the GPC purification and GC-MS detection method for determining the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in brown rice ave all accord with the demands of the pesticide residue analysis, and it is suitable to detect the residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites in brown rice.%[目的]监测与评价糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物克百威、3-羟基克百威的残留量.[方法]建立凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)净化、气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)同时测定糙米中丁硫克百威及其代谢物克百威、3-羟基克百威残留的方法.样品中的待测农药组分采用环己烷-乙酸乙酯(1∶1,V/V)提取,GPC和中性氧化铝(Al2O3)小柱净化,GC-MS测定.[结果]丁硫克百威和克百威的最低检测量均为2.0×10-11g,3-羟基克百威为1.0×10-10g;最低检出质量分数均为0.1 mg/kg,各组分的添加回收率为77.8% ~94.6%,变异系数为3.86%-6.58%.[结论]

  2. Phosphatase activities in rice-planting meadow brown soil and their responses to fertilization%草甸棕壤水稻田磷酸酶活性及对施肥措施的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈菊培; 陈振华; 陈利军

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activities of phosphomonoesterase (acid-, neutral-, and alkaline-), phosphodiesterase and phosphotriesterase in a rice-planting meadow brown soil at the lower reach of Liao River, and their responses to different fertilization treatments. The results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total P and organic P contents among all treatments, but soil available P content was significantly higher in treatment OM than in other treatments. Soil acid-and neutral phosphomonoesterase had a higher activity than alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase, while phosphotriesterase had the lowest activity. No significant difference was found in phosphatase activities between different fertilization treatments. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity had a significant correlation with soil total P and available P contents, while soil phosphodiesterase activity significantly correlated with soil organic P content.

  3. 磷素对水稻根表红棕色铁膜的影响及营养效应%Effect of Phosphorus on Reddish Brown Iron Plaque on Root Surface of Rice Seedlings and Their Nutritional Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅友强; 杨旭健; 吴道铭; 沈宏

    2014-01-01

    红棕色铁膜颜色加深;随着根系溶液中铁浓度的增加,根表DCB-Fe浓度逐渐增加,最大值为36.50 mg·g-1。最后进一步对磷铁比处理形成的根表红棕色铁膜水稻根系和地上部磷、铁吸收量进行测定,研究结果发现,根表红棕色铁膜的加深有利于水稻根系和地上部磷、铁的吸收。【结论】内源磷信号并不能诱导根表红棕色铁膜的形成,仅外源磷缺乏才能诱导根表红棕色铁膜的形成,根表红棕色铁膜的形成与根系周围环境中磷铁比有关,而根表DCB-Fe的形成仅与溶液中铁浓度有关。形成的根表红棕色铁膜在根系周围充当营养库的功能,有利于植物对磷、铁的吸收利用。%Objective]Phosphorus (P) deficiency could significantly induce the formation of reddish brown iron plaque on the surface of rice roots. However, it remains unclear how P induces the formation of reddish brown iron plaque on root surface.[Method] In this study, 24 rice varieties of different origins were used to measure the iron plaque on their root surface. Rice seedlings were firstly cultivated for 21 days hydroponically, and then submitted to P-deficient solution and 0.1 mmol·L-1 Fe2+solution, respectively. The parameters including root length, root surface area, root and shoot dry weight and content of iron plaque were determined after treatments. Based on the above parameters, a rice variety (Tianyou 998) was screened with higher amount of iron plaque. In the following experiments, effects of different nutrient deficiencies (N deficiency, P deficiency, K deficiency, and their interactive treatments, etc.), root-split treatments (root system was divided into two parts, both two parts were treated with P supply treatments, one part was treated with P-deficient treatment, and the other was with P supply treatment, or both two parts were treated with P-deficient treatment) and different P/Fe treatments (1﹕1, 1﹕3, 1﹕5, 1﹕8) on the

  4. 水稻淡褐斑叶突变体lbsll的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉保华; 杨杨; 施勇烽; 林璐; 陈洁; 黄奇娜; 魏彦林; Hei LEUNG; 吴建利

    2012-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. The mutant, designated as lbs.ll (light brown spotted-leaf 1), displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions. Agronomic traits including plant height, growth duration, seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively termed lbsll (t), which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6. With developed SSR markers, the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588. The Ibsll (t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been i-dentified near the chromosomal region. The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.%通过EMS诱变籼稻品种IR64获得一个稳定遗传的淡褐色斑点叶突变体lbsll(light broun spotted leaf1).在自然条件下,突变体播种后10~14 d,叶片上出现淡褐色斑点,随后逐渐扩散至全叶,第1叶至剑叶上均有淡褐色斑,为全生育期性状.斑点性状的表达对株高、生育期、结实率和千粒重等农艺性状具有显著的影响.遗传分析结果表明,该淡褐色斑点叶性状受一个隐性核基因控制.将突变体lbsll与正常叶色水稻Morobereken杂交构建F2定化群体,利用SSR标记,最终将该淡褐叶基因lbsll(t)定位在第6染色体短臂上一个约130 kb的区段上.定位的结果和发展的群体为该基因的进一步精细定位和克隆奠定了基础.

  5. Effects of Organic Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Physiological Indexes of Germinating Brown Rice%有机酸和茶树油对发芽糙米生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 刘成梅; 刘伟; 吴建永; 徐欣源; 谢有发; 万婕

    2011-01-01

    以"赣晚籼923"籼米为材料,在发芽过程中添加茶树油和(或)有机酸如抗坏血酸、柠檬酸、乳酸钙进行浸泡,比较茶树油和(或)有机酸对发芽过程中糙米表面菌落总数、γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量,以及糙米呼吸强度、还原糖含量的影响。结果表明:由4.0g/L抗坏血酸、2.0g/L柠檬酸、3.0g/L乳酸钙组成的有机酸溶液能促进糙米呼吸和GABA积累,加速淀粉降解转化为还原糖;茶树油(4.5g/L)则对糙米呼吸、淀粉降解和GABA富集有一定的抑制作用;此外,茶树油和有机酸溶液对抑制糙米发芽过程中细菌的滋生具有协同增效作用。%The present study was carried out to determine total microbial count andγ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) content on the surface,respiration intensity and reducing sugar content during the germination of brown rice from late Indica rice cultivar Ganxian 923 in the presence of either tea tree oil alone,organic acids such as ascorbic acid,citric acid and calcium lactate together,all of them or none of them.The results indicated that 4.0 g/L ascorbic acid/2.0 g/L citric acid/3.0 g/L calcium lactate solution could enhance respiratory intensity,promote the accumulation of GABA and accelerate the degradation of starch to reducing sugars.On the contrary,tea tree oil(4.5 g/L) had obvious inhibitory effect on respiration intensity,starch degradation and GABA accumulation.Moreover,tea tree oil and organic acid solution revealed a synergistic effect on the inhibition of bacterial growth in germinating brown rice.

  6. 基于离散元法的糙米匀料盘仿真优化设计%Simulation and optimal design of uniform plate of brown rice based on discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾富国; 姚丽娜; 韩燕龙; 王会; 史宇菲; 曾勇; 蒋龙伟

    2016-01-01

    Humidifying evenly is the key to moisture conditioning technology. The uniformity of moisture content depends on the material distribution uniformity. Material uniform plate is the chief work part for increasing the material uniformity, and it has an immediate influence on the follow-up material processing quality and production efficiency. In order to improve the humidifying uniformity in the process of brown rice moisture conditioning, a new type of plate called curved-surface material uniform plate was designed on the basis of existing technology. Combined with the material movement rule on the cone material uniform plate, the parabola was set as the curved generatrix of curved-surface material uniform plate. One of the characteristics of the curved-surface material uniform plate was that it enhanced the uniformity of the material thickness by controlling the floating velocity of the material and offered a favorable condition for uniform humidification of brown rice, and moreover it couldn’t damage brown rice. In this study, on the basis of the theoretical analysis, the working process of the curved-surface material uniform plate was simulated with the discrete element method (DEM), and it was found that the structure parameters and operating conditions of curved-surface refining plate were the key factors affecting its wok performance through the analysis based on the orthogonal design. DEM is a numerical method used for modelling the mechanical behavior of granular materials. Using the EDEM software, the influence laws of the rotation rate of material uniform plate, the curved-surface form and the feeding rateon the material thickness uniformity were simulated and analyzed. According to the performance evaluation indices of evenly distributing material, the structure of curved-surface material uniform plate was optimized. By the response surface analysis method, the mathematical model between each factor and coefficient of variation was established. The

  7. 发芽糙米膳食纤维制备及其降血脂活性研究%Study on dietary fiber prepared from germinated brown rice and its activity of anti-hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁列江; 付湘晋; 李忠海; 林亲录

    2016-01-01

    发芽糙米(PGBR)能显著改善高脂血症,其膳食纤维(DF)可能是主要活性成分之一。采用酶法制备了发芽糙米膳食纤维(PGBR–DF),测定了PGBR–DF的组成,并研究了PGBR–DF的功能特性及降血脂活性。PGBR–DF得率为61.5%,可溶性DF含量为26.4%。与米糠DF相比, PGBR–DF持水(5.96 g/g)、持油力(5.47 g/g)更高;吸附胆酸钠能力更强,特别是可溶性PGBR–DF胆汁酸钠吸附量达0.034 g/g,普通米糠DF仅为0.018 g/g。PGBR-DF能显著改善高脂小鼠的胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)指标(ρ<0.05);特别是高剂量(10%)PGBR–DF可使高脂鼠的TC、TG指标恢复正常,与正常对照无显著差异(ρ<0.05)。%Pre–germinated brown rice(PGBR)could significantly improve hyperlipidemia,and the dietary fiber(DF)was suggested as one of the main active ingredients. The dietary fiber of pre–germinated brown rice(PGBR–DF)was prepared by enzymatic method,the composition of PGBR–DF was determined,the functionalities and anti–hypolipidemic activity of PGBR–DF were studied. The yield of PGBR–DF was 61.5%,the content of soluble DF was 26.4%. Compared with the rice DF,water holding(5.96 g/g),and oil holding capacity(5.47 g/g)of PGBR–DF were higher and adsorption of sodium cholate ability was stronger,especially the amount of bile acid sodium adsorbed by soluble PGBR–DF was 0.034 g/g,and that for ordinary rice bran DF was only 0.018g/g. PGBR–DF could improve TC,TG,HDL–C and LDL–C indicators of high fat rats significantly(ρ<0.05). There was no significant difference(ρ<0.05)between the H group(10%)and normal control for TC and TG.

  8. Temperature and Moisture Distribution Model of Microwave Drying Germinated Brown Rice%微波干燥活性米的温度和水分的分布模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婧; 朱广浩; 郑先哲

    2017-01-01

    The study obtained the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the microwave drying machine , by modeling a qualitative heat transfer model of the process of continuous microwave drying germinated brown rice .In order to determine the correctness of the model , experiments were conducted to verify the model of temperature and moisture at the microwave intensity as follows:1.16,2.75,4.34W/g.The results of the simulation and experiments show that in the continuous microwave dryer drying terminal , when the temperature rises slowly , microwave power should be controled to reduce the energy consumption of microwave drying;after the drying period entry into the tempering stage can make tem-perature reach a balance both inside and outside the material , it can also uniform drying effect and guarantee the quality of drying process at the same time .The study has guiding significance in the heating process and control of microwave dr-ying germinated brown rice .%通过建立连续微波干燥活性米过程的质热传递模型,获得活性米微波干燥机内的温度和含水率分布,并在微波强度为1.16、2.75、4.34W/g 的条件下,进行活性米温度和水分模型的实验验证,确定传热传质模型的正确性。模拟与实测结果表明:在连续式微波干燥机的干燥末段,温度上升较慢时相应控制微波功率,减少微波干燥的能耗;在干燥段后进入缓苏阶段,使活性米物料内外温度达到平衡,干燥效果更为均匀,又可以保证干燥品质。该研究对活性米的微波加热工艺及控制方面具有指导意义。

  9. 水稻胡麻斑病土壤拮抗菌的筛选·鉴定及抑菌谱分析%Screening, Identification and Antibacterial Spectrum of Soil Antagonistic Bacteria against Rice Brown Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕凯丽; 王俊丽; 刘坤; 宋韵霏; 张璐; 李建飞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To screen the antagonistic bacteria which could resist rice brown spot from soil. [ Method] The diluted plate method was used for preliminary screening of antagonistic bacteria from soil. Indoor plate screening method was used for secondary screening. The best antagonist strains were cultivated and identified according to their morphology and biochemical and physiological features. Plate confrontation method was used for antibacterial spectrum. [ Result ] 24 antagonistic strains were screened out from 494 strains which were selected from 38 soil samples by preliminary screening and four antagonistic bacteria ( AⅢ,FⅠ,HⅠ and HⅡ)wilh strongest antagonistic effect were screened,all the four strains were finally identified to be bacillus licheniformis,whose antibacterial spectrum was obtained. [Conclusion] The study provides theoretical support for the biological control of rice brown spot disease by antagonistic bacteria.%[目的]从土壤中筛选对水稻胡麻斑病病原菌(Helminthospotium oryzae Breda de Hann)具有稳定拮抗作用的细菌.[方法]利用稀释平板法对从土样中分离出的细菌进行拮抗菌的初筛,再采用室内平板筛选法进行复筛.将拮抗效果最佳的菌株进行培养,通过菌体形态特征观察和生理生化测试进行菌种鉴定,并采用平板对峙法进行拮抗菌的抑菌谱分析.[结果]从38份土样中分离了494株细菌,初筛获得拮抗菌株24株,复筛得到4株拮抗能力较强的菌株,经鉴定4种拮抗菌均为地衣芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus licheniformis,并得到其抑菌谱.[结论]为利用拮抗菌生物防治水稻胡麻斑病提供了理论依据.

  10. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions.

  11. The ethyl acetate extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Choi, Se Young; Hong, Se Mi; Hwang, Sung Gu; Park, Dong Ki

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that Phellinus linteus has a variety of biological functions, such as antitumor and immunomodulating activities. In our previous studies, we developed a P. linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PBR) and found that organic solvent extracts of PBR possessed immunomodulating activity to regulate a balance of cytokine network in mice. The components of PBR are ergosterol peroxide, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Beta-glucan. In this study, we demonstrate that an organic solvent extract of P. linteus grown on PBR induced apoptotic cell death through the induction of G(0)/G(1) arrest of cell cycle and the apoptosis via DNA fragmentation in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. Cell death induced by the extract of P. linteus grown on PBR was shown to be associated with the upregulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1), the downregulation of cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-8. This study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of P. linteus grown on PBR induces apoptosis accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase and regulates apoptosis-regulatory proteins, which may be applicable to anticancer therapy.

  12. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  13. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  14. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae using some phenolic antioxidants Controle da macha-parda do arroz (Bipolaris oryzae pelo emprego de antioxidantes fenólicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Shabana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone. The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS and disease incidence (DI on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains.Bipolaris oryzae é o agente causador da doença mancha-parda do arroz e é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas. Três antioxidantes fenólicos (ácido salicílico, ácido benzóico e hidroquinona foram avaliados para o controle dessa doença do arroz. A atividade antifúngica destes compostos foi avaliada in vitro contra B. oryzae em diferentes concentrações e a eficiência de sua aplicação exógena no controle da mancha-parda foi avaliada em condições de campo. Nos ensaios in vitro, os ácidos benzóico e salicílico a 9 mM inibiram completamente a multiplicação de B. oryzae. Em condições de campo, a aspersão de ácido benzóico a 20 mM causou uma redução significativa na gravidade e incidência da doença na folhas da planta, além de aumentar significativamente o rendimento dos grãos e seus componentes. Algumas respostas bioqu

  15. Genetic Analysis and Preliminary Mapping of Two Recessive Resistance Genes to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Li-yuan; PENG Suo-tang; WEI Xing-hua; Yu Ping; XU Qun; YUAN Xiao-ping; Yu Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; WANG Cai-hong; WAN Guo; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    An F2 population derived from the cross of WB01,an introgression line resistant to brown planthopper (BPH) originated from Oryza rufipogon Griff.and a susceptible indica variety 9311,was developed for genetic analysis and gene mapping.The population with 303 Fz:3 families was genotyped by 141 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and used for gene mapping.Two softwares,Mapmaker/Exp 3.0 and Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0 were applied to detect QTLs.Totally,two QTLs resistant to BPH,named temporarily as bph22(t) and bph23(t),were identified to locate on chromosomes 4 and 8,individually had LOD values of 2.92and 3.15,and explained 11.3% and 14.9% of the phenotypic variation,respectively.

  16. GNA Confers Resistance to Rice Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines by Both Bioassay and Feeding Tests%生物鉴定和喂养试验证明GNA赋予转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 万丙良; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2001-01-01

    Two transgenic rice pure lines, generated by particle bombardment, were challeng ed by the first-instar nymphs of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) biotype I using the standard BPH bioassay and feeding test protocol essen tially the same as described by Rao et al. (1998). Both lines contained and expressed the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene(hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene(gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus niv alis) lectin gene (gna). Insect bioassay and feeding test results showed t hat both lines had significant deterrent effect on BPH by decreasing BPH surviva l and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.%参照Rao等(1998)的褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养方法,用水稻褐飞虱生物Ⅰ型的一龄若虫食喂, 用基因枪法获得2个转基因水稻纯系. 这2个纯系均含有并表达潮霉素抗性基因(hpt)、 gusA报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因(gna). 褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验表明,水稻 纯系对褐飞虱具有显著的抑制作用. 具体表现为降低褐飞虱成活率和繁殖力、延缓褐飞虱发 育以及减少褐飞虱进食量. 通过褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验证明,表达GNA的转基因水稻纯系对严重危害水稻生产的褐飞虱具有抗性作用.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography for determination of γ-aminobutyric in sprout brown rice%发芽糙米中γ-氨基丁酸的HPLC分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑连姬; 李智; 周雅琳; 费华熙; 周灿

    2011-01-01

    To establish a HPLC method for determining the contents of γ-aminobutyric acid in sprout brown rice,a SB-C18 column was used with the mobile phase of 50% methyl cyanide and 0.05 mol/L sodium acetate buffer solution which pH was 6.5 and contained 10 mL 2,4%以2,4-二硝基氟苯为衍生试剂,以0.05mol/L乙酸钠缓冲液(pH6.5,含10mLN,N-二甲基甲酰胺)和50%乙腈为流动相,建立了发芽糙米中γ-氨基丁酸含量的高效液相色谱分析方法,色谱柱为SB-C18,梯度洗脱,紫外检测波长为360nm。γ-氨基丁酸的线性范围在10~250mg/L,峰面积与浓度之间线性关系良好,线性方程为Y=225.53095X-0.660345,R2=0.99956,RSD为0.28%,加标回收率为94.4%~98.2%。该方法操作步骤简单,所用试剂价格低,稳定、准确。

  18. An extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice inhibits inflammation markers in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators and up-regulating antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Han, Eun Su; Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Chan; Lee, Ki Won

    2010-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an organic extract of Phellinus linteus grown on slightly germinated brown rice (PBR) was previously demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory activity of the PBR extract by analyzing its effect on the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines, chemokines, and mediator genes that participate in immune and inflammatory responses and diseases. The extract profoundly inhibited the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-6, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. It also greatly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. PBR extract inhibited NO production with a twofold lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration value than P. linteus extract. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, we examined the effect of the PBR extract on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in RAW264.7 cells. PBR extract greatly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and slightly inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It also significantly increased intracellular glutathione peroxidase activity and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Thus, the PBR extract has anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by virtue of its ability to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via inhibition of MAPK activation and up-regulation of antioxidant activities.

  19. 糙米不同皮层成分变化规律的探讨%A Study on the Change Regularity of Different Cortex Components of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喆; 苏健

    2012-01-01

    Brown rice as raw material was lightlymilled with multiple passages under the same pressure and time, the cortex compo-nents were determined to get the change regularity of different cortex components.The results showed that the moisture, protein and starch content from outer cortex to inner cortex presented an increasing change; while the ash, fat, dietary fiber and phytic acid content presented a decreasing trend.The periearp and seed coat contained more minerals, fat and dietary fiber, and the aleurone layer con- ained more dietary fiber and phytic acid, while the sub aleurone layer contained higher protein.%以糙米为原料,通过相同压力和时间,分多次对糙米进行碾白,将每次碾下的皮层成分进行检测,得出各成分变化规律。实验结果表明,糙米籽粒从外皮层到内皮层,水分、蛋白质以及淀粉含量均呈上升趋势,而灰分、脂肪、膳食纤维和植酸含量呈下降趋势;果皮和种皮中含有较多矿物质、脂肪和膳食纤维,糊粉层中含膳食纤维和植酸较多,而亚糊粉层中蛋白质含量较高。

  20. Pyramiding the Blast Resistant Gene Pi9 and the Brown Planthopper Gene Bph18(t) to Develop Restorer Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%聚合抗稻瘟病基因Pi9和抗褐飞虱基因Bp h18(t)选育水稻恢复系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文清; 裴庆利; 梁云涛; 刘丕庆; 赵开军; 王春连; 林纬; 杨培忠; 于洁

    2014-01-01

    水稻(Oryza sativa L.)作为粮食作物,在全世界粮食生产中具有极其重要的地位。稻瘟病、褐飞虱等病虫害的发生严重危害着水稻的安全生产,培育并利用水稻抗性品种能经济有效地预防水稻病虫害的发生,因此,培育抗性品种在水稻安全生产中尤为重要。本研究以具有抗稻瘟病基因Pi9的抗病品系75-1-127为抗病亲本,以携带有抗褐飞虱基因Bph18(t)的水稻材料C4064为抗虫亲本,以性状优良的恢复系测679作为轮回亲本,进行杂交、回交和自交,并辅以田间多代选择。在分离群体中,使用与Pi9紧密连锁的SCAR标记pB8跟踪目标基因Pi9,利用与Bph18(t)紧密连锁的标记KC16跟踪目标基因Bph18(t)。通过分子标记辅助选择、农艺性状评价和抗病抗虫鉴定,选育出聚合了Pi9和Bph18(t)基因、对稻瘟病和褐飞虱的抗性水平接近抗病亲本或抗虫亲本的恢复系。%Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a cereal crop, plays an ultimately important role in the global food production. The occurrence of the rice disease and pest such as the rice blast (RB) and the brown planthopper (BPH) can seve-rely damage the safe production of rice, and the development and application of the resistant varieties can prevent the occurrence of the rice disease and pest economically and effectively, so the development of the resistant variety is crucial in the safe production of rice. In this study, we used the disease resistant line 75-1-127 carrying rice blast resistant gene Pi9 as the disease-resistant parent, the BPH-resistant line C4064 harboring brown planthopper resistant gene Bph18(t) as the BPH-resistant parent, and the elite restoring line Ce679 as recurrent parents, to hy-bridize, backcross, selfcross and field select for multiple generations. The Pi9-linked SCAR marker pB8 was used to select Pi9, and the Bph18(t)-linked marker KC16 was used to select Bph18(t) in the segregating populations. By

  1. Effect of Brown Rice Protein and Its Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in High-fat Diet on Syrian hamsters%糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对喂食高脂饲料叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; Wally Yokoyama; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brown rice protein(BRP) and BRP hydrolysates(BRPH)on lipoprotein metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets compared to casein.The supplements of brown rice protein and its hydrolysates reduced hepatic total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content of hamster.Meanwhile,the BRP and BRPH diet increased the fecal total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content.Moreover,BRPH significantly reduced the hamster body weight compared to control.%以动物性蛋白酪蛋白为对照,研究了糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响。糙米蛋白及其酶解产物降低了仓鼠肝脏中总脂肪、总胆固醇和游离胆固醇含量,同时增加了粪便中脂肪及胆固醇的排出量。糙米蛋白酶解产物还可以显著降低仓鼠的体重。

  2. 超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应%Density Restriction Effects of Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population in Super Rice Yongyou NO. 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐森富; 王会福; 汪恩国; 陈伟强

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应.[方法]在超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号不同生育期即分蘖期、孕穗期、灌浆期分别接入不同虫量褐飞虱,调查并分析超级稻褐飞虱神群繁殖速率及其变化动态.[结果]分蘖期:褐飞虱孕穗期、灌浆期种群教量随分蘖期种群基数的增加而逐渐增加;当灌浆期褐飞虱种群密度升高达到一定限度(>250头/丛)时,其乳熟期种群教量随该密度的加大而呈下降趋势;超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群发展呈现中间快、两头慢的特点.孕穗期:褐飞虱种群发展在孕穗至灌浆期是随着其基数密度升高而升高,但到乳熟期相关性表现却不显著;超级稻中后期褐飞虱种群仍具有高繁殖能力,对水稻产量潜存极大威胁.灌浆期:褐飞虱种群密度<70头/丛时,其种群发展仍随着其基数密度升高而升高,对产量仍潜存较大威胁.[结论]研究结果为建立和健全褐飞虱监测预警体系、经济有效生态控制超级稻褐飞虱发生危害、提高褐飞虱持续控制能力提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] The paper was to study the density restriction effects of reproductive rate of rice brown planthopper (BPH) population in super indics and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6. [ Method ] Different amounts of BPH were inoculated into super indica and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6 during tillering, booting and filling stage, respectively. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of BPH in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. [ Result ] Tillering stage: the population quantity of BPH during booting and filling stage gradually increased with the increase of cardinal number of its population at tillering stage; when the population density of BPH during grain filling stage reached a certain limit ( > 250 head/cluster), the population density at milking stage showed decrease trend with the increase of such

  3. Organic rice disease management using genetic resistance, cover crop and organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong market demand for organic rice has driven the continued increase of organic rice production in the US. However, growers still lack effective tools to manage narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora janseana and brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, two common diseases af...

  4. Sterigmatocystin Occurrence in Paddy and Processed Rice Produced in Italy in the Years 2014–2015 and Distribution in Milled Rice Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Romani, Marco; Rastelli, Silvia; Mulazzi, Annalisa; Pietri, Amedeo

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of sterigmatocystin (STC) in paddy and processed rice samples produced in Italy was surveyed. After extraction and purification, STC was analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. STC was detected in all paddy rice samples (n = 49), in the range 0.29–15.85 μg·kg−1. As regards processed rice, a widespread contamination was found in brown and parboiled rice. All the brown rice samples were contaminated between 0.12 and 1.32 μg·kg−1; for parboiled rice, the incidence was 90.9% and the maximum level was 1.09 μg·kg−1. The contamination in white rice was significantly lower (p processes, was evaluated. After de-hulling, the STC percentage remaining in brown rice was in the range 21.2%–30.8%. The polishing process, from brown to white rice, caused another remarkable decrease of contamination; the STC remaining in white rice was 2.2%–8.3% of the amount found in paddy rice. PMID:28264482

  5. Acid diffusion into rice boluses is influenced by rice type, variety, and presence of α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennah-Govela, Yamile A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Singh, R Paul

    2015-02-01

    Breakdown of rice during gastric digestion may be influenced by rice structure, presence of salivary α-amylase, and hydrolysis by gastric acid. During mastication, saliva is mixed with rice, allowing α-amylase to begin starch hydrolysis. This hydrolysis may continue in the gastric environment depending on the rate at which gastric acid penetrates into the rice bolus. The objective of this study was to determine the acid uptake into rice boluses with and without α-amylase in saliva. Two types each of brown and white rice (medium and long grain), were formed into a cylindrical-shaped bolus. Each bolus was sealed on all sides except one to allow one-dimensional mass transfer, and incubated by immersion in simulated gastric juice at 37 °C under static conditions. Acidity of the boluses was measured by titration after 1 to 96 h of incubation. Effective diffusivity of the gastric juice through the bolus was estimated using MATLAB. Average acidity values ranged from 0.04 mg HCl/g dry matter (medium grain white rice, no incubation) to 10.01 mg HCl/g dry matter (long-grain brown rice, 72 h incubation). The rice type, presence of α-amylase, and incubation time all significantly influenced rice bolus acidity (P starch hydrolysis by α-amylase may continue in the stomach before the gastric acid penetrates the rice bolus, and the rate of acid uptake will depend on the type of rice consumed.

  6. 糙米蛋白质含量与矿质元素含量的相关分析及NIRS模型的建立%Correlation Analysis of Protein Content and Mineral Content in Brown Rice and Establishment of the Math Model for the NIRS Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭咏梅; 李华慧; 李少明; 段延碧; 黄平; 涂建

    2013-01-01

    Using 162 rice samples as materials, the method of semimicro-kjeldahl was employed to determinate the protein content,while atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ASS) was employed to determinate the contents of Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,Cu,and Mn,colorimetry with phosphate-molybdenum-blue complex was employed to determinate the content of P,and flame photometry was employed to determinate the content of K in brown rice. The relationships of protein content and mineral content, different mineral element contents in brown rice were investigated. The chemo-metrical method of partial least squares gression was used to establish the calibration model of protein content in brown rice. The results showed that the elemental concentrations in brown rice were in turn of P > K > Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. Significant positive correlations were found between protein content and mineral contents, including P,K,Cu,and Mn. In addition,the optimal model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of the first derivative in 11995.7 -7498.3/cm and 6102 -4597. 7/cm,by analyzing spectral data pretreatment and light frequency ranges. This model's calibration coefficient and validation coefficient were 92. 89 and 89. 76, respectively. The model showed significant correlation and lower error between near-infrared value and true value. The germplasm of rice resource with high protein content and rich mineral contents, such as Xiaoheigu, Xiaohongmi and Zinuomi had been selected. Good calibration equation was successfully developed for protein content and the equation showed satisfactory determination coefficients. Finally, a probably effective way to improve protein content of rice was proposed. Combination of some special characteristics, such as protein content, P, K, Cu, and Mn etc, was one of the effective approaches to increase nutrient of rice. This NIRS-assisted-selection could be a very efficient method to improve protein content and mineral contents in rice breeding programs.%利用162份

  7. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  8. 不同氮肥水平下转Bt基因水稻对褐飞虱和白背飞虱生态适应性的继代影响%Effects of Bt Rice with cry1C and cry2A on the Ecological Generation Fitness of Rice Brown Planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens ) and Whitebacked Planthoppers (Sogatella furcifera)at Various Nitrogen Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 杨亚军; 田俊策; 鲁艳辉; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of Bt rice on the generation fitness of non-target pest at different nitrogen rates,as wall as the potential impact of Bt rice and nitrogen fertilizer levels on non-target pest,the brown plantthopper (BPH)(Nilaparvata lugens)and the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH)(Sogatella furcifera),were successively cultured for four generations on Bt rice,T1C-19 with cry1C and T2A-1 with cry2A ,and their parental rice Minghui 63,at nitrogen rates of 0,100 and 250 kg/hm2 .The results indicated that the ecological fitness of the BPH and WBPH was increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer level, including shortened nymph developmental duration, enhanced fecundity, prolonged longevity, increased nymph survival rate, female weight, egg hatchability and population growth rate.There were significant differences in rice planthopper nymphal development duration,body weight of female adult,fecundity and population growth rate for four successive generations under different nitrogen rates.Transgenic Bt rice,T1C-19 and T2A-1,had no significant effect on the fitness of BPH and WBPH at the same generations and nitrogen rates,except the BPH fecundity.BPH fecundity on transgenic Bt rice T1C-19 at the nitrogen levels of 100 kg/hm2 and 250 kg/hm2 (N)was lower compared with the transgenic Bt rice T2A-1 and its parent Minghui 63 from the first generation to the third generation,but no significant difference was found among varieties at the fourth generation at three nitrogen rates.No significant difference was found on the fitness of BPH and WBPH with the generation increase, between non-transgenic Bt rice and transgenic Bt rice.Therefore, the present study demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer levels exerted a significant influence on the ecological fitness of the rice planthoppers with the generation increase,while transgenic Bt rice didn′t.%在目前氮肥施用量依然偏多的大背景下,氮肥与转Bt基因水稻的相互作用是否会对稻田中

  9. Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thailand has one of the most important rice genetic resources with white, light brown, brown, red, and purple rice bran colors. The latter believed to have potential for health benefits due to their phenolic content. Recently researchers have indicated that starch digestive enzymes, including salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and α-glucosidases, can be inhibited by phenolic compounds. Although pasting properties of rice flour are key determinants of quality significantly impactin...

  10. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  11. Insecticide Susceptibility and Activity of Metabolic Enzymes of Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)(Hemiptera: Deiphacidae)Feeding on Transgenic Bt Rice%取食转Bt基因水稻褐飞虱对杀虫剂的敏感性及其代谢酶的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆亮; 姚洪渭; 陈洋; 田俊策; 彭于发; 叶恭银

    2011-01-01

    测定比较了褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens在转cry1Ab基因水稻KMD1和KMD2及其对照秀水11上取食不同世代的室内种群和田间种群对5种杀虫剂的敏感水平及其体内解毒酶(酯酶和谷胱甘肽S-转移酶)、靶标酶(乙酰胆碱酯酶)和保护酶(超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶)的活性,以及体内Cry1Ab蛋白的含量.结果表明,5种杀虫剂对分别持续取食KMD1和KMD2的褐飞虱室内种群和田间种群LD50值与取食对照的无显著差异.在KMD1和KMD2上取食1代和9代的褐飞虱室内种群以及田间种群体内解毒酶、靶标酶和保护酶等活性与取食对照的差异不显著.取食KMD的褐飞虱不同种群体内的Cry1Ab蛋白含量相对稳定,其中以取食KMD2的较高.上述结果表明,转cry1Ab基因水稻KMD1和KMD2对褐飞虱的杀虫剂敏感性和代谢酶活性无显著影响.%The toxicities of five commonly-used insecticides against different populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, fed on transgenic rice with crylAb gene, KMD1 and KMD2 for different generations were measured and compared with those on non-transgenic parental rice variety, Xiushui 11.Activities of detoxification enzymes (EST and GST), target enzyme (AChE), and protective enzymes (SOD, CAT and POD) from different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1, KMD2, and Xiushui 11 and the content of Cry protein were also detected.For all five insecticides tested,there were no significant differences in LD50 values among different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1 KMD2, and Xiushui 11 continuously in the laboratory and collected from the rice fields.For all six metabolic enzymes tested, there was no significant difference of enzyme activities among different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1, KMD2 and Xiushui 11 for 1 and 9 generations in the laboratory or collected from the rice fields.The content of Cry protein was relatively stable in different populations of N.lugens fed on Bt

  12. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  13. Impact of parboiling conditions on Maillard precursors and indicators in long-grain rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Lieve; Rombouts, Ine; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-10-15

    The effect of steaming conditions (mild, intermediate and severe) during parboiling of five different long-grain rice cultivars (brown rice cultivars Puntal, Cocodrie, XL8 and Jacinto, and a red rice) on rice colour, and Maillard precursors and indicators was investigated. Rice colour increased with severity of parboiling conditions. Redness increased more than yellowness when parboiling brown rice. Parboiling turned red rice black. It changed the levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. Losses of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose were caused by both leaching into the soaking water and enzymic conversion, rather than by thermal degradation during steaming. Concentrations of the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, in intermediately parboiled rice were higher than those of mildly parboiled rice. After severe parboiling, glucose levels were lower than those of intermediately parboiled rice, while fructose levels were higher. These changes were ascribed to the sum of losses in the Maillard reaction (MR), formations as a result of starch degradation and isomerisation of glucose into fructose. It was clear that the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine was more affected by parboiling conditions and loss in MRs, than that of free lysine. Low values of the MR indicators furosine and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in processed brown and red rices were related to mild parboiling, whereas high furosine and low free HMF levels were indicative of rices being subjected to intermediate processing conditions. High furosine and high free HMF contents corresponded to severe hydrothermal treatments. The strong correlation (r=0.89) between the free HMF levels and the increase in redness of parboiled brown rices suggested that Maillard browning was reflected more in the red than in the yellow colour.

  14. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  15. 不同储藏期籼糯糙米制作的汤圆食用品质的变化%Changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷凡; 田春庄; 王月慧

    2016-01-01

    利用质构仪检测籼糯糙米储藏后制成的速冻汤圆食用品质的变化,分成常规组(15、25、35℃)和气调储藏组(自然空气封入、N2 气体封入、CO2 气体封入、真空),整个储藏期为 1 8 0 d,每隔 3 0 d后制成速冻汤圆,检测其各项指标,并对产品进行感官评价.结果显示:各项指标受温度影响均较大,气调方式对其影响不明显;通过汤圆的感官评价发现,储藏前期温度和气调方式对汤圆的食用品质影响不大;在 35℃下 60 d时汤圆的食用品质开始下降,而气调储藏的汤圆食用品质尚佳;其他温度下 90 d后的汤圆食用品质开始下降,气调方式无显著影响.表明15℃低温条件下,气调储藏能更好地保持籼糯糙米制作的汤圆良好的食用品质,且温度越高,气调效果越明显.%The changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods were determined using texture analyzer.In this experiment,the long-grain glutinous brown rice were stored in different temperature (15,25 and 35℃)and controlled atmosphere storage (air sealed,N2 sealed,CO2 sealed,vacuum sealed), for 180 d,and every 30 d,the brown rice were made frozen sweet dumpling,the various indexes and the sensory quality were measured.The experimental results showed that the indicators were extremely influenced by temperature,the controlled atmos-phere storage had no obvious influences.Through the sensory evaluations of sweet dumplings,we found that temperature and controlled atmosphere storage had little effects on the edible quality of the dumplings in the early period;at 35℃ the edible qual-ity of sweet dumplings declined after 60 d,but the dumplings in controlled atmosphere storage had no changes;the edible quality of sweet dumplings began to decline after 90 d under other temperature conditions,the controlled atmosphere storage had no ob-vious effects.It indicated that 1 5℃ low temperature

  16. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Genotype on Rice Grain Macronutrients and Micronutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhao-miao; NING Hui-feng; BI Jun-guo; QIAO Jiang-fang; LIU Zheng-hui; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2014-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) input features China’s intensive rice production system. To elucidate N and genotype effects on accumulation of macronutrients and micronutrients in grains of japonica rice, and to discuss its significance in rice production, a three-year field experiment involving six japonica rice varieties and seven N treatments were performed. Macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) concentrations in brown and milled rice were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. For macronutrients, no consistently significant effect of N was detected in both brown and milled rice. For micronutrients, N showed significant effect, especially in lowering Zn accumulation in brown and milled rice. In addition, N tended to increase Fe concentration in milled rice. Genotype showed larger effect on distribution of minerals in milled rice than N. The high-yielding variety, Wuyunjing 7, accumulated larger proportion of Mg, K, and Zn in the milled rice as compared with the other five varieties, and could be of value for rice breeding programs aiming at high nutritional quality. The results demonstrated differences in response to N between macronutrients and micronutrients, and are of significance for coping with‘hidden hunger’ both in humans and crops through agronomical practices.

  17. Study on Control Technology in Brown Planthopper Outbreak Year in Huangshan Single Season Rice%黄山稻区单季中稻防控褐飞虱大发生技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方春华

    2015-01-01

    为了明确单季中稻褐飞虱大发生条件下的防控技术。通过不同药剂组合进行防治褐飞虱的田间药效试验,并进行大田示范验证。结果表明,在四(2)代低龄若虫高峰期选择对褐飞虱高效的药剂呋虫胺进行防治,并在五(3)代低龄高峰期使用呋虫胺或吡蚜酮等再进行1次防治,可以有效控制褐飞虱危害。%In order to definite the control technology on brown planthopper in outbreak year, field efficacy trials and demonstration were carried out by combinating different pesticides. The results showed that brown planthopper could be controlled effectively when dinotefuran was used at peak stage of low instar nymphs of 4 (2) generation, then dinotefuran or pymetrozine was used at peak period of 5 (3) generation.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  19. Breeding of transgenic rice lines with GNA and Bar genes resistance to both brown planthopper and herbicide%导入GNA和Bar基因获得抗褐飞虱和抗除草剂的转基因水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恒秀; 赵志鹏; 王玲; 刘巧泉; 龚志云; 顾铭洪

    2007-01-01

    褐飞虱(brown planthopper,BPH)是世界上,尤其是我国及许多亚洲国家水稻生产的最主要害虫之一。培育抗稻飞虱的水稻品种是一种最经济有效的防治方法,同时可以避免化学农药的使用对环境造成的破坏。一些植物凝集素(phytohem agglutinin,PHA)对褐飞虱具有毒性,其中又以雪花莲凝集素(galanthus nivals agglutinin,GNA)对褐飞虱的毒性最强,对哺乳动物毒副作用极低。

  20. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  1. Changes of fumonisin production in rice grain during ensiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kobayashi, Hisami; Inoue, Hidehiko; Tohno, Masanori; Tsukiboshi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We assessed fumonisin production during the ensiling of rice grain. Rice grain was harvested at the full-ripe stage and prepared as rough rice, crushed rough rice, brown rice or crushed brown rice. Each material was ensiled under six conditions: (1) no fungus, anaerobic; (2) no fungus, aerobic; (3) water added, anaerobic; (4) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, anaerobic; (5) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, aerobic; or (6) fumonisin-producing fungus added to autoclaved material, aerobic. After 40 days of ensilage, we analyzed the silage fermentative quality and fumonisin concentration. The fermentative quality of all materials was good in treatments (3) and (4) (pH  6.5). The fumonisin concentration was low in all materials in treatments (1) to (4), slightly increased in the three materials other than rough rice in treatment (5), and enormously increased in all materials in treatment (6). The results indicate that the fumonisin-producing fungus does not produce fumonisin in anaerobic conditions. It is important that an anaerobic condition be maintained during ensiling in order to reduce the fumonisin content in rice grain silage.

  2. [Phytoexclusion potential studies of Si fertilization modes on rice cadmium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bo-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ye, Chang-Cheng; Luo, Mei-Mei; Mao, Yi-De

    2014-07-01

    The research used serious situ multi-metal contaminated soils to explore Cd repair potential in rice by adding different kinds of fertilizers, based on the outdoor pot experiment. The experiment was consisted of four treatments including non-used fertilizers (CK), the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil (Tsi), the silicon fertilizer applicated as foliar spray (Ysi) and the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil combined with the foliar spray silicon fertilizer application( Tsi + Ysi). The research examined Cd concentrations in tissues of five key growth periods to reveal cadmium (Cd) migration rules, translocation coefficients, rice biomass and yields. The results showed that, compared to CK, different fertilization methods of Si had significant impacts on decreasing Cd in brown rice and polished rice, but not in rice yields; In addition, Tsi + Ysi had the best effects to decrease Cd in edible grains, which resulted in Cd concentrations of husk, brown rice and polished rice reduced by 62.59%, 58.33% and 65.83%, respectively, and the effects of applying Tsi and Ysi were the second. Therefore, Tsi, Ysi and Tsi + Ysi were confirmed to be potential Cd pollution control technologies to rice.

  3. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to maximise phytic acid removal and minimise losses of dry matter and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) in rice, three products (whole kernels and flour milled from white and brown rice; and bran, all from the same batch of variety Kenjian 90-31) were soaked in demineralized water at 10 °C (SDW), N

  4. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  5. EffectsofDifferentEcologicalConditionsonGrainQualityandRVAProfileCharaCteriSticSofJaponicaRiceVarietiesfrOmYunnanPlateauofChinaandKorea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua ZHU; Pingrong YUAN; Guozhen ZHAO; Zhenxi SU; Xinhua LIAO; Seajun YANG; Luyuan DAI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice quality under different environmental conditions in Yunnan Plateau. [Method] Ten Yunnan japonica rice varieties and six Korean japoni- ca rice varieties were selected to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on grain quality characteristics and starch RVA profile characteristic values of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice. [Result] The coefficient of variation of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice reached the maximum in setback viscosity (SBV). The coefficients of variation of brown rice length (BRL), chalkiness rate (CR), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), final viscosity (FLV), setback vis- cosity (SBV) and peak time (PET) of Yunnan japonica rice varieties were significant- ly higher than those of Korean japonica rice, while other grain quality characteristics were contrary. With the increasing altitudes, BRL, brown rice width (BRW), length- width ratio (L/W), whiteness (WH), AC, ADV, FLV and consistence viscosity (CTV) of Yunnan japonica rice and BRL, BRW, WH, PC, peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosi- ty (HTV) and breakdown viscosity (BDV) of Korean japonica rice were significantly reduced , while CR, PC, HTV and PeT of Yunnan japonica rice and L/W, AC, ADV and CTV of Korean japonica rice significantly increased, but CR of Korean japonica rice showed no significantly variation. PKV, BDV and pasting temperature (PAT) of Yunnan japonica rice and PaT of Korean japonica rice showed an upward trend af- ter an initial drop with the increasing altitudes, while SBV of Yunnan japonica rice and FLV and PeT of Korean japonica rice were contrary. [Conclusion] This study provided theoretical basis for breeding of japonica rice in Yunnan Plateau.

  6. Bionomics of brown planthopper biotype 2 from field and greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two biotype 2 populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens stal, were used in this experiment. One was purified by determining the weight of honeydew excreted on susceptible rice variety TN1 and resistant rice varieties Mudgo (bearing resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (bearing resistant gene bph2) by female adult in paddy field in Guangxi Province, south China, and the other was obtained from greenhouse and continuously reared on rice resistant variety Mudgo in IRRI, Philippines. One newly hatched nymph was introduced into the test tube containing two 60 day old rice plants and cultured at 26± 1℃ , L∶ D =12 h∶ 12 h. Sixty replications were set up for each tested rice variety. The number and instar of nymphes were recorded every day. The body weight and honeydew excreted by female adult emerged within 24 h and 72 h, the number of eggs laid, and newly hatched nymph on different resistant rice varieties were measured. The hatchability, net reproductive rate, female adult nutritional indices such as relative growth rate (RGR)and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) were calculated.

  7. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  8. EFFECT OF GROWTH PROMOTOR AND BIOPROTECTOR ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATED RICE AND BROWN SPOT INCIDENCE USO DE PROMOTOR DE CRESCIMENTO E DE BIOPROTETOR NA CULTURA DO ARROZ IRRIGADO E SEU EFEITO SOBRE A INCIDÊNCIA DA MANCHA-DE-GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fascin Berni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercial products, one containing plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and micorrhizae, and the other containing micronutrients and aminoacids, on the development of irrigated rice. One kilogram of the biological product Biosol (trade mark was added to the seeds at sowing time (1kg / ha and the biofertilizer Greensol (trade mark was sprayed by airplane (200 ml / ha in association with fungicides, when 5% of panicles had been emitted. The treatments used were T1: Control; T2: Greensol; T3: Biosol + Greensol and T4: Biosol. Five parameters were evaluated: number of shoots per meter, dry weight 90 days after sowing, grain yield, empty grains percentage and incidence of brown spot disease (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan. Number of shoots per meter was uniform in all treatments. Grouped analysis indicated superiority of all treatments with Biosol over the control for the parameters of dry weight of plants and roots. Treatments T3 and T4 presented superior yields. In these treatments empty grain percentage was lower than the control. Brown spot severity index indicated that all treatments were better than control and T3 and T4 treatments had the lowest disease index.

    KEY-WORDS: Helminthosporium oryzae; Oryza sativa; disease control; rice.

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de dois produtos comerciais sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre a incidência da mancha-de-grãos causada por Helminthosporium oryzae. Um dos produtos consistia de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas (RPCPs e micorrizas (Biosol e o outro era constituído por micronutrientes e amino

  9. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and germinated for four different days (1- 4 days. Total phenolic compounds, phytic acid, á-tocopherol, á- tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol were investigated compared with those of ungerminated brown rice. The antioxidant activity of germinated rice was evaluated through four different methods, the 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay and linoleic acid emulsion system-thiocyanate method. Results: The results showed that the germination for 2 days or longer, after soaking, yielded significantly higher level of total phenolic, á-tocopherol, á-tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol than those of ungerminated brown rice and soaked rice, whilst the concentration of phytic acid was reduced significantly when germination time was increased. The samples germinated for one day or longer also revealed greater antioxidant activity than those of ungerminated rice. Conclusion: The level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of germinated rough rice were affected by germination time. Germination for 2 and 3 days was the optimum time for germination rough rice to obtain high concentration of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity. The germination process of rough rice could be a potential method to obtain functional germinated rice flour with high bioactive compounds and health beneficial properties and could be applied to produce

  10. 基于人工神经网络和遗传算法的黑木耳糙米醋发酵条件优化%Optimization of fermentation conditions for Auricularia auricular and brown rice vinegar based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海亮; 王莹; 张洁; 朴美子

    2011-01-01

    Using Auricularia auricular and brown rice as raw material, acetic fermentation conditions were studied. Ranges of different parameters, such as inoculum, rotating speed and filling volume were determined by single-factor and orthogonal experimental tests. Then, optimal fermentation conditions were optimized by artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm. The results indicated that the highest acidity could reach 3.855g/100ml when fermentation conditions were as follows: inculum 8.1%, rotating speed 169r/min, and filling liquid medium volume 61ml. Compared with the results of orthogonal test, the acidity increased by 8.0% and a higher accurate method was proposed for fermentation conditions optimization.%以黑木耳糙米为原料,研究醋酸发酵的工艺条件,对接种量、摇床转速和装料最参数进行了单因素和正交试验,摸索出参数优化范围,并利用人工神经网络和遗传算法联合对发酵条件进行优化,结果表明,当接种量为8.1%,摇床转速为169r/min,装料量为250mL三角瓶装料61mL时,醋酸含量可达3.855g/100mL,该方法与正交试验设计得出的结果相比,发酵酸度上升了8.0%,为发酵优化控制提供了一种更加准确的方法.

  11. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  12. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  13. STUDY ON RESIDUES OF 14C-FENITROTHION IN MODEL RICE-FISH ECOSYSTEM AND FIELD RICE-FISH ECOSYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of 14C-fenitrothion in a model rice-fish ecosystem and field rice-fish ecosystem were studied.When equal amounts of the pesticide were applied.the extractable residues in brown rice (equivalent to 34.3±1.9ug/kg fenitrothion) and rice stems and leaves(20.9±1.5ug/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-15times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem(4.48±0.13ug/kg and 1.27±0.34ug/kg respectively).Residues in upper part of the soil (6.50±0.1-8.10±0.2ug/kg)and lower part of the soil(1.30±0.1-1.50±0.1ug/kg)of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-40 times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem (0.17±0.01ug/kg).The extractable residues in paddy water of the model ecosystem (0.30±0.01ug/kg)were similar to that of the field ecosystem(0.20±0.02ug/kg),When the fenitrothion was sprayed on the rice plants.residues in brown rice,fish body.soil and paddy water were lower than those when the pesticide was sprayed on the surface of the soil.

  14. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of N lTgo in the Rice Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)%褐飞虱 NlTgo 基因的克隆及功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙飞; 万品俊; 王渭霞; 傅强; 朱廷恒

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulator Tango (Tgo)plays crucial roles in insect development,including neurogenesis, hematopoiesis,sex determination and gut development.In this study,a full-length cDNA of Tango was cloned in Nilaparvata lugens .qRT-PCR and RNA interference (RNAi)were further used to analyze the expression pattern and function role,respectively.Our results showed that NlTgo contained a 2007-bp open reading frame (ORF),encoding 669 amino acid residues.Sequence alignment showed that NlTgo shared an identity of 68% with Pediculus humanus . Phylogenetic analysis suggested that NlTgo was closely related to the Tango proteins from Acyrthosiphon pisum , P yrrhocoris apterus and Cimex lectularius .Expression profile revealed that NlTgo expression was higher in the first-and second-instar larvae than that in eggs.Furthermore,the expression level of NlTgo was higher in ovary than that in integument.Knocking down of NlTgo ,in the 4th-instar nymph,was performed by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting NlTgo .It was found that the expression level of NlTgo ,4 days after injection,was significantly decreased by 77%,compared with control.Furthermore,nymphs died due to the abnormal molting,and the survival rate was only 23%,significantly lower than control group (98%).The results suggest that NlTgo is involved in the development of N .lugens and can serve as a potential target for controlling the brown planthopper.%转录因子 Tango(Tgo)在昆虫神经元发生、血细胞生成、性别决定、肠道发育等过程中发挥重要作用.克隆了褐飞虱Tango 基因(NlTgo ),应用荧光定量 PCR 和 RNAi 探索了 NlTgo 在褐飞虱中的表达动态和生物学功能.结果表明,NlTgo的开放阅读框为2007 bp,推测编码669个氨基酸残基.多序列比对表明 NlTgo 与已知的 Tgo 高度同源,其中与人体虱(Pediculus humanus corporis )Tgo 的一致性达68%.系统进化分析表明,NlTgo 与豌豆长管蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum )、始红蝽(P yrrhocoris

  16. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk & leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants.

  17. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  18. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  19. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  20. Comparison for activities of antioxidant enzymes in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible symbiotic strains in rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l)%褐飞虱共生菌抗感吡虫啉菌株体内抗氧化酶活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陈建明; 张珏锋; 何月平; 陈列忠

    2011-01-01

    在含不同浓度吡虫啉的综合马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂液体培养基中接种抗感吡虫啉褐飞虱共生菌菌株且培养2~6天后,通过测定抗吡虫啉菌株和敏感菌株的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)等活性,阐明抗感菌株在吡虫啉胁迫下体内抗氧化酶活性的变化.结果显示,抗吡虫啉菌株和敏感菌株三种抗氧化酶活性差异明显不同,抗性菌株的SOD、POD活性(极)显著高于敏感菌株,其中抗性菌株SOD活性比敏感菌株提高了45.89%~222.53%;抗性菌株的CAT活性与敏感菌株差异无明显规律性.说明褐飞虱共生菌对吡虫啉的抗药性与其体内SOD和POD的活性增强有关.%After imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible symbiotic strains of rice brown planthopper, Ni-laparvata lugens were cultured in CPDA (comprehensive potato dextrose agar) liquid culture medium containing different concentrations of imidacloprid for two to six days, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains were determined , and change of these enzymes activities in different imidacloprid resistant strains were elucidated. The results showed that imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains had significant difference in activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in imidacloprid resistant strains were significantly higher than those in imidacloprid susceptible strains, and activities of superoxide dismutase in imidacloprid resistant strains had increased 45. 89% -222.53% , while change of catalase activity had no obvious regularity in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains. It was suggested that resistant of N. lugens symbiotes to imidacloprid was related to enh-ancement of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities.

  1. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  2. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  3. A taxonomic investigation on egg parasitoid, Anagrus of rice planthopper in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Exploitation and utilization of beneficial arthropods viz. insects and spiders to regulate pest populations has a good prospect in China. The role of non_rice habitats in maintaining the population of natural enemies of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) has been investigated in Zhejiang Province since 1994. The work focused primarily on the egg parasitoids genus Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Plants laden with eggs of the brown planthopper were exposed 2 d every week in the rice fields and grassy areas dominated by Digitaria spp. Then, the plants were retrieved and brought back to the laboratory for parasitoid rearing. Newly emerged parasitoids were preserved in alcohol solution for further identification.

  4. Factors Affecting Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Efficiency in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN En-hui; ZHANG Ping; ZUO Shi-min; LI Ai-hong; ZHANG Ya-fang; CHEN Zong-xiang; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    Several important factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation were studied with several predominant commercial indica and japonica rice cultivars. As far as indica rice callus was concerned, CC medium was the best and the quality of callus was improved with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0 mg/L ABA. It decreased the percentage of browning calli and improved the callus growing state by addition of a certain amount of sorbitol to the subculture medium. NB medium was the best for callus initiation of japonica rice, but the improvement in the quality of callus of japonica subspecies was not obvious by adding ABA. During the period of subculture, to a certain degree, increasing the sucrose concentration could improve the proportion of hygromycin resistant calli. Furthermore, the transformation efficiency would be higher by applying selection pressure in the selection stage, removing selection pressure during the plantlet differentiation period and applying selection pressure again during seedling hardening period. Besides, suitable combination of plant hormones was beneficial for callus differentiation. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation system had been established for several rice cultivars and a lot of transgenic rice plants had been obtained.

  5. Production of D-lactic acid by bacterial fermentation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuki; Sogo, Kazuaki; Miura, Shigenobu; Kimura, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-20

    D-Lactic acid was synthesized by the fermentation of rice starch using microorganisms. Two species: Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Sporolactobacillus inulinus were found to be active in producing D-lactic acid of high optical purity after an intensive screening test for D-lactic acid bacteria using glucose as substrate. Rice powder used as the starch source was hydrolyzed with a combination of enzymes: alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to obtain rice saccharificate consisting of maltose as the main component. Its average gross yield was 82.5%. Of the discovered D-lactic acid bacteria, only Lactobacillus delbrueckii could ferment both maltose and the rice saccharificate. After optimizing the fermentation of the rice saccharificate using this bacterium, pilot scale fermentation was conducted to convert the rice saccharificate into D-lactic acid with a D-content higher than 97.5% in a yield of 70%. With this yield, the total yield of D-lactic acid from brown rice was estimated to be 47%, which is almost equal to the L-lactic acid yield from corn. The efficient synthesis of D-lactic acid can open a way to the large scale application of high-melting poly(lactic acid) that is a stereocomplex of poly(L-lactide) and poly(D-lactide). Schematic representation of the production of D-lactic acid starting from brown rice as described here.

  6. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area.

  7. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-12-08

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  8. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  9. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  10. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  11. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  12. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  13. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  14. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L. Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg. The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis, with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg, campesterol (116–242 mg/kg, ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data, identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.

  15. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Ya-yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd and lead (Pb in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatments, single red mud was best, followed by red mud and organic fertilizer combined, single organic fertilizer was worst. The content of Cd and Pb in different rice organs with addition of red mud and organic fertilizer decreased significantly, the contribution rate of Cd and Pb at different stages changed obviously, and influences of adding quantity and fertilizing method were also significant. Different treatments had different effects on contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice. Compared with CK, red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 was the best for Cd, combination of red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 and organic fertilizer (1 000 kg·hm-2was the best for Pb, the contents of which were 55.90% and 29.41% less than the control respectively. Although contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased significantly after red mud and organic fertilizer added, contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice were still higher than national food safety standards (GB 2762-2012 because of high polluted degree of Cd (65 times than standard and Pb(7 times than standard in soil. All results showed it was ineffective to control heavy metal pollution in brown rice only by red mud and organic fertilizer addition in high polluted degree soils.

  16. Rice Price under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Early in April, the FOB (Free on Board) value of rice exported from Bangkok, Thailand, the biggest rice exporter of the world, surged to a new high of US$730per ton, representing an increase of 70 percent in recent years, and setting a new record over the past 34 years of Thailand rice exports.

  17. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp i

  18. Impact of drought and detection of potential donors for reproductive stage tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafina Haque, A.Anandan, S.K.Pradhan, and O.N.Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, 48 drought tolerant lines along with two susceptible genotypes of upland and lowland rice ecologies were tested at Central Rice Research Institute during dry season of 2011 and 2012, to identify the reproductive stage drought tolerant lines and to exploit the genetic variations. In support of various estimates of morpho-physiological parameters, genotypes Nan Te Hao, Purbachi (Chinese 1, Saita, NSIC Rc 222, Binnatoha, CO18, Ai Jiao Nan Te, Brown Gora, Black Gora (NCS 12, Jhona 349, Kalakeri are adjudged as good donors for reproductive stage drought tolerance in rice.

  19. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  20. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  1. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  2. Association Analysis of the Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo Zhao; Eun-Jin Park; Jong-Wook Chung; Yong-Jin Park; III-Min Chung; Joung-Kuk Ahn; Gwang-Ho Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with the amino acid content of rice (Oryza sativa L.). SSR markers were selected by prescreening for the relationship to amino acid content. Eighty-four rice landrace accessions from Korea were evaluated for 16 kinds of amino acids in brown rice and genotyped with 25 SSR markers. Analysis of population structure revealed four subgroups in the population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and distributions are of fundamental importance for genome-wide mapping associations. The mean r2 value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.033. LD between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). A total of 42 marker-trait associations with amino acids (P < 0.05) were identified using 15 different SSR markers covering three chromosomes and explaining more than 40% of the total variation. These results suggest that association analysis In rice is a viable alternative to quantitative trait loci mapping and should help rice breeders develop strategies for improving rice quality.

  3. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  4. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  5. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  6. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  8. Food—Security Indexes Related to Combined Pollution of Chromium and Phenol in Soil—Rice Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUQIXING; ZHUYINMEI; 等

    1997-01-01

    The pot-culture method combined with chemical and staistical analyses was used to get basic data for determination of the food-seurity indexes related to combined pollution of Cr and phenol in soil-rice systems. Regression analyses accordig to the experimental result indicated that the critical concentrations of Cr and phenol in brown rice were 0.37 and 0.33 mg kg-1 ,respectively,under the condition of Cr-phenol combined pollution.

  9. 大米及其制品中的RS3%RS3 contents in rice and rice products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天

    2011-01-01

    测定了英国市场上销售的Basmati(白米,糙米)(长粒米),泰国香米(长粒米),日本大米(短粒米)样品中RS3的含量,比较长粒米和短粒米在熟化过程的稳定性以及不同米制品中含量的差异.结果表明,短粒大米RS3含量高于长粒大米;熟化过程对RS3含量的影响巨大,其中白米米粉在熟化过程中RS3含量下降的程度低于糙米米粉,长粒米米粉、短粒米米粉在熟化过程中RS3含量下降的程度差异不大;保鲜米饭与同品种大米制作熟化大米粉的RS3含量基本相当.%Nine rice samples from British markets were used for measuring the RS3 content. The cooking stability of long grain and short grain was compared, as well as the content in different rice products. From the result, short grain rice had higher RS3 content compared to long grain rice. Cooking treatment strongly influenced RS3 content in all samples. The decreasing rate of RS3 content in brown rice powder was less than white rice powder. There was no big defference between short grain and long grain. Ready to eat cooked rice had similar RS3 content with freshly cooked white rice powder.

  10. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  11. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.

  12. A hydroponic rice seedling culture model system for investigating proteome of salt stress in rice leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dea-Wook; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jung, Young-Ho; Shibato, Junko; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kim, Du Hyun; Shim, Ie-Sung; Usui, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By using an in vivo hydroponic rice seedling culture system, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of a model rice japonica cultivar Nipponbare to salt stress using proteomics and classical biochemical methods. Yoshida's nutrient solution (YS) was used to grow rice seedlings. YS-grown 18-day-old seedlings manifested highly stable and reproducible symptoms, prominently the wilting and browning of the 3rd leaf, reduced photosynthetic activity, inhibition in overall seedling growth, and failure to develop new (5th) leaf, when subjected to salt stress by transferring them to YS containing 130 mM NaCl for 4 days. As leaf response to salt stress is least investigated in rice by proteomics, we used the 3rd leaf as source material. A comparison of 2-DE protein profiles between the untreated control and salt-stressed 3rd leaves revealed 55 differentially expressed CBB-stained spots, where 47 spots were increased over the control. Of these changed spots, the identity of 33 protein spots (27 increased and 5 decreased) was determined by nESI-LC-MS/MS. Most of these identified proteins belonged to major metabolic processes like photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation and photorespiration, suggesting a good correlation between salt stress-responsive proteins and leaf morphology. Moreover, 2-DE immunoblot and enzymatic activity analyses of 3rd leaves revealed remarkable changes in the key marker enzymes associated with oxidative damage to salt stress: ascorbate peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were induced, and catalase was suppressed. These results demonstrate that hydroponic culture system is best suited for proteomics of salt stress in rice seedling.

  13. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  14. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  15. Nutritional Components Analysis of Germ-remaining Rice%胚芽米营养成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞超; 林轩; 周美园; 王忠华

    2013-01-01

    The germ-remaining rice, brown rice and polished rice were used to detect the nutrient compositions (such as moisture, ashes, protein, amylose, micronutrient elements, etc). Meanwhile the difference of composition contents among three samples were also compared and analyzed. The result showed that the difference of main nutrient content between germ-remaining rice and brown rice was not significant, but protein, ash, mineral and amino acid contents in both rice were significantly higher than those in polished rice. It indicated that the germ-remaining rice has the similar nutritional value to the brown rice. Because the brown rice has more the content of aleurone and affects the eating flavor after cooking. Therefore, the germ-remaining rice has either rich nutrition components or better eating flavor, which provide the scientific clue to the use and development of the germ-remaining rice.%以来自相同水稻品种的胚芽米、糙米和精米为材料,对其营养成分(如水分、灰分、蛋白质、氨基酸、直链淀粉、微量元素等)进行了测定,同时对三者进行了比较与分析。结果发现,胚芽米的蛋白质、灰分、微量元素及氨基酸含量均显著多于精米,而与糙米相比相差不大。这说明胚芽米具有糙米类似的营养价值。但由于糙米含有较多的糊粉,蒸煮后口感粗糙不适合食用,因此,胚芽米既含有丰富的营养成分,又具有较好的口感,为进一步开发与利用提供了一定的科学依据。

  16. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  17. Effects of Four Pesticides on Grain Growth Parameters of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jin-cai; DONG Bo; LI Dong-hu; QIU Hui-min; YANG Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Effect of four commonly used pesticides, triadlmefon, jingganmycin, triazoplos and imidacloprid, on grain growth parameters was examined using a growth equation in the present paper. Two hundreds of spikes, not damaged by pests were simultaneously marked per plot during the heading stage of rice. Rice plants were sprayed at 1 d after marking.Thereafter, 20 spikes were sampled at 4 d intervals and dried in an oven. Then, 10 superior and inferior grains were picked from each spike, and brown rice was weighed after shelling, respectively. First, second and third order derivates were deduced from the following grain growth formula:W=K/1+ea-bt , where W was the weight of 100 grains brown rice at time t; K was maximum of grain growth; a and b were parameters of the formula. The parameters were calculated as following:R0=Kbea/ (1 + ea)2 ,△ t=t2-t1,GT=bk/4(t2-t1)=Vmax(t2-t1),Vmax=bk/4Where R0, △t, GT and Vmax were initial growth power, active growth stage, accumulative weight of dried content during △ t and maximum growth rate, respectively. The result showed that GT and K of superior grain following 22.5 and 45 ga.i. ha-1 of imidacloprid sprays were significantly reduced, and △t was significantly decreased for 112.5 and 225ga.i. ha-1 jingganmycin treatments. In addition, the high dose of imidacloprid significantly reduced the weight of 1 000 rice grains by 9.77%. However, there was no significant difference for the weight of 1 000 grains between the high dose of jingganmycin and thecontrol, indicating that effective duration of jingganmycin on grain filling was shorterthan that of imidacloprid.

  18. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioca and rice flour respectively, with the addition of brown sugar, and analyses its technological, nutritional and sensory properties. The following physical, physicochemical and nutritional properties were analyzed: dough texture profile, cookie weight, diameter and volume, acidity, water activity, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, ash content and moisture. A sensory evaluation was held using an affective test with 90 judges and a structured nine-point hedonic scale ranging from 'like extremely' to 'dislike extremely' for the attributes scent, color, texture, taste and overall impression in addition to purchase intent. The results indicate that cookies made of tapioca and rice flours with the addition of brown sugar have technological, physicochemical and nutritional profiles within legal standards; however, the fiber contents were below recommendations. The sensory evaluation showed good acceptance of the cookies, with average scores above 7.0. This study is part of an attempt to raise further discussions regarding the production of new low-cost bakery products that are nutritionally enriched, viable and easily accessible to all, including to people with celiac disease.

  19. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  20. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  1. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  4. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  12. Cry1Ab rice does not impact biological characters and functional response ofCyrtorhinus lividipennispreying onNilaparvata lugens eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yang; LAI Feng-xiang; SUN Yan-qun; HONG Li-ying; TIAN Jun-ce; ZHANG Zhi-tao; FU Qiang

    2015-01-01

    One concern about the use of transgenic plants is their potential risk to natural enemies. In this study, using the eggs of the rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, as a food source, we investigated the effects of Cry1Ab rice on the biological characteristics and functional response of an important predatorCyrtorhinus lividipennis. The results showed that the survival ability (adult emergence rate and egg hatching rate), development (egg duration, nymphal developmental duration), adult fresh weight, adult longevity and fecundity ofC. lividipennis on Bt rice plants were not signiifcantly different compared to those on non-Bt rice plants. Furthermore, two important parameters of functional response (instantaneous search rate and handling time) were not signiifcantly affected by Bt rice. In conclusion, the tested Cry1Ab rice does not adversely impact the biological character and functional response ofC. lividipennis.

  13. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Marie Pangan Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective: This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method: The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5 and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results: Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion: Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities.

  14. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    Background In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities. PMID:27032671

  15. A three-season field study on the in-situ remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil using lime, two industrial by-products, and a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Bing, He; Dao-You, Huang; Qi-Hong, Zhu; Shuai, Wang; Shou-Long, Liu; Hai-Bo, He; Han-Hua, Zhu; Chao, Xu

    2017-02-01

    To mitigate the serious problem of Cd-contaminated paddy soil, we investigated the remediation potential of combining in-situ immobilization with a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar. A three-season field experiment compared the soil pH, available Cd and absorption of Cd by three rice cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities grown in Cd-contaminated paddy soil amended with lime (L), slag (S), and bagasse (B) alone or in combination. The three amendments applied alone and in combination significantly increased soil pH, reduced available Cd and absorption of Cd by rice with no effect on grain yield. Among these, the LS and LSB treatments reduced the brown rice Cd content by 38.3-69.1% and 58.3-70.9%, respectively, during the three seasons. Combined with planting of a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar (Xiang Zaoxian 32) resulted in a Cd content in brown rice that met the contaminant limit (≤0.2mgkg(-1)). However, the grain yield of the low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar was approximately 30% lower than the other two rice cultivars. Applying LS or LSB as amendments combined with planting a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar is recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil. The selection and breeding of low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivars with high grain production requires further research.

  16. Genome-wide mapping of virulence in brown planthopper identifies loci that break down host plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yinhua; Liu, Bingfang; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Hangjin; Zhou, Xi; Qin, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2014-01-01

    Insects and plants have coexisted for over 350 million years and their interactions have affected ecosystems and agricultural practices worldwide. Variation in herbivorous insects' virulence to circumvent host resistance has been extensively documented. However, despite decades of investigation, the genetic foundations of virulence are currently unknown. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) pest in the world. The identification of the resistance gene Bph1 and its introduction in commercial rice varieties prompted the emergence of a new virulent brown planthopper biotype that was able to break the resistance conferred by Bph1. In this study, we aimed to construct a high density linkage map for the brown planthopper and identify the loci responsible for its virulence in order to determine their genetic architecture. Based on genotyping data for hundreds of molecular markers in three mapping populations, we constructed the most comprehensive linkage map available for this species, covering 96.6% of its genome. Fifteen chromosomes were anchored with 124 gene-specific markers. Using genome-wide scanning and interval mapping, the Qhp7 locus that governs preference for Bph1 plants was mapped to a 0.1 cM region of chromosome 7. In addition, two major QTLs that govern the rate of insect growth on resistant rice plants were identified on chromosomes 5 (Qgr5) and 14 (Qgr14). This is the first study to successfully locate virulence in the genome of this important agricultural insect by marker-based genetic mapping. Our results show that the virulence which overcomes the resistance conferred by Bph1 is controlled by a few major genes and that the components of virulence originate from independent genetic characters. The isolation of these loci will enable the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the rice-brown planthopper interaction and facilitate the development of durable approaches for controlling this most

  17. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  18. Concentration of radiocaesium in rice and irrigation water, and soil management practices in Oguni, Date, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Ohse, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of radiocaesium ((134) Cs and (137) Cs) in brown rice collected from Oguni, Date, Fukushima in 2011 was over 500 Bq kg(-1) , which was the provisional regulation value in 2011, and rice cultivation was prohibited in 2012. Rice culture was resumed following the application of K fertilizer as a countermeasure in 2013. The concentration of (137) Cs in soils and irrigation water in 2013 was in the range of 1200 to 4000 Bq kg(-1) (n = 31) and 0.078 to 1.1 Bq L(-1) (n = 7), respectively. The concentration of (137) Cs in the dissolved fraction in irrigation water filtered with 0.45 µm pore-size membrane filter was a relatively constant at 0.019 to 0.038 Bq L(-1) (n = 7). The concentration of (137) Cs in brown rice cultivated in the paddy fields after implementing the countermeasure was 1.1 to 24 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (n = 29), which was lower than the Standard Limits (100 Bq kg(-1) ). However, the concentration of Cs in rice cultivated under a similar agricultural management as in 2011 and prior to the Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings' (TEPCO) Fukushima accident was over the Standard Limits. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:659-661. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  20. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  1. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stripe Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to map the quantitative trait loci for rice stripe resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed based on the lines to rice stripe were investigated by both artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, and the ratios of ranged from 0 to 134.08 and from 6.25 to 133.6 under artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, respectively,and showed a marked bias towards resistant parent (Zhaiyeqing 8), indicating that the resistance to rice stripe was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). QTL analysis showed that the QTLs detected by the two inoculation methods were completely different.Only one QTL, qSTV7, was detected under artificial inoculation, at which the Zhaiyeqing 8 allele increased the resistance to rice stripe, while two QTLs, qSTV5 and qSTV1, were detected under natural infection, in which resistant alleles came from Zhaiyeqing 8and Wuyujing 3, respectively. These results showed that resistant parent Zhaiyeqing 8 carried the alleles associated with the resistance to rice stripe virus and the small brown planthopper, and susceptible parent Wuyujing 3 also carried the resistant allele to rice stripe virus. In comparison with the results previously reported, QTLs detected in the study were new resistant genes to rice stripe disease. This will provide a new resistant resource for avoiding genetic vulnerability for single utilization of the resistant gene Stvb-i.

  3. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  4. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  5. Differential Response of Grain Quality to Cold Water Irrigation in Cold Tolerant and Sensitive Lines of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Long-zhi; PIAO Zhong-ze; Koh Hee-jong

    2005-01-01

    Three rice varieties and several F3 lines with high and low cold tolerance, selected from F3 segregation lines of two crosses Milyang 23/Tong 88-7 and Milyang 23/TR22183 were used to analyze the effects of cold tolerance on the response of grain quality to cold water irrigation. The result showed that cold water irrigation led to the decrease of rice grain size. The length, length-width ratio and weight of brown rice grain were more sensitively affected by cold water irrigation than the width and thickness. The shape of brown rice grain was not significantly affected by the selection for cold tolerance at the seedling stage (CTS). The gel consistency, amylose content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, breakdown viscosity and consistency viscosity were decreased, while alkali digestibility value and protein content were increased by cold water irrigation. Under normal irrigation condition the physicochemical properties of milled rice and viscogram components of milled rice flour were not significantly different between lines with high and low cold tolerance. Under cold water irrigation the amylose content, peak viscosity, hot viscosity, final viscosity of rice lines with high CTS or high cold tolerance at the booting stage (CTB) were higher, while the protein content, setback viscosity, breakdown ratio and setback ratio were lower, than those of rice lines with low cold tolerance. This implied that the cold water response of rice grain quality was less sensitive in the lines with high cold tolerance than in the lines with low cold tolerance, and the varietal improvement for cold tolerance would be important for grain quality improvement at the same time.

  6. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  7. Determination of total strontium in uruguayan rice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rivero Huguet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr is found naturally as a non-radioactive element and has 16 known isotopes. Naturally occurring Sr is found as four stable isotopes: Sr-84, -86, -87, and -88. Twelve other isotopes are radioactive. Sr-90 is the most important radioactive isotope in the environment, discovered mostly after the nuclear experiments conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. In the present work, 86 rice samples (Oryza saliva L. and 7 rice husk samples were digested by dry ashing for the purpose of determining the total Sr levels by ICP-OES. The mean concentrations found were: 0.281 µg g-1 for milled, 0.287 µg g-1 for parboiled milled, 0.564 µg g-1 for brown, 0.73 µg g-1 for parboiled brown, and 1.16 µg g-1 for paddy rice, and 3.44 µg g-1 for the rice husks. Validation of the method was conducted with a certified reference material, NIST CAM 8418 Wheat Gluten, and the recovery obtained ranged from 89-98%. As the outer layers (aleurone, pericarp of the grain are removed, the Sr concentration decreases. It can then be assumed that most of the Sr is stored in these layers. Although no extensive data exist for Sr levels in rice, the values obtained are in good agreement with the results reported for Sr in brown rice from Japan (0.25-0.72 µg g-1 and with non-contaminated foodstuffs from other parts of the world. Thus, the Uruguayan rice has Sr levels that match non-contaminated samples and its consumption presents no health threat.Publicado en: Atomic Spectroscopy.-- 2006, 27(3:80-85

  8. Genomic resources for the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens: Transcriptome pyrosequencing and microarray design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Bass; Martin Bay Hebsgaard; Joseph Hughes

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens is a pest of cultivated rice throughout Asia and is controlled using insecticides and/or resistant rice varieties.This species has developed resistance to many classes of insecticide and biotypes have developed that are virulent against formerly resistant rice cultivars.Insects use a suite of detoxification enzymes,including cytochrome P450s,glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases to defend themselves against plant secondary metabolites and pesticides.Pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform was used to produce a substantial expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset to complement the existing Sanger sequenced ESTs in GenBank.A total of 78 959 reads were combined with the 37 392 publically available Sanger ESTs; these assembled into 8 911 contigs and 10 620 singletons.Analysis of the distribution of tentative unique genes (TUGs) with the gene ontology for biological processes and molecular functions suggests that the 454 and Sanger EST assembly is broadly representative of the N.lugens transcriptome.The brown planthopper transcriptome was found to contain 31 TUGs encoding P450s,nine encoding glutathione S-transferases and 26 encoding carboxyl/cholinesterases and many of these are putatively involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics.The Agilent eArray platform was used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray populated with probes for ~ 19 000 unigene sequences,including all those known to encode detoxification enzymes.The genomic resources developed in this study will be useful to the community studying this crop pest and will help elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying insecticide resistance and planthopper adaptation to resistant rice cultivars.

  9. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  10. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  11. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  12. [Response of yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency to nitrogen fertilizer from mechanical transplanting super japonica rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ya-Jiang; Meng, Tian-Yao; Ge, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Dai, Qi-Gen; Huo, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Five super japonica rice cultivars were grown by mechanical transplanting in field and seven N treatments with total N application rate of 0, 150, 187.5, 225, 262.5, 300 and 337.5 kg x hm(-2) respectively were adopted to study the effects of N rate on rice yield, quality and N use efficiency. The differences between N requirement for obtaining the highest yield and for achieving the best economic benefit were compared. With the increase of N fertilizer rate, the yields of five super japonica rice cultivars increased firstly and then descended, achieving the highest yield at the N level of 300 kg x hm(-2) ranging from 10.33-10.60 kg x hm(-2). Yield increase mainly attributed to the large number of spikelet, for the total spikelet number of each rice cultivar reached the maximum value at the 300 kg x hm(-2) N level. With the increase of N application, the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein content of the five super japonica rice cultivars were all increased, and the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein con- tent were higher at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 3.3%-4.2%, 2.9%-6.0%, 4.4%-33.7% and 23.8%-44.3%, respectively. While the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value of the five rice cultivars were all decreased, and the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value were lower at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 12.4%-38.9%, 10.3%-28.5% and 20.3%-29.7%, respectively. The chalkiness increased firstly and then decreased while the change of chalky rate varied with the cultivars. With the increase of N application, the N use efficiency, agronomic N use efficiency and physiological N use efficiency decreased while the N uptake of grain increased significantly. If the cost of N fertilizer was taken into account, the N fertilizer amount to obtain the optimal economic benefits would be 275.68 kg x hm(-2) with the corresponding yield of 9.97 t x hm

  13. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  14. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  15. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  16. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  17. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  18. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  19. Understanding reduced inorganic mercury accumulation in rice following selenium application: Selenium application routes, speciation and doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenli; Dang, Fei; Evans, Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Xiao, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Selenium (Se) has recently been demonstrated to reduce inorganic mercury (IHg) accumulation in rice plants, while its mechanism is far from clear. Here, we aimed at exploring the potential effects of Se application routes (soil or foliar application with Se), speciation (selenite and selenate), and doses on IHg-Se antagonistic interactions in soil-rice systems. Results of our pot experiments indicated that soil application but not foliar application could evidently reduce tissue IHg concentrations (root: 0-48%, straw: 15-58%, and brown rice: 26-74%), although both application routes resulted in comparable Se accumulation in aboveground tissues. Meanwhile, IHg distribution in root generally increased with amended Se doses in soil, suggesting antagonistic interactions between IHg and Se in root. These results provided initial evidence that IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere (i.e., soil or rice root), instead of those in the aboveground tissues, could probably be more responsible for the reduced IHg bioaccumulation following Se application. Furthermore, Se dose rather than Se speciation was found to be more important in controlling IHg accumulation in rice. Our findings regarding the importance of IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere, together with the systematic investigation of key factors affecting IHg-Se antagonism and IHg bioaccumulation, advance our understanding of Hg dynamics in soil-rice systems.

  20. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Lipid Metabolism in Rice Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Zheng Ying; Jun-Xiang Shan; Ji-Ping Gao; Mei-Zhen Zhu; Min Shi; Hong-Xuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    Plant seed oil is important for human dietary consumption and industrial application.The oil trait is controlled by quantitative trait loci(QTLs),but no QTLs for fatty acid composition are known in rice,the monocot model plant.QTL analysis was performed using F2 and F2∶3 progeny from a cross of an indica variety and a japonica variety.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS)analysis revealed significant differences between parental lines in fatty acid composition of brown rice oil,and 29 associated QTLs in F2 and/or F2∶3 populations were identified throughout the rice genome,except chromosomes 9 and 10.Eight QTLs were repeatedly identified in both populations across different environments.Five loci pleiotropically controlled different traits,contributing to complex interactions of oil with fatty acids and between fatty acids.Nine rice orthologs of Arabidopsis genes encoding key enzymes in lipid metabolism co-localized with 11 mapped QTLs.A strong QTL for oleic(18:1)and linoleic(18:2)acid were associated with a rice ortholog of a gene encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase(DGAT),and another for palmitic acid(16:0)mapped similarly to the acylACP thioesterase(FatB)gene ortholog.Our approach rapidly and efficiently identified candidate genes for mapped QTLs controlling fatty acid composition and oil concentration,providing information for improving rice grain quality by marker assisted selection.

  1. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10: normal control diet (NC and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH or germinated Superhongmi (GSH rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  2. Effects of Pig Slurry as Basal and Panicle Fertilizer on Trace Element Content and Grain Quality in Direct-Seeding Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-seeding rice has grown in popularity in recent years and is widespread in China. This study focused on the effects of pig slurry (PS on grain quality and safety in direct-seeding rice. Application of more than 210 m3·hm−2 increased rice yield and dry matter accumulation, compared with conventional chemical fertilizer treatment (CK2. At the heading and maturing stage, a high dosage of PS (T6, T8 and T9 treatments promoted uptake of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn by rice plants and grain, but retarded uptake of Cr, Co and Ni, indicating an ability to alleviate toxicity of some heavy metals. Compared with CK2, PS alleviated the transfer of Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu from straw to grain, but enhanced the transport of Zn, Fe and Mn. Although PS application slightly diminished the processing quality, including brown rice, milled rice and head milled rice, it significantly decreased the amylose content, optimized the starch profile, and improved the overall quality. The results confirmed the feasibility and safety of PS application to direct-seeding rice, and determined that PS basal and panicle fertilizer could increase yield and improve the rice quality when applied between 210 and 240 m3·hm−2.

  3. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  4. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  5. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  6. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  7. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  8. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  9. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  10. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  11. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  12. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  13. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  14. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  15. Elements in rice on the Swedish market: part 2. Chromium, copper, iron, manganese, platinum, rubidium, selenium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Astrand, C; Sundstrom, B; Baxter, M; Stokes, P; Lewis, J; Grawe, K P

    2008-07-01

    A survey of the levels of some essential and non-essential trace elements in different types of rice available on the Swedish retail market was carried out in 2001-03. The types of rice included long and short grain, brown, white, and parboiled white. The mean levels found were: chromium (Cr) = 0.008 mg kg(-1), copper (Cu) = 1.9 mg kg(-1), iron (Fe) = 4.7 mg kg(-1), manganese (Mn) = 16 mg kg(-1), platinum (Pt) < 0.0003 mg kg(-1), rubidium (Rb) = 3.3 mg kg(-1), selenium (Se) =0.1 mg kg(-1); and zinc (Zn) = 15 mg kg(-1). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of Pt, Rb, and Se, after acid digestion. All other elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after dry ashing. Intake calculations were performed and it was concluded that rice may contribute considerably to the daily requirements of the essential elements Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn if rice consumption is high. The levels of some elements, e.g. Fe and Mn, were significantly higher in brown compared with white rice.

  16. Influence of growing location and cultivar on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of rough rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK H. ARTHUR; RUSTY C. BAUTISTA; TERRENCE J. SIEBENMORGEN

    2007-01-01

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations (Hazen, MO; Essex and Newport, AR, USA), and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations (Jonesboro and Lodge Corner, AR, USA), were harvested and assayed for susceptibility to Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), the lesser grain borer, and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rice weevil, on rice held at 27℃ 57% and 75% relative humidity (RH).Separate samples from the same harvest lots were also analyzed for the physical characteristics of brown rice yield, percentage whole kernels and kernel thickness. Progeny production and feeding damage of R. dominica were significantly different among long-grain cultivars within two of the three locations (P < 0.05), but not for location or RH (P ≥ 0.05), while progeny production of S. oryzae was different among cultivars, location, and RH (P < 0.05). On medium-grain rice, both cultivar and location were significant for progeny production of R. dominica, but not RH, while cultivar and RH were significant for progeny production of S. oryzae, but not location. On both rice types, feeding damage of R. dominica followed the same trends and was always strongly positively correlated with progeny production (P < 0.05), but for S. oryzae there were several instances in which progeny production was not correlated with feeding damage (P ≥ 0.05). Physical characteristics of both rice types were statistically significant (P < 0.01) but actual numerical differences were extremely small, and were generally not correlated with progeny production of either species. Results indicate that the location in which a particular rice cultivar is grown, along with its characteristics, could affect susceptibility of the rice to R. dominica and S. oryzae.

  17. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  18. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  19. The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Hanif, Usman; Zuber, Muhammad; Jinap, S

    2016-11-01

    In present study aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analysed in 208 samples of rice and products collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that 35% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 19% and 24% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 19% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 14% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in brown rice samples i.e. 8.91 and 12.4μg/kg, respectively. However, white rice samples have shown the highest mean level of OTA (8.50μg/kg) with highest level of 24.9μg/kg. The high mean dietary exposure 22.2 and 24.2ngkg(-1)bwday(-1) to AFB1 and OTA, respectively poses significant health hazard for local population.

  20. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  1. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  2. Domestication for imidacloprid-resistant strain of rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l,symbiote,Candida lipolytica%褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母抗吡虫啉菌株的驯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陈建明; 张珏锋; 何月平; 陈列忠

    2011-01-01

    为进一步研究共生菌在褐飞虱对吡虫啉产生抗性中的生理生化机制,在稻田杀虫剂对褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母生长影响的基础上,选用不同吡虫啉浓度进行抗药性菌株的驯化.结果表明,褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母在不同吡虫啉浓度(2000、1000和500 mg/L)的固体培养基上继代培养,经过20代后2000 mg/L培养基上的共生菌菌落数量,与未加吡虫啉的培养基上的菌落数量差异不明显,并且连续3代稳定后定为抗2000 mg/L吡虫啉的共生菌菌株.在光镜下比较不同抗感吡虫啉菌株假菌丝的形态变化,发现抗吡虫啉菌株的假菌丝出现畸形,而且假丝变短,部分出现了膨大.%To further study physiological-biochemical mechanism of symbiote in imidacloprid-resistant brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), imidacloprid-resistant strain of symbiote, Candida lipolytica,was domesticated with different concentrations of imidacloprid based on effect of insecticides on growth and development of C.lipolytica.The results indicated that after in vitro C.lipolytica, on solid culture medium containing 2 000, 1 000 and 500 mg/L imidacloprid were subcultured for continuous 20 generations, the colony numbers of C.lipolytica on solid culture medium containing 2 000 mg/L imidacloprid were no significant difference with those on control medium containing non-imidacloprid.When numbers of colony kept stable for continuous three generations, the domesticated strain was called 2 000 mg/L imidacloprid-resistant one.Morphological changes of imidacloprid -resistant and -susceptible strains pseudohyphae were further observed using light microscope, it was found that pseudohyphae of imidacloprid-resistant strain occurred malformation and become shorter, some appeared enlargement.

  3. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  4. Changing characteristic of surface lipids during rice storage%大米陈化过程中表面油脂变化特征初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欣源; 付桂明; 刘成梅; 罗舜菁; 钟业俊; 周晓晴; 汪志宇

    2013-01-01

    The surface lipids changes in brown rice and milled rice were studied under thermostatically manual controlled storage condition. The results showed that the content changes and increasing rates of FFA in brown rice and milled rice were different,the FFA of milled rice was higher and increased much more rapidly than that of brown rice. Milled rice had a higher MDA content during storage. The contents of MDA of both kinds of rice declined at the later period of storage under 37℃ and 25℃. The MDA of milled rice(% lipid w/w) decreased much more rapidly than that of brown rice. These showed that milled rice had a large extent of lipids peroxidation than that of brown rice but a bad tolerance of MDA. The Kinetic analysis of FFA changes showed that zero-order kinetics model could likeliest fit the trend of this indicator,and the increase in the value of fatty acids in the aging process with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature change matches the Arrhenius equation. Brown rice is much more stability than milled rice according to its higher Eα of surface lipid hydrolysis reaction.%研究了糙米和精米在人工陈化过程中表面油脂的变化情况.结果表明:糙米和精米陈化过程中游离脂肪酸值的含量和增加速率不同,精米游离脂肪酸占总脂肪质量百分比比糙米要高且增幅也比糙米大;丙二醛含量检测后发现,精米的含量达到峰值时,其含量占总脂肪质量百分比比糙米高 在37 ℃和25℃下储藏后期丙二醛含量出现下降精米丙二醛含量下降幅度也较糙米大.可见精米陈化过程中油脂过氧化程度比糙米大且对丙二醛的耐受性较差;对游离脂肪酸值变化进行动力学分析后显示,零级动力学模型能够很好地反应这个指标的变化趋势,并且陈化过程中脂肪酸值的增加随绝对温度的倒数的变化符合Arrhenius方程,糙米表面油脂发生水解反应的活化能要高于精米,可见糙米相比精米稳定性高.

  5. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation.

  6. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice.

  7. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  8. Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapa Ponjanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thailand has one of the most important rice genetic resources with white, light brown, brown, red, and purple rice bran colors. The latter believed to have potential for health benefits due to their phenolic content. Recently researchers have indicated that starch digestive enzymes, including salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and α-glucosidases, can be inhibited by phenolic compounds. Although pasting properties of rice flour are key determinants of quality significantly impacting the final product texture, there is no in-depth study on their correlation with phenolic compound and starch digestibility. Methods: Rice flour from twelve varieties, three from each of five bran colors (white, brown, red, and purple, were evaluated for pasting properties (RVA-3D, total phenolic compounds, amylose content, resistant starch and estimated glycemic index. Simple correlation coefficients were calculated for the relationships between pasting properties (final viscosity, breakdown, setback and pasting temperature and total phenolic compounds, resistant starch and estimated glycemic index. Results: Within each rice variety, red and purple pigmented flours had higher total phenolic compounds (TPC and more resistant starch than that of white flours. The TPC and resistant starch content of the flours ranged between 7.83- 47.3 mg/L and 2.44–10.50% respectively, and producing 60-80 of estimated glycemic index. Viscosity behavior showed that pigmented with low amylose rice had lower viscosity temperature than that of pigmented with high amylose rice flour, but higher in peak viscosity. Correlation coefficients of pasting temperature, final viscosity, break down and setback with TCP was observed to be inversely related to glycemic index. However, it was positively correlated to the resistant starch and amylose content. Conclusions: Pigmented rice flour is a better source of TPC and resistant starch which in turn provides low glycemic index. This

  9. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. CHANDEL; S. BANERJEE; S. SEE; R. MEENA; D. J. SHARMA; S. B. VERULKAR

    2010-01-01

    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  10. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  11. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  12. Multi-mycotoxin screening reveals separate occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a in Asian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Layne, Jeff; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2015-04-01

    The determination of important regulated mycotoxins in rice has been reported previously but not in the individual matrix of white, brown, red, and basmati rice with respect to the matrix effect, recovery, and stability. A total of 190 Asian rices were examined for regulated mycotoxin contamination by the LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in the matrix effect was observed for fumonisins. Methanol improved the limits of detection (LOD) for HT-2 from 50 μg/kg to 2.3 μg/kg by promoting ionization efficiency of the ammonium-adduct. LOD and limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 18 μg/kg and 0.2-31 μg/kg, respectively. All analytes degraded by more than 50% on storage, except fumonisins. Acetic acid (1%) provided significant improvement (p < 0.05) in recovery for all analytes in selected white rice from Thailand and China. Mean recovery ranged from 70 to 120%. RSD values were lower than 15% for all analytes. Five AFB1 and single OTA positive samples were detected. No correlation between mycotoxin contamination and rice species (r = 0) exists.

  13. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Talukdar

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population and a genome wide association (GWA study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity. However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  20. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  17. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  18. What Brown saw and you can too

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  19. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Grain Appearance and Milling Quality in a Worldwide Collection of Indica Rice Germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin Qiu

    Full Text Available Grain appearance quality and milling quality are the main determinants of market value of rice. Breeding for improved grain quality is a major objective of rice breeding worldwide. Identification of genes/QTL controlling quality traits is the prerequisite for increasing breeding efficiency through marker-assisted selection. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study in indica rice to identify QTL associated with 10 appearance and milling quality related traits, including grain length, grain width, grain length to width ratio, grain thickness, thousand grain weight, degree of endosperm chalkiness, percentage of grains with chalkiness, brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate. A diversity panel consisting of 272 indica accessions collected worldwide was evaluated in four locations including Hangzhou, Jingzhou, Sanya and Shenzhen representing indica rice production environments in China and genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and Diversity Arrays Technology based on next-generation sequencing technique called DArTseq™. A wide range of variation was observed for all traits in all environments. A total of 16 different association analysis models were compared to determine the best model for each trait-environment combination. Association mapping based on 18,824 high quality markers yielded 38 QTL for the 10 traits. Five of the detected QTL corresponded to known genes or fine mapped QTL. Among the 33 novel QTL identified, qDEC1.1 (qGLWR1.1, qBRR2.2 (qGL2.1, qTGW2.1 (qGL2.2, qGW11.1 (qMRR11.1 and qGL7.1 affected multiple traits with relatively large effects and/or were detected in multiple environments. The research provided an insight of the genetic architecture of rice grain quality and important information for mining genes/QTL with large effects within indica accessions for rice breeding.

  1. Inorganic arsenic in rice bran and its products are an order of magnitude higher than in bulk grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Islam, Rafiqul M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    Rice is more elevated in arsenic than all other grain crops tested to date, with whole grain (brown) rice having higher arsenic levels than polished (white). It is reported here that rice bran, both commercially purchased and specifically milled for this study, have levels of inorganic arsenic, a nonthreshold, class 1 carcinogen, reaching concentrations of approximately 1 mg/kg dry weight, around 10-20 fold higher than concentrations found in bulk grain. Although pure rice bran is used as a health food supplement, perhaps of more concern is rice bran solubles, which are marketed as a superfood and as a supplement to malnourished children in international aid programs. Five rice bran solubles products were tested, sourced from the United States and Japan, and were found to have 0.61-1.9 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. Manufactures recommend approximately 20 g servings of the rice bran solubles per day, which equates to a 0.012-0.038 mg intake of inorganic arsenic. There are no maximum concentration levels (MCLs) set for arsenic or its species in food stuffs. EU and U.S. water regulations, set at 0.01 mg/L total or inorganic arsenic, respectively, are based on the assumption that 1 L of water per day is consumed, i.e., 0.01 mg of arsenic/ day. At the manufacturers recommended rice bran solubles consumption rate, inorganic arsenic intake exceeds 0.01 mg/ day, remembering that rice bran solubles are targeted at malnourished children and that actual risk is based on mg kg(-1) day(-1) intake.

  2. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  3. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  4. silencing COI1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    Full Text Available The jasmonic acid (JA pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1 is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT, the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI, and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation.

  5. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  6. Dynamics, Residue and Risk Assessment of Nitenpyram in Rice and Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Xue-xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Residues dynamics, final residual levels and dietary intake risk of nitenpyram in rice and paddy field were investigated in three dif-ferent regions of China(Shandong, Henan and Anhui. A method was illustrated to detect nitenpyram residues in paddy, plant, brown rice, paddy water and soil. The residues in paddy and rice were extracted with methanol+phosphate buffer(0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0(60+40, adjust pH to 2.5, then cleaned up with solid phase extraction column and 0.22 μm filter membrane, and then analyzed by HPLC with an ul-traviolet detector at 260 nm. When spiked 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy plant and brown rice were 78.4%~94.7% and 84.0%~94.2%, respectively. The residues in paddy water and soil were extracted with phosphate buffer (0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0, when spiked 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy water and soil were 84.6%~98.0% and 93.7%~97.1%, respective-ly, which indicated this method match the requirement of the detection. Two years results showed that nitenpyram belongs to easily degraded pesticides, because all half-lives were below 1.4 d in rice plant, as well as below 4.2 d in paddy water. Final residual levels of nitenpyram in rice were all below 0.05 mg·kg-1,which was far below the Japanese maximum residue limit(0.5 mg·kg-1. The risk quotients (RQs were low for different populations in China, which indicated its low risk in rice. Therefore, the rice with nitenpyram applied, according to the recom-mend method, 45 g·hm-2 application once, with 21 days collection interval, was safe.

  7. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  8. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L.) oils characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rodríguez; Grabiela Subúru; Marina Torres; Laura Olazabal; Alejandra Torre

    2011-01-01

    The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the cru...

  9. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  10. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  11. Sensory evaluation of rice fortified with iron

    OpenAIRE

    Beinner,Mark Anthony; Soares,Anne Danieli Nascimento; Barros,Ana Laura Antunes; Monteiro,Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sensory differences between conventional rice and iron-fortified Ultra Rice rice (UR) and determine consumer acceptance. Differences between both types of rice were analyzed using the Duo-Trio Test on 37 non-trained judges. The Acceptance Test evaluated general rice appearance, color, aroma and taste by 43 non-trained judges, using a 7-point hedonic scale with extremes ranging from "really disliked" and "really liked." There were no significant diffe...

  12. Amylose content of rice marketed in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amylose content is considered to be the most important parameter of cooking quality in rice. Presently, rice cultivars are categorized according to amylose content into three groups: low, medium and high amylose content cultivars. The specific objective of this work is to evaluate the grain amylose content of 77 cultivars, which cover Índica and Japónica subspecies, and different types of commercial rice like, aromatic (basmati and thay), wild rice, medium rice (carlose and risotto), glutinou...

  13. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  14. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun

    2015-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  15. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world’s most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are ...

  16. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    CERN Document Server

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of this problem, we give different representations of the generalized Brown-Resnick processes - including random shifting and a mixed moving maxima representation - and derive various kinds of finite approximations that can be used for simulation purposes. Furthermore, error bounds are calculated in the case of the original process by Brown and Resnick (1977). For a one-paramatric class of Brown-Resnick processes based on the fractional Brownian motion we perform a simulation study and compare the results of the different met...

  17. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  18. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  19. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  20. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  1. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  2. Microlensing Planet Around Brown-Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Batista, V; Christie, G; Choi, J -Y; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Monard, L A G; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Porritt, I; Shin, I -G; Tan, T G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Liebig, C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around brown dwarfs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field brown dwarf via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 +- 0.001), relatively tightly-separated (~0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 +- 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a brown dwarf with a mass 0.022 M_Sun. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the brown dwarf host, in a manner analogous to planets.

  3. Difenoconazole Residues in Rice and Paddy System%苯醚甲环唑在水稻和稻田中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 王冬兰; 张存政; 吴长付; 刘贤进

    2011-01-01

    To determine the safety of difenoconazole in rice and paddy system, residual dynamics in rice plant, paddy water and soil, final residual levels in brown rice, rice husk, rice stem, and paddy soil were investigated in three typical rice planting areas Changsha, Changchun and Hangzhou in China.The half-lives of difenoconazole at higher dosage (112.5 g/hm2 , spraying for one time) in rice plant, paddy water, and paddy soil were 6.1-8.9 d, 5.3-6.2 d and 3.8-4.1 d, respectively in different rice planting area.Residual levels of difenoconazole in brown rice were below the limit of detection 28 d after treatment (<0.01 mg/kg) in all treatments.However, the residual levels of difenoconazole in rice culm were higher than those in brown rice and rice husk, and the final residual levels of difenoconazole in paddy soil were below the limit of detection (<0.01 mg/kg) in all treatments.Based on the actual production, difenoconazole residues in brown rice, rice culm and rice husk were safe according to the recommended dosage, times and interval.In spite of that, the use of difenoconazole should be avoided in ricefish culture model, so as to prevent side effects on aquatic organisms such as fish.%为明确苯醚甲环唑在稻田系统的使用安全性.调查了我国3个不同水稻种植区域(湖南长沙、吉林长春和浙江杭州)苯醚甲环唑在稻田系统中的残留消解动态以及在糙米、稻壳,水稻茎秆和上壤中的最终残留量.按高剂量(112.5 g/hm)施药1次后,苯醚甲环唑在不同种植区域水稻植株、稻田水和土壤中的半衰期分别为6.1~8.9 d,5.3~6.2 d和3.8~4.1 d.各试验点最终残留结果表明,施药后28 d采样时糙米中苯醚甲环唑的最终残留量均<0.01 mg/kg,水稻茎秆中含量最高,上壤中均未检出苯醚甲环唑(<0.01 mg/kg).结合牛产实际,按该试验设计的施药剂量、施药次数和采收间隔期,糙米、水稻茎秆和稻壳中苯醚甲环唑的残留量是安全的,但

  4. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  5. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  6. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  7. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  8. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  9. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  10. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum freezer respectively. The optimum ferrous sulphate added to the rice was 0.05% and the developed formulation of dried porridge consisted of ferrous sulphate rice (67.80%, chicken fillet (20%, chicken blood (3%, green shallot (0.7%, young ginger (1%, edible fern (0.5%, pepper powder (0.5%, sucrose (3%, salt (3% and monosodium glutamate (0.5%.The dried porridge had a high iron content of 10.18 mg/50 g and the shelf life was three months at room temperature when stored in either aluminum foil laminated bag or metalite bag.

  11. Shaping the Brown Dwarf Desert: Predicting the Primordial Brown Dwarf Binary Distributions from Turbulent Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumper, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ($\\leq 5$ AU) brown dwarf companions to solar-mass stars, known as the brown dwarf desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly-bound than stellar binaries, have been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for brown dwarfs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that brown dwarfs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the brown dwarf desert, as well as wide brown-dwarf binary systems. Further, we demonstrate analytically that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low-mass (VLM) binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly-bound than stellar systems. In addit...

  12. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  13. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  14. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  15. Functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis to eggs ofNilaparvata lugens are not affected by genetically modiifed herbicide-tolerant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-bin; LONG Li-ping; HUANG Qian; LING Yan; CHEN Yu-chong; XIAO Guo-ying; HUANG Suo-sheng; WU Bi-qiu; HUANG Feng-kuan; CAI Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    To safely and sustainably utilize genetic breeding techniques for crop production, greater understanding of the potential effects of geneticaly modiifed herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the ecological functions of predators is required. In the laboratory, we examined the functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to eggs of brown plan-thopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), which were reared on GMHT rice Bar68-1; the untransformed parental cultivar, D68; or a BPH-susceptive rice variety, Taichung Native 1. Al stages of nymphs and female adultof C. lividipennis, either on GMHT rice or control plants, exhibited typical type II functional responses when fed on BPH eggs; the attacking rate and handling time ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice Bar68-1 was not signiifcantly different from that on D68. The numerical responses ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice or controls ift Beddington’s model; there were no signiifcant differences in the parameters of numerical responses between GMHT rice Bar68-1 and D68. The results indicated that the functional and numerical responses ofC. lividipennis to BPH eggs are not affected by GMHT rice Bar68-1.

  16. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  17. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  18. Facilitation of Rice Stripe Virus Accumulation in the Insect Vector by Himetobi P Virus VP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is the main vector for rice stripe virus (RSV, which causes serious rice stripe disease in East Asia. To characterize the virus-vector interactions, the SBPH cDNA library was screened with RSV ribonucleoprotein (RNP as bait using a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction between RSV-RNP and the Himetobi P virus (HiPV, an insect picorna-like virus VP1 protein was identified. The relationships between HiPV and RSV in SBPH were further investigated, and the results showed that the titer of RSV was commonly higher in single insect that exhibited more VP1 expression. After the VP1 gene was repressed by RNA silencing, the accumulation of RSV decreased significantly in the insect, whereas the virus acquisition ability of SBPH was unaffected, which suggests that HiPV VP1 potentially facilitates the accumulation of RSV in SBPH.

  19. Effects and Mechanisms of P and K Nutrients on Yield and Protein Content of Fodder Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiang-ru; YU Tie-qiao

    2002-01-01

    Effects and mechanisms of P and K nutrients on yield and protein content of Weiyou 56, a fodder hybrid rice combination, were studied through pot experiment and biochemical analysis. The results showed that the increase of P and K nutrients enhanced the activities of PEP carboxylase (PEPC), glutamine synthase (GS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in leaves, sucrose synthase (SS), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGP) and GS in grains, and the chlorophyll content in leaves, soluble sugar and starch content in grains,protein N and total N content in leaves and grains. Howerer, they decreased soluble sugar content in leaves and led to an increase of protein content in brown rice, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. Excessive P nutrients slightly reduced SPS and ADPG activity in leaves and grains respectively.

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and...

  1. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1982. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  3. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengjie Hu; Younan Ouyang; Longhua Wu; Libo Shen; Yongming Luo; Peter Christie

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd.In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend.Compared to arsenate,there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted,and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil.In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions.Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha.The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment.Thus,water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice.Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  4. Characterization and Fine Mapping of the ibf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Cui; Shengci Fan; Tian Shao; Zejun Huang; Dali Zheng; Ding Tang; Ming Li; Qian Qian; Zhukuan Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The pigment is an important character in plant development. In the present study, we characterized and fine mapped one inhibitor for brown furrows gene (ibf) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). in the Ibf mutant, brown pigments specifically accumulate in the furrows of hulls as seeds mature and reach a maximum level in dry seeds. Genetic analysis showed that the mutant phenotype is controlled by one recessive nuclear gene, which was finally mapped in a 90-kb reglon on the long arm of chromosome 9. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting analysis revealed that there was a 26 kb deletion in the 90-kb region in the mutant. Since all the open reading frames outside the gap in the delimited reglon had no detectable difference in DNA sequence with the wild-type, we postulated that the Ibf locus should be located in the gap. Through gene annotation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we selected OsKF1 encoding a kelch repeat-containing F-box family protein as the candidate gene of ibf.

  5. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. Rice straw and rice hulls may be imported into Guam without further permit,...

  6. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  7. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  8. Expression of a Functional Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor from Transgenic Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichang Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 is an important member of the FGF gene family. It is widely used in clinical applications for scald and wound healing in order to stimulate cell proliferation. Further it is applied for inhibiting stem cell differentiation in cultures. Due to a shortage of plasma and low expression levels of recombinant rbFGF in conventional gene expression systems, we explored the production of recombinant rbFGF in rice grains (Oryza sativa bFGF, OsrbFGF. An expression level of up to 185.66 mg/kg in brown rice was obtained. A simple purification protocol was established with final recovery of 4.49% and resulting in a yield of OsrbFGF reaching up to 8.33 mg/kg OsrbFGF. The functional assay of OsrbFGF indicated that the stimulating cell proliferation activity on NIH/3T3 was the same as with commercialized rbFGF. Wound healing in vivo of OsrbFGF is equivalent to commercialized rbFGF. Our results indicate that rice endosperm is capable of expressing small molecular mass proteins, such as bFGF. This again demonstrates that rice endosperm is a promising system to express various biopharmaceutical proteins.

  9. Physiological changes promoted by a strobilurin fungicide in the rice-Bipolaris oryzae interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debona, D; Nascimento, K J T; Gomes, J G O; Aucique-Perez, C E; Rodrigues, F A

    2016-06-01

    Strobilurins are among the most important fungicides that are used for plant disease control worldwide. In addition to their fungicide effect, strobilurins can also improve crop physiology. Nonetheless, the impact of azoxystrobin (Az), the main marketed strobilurin, on rice physiology is still unknown. Detailed gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis were used to examine the Az effects on the photosynthetic performance of rice plants (cultivar Metica-1) either challenged or not with Bipolaris oryzae, the causal agent of brown spot. Az impaired carbon (C) fixation in the non-inoculated plants in a manner that was not related to photochemical or biochemical limitations, but rather to decreased stomatal conductance that limited the CO2 influx into the mesophyll cells. The photosynthesis of rice plants that were not sprayed with Az dramatically decreased upon B. oryzae infection, which was chiefly governed by photochemical and biochemical limitations. The energy surplus that was caused by limited C fixation in the rice plants that were treated with Az and inoculated with B. oryzae was thermally and effectively dissipated until 72h after inoculation. In Az absence, however, this mechanism was not sufficient to prevent chronic photoinhibition to photosynthesis. The inoculated plants were not able to fully capture and exploit the collected light energy, but these constraints were greatly limited in the presence of Az. In conclusion, Az impaired the photosynthetic performance of non-infected plants by diffusive constraints, but prevented, to a greater extent, the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus during the infection process of B. oryzae.

  10. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  11. Studies of Improving the Frequency of Indica Rice Transformation by Biolistic Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the frequency of indica rice transformation by biolistic bombardment, suitable culture conditions for embryonic calli,an optimal selection scheme for resistant calli and seedlings, and optimum bombardment parameters a investigated by using 14 commercially important indica rice cultivars. The main results show that the CC medium with 36g/L mannitol is a scheme subculture medium in which the browning of indica rice calli can be mitigated significantly; The concentration of 30~40mg/L Hyg or 150~200mg/L G418 or 10~20 mg/L Basta is suitable for selection of resistant calli; The transformation parameters of 100μg gold powder absorbing 0.2μg DNA per shot and 900 psi helium pressure and 6 cm bombardment distance and bombarded twice for each plate give the best result; Keeping the target calli on osmotic medium containing 60g/L mannitol from 12 ~24h before bombardment to 24~48h after it can increase the efficiencies of transformation . Furthermore, some transgenic indica rice plants are obtained using this optimized transformation system.

  12. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  13. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  14. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  15. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading.

  16. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  17. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  18. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  19. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  20. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  1. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  2. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  3. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  4. Computing at Brown--An Ongoing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Discusses conclusions based on results of two Brown University research projects aimed at understanding social and educational significance of computing in higher education: 1984 university-wide survey of students, faculty, and staff, and a 1985 survey of incoming freshmen. The conclusions discussed relate to computer use, experience, attitudes,…

  5. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  6. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  7. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  8. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  9. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  10. 不同早稻品种对喷硒的响应%Response of various early rice cultivars to foliar application Na2SeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建梅; 秦俊豪; 张小亮; 梁权辉; 唐树梅

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the response of 12 early rice cultivars of Hainan province to foliar application NazSeO3. The result showed that compared with control, average selenium (Se) content in brown rice and polished rice was improved through foliar application Na2SeO3 by 43% and 34% , respectively. And the differences was significant ( p <0. 01). Various rice cultivars had different response to Se spraying. Compared with control, Se contents of brown rice of Congyou 629 and Teyou 5735 were significantly improved by Se spraying. Therefore the two rice cultivars could be choose to produce enriched-Se rice in the soil with low Se content of Hainan province.%通过田间试验研究了海南省主栽的12个早稻品种对叶面喷施亚硒酸钠的响应,结果表明,与对照相比,喷硒分别提高糙米和精米平均硒含量43%和34%,差异达极显著水平.不同品种对喷硒的响应不同,与对照相比,喷硒显著提高丛优629和特优5735的糙米硒含量,因此,在海南低硒地区可选择种植这两个水稻品种生产富硒大米.

  11. GM RICE COMMERCIALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GLOBAL RICE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Chavez, Eddie; Wailes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified (GM) rice is an important technology surrounded with controversy and uncertainty, hence it warrants more in-depth analysis. While GM rice is considered by its supporters as having promising potential, many still remain passionately against its use. This study assesses the impacts of GM rice commercialization on the global rice market. We use the Arkansas Global Rice Model (AGRM) and the RICEFLOW model to provide stochastic and dynamic analyses. Scenarios of adoption, diff...

  12. Perspective Rice 2020:A Call For An I nternational Coordinated Effort In Rice Fu nctional Genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Zhang; Jiayang Li; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han; Xing Wang Deng

    2008-01-01

    We describe a call for an international coordinated effort in rice functional genomics in the form of a project named RICE2020.The mission of the project will be:to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020,to identify functional diversity of alleles for agriculturally useful genes from the primary gene pool of rice,and to apply the findings of functional genomics research to rice genetic improvement.

  13. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  14. Stuies on histological changing rice during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian haifeng; Houyiming; Yao huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The changing of rice endosperm cell during aging was inspected and analyzed by tissue section method in this paper, which was considered as the main causation of the descending of the eating quality of aged rice. A new effective method of improving the eating quality of aged rice was also carried out through enzymatic treatment which was based on the changing of histological structure of aged rice.

  15. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  16. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  17. Whole Genome Fine Map of Rice Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is a staple crop for more than half of the world's population, and it was hoped that the availability of its genome sequence might enable scientists to develop more productive and environment friendly rice strains.Furthermore, the rice genome might provide the key to understanding the genetics of other major cereal crops,as all of them have much larger genomes.

  18. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  19. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  20. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  1. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  2. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  3. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  4. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  5. Selection of brown rice (whole-grain) varieties with long shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have associated consumption of whole grains and whole-grain products with reduced incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Because of the health benefits of eating whole grains, one of the key recommendations in the 2005 USDA dietary guidelines for ...

  6. Delicious, healthy dishes incorporating whole grain wheat, brown rice and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing problems with poor dietary habits, especially among the aging population. Increased fiber from foods such as whole grains are beneficial in preventing metabolic disease and in promoting health. However, products derived from whol...

  7. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  8. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  9. Effects of Phosphate Application on Yield and Quality of Double-cropping Rice%磷肥运筹对双季早、晚稻产量与品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苏影; 潘晓华; 吴建富; 石庆华

    2011-01-01

    以双季早、晚稻超高产品种陆两优996和淦鑫688为材料,以金优402和汕优10号为对照,研究了施磷量对其产量和稻米品质的影响.结果表明,施磷对非超高产品种的增产效应大于超高产品种,对早稻的增产作用主要是增加有效穗数,而对晚稻主要是增加每穗粒数.施磷增加早稻垩白米率和垩白度,但降低晚稻的垩白米率和垩白度,施磷显著增加稻壳和糙米中的植酸含量.等量施磷时,移栽前施磷处理的稻壳中植酸含量高于播种前施磷处理,而稻米中的植酸含量则相反;幼穗分化期施磷降低稻壳中的植酸含量,而增加糙米中的植酸含量.%Effects of P amount on yield and quality were studied with super high-yielding early rice variety " Lu-liangyou 996" and late rice variety "Ganxin 688" ,and normal hybrid rice varieties (control variety) "Jinyou 402" and "Shanyou 10". The effect of P-applied on increasing yield of non-super higher-yielding varieties was higher than that in super higher-yielding varieties. Yield increased by P-applied in early rice was mainly through raising effective panicles, but more spikelets were found in late rice under P-applied. Rate of head rice and chalky were increased by P-applied in early rice,but had an opposite effect on late rice. The phytate contents in husk and brown rice were increased significantly by P-applied. Under the same amount P-applied, the phytate content in husk was higher by P-applied before transplanting than that P-applied before sowing,but had an opposite effect in brown rice. Top-dressing phosphate fertilizer during panicle differentiation decreased the phytate content of husk, but increased in brown rice.

  10. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  11. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  12. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  13. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  14. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  15. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  16. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  17. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  18. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  19. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  20. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  1. Comparison of cloud models for Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Ch; Allard, F; Dehn, M; Hauschildt, P; Homeier, D; Lodders, K; Marley, M; Rietmeijer, F; Tsuji, T; Woitke, P

    2007-01-01

    A test case comparison is presented for different dust cloud model approaches applied in brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. We aim to achieve more transparency in evaluating the uncertainty inherent to theoretical modelling. We show in how far model results for characteristic dust quantities vary due to different assumptions. We also demonstrate differences in the spectral energy distributions resulting from our individual cloud modelling in 1D substellar atmosphere simulations

  2. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  3. 低支链淀粉品种米的储藏性和食味品质评价%Storability and sensory qualities for rice with low amylose content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱硕; 川村周三; 程献丽

    2012-01-01

    Changes of physiological properties and sensory qualities for stored rice are critical to acceptance of consumers.In this research,effects of storage temperatures on the storability and sensory qualities for Yumepirika (a low amylose content rice variety) were invesgated.Storability of rough rice was superior to that of brown rice in terms of changes in free fat acidity.In low temperature storage,there were 2.9 and 15.8 mg increase in the free fat acidity for rough rice and brown rice,which indicated that brown rice was necessary to be stored in even lower temperature.Sensory test showed that brown rice in the room temperature storage had the lowest overall flovar value and stickiness value.With storage in the super-low temperature and low temperature for two years,rice vitality and sensory qualities were maintained at similar values compared to the reference sample.%储藏米的生理品质与食味品质变化程度对于消费者的认可度至关重要.本研究讨论了不同储藏温度对低直链淀粉品种米(Yumepirika)的储藏性和食味品质影响.稻谷具有比糙米更加优越的储藏性.在低温条件下储藏,稻谷脂肪酸含量增加2.9 mg,糙米脂肪酸含量增加15.8 mg,这表明低支链淀粉糙米应该在更低的温度下保存.食味试验表明室温条件下储藏的糙米具有最低黏度值和综合评价值.经过2a的储藏期,超低温储藏和低温储藏能够保持米的活力和食味品质与基准米相似的水平.

  4. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Gu; Jing Chen; Lu Chen; Zhiqin Wang; Hao Zhang; Jianchang Yang

    2015-01-01

    While the yield potential of rice has increased but little is known about the impact of breeding on grain quality, especially under different levels of N availability. In order to investigate the integrated effects of breeding and N levels on rice quality 12 japonica rice cultivars bred in the past 60 years in the Yangtze River Basin were used with three levels of N:0 kg N ha−1, 240 kg N ha−1, and 360 kg N ha−1. During the period, milling quality (brown rice percentage, milled rice percentage, and head rice percentage), appearance quality (chalky kernels percentage, chalky size, and chalkiness), and eating and cooking quality (amylose content, gel consistency, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback) were significantly improved, but the nutritive value of the grain has declined due to a reduction in protein content. Micronutrients, such as Cu, Mg, and S contents, were decreased, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Na, Ca, K, P, B contents were increased. These changes in grain quality imply that simultaneous improvements in grain yield and grain quality are possible through selection. Overall, application of N fertilizer decreased grain quality, especially in terms of eating and cooking quality. Under higher N levels, higher protein content was the main reason for deterioration of grain quality, although lower amylose content might contribute to improving starch pasting properties. These results suggest that further improvement in grain quality will depend on both breeding and cultivation practices, especially in regard to nitrogen and water management.

  5. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Gu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the yield potential of rice has increased but little is known about the impact of breeding on grain quality, especially under different levels of N availability. In order to investigate the integrated effects of breeding and N levels on rice quality 12 japonica rice cultivars bred in the past 60 years in the Yangtze River Basin were used with three levels of N: 0 kg N ha− 1, 240 kg N ha− 1, and 360 kg N ha− 1. During the period, milling quality (brown rice percentage, milled rice percentage, and head rice percentage, appearance quality (chalky kernels percentage, chalky size, and chalkiness, and eating and cooking quality (amylose content, gel consistency, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback were significantly improved, but the nutritive value of the grain has declined due to a reduction in protein content. Micronutrients, such as Cu, Mg, and S contents, were decreased, and Fe, Mn, Zn, Na, Ca, K, P, B contents were increased. These changes in grain quality imply that simultaneous improvements in grain yield and grain quality are possible through selection. Overall, application of N fertilizer decreased grain quality, especially in terms of eating and cooking quality. Under higher N levels, higher protein content was the main reason for deterioration of grain quality, although lower amylose content might contribute to improving starch pasting properties. These results suggest that further improvement in grain quality will depend on both breeding and cultivation practices, especially in regard to nitrogen and water management.

  6. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  7. Brown Dwarfs From Mythical to Ubiquitous

    CERN Document Server

    Liebert, J

    1998-01-01

    Astrophysical objects below the stellar mass limit but well above the mass of Jupiter eluded discovery for nearly three decades after Kumar first proposed their existence, and for two decades after Tarter proposed the name "brown dwarfs." The first unambiguous discoveries of planetary (51 Peg B) and brown dwarf (Gliese 229B) companions occurred about three years ago. Yet while extrasolar planets are now being discovered at a breathtaking rate, brown dwarf companions to ordinary stars are apparently rare; likewise imaging surveys show that GL229B is still unique as a distant companion to a low mass star. On the other hand, the deep imaging studies of the Pleiades and several imbedded young clusters show that the mass function (ie. of single objects) extends in substantial numbers down to at least 40 Jupiter masses. The high mass / stellar density Orion Nebula Cluster may have relatively fewer low mass objects. In the field of the solar neighborhood, the infrared sky surveys DENIS and especially 2MASS show that...

  8. Parallax measurements of cool brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Manjavacas, E; Reffert, S; Henning, T

    2013-01-01

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models, break the age-mass degeneracy and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of 6 cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. We derive the absolute J-mag. The six T brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5 and magnitudes in J between 13.9 and 18.0, with photometric distances below 25 pc. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega-2000 camera on the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto, during a time period of 27 months, between March 2011 and June 2013. The number of epochs varied between 11 and 12 depending on the object. The reduction of the astrometric measurements was carried out with respect to the field stars. The relative parallax and proper motions were transformed into absolute measurements using the background galaxies in ou...

  9. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  10. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  11. Eight-Treosure Rice Pudding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Legend has it that at a banquet celebrating the success of King Wu of Zhou’s expedition against the tyrant King of the State of Shang during 1 B.C., a chef prepared Eight-Treasure Rice Pudding to symbolize the eight warriors who had performed great feats.Soft,sweet and bright in color,preparation is simple. Ingredients:

  12. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  13. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  14. RiceDB: A Web-Based Integrated Database for Annotating Rice Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; SHI Qing-yun; CHEN Ming; WU Ping

    2007-01-01

    RiceDB, a web-based integrated database to annotate rice microarray in various biological contexts was developed. It is composed of eight modules. RiceMap module archives the process of Affymetrix probe sets mapping to different databases about rice, and aims to the genes represented by a microarray set by retrieving annotation information via the identifier or accession number of every database; RiceGO module indicates the association between a microarray set and gene ontology (GO) categories; RiceKO module is used to annotate a microarray set based on the KEGG biochemical pathways; RiceDO module indicates the information of domain associated with a microarray set; RiceUP module is used to obtain promoter sequences for all genes represented by a microarray set; RiceMR module lists potential microRNA which regulated the genes represented by a microarray set; RiceCD and RiceGF are used to annotate the genes represented by a microarray set in the context of chromosome distribution and rice paralogous family distribution. The results of automatic annotation are mostly consistent with manual annotation. Biological interpretation of the microarray data is quickened by the help of RiceDB.

  15. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  16. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  17. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  18. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  19. Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; LIN YongJun; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops as the staple food for more than half of the world's population.Rice improvement has achieved remarkable success in the past half-century,with the yield doubled in most parts of the world and even tripled in certain regions,which has contributed greatly to food security globally.Rapid population growth and economic development pose a constantly increased food requirement.However,rice yield has been hovering in the past decade,which is mainly caused by the absence of novel breeding technologies,reduction of genetic diversity of rice cultivars,and serious yield loss due to increasingly severe occurrences of insects,diseases,and abiotic stresses.To address these challenges,Chinese scientists proposed a novel rice breeding goal of developing Green Super Rice to improve rice varieties and realize the sustainable development of agriculture,by focusing on the following 5 classes of traits:insect and disease resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality and yield potential.As a modern breeding approach,transgenic strategy will play an important role in realizing the goal of Green Super Rice.Presently,many transgenic studies of rice have been conducted,and most of target traits are consistent with the goal of Green Super Rice.In this paper,we firstly review technical advances of rice transformation,and then outline the main progress in transgenic rice research with respect to the most important traits:insect and disease-resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality,yield potential and herbicide-tolerance.The prospects of developing transgenic rice are also discussed.

  20. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p soybeans.