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  1. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  2. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus from different environments in the Netherlands

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    Frits Franssen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat and Rattus rattus (black rat are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods: Wild brown rats (117 individuals and black rats (44 individuals were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion: Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp., three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis fraterna, and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus.Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris. We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats.

  3. Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puckett, Emily E.; Park, Jane; Combs, Matthew; Blum, Michael J.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Caccone, Adalgisa; Costa, Federico; Deinum, Eva E.; Esther, Alexandra; Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Keightley, Peter D.; Ko, Albert; Lundkvist, Åke; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Morand, Serge; Robins, Judith; Russell, James; Strand, Tanja M.; Suarez, Olga; Yon, Lisa; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a

  4. Data from: Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puckett, Emily E.; Park, Jane; Combs, Matthew; Blum, Michael J.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Caccone, Adalgisa; Costa, Federico; Deinum, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a

  5. Giardiasis: Serum antibodies and coproantigens in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus from Grenada, West Indies

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    Keshaw Tiwari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Giardia is a serious zoonotic parasite, which causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals including rodents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Giardia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus in Grenada. Materials and Methods: Intestinal contents from 99 and serum samples from 169 brown rats (R. norvegicus from Grenada were collected. These samples were examined for the Giardia coproantigens using Cryptosporidium/Giardia Quik Chek assay (Tech lab® Inc., USA, and the serum was screened through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kit for Giardia antibody (anti-GD ELISA kit (MyBioSource, San Diego, CA, USA. Results: Giardia coproantigens were positive in 17.17% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 10.33-26.06% rats, whereas 55% (95% CI: 47.20-62.68 were positive with serum antibodies (anti-GD to Giardia. Conclusion: The prevalence of Giardia spp. in brown rats in Grenada was moderate based on the presence of coproantigens in the intestinal contents and antibody in serum. The findings of Giardia infections and prevalence in brown rats will help veterinarians and physicians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies. This is the first report of prevalence of Giardia in brown rats in Grenada.

  6. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus in Flanders.

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    Lieze Oscar Rouffaer

    Full Text Available Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  7. Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Park, Jane; Combs, Matthew; Blum, Michael J; Bryant, Juliet E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Costa, Federico; Deinum, Eva E; Esther, Alexandra; Himsworth, Chelsea G; Keightley, Peter D; Ko, Albert; Lundkvist, Åke; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Morand, Serge; Robins, Judith; Russell, James; Strand, Tanja M; Suarez, Olga; Yon, Lisa; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-10-26

    Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. One cluster arose following a southward expansion into Southeast Asia. Three additional clusters arose from two independent eastward expansions: one expansion from Russia to the Aleutian Archipelago, and a second to western North America. Westward expansion resulted in the colonization of Europe from which subsequent rapid colonization of Africa, the Americas and Australasia occurred, and multiple evolutionary clusters were detected. An astonishing degree of fine-grained clustering between and within sampling sites underscored the extent to which urban heterogeneity shaped genetic structure of commensal rodents. Surprisingly, few individuals were recent migrants, suggesting that recruitment into established populations is limited. Understanding the global population structure of R. norvegicus offers novel perspectives on the forces driving the spread of zoonotic disease, and aids in development of rat eradication programmes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Helminths of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) (Berkenhout, 1769) in the city of Palermo, Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milazzo, C.; Ribas, Alexis; Casanova, J. C.; Cagnin, M.; Geraci, F.; Di Bella, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2010), s. 238-240 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : wild brown rats * helminths * Sicily * Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.847, year: 2010

  9. Prevalence of zoonotic helminths in local house rats ( Rattus rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence o zoonoic helminths in house rats (Rattus rattus) constitute serious public healthrisks as these rats commonly cohabit with humans, and are known to be natural reservoirs of somehelminth inections of public health importance. This study surveyed the prevalence of the three major zoonotic helminths ...

  10. Factors influencing the density of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) in and around houses in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Buijs, J.A.; Goedhart, P.W.; Verboom, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The current strategy of the pest management department of the Public Health Service in Amsterdam is to identify causal factors in order to reduce the carrying capacity of pest populations and to minimise the use of pesticides. Rats have been controlled with rodenticides for decades, which

  11. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

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    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  12. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars-Larrive, Amélie; Pascal, Michel; Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  13. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  14. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  15. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  16. Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus and Black Rats (Rattus rattus as Possible Reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in Lara State, Venezuela

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    De Lima Hector

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 519 wild animals belonging to eleven species were collected during a two year study in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in Venezuela (La Matica, Lara State. The animals were captured in home-made Tomahawk-like traps baited with maize, bananas or other available local fruits, and parasites were isolated from 27 specimens. Two different species were found naturally infected with flagellates, i.e., cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus and black rats (Rattus rattus. Characterization of the parasites using PCR, kDNA restriction pattern and hybridization with species-specific probes revealed the presence of Leishmania (L. mexicana in three of the black rats and Leishmania (V. braziliensis in two others. The latter species was also identified in the single positive specimen of S. hispidus. The results suggested both species of animals as possible reservoirs of Leishmania sp.

  17. Consistent individual differences in standard exploration tasks in the black rat (Rattus rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žampachová, Barbora; Kaftanová, Barbora; Šimánková, Hana; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    In a fluctuating environment, the optimal level of exploratory behavior depends on the proportion of current risks and benefits. The exploratory behavior is, therefore, often subjected to heterogenous selection. In populations of commensal rodents living in close proximity of humans, this pressure is further increased by pest management. We hypothesize that the black rat (Rattus rattus) responds to this pressure by either high behavioral flexibility or by development of personality types. The aim of this study was to analyze exploratory behavior and boldness of wild black rats and its changes over time to determine whether exploratory behavior is a personality trait in black rats. Studies on animals with unreduced variability are necessary for determination of normal range of behaviors. The behavior in the open field and hole board tests yielded 1 multivariate variable representing exploratory behavior and 1 representing boldness. The hole board test additionally provided an axis representing exploratory behavior. Exploratory behavior showed moderate to high repeatability, even though we observed a considerable effect of habituation. Exploratory behavior was also strongly correlated across contexts; therefore, our results suggest that the black rat responds to heterogenous selection pressure by developing personality types. We also found a strong effect of litter identity on some aspects of the exploratory behavior. Boldness was less repeatable, which we interpret as high behavioral flexibility in this behavioral trait. In concordance with our hypothesis, the personality types in exploratory behavior, but not in boldness, are possibly maintained by heterogenous selection pressure created by human pest management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rats (Rattus rattus and terrestrial snails in Florida, USA.

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    Heather D Stockdale Walden

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. It is endemic in Hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental United States. This parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. In this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout Florida to ascertain the geographic distribution in the state: Rats, environmental rat fecal samples, and snails were collected from 18 counties throughout the state. Classical diagnostics and morphological identification, along with molecular techniques were used to identify nematode species and confirm the presence of A. cantonensis. Of the 171 Rattus rattus collected, 39 (22.8% were positive for A. cantonensis, and 6 of the 37 (16.2% environmental rat fecal samples collected in three of the surveyed counties were also positive for this parasite by real time PCR. We examined 1,437 gastropods, which represented 32 species; 27 (1.9% were positive for A. cantonensis from multiple sites across Florida. Three non-native gastropod species, Bradybaena similaris, Zachrysia provisoria, and Paropeas achatinaceum, and three native gastropod species, Succinea floridana, Ventridens demissus, and Zonitoides arboreus, which are newly recorded intermediate hosts for the parasite, were positive for A. cantonensis. This study indicates that A. cantonensis is established in Florida through the finding of adult and larval stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, throughout the state. The ability for this historically subtropical nematode to thrive in a more temperate climate is alarming, however as the climate changes and average temperatures rise, gastropod distributions will probably expand, leading to the spread of this parasite in more temperate areas. Through greater

  19. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  20. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) habitat at Palmyra Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Hathaway, Stacie A; Wegmann, Alex S; Shipley, Frank S; Backlin, Adam R; Helm, Joel; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-02-01

    Black rats ( Rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll.

  1. Characterization of six rat strains (Rattus norvegicus by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism

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    Hilsdorf A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP was used to examine the extent of mtDNA polymorphism among six strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus - Wistar, Wistar Munich, Brown Norway, Wistar Kyoto, SHR and SHR-SP. A survey of 26 restriction enzymes has revealed a low level of genetic divergence among strains. The sites of cleavage by EcoRI, NcoI and XmnI were shown to be polymorphic. The use of these three enzymes allows the 6 strains to be classified into 4 haplotypes and identifies specific markers for each one. The percentage of sequence divergence among all pairs of haplotypes ranged from 0.035 to 0.33%, which is the result of a severe population constriction undergone by the strains. These haplotypes are easily demonstrable and therefore RFLP analysis can be employed for genetic monitoring of rats within animal facilities or among different laboratories.

  2. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Metzker, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over...

  3. AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus) from Madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Duplantier, J-M; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Brouat, C

    2011-03-01

    The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar's rural zones. Black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). To better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. To this purpose, we combined a population genomics approach and an association study, both performed on 249 AFLP markers, in Malagasy R. rattus. Simulated distributions of genetic differentiation were compared to observed data in four independent pairs, each consisting of one population from the plague focus and one from the plague-free zone. We found 22 loci (9% of 249) with higher differentiation in at least two independent population pairs or with combining P-values over the four pairs significant. Among the 22 outlier loci, 16 presented significant association with plague zone (plague focus vs. plague-free zone). Population genetic structure inferred from outlier loci was structured by plague zone, whereas the neutral loci dataset revealed structure by geography (eastern vs. western populations). A phenotype association study revealed that two of the 22 loci were significantly associated with differentiation between dying and surviving rats following experimental plague challenge. The 22 outlier loci identified in this study may undergo plague selective pressure either directly or more probably indirectly due to hitchhiking with selected loci. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Invasion genetics of a human commensal rodent: the black rat Rattus rattus in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, C; Tollenaere, C; Estoup, A; Loiseau, A; Sommer, S; Soanandrasana, R; Rahalison, L; Rajerison, M; Piry, S; Goodman, S M; Duplantier, J-M

    2014-08-01

    Studies focusing on geographical genetic patterns of commensal species and on human history complement each other and provide proxies to trace common colonization events. On Madagascar, the unintentional introduction and spread of the commensal species Rattus rattus by people may have left a living clue of human colonization patterns and history. In this study, we addressed this question by characterizing the genetic structure of natural populations of R. rattus using both microsatellites and mitochondrial sequences, on an extensive sampling across the island. Such data sets were analysed by a combination of methods using population genetics, phylogeography and approximate Bayesian computation. Our results indicated two introduction events to Madagascar from the same ancestral source of R. rattus, one in the extreme north of the island and the other further south. The latter was the source of a large spatial expansion, which may have initially started from an original point located on the southern coast. The inferred timing of introduction events-several centuries ago-is temporally congruent with the Arabian trade network in the Indian Ocean, which was flourishing from the middle of the first millennium. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Investigation on the transmission of Ascaris suum by rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    OpenAIRE

    Gaberle, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Investigation on the transmission of Ascaris suum by rats (Rattus norvegicus). In this study the possibility of rats being paratenic hosts of Ascaris suum were examined. Therefore an infection of swine with Ascaris suum by infected rats should be provoked. A group of 48 rats were experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris suum. The rats were killed in different time intervals. They were examined for migrating larvae by digesting the organs and counting the developed larvae and by pr...

  6. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-05-01

    To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. In bi-choice tests, significantly (Pegg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  7. Population Genomics Reveals Speciation and Introgression between Brown Norway Rats and Their Sibling Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Yaohua; Shi, Chengmin; Mao, Fengbiao; Cai, Wanshi; Lu, Liang; Zhao, Fangqing; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Jianxu

    2017-09-01

    Murine rodents are excellent models for study of adaptive radiations and speciation. Brown Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are successful global colonizers and the contributions of their domesticated laboratory strains to biomedical research are well established. To identify nucleotide-based speciation timing of the rat and genomic information contributing to its colonization capabilities, we analyzed 51 whole-genome sequences of wild-derived Brown Norway rats and their sibling species, R. nitidus, and identified over 20 million genetic variants in the wild Brown Norway rats that were absent in the laboratory strains, which substantially expand the reservoir of rat genetic diversity. We showed that divergence of the rat and its siblings coincided with drastic climatic changes that occurred during the Middle Pleistocene. Further, we revealed that there was a geographically widespread influx of genes between Brown Norway rats and the sibling species following the divergence, resulting in numerous introgressed regions in the genomes of admixed Brown Norway rats. Intriguing, genes related to chemical communications among these introgressed regions appeared to contribute to the population-specific adaptations of the admixed Brown Norway rats. Our data reveals evolutionary history of the Brown Norway rat, and offers new insights into the role of climatic changes in speciation of animals and the effect of interspecies introgression on animal adaptation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    LANZA, Andrea; PETTORALI, Michela; BALDI, Alfonso; SPUGNINI, Enrico P.

    2017-01-01

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administrati...

  9. Molecular and serological evidence for Seoul virus in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Zhangmu, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingsong; Fan, Quanshui; Hu, Xiaobing; Deng, Bo; Chen, Gang; Gu, Liangqi; Li, Ming; Zheng, Ying; Yuan, Guihong; Qiu, Wei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-05-01

    We report the detection of a virus, tentatively identified as Seoul virus (SEOV), from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Zhangmu, Tibet. SEOV RNA was detected in lung tissue by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Serum samples collected from Zhangmu were positive for SEOV-specific antibodies (indirect fluorescent antibody test that used SEO antigen). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S sequences together with serology results suggest that the Zhangmu01 hantavirus is an isolate of SEOV, that hantaviruses circulate in Tibet, and that rats may act as natural reservoirs for the virus.

  10. Involvement of hepatic xenobiotic related genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Alsbo, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of xenobiotic relevant genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) we compared the constitutive liver gene expression and expression upon bromadiolone administration in bromadiolone resistant and anticoagulant susceptible female rats using a LNA...... expressed in resistant than susceptible rats upon bromadiolone exposure. To establish how bromadiolone affected xenobiotic gene expression in the two strains we compared bromadiolone expression profiles to saline profiles of both strains. Bromadiolone mediated significant up-regulation of Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a3...... expression in the resistant rats whereas the rodenticide conferred down-regulation of Cyp2e1, Cyp3a3 and Gpox1 and induction of Cyp2c12 expression in susceptible rats. Cyp2c13 and Cyp3a2 expression were markedly suppressed in both strains upon treatment. This suggests that xenobiotic relevant enzymes play...

  11. The effect of fluoride on the serum level of calcium in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fočak M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride on the calcium level in serum was analyzed in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. The control group consisted of 10, and the experimental group of 15 animals. In the experimental group, fluoride at a concentration of 3 mg/100 g body weight of rats was intramuscularly injected into the musculus gluteus maximus. The concentration of calcium was measured by the CPC method. The average serum calcium concentration was 2.46 mmol/l, with female rats having higher values of serum calcium than male rats. Fluoride caused the reduction of calcium concentration in serum (p<0.05; the reduction was significantly expressed in female rats (p<0.000.

  12. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  13. Basic Microsurgery Training Using the Laboratory Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    unanticipated animal illness, distress, injury , or death; and indicate whether or not these events were reported to the IACUC. None 9. REDUCTION...neurosurgical repair . 12. PROTOCOL OUTCOME SUMMARY: (Please provide, in "ABSTRACT" format, a summary of the protocol objectives, materials and methods, results...techniques required in nerve and vessel reanastamosis. Over a 4 day period, the participant will learn via both didactic and hands-on experience. Using a rat

  14. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  15. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  16. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  17. Anticipation is differently expressed in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) in the same Pavlovian conditioning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den R.; Meijer, M.K.; Renselaar, van J.; Harst, van der J.E.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In rats (Rattus norvegicus) anticipation to an oncoming food reward in an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedure is expressed as an increase of behavioural transitions, i.e. hyperactivity. This behaviour might be related to the spontaneous appetitive behaviour of animals in relation to oncoming

  18. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

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    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  19. Hepatitis E virus in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus captured around a pig farm

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    Kanai Yuta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV transmitted via the oral route through the consumption of contaminated water or uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat has been implicated in major outbreaks. Rats may play a critical role in HEV outbreaks, considering their negative effects on environmental hygiene and food sanitation. Although the serological evidence of HEV infection in wild rodents has been reported worldwide, the infectivity and propagation of HEV in wild rats remain unknown. To investigate if rats are a possible carrier of HEV, we studied wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus that were caught near a pig farm, where HEV was prevalent among the pigs. Methods We examined 56 Norway rats for HEV. RNA from internal organs was examined for RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. Positive tissue samples were incubated with A549 cell line to isolate HEV. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results Sixteen rats were seropositive, and the HEV RNA was detected in 10 of the 56 rats. Sequencing of the partial ORF1 gene from 7 samples resulted in partially sequenced HEV, belonging to genotype 3, which was genetically identical to the HEV prevalent in the swine from the source farm. The infectious HEVs were isolated from the Norway rats by using the human A549 cell line. Conclusions There was a relatively high prevalence (17.9% of the HEV genome in wild Norway rats. The virus was mainly detected in the liver and spleen. The results indicate that these animals might be possible carrier of swine HEV in endemic regions. The HEV contamination risk due to rats needs to be examined in human habitats.

  20. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus in Berlin, Germany.

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    Sebastian Guenther

    Full Text Available Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95, which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1, and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9, pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public

  1. Potential Causative Mutation for Melanism in Rats Identified in the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene (Asip) of the Rattus rattus Species Complex on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamori, Shoichi; Wiewel, Andrew S; Thomson, Vicki A; Kobayashi, Motoko; Nakata, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of black fur, or melanism, in many mammalian species is known to be linked to DNA sequence variation in the agouti signaling protein (Asip) gene, which is a major determinant of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments in coat color. We investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic Rattus rattus species complex (RrC) lineage II specimens from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, for genetic variation in three exons and associated flanking regions in the Asip gene. On Okinawa, a predicted loss-of-function mutation caused by a cysteine to serine amino acid change at p.124C>S (c.370T>A) in the highly conserved functional domain of Asip was found in melanistic rats, but was absent in agouti specimens, suggesting that the p.124C>S mutation is responsible for the observed melanism. Phylogeographic analysis found that Asip sequences from Okinawan RrC lineage II, including both agouti and melanistic specimens, differed from: 1) both agouti and melanistic RrC lineage I from Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, and 2) agouti RrC lineages I and II from South Australia. This suggests the possibility of in-situ mutation of the Asip gene, either within the RrC lineage II population on Okinawa or in an unsampled RrC lineage II population with biogeographic links to Okinawa, although incomplete lineage sorting could not be ruled out.

  2. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  3. Genome sequence of the brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Scherer, Steven; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Worley, Kim C.; Burch, Paula E.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Hines, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; DeRamo, Christine; Delgado, Oliver; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Hawes, Alicia; Gill, Rachel; Holt, Robert A.; Adams, Mark D.; Amanatides, Peter G.; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Barnstead, Mary; Chin, Soo; Evans, Cheryl A.; Ferriera, Steven; Fosler, Carl; Glodek, Anna; Gu, Zhiping; Jennings, Don; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Nguyen, Trixie; Pfannkoch, Cynthia M.; Sitter, Cynthia; Sutton, Granger G.; Venter, J. Craig; Woodage, Trevor; Smith, Douglas; Lee, Hong-Maei; Gustafson, Erik; Cahill, Patrick; Kana, Arnold; Doucette-Stamm, Lynn; Weinstock, Keith; Fechtel, Kim; Weiss, Robert B.; Dunn, Diane M.; Green, Eric D.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline; Bosdet, Ian; Fjell, Chris; Jones, Steven; Krzywinski, Martin; Mathewson, Carrie; Siddiqui, Asim; Wye, Natasja; McPherson, John; Zhao, Shaying; Fraser, Claire M.; Shetty, Jyoti; Shatsman, Sofiya; Geer, Keita; Chen, Yixin; Abramzon, Sofyia; Nierman, William C.; Havlak, Paul H.; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Li, Bingshan; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Cawley, Simon; Cooney, A.J.; D' Souza, Lisa M.; Martin, Kirt; Wu, Jia Qian; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Kenneth J.; McLeod, Michael P.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Virk, Davinder; Volkov, Andrei; Wheeler, David A.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Tuzun, Eray; Birney, Ewan; Mongin, Emmanuel; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Woodwark, Cara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Bork, Peer; Suyama, Mikita; Torrents, David; Alexandersson, Marina; Trask, Barbara J.; Young, Janet M.; et al.

    2004-02-02

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90 percent of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

  4. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Riofrío-Lazo

    Full Text Available Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna. The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS = 55.8%, followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%, and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%, captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98% and arthropods (2%. Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs, showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  5. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  6. Molecular genetic evidence for the place of origin of the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Thomson

    Full Text Available Commensal plants and animals have long been used to track human migrations, with Rattus exulans (the Pacific rat a common organism for reconstructing Polynesian dispersal in the Pacific. However, with no knowledge of the homeland of R. exulans, the place of origin of this human-commensal relationship is unknown. We conducted a mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic survey of R. exulans diversity across the potential natural range in mainland and Island Southeast Asia in order to establish the origin of this human-commensal dyad. We also conducted allozyme electrophoresis on samples from ISEA to obtain a perspective on patterns of genetic diversity in this critical region. Finally, we compared molecular genetic evidence with knowledge of prehistoric rodent faunas in mainland and ISEA. We find that ISEA populations of R. exulans contain the highest mtDNA lineage diversity including significant haplotype diversity not represented elsewhere in the species range. Within ISEA, the island of Flores in the Lesser Sunda group contains the highest diversity in ISEA (across all loci and also has a deep fossil record of small mammals that appears to include R. exulans. Therefore, in addition to Flores harboring unusual diversity in the form of Homo floresiensis, dwarfed stegodons and giant rats, this island appears to be the homeland of R. exulans.

  7. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.P.; Agrawal, M.; Gupta, C.

    1976-01-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones. (orig.) [de

  8. Primary structural documentation of the major urinary protein of the Indian commensal rat (Rattus rattus) using a proteomic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ramalingam; Prakash, Subramaniya; Archunan, Govindaraju; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2010-04-01

    A number of proteome studies have been performed recently to identify pheromone-related protein expression and their molecular function using genetically modified rodents' urine. However, no such studies have used Indian commensal rodents; interestingly, in a previous investigation, we confirmed the presence of volatile molecules in commensal rodents urine and these molecules seem to be actively involved in pheromonal communication. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the major urinary protein [MUP] present in commensal rat urine, which will help us to understand the protein's expression pattern and intrinsic properties among the rodents globally. Initially, the total urinary proteins were separated by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis and then subsequently analyzed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight and Mass Spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/MS). Furthermore, they were then fragmented with the aid of a Tandem Mass Spectrometer (TOF/TOF) and the identified sequences aligned and confirmed using similarity with the deduced primary structures of members of the lipocalin superfamily. The SDS-PAGE protein profiles showed distinct proteins with molecular masses of 15, 22.4, 25, 28, 42, 50, 55, 68, and 91 kDa. Of these proteins, the 22.4 kDa protein was considered to be target candidate. When 2D elctrophoresis was carried out, about approximately 50 spots were detected with different masses and various pI ranges. The 22.4 kDa protein was found to have a pI of about 4.9.This 22.4 kDa protein spot was digested and subjected to mass spectrometry; it was identified as rat MUP. The fragmented peptides from the rat MUP at 935, 1026, 1192, and 1303 m/z were further fragmented with the aid of MS/MS and generated de novo sequence and this confirmed this protein to be the MUP present in the urine of commensal rats. The present investigation confirms the presence of MUP with a molecular mass of 22.4 kDa in the urine of commensal rats. This protein may be

  9. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  10. The characteristics of wild rat (Rattus spp. populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses.

  11. The characteristics of wild rat (Rattus spp.) populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Jardine, Claire M; Parsons, Kirbee L; Feng, Alice Y T; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses.

  12. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  13. A spatio-temporal model for the invasion of New Zealand archipelago by the Pacific rat Rattus exulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    New Zealand is at the southern limits of the human-extended geographic range of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans. On the two main islands, radiocarbon dates on rat bones from natural sites show that rat populations were established more than 1000 years before permanent human settlement, presumably during transient visits by Polynesian voyagers. Both main islands were colonised after these first contacts, but offshore and outlying islands were not reached by rats until after Polynesian settlement about 700 years BP. Chatham Island was not colonised by Pacific rats until about 650 years BP. I present a model that relates the time of first appearance of rats in the fossil record and the exploitation of native fauna to the pattern of spread of the rat through the archipelago. I hypothesise that the stepwise spread of the rat through the archipelago is mirrored by the pattern of reduction and extinction of indigenous fauna vulnerable to rat predation. The 1000 year delay between the arrival of rats and permanent human settlement suggests that the New Zealand biota was already stressed by an introduced predator before humans added habitat destruction and over-hunting. (author). 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  15. Thermal energetics of the New-Guinean moss-forest rat (Rattus niobe) in comparison with other tropical murid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The thermal energetics of rodents from cool, wet tropical highlands are poorly known. Metabolic rate, body temperature and thermal conductance were measured in the moss-forest rat, Rattus niobe (Rodentia), a small murid endemic to the highlands of New Guinea. These data were evaluated in the context of the variation observed in the genus Rattus and among tropical murids. In 7 adult R. niobe, basal metabolic rate (BMR) averaged 53.6±6.6mLO2h(-1), or 103% of the value predicted for a body mass of 42.3±5.8g. Compared to other species of Rattus, R. niobe combines a low body temperature (35.5±0.6°C) and a moderately low minimal wet thermal conductance cmin (5.88±0.7mLO2h(-1)°C(-1), 95% of predicted) with a small size, all of which lead to reduced energy expenditure in a constantly cool environment. The correlations of mean annual rainfall and temperature, altitude and body mass with BMR, body temperature and cmin were analyzed comparatively among tropical Muridae. Neither BMR, nor cmin or body temperature correlated with ambient temperature or altitude. Some of the factors which promote high BMR in higher latitude habitats, such as seasonal exposure to very low temperature and short reproductive season, are lacking in wet montane tropical forests. BMR increased with rainfall, confirming a pattern observed among other assemblages of mammals. This correlation was due to the low BMR of several desert adapted murids, while R. niobe and other species from wet habitats had a moderate BMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  17. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Tollenaere, C.; Rahalison, L.; Ranjalahy, M.; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rahelinirina, S.; Telfer, S.; Brouat, Carine

    2010-01-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altit...

  18. High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp. are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148 were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433 of rats inspected had lung lobe(s (mostly upper right which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545 were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545 of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.

  19. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  20. THE EFFECT OF FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE AND YOGURT SUPPLEMENTATION ON PROFILE AND CHARACTER OF HEPAR TISSUE PROTEIN OF RATS (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a simplest organic compound of aldehyde or alkanal group. Formaldehyde is a toxic and carcinogenic substance. Formaldehyde contamination through food or feeding diet continuously is very dangerous for the body, especially for bodies organ for instances likes hepar and kidney. Because formaldehyde is sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radicals substances for the body. This purpose of the study is to know the effect of formaldehyde exposure and yogurt supplementation on profile and characters of rats (Rattus norvegicus protein hepar tissues. The research methods is laboratory methods. The protein profiles determined by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods. The character of hepar protein tissue determined by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot methods. The result showed that formaldehyde exposure through the feeding diet of rats affect on profile of hepar protein tissue, that characterized by appear of new band of specific protein with molecule weigh is 29.6 kDa (PSForm 29.6. Yogurt supplementation on rat that exposure by formaldehyde through the feeding diet of rat, that characterized by expressing of new band of specific protein with relative molecule weight 24.8 kDa (PSYogh 24.8 kDa, and followed by depressed or dispear of protein specific band of 29.6 kDa(PSForm 29.6 kDa. The result showed that isolated protein PSForm 29.6 kDa have a antigenecity character.   Keywords: Formaldehyde exposure, yogurt, ROS, profile and protein character

  1. Pigeon (Columba livia) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) performance in the midsession reversal procedure depends upon cue dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Neil; Kirk, Chelsea R; Roberts, William A

    2014-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia) produce many anticipatory and perseverative errors on discrimination tasks with a reversal of reward contingencies partway through the session. Prior comparative research has suggested that rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not show the same number of errors and produce results that more closely resemble those of humans. We examined pigeons' performance on a visual-spatial discrimination with the reversal point randomized within the session and found that they showed remarkably few errors. When these subjects were split into groups with the contingencies for reward unconfounded, the birds in the spatial-contingency group maintained their performance, and those in the visual-contingency group made many more anticipatory and perseverative errors. We also examined the performance of naïve pigeons on a spatial midsession reversal task and found a pattern of results similar to those shown by pigeons that had previously been trained on a visual-spatial reversal procedure. Finally, we studied rats on a T-maze using a spatial-discrimination midsession reversal task and found that the rats showed a large number of anticipatory and perseverative errors. Near-perfect performance on the midsession reversal task appears to be subject to the ability of the animal to orient spatially during the intertrial interval, rather than being due to broad species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Commensal ecology, urban landscapes, and their influence on the genetic characteristics of city-dwelling Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Santana, L C; Norris, D E; Fornadel, C M; Hinson, E R; Klein, S L; Glass, G E

    2009-07-01

    Movement of individuals promotes colonization of new areas, gene flow among local populations, and has implications for the spread of infectious agents and the control of pest species. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are common in highly urbanized areas but surprisingly little is known of their population structure. We sampled individuals from 11 locations within Baltimore, Maryland, to characterize the genetic structure and extent of gene flow between areas within the city. Clustering methods and a neighbour-joining tree based on pairwise genetic distances supported an east-west division in the inner city, and a third cluster comprised of historically more recent sites. Most individuals (approximately 95%) were assigned to their area of capture, indicating strong site fidelity. Moreover, the axial dispersal distance of rats (62 m) fell within typical alley length. Several rats were assigned to areas 2-11.5 km away, indicating some, albeit infrequent, long-distance movement within the city. Although individual movement appears to be limited (30-150 m), locations up to 1.7 km are comprised of relatives. Moderate F(ST), differentiation between identified clusters, and high allelic diversity indicate that regular gene flow, either via recruitment or migration, has prevented isolation. Therefore, ecology of commensal rodents in urban areas and life-history characteristics of Norway rats likely counteract many expected effects of isolation or founder events. An understanding of levels of connectivity of rat populations inhabiting urban areas provides information about the spatial scale at which populations of rats may spread disease, invade new areas, or be eradicated from an existing area without reinvasion.

  3. Evaluation of Jet Fuel and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    rats served as subjects in the first study and eighty albino Fischer 344 rats were used in the second study. Half the animals were males and the...other strains of rats, such as the albino Fischer 344 rat, the pigmented Long-Evans rat is generally more resistant to ototoxicity. Therefore, higher

  4. Characterization of Bromadiolone Resistance in a Danish Strain of Norway Rats, Rattus norvegicus, by Hepatic Gene Expression Profiling of VKORC1 and Calumenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    indicate that bromadiolone resistance does not involve an over-expression of calumenin. We observed a low VKORC1 mRNA expression in resistant rats compared to susceptible rats, which may explain pleiotropic effects of resistance, such as a low VKOR activity and an enhanced need for vitamin K, observed......Anticoagulant agents, such as warfarin and bromadiolone, are used to control populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). The anticoagulants compromise the blood-coagulation process by inhibiting the vitamin K2,3 epoxide reductase enzyme complex (VKOR). Mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding...

  5. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Control of rats in sewers is, though of varying intensity, common practice in a majority of Danish municipalities and bromadiolone is the most preferred active ingredient. The results of sewer rat control is very difficult to register and very little is known about resistance among sewer rats. Th...

  6. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II. In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI, and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  7. HYSTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES ON AORTA OF CIRRHOSIS MALE RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS INDUCTED BY ESCHERICIA COLI O55 : B5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hartono

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The background of this study is to visualize histopathological changes on aorta of cirrhosis rats (Rattus norvegicus induced by endotoxin E. coli O55 : B5 This study was a laboratory experimental using complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used as experimental model of cirrhosis by bile duct ligation (BDL technique. Three weeks after BDL, all cirrhosis experimental models were induced with a single intra venous injection of Eschericia coli endotoxin (3mg/kg b.b in 1 ml sterile saline, except those of five control rats that induced with sterile saline at the same volume only. Aortas of control rats group were excised at 6 hours after induction with sterile saline, whereas the other four groups were done at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after induction with endotoxin. The quantity of endothelial cell, discontinuity increment and the thickness of internal elastic lamina layer were observed to know histopathological changes on aorta. Histopathological changes were observed using a light mycroscope, dyscontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina were measured by reticular micrometer. The quantity of endothelial cell on control and observation interval of 6 and 12 hours as significant difference (P<0.05, which are bigger than that of 18 and 24 hours. Rats in the control group have the biggest quantity comparing to the other treatments. Discontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina layer had significant difference (P<0.05 on control, observation on 6 and 12 hours compared to observation on 18 and 24 hours after being induced with endotoxine. The highest discontinuity and the thinnest elastic lamina internal were obtained within observation on 24 hours. VCAM-1 expression on control group differ from observation on 6 and 12hours but all of them have significant difference to observation on 18 and 24 hours (P<0,05. The decrease of endothelial cell number is caused by

  8. Some features of the biology of Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae) in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konev, V.I.

    1989-09-01

    During a two year program of observations and experiments 437 Norway rats inside coal mines and 250 Norway rats on the surface were captured and the peculiar distribution pattern of Norway rats in mines was established and the habitation conditions of the rodents in the mines and the factors promoting the occupation of those specific habitats (food supply, refuge) were described. The data are given on the intensity and dynamics of these animals in the mines on the whole and depending on the depth of rodent habitation. Ways of occupying the mines by Norway rats, the intensity and direction of their seasonal migrations studied by tagging the animals are discussed. A conclusion is drawn that there is an autonomous population of Norway rats in coal mines. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Anticoagulant resistance: a relevant issue in sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus) control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    the resistant rats, had resistance-related mutations in the VKORC1 gene. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the genetic background of anticoagulant resistance may have to be redefined in respect of resistance-related changes in the VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......BACKGROUND: The majority of rat problems in cities are thought to be related to defective sewers, and the use of anticoagulant rodenticides in such places is often implemented as part of regular urban rodent control. Knowledge pertaining to the resistance status of sewer rat populations is non......-existent, which may be leading to control problems in cities. It has become crucial to provide knowledge on the prevalence of resistance and how different control strategies have affected its prevalence among sewer rat populations. The prevalence of resistance was investigated in six sewer locations in Copenhagen...

  10. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of 1, 4-Dioxane in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guideline 870. 1300 Acute Inhalation Toxicity (1998) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development...follow-on 13-week subchronic drinking water study (640 to 25000 ppm) resulted in increased plasma levels of liver function markers in both rats and...exposure group rats developed nasal squamous cell carcinomas, hepatocellular adenomas and peritoneal mesotheliomas. Incidences of renal cell

  11. Identification, cloning and functional characterization of novel beta-defensins in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Frank S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. The majority of beta-defensins identified in humans are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract and have roles in non-immunological processes such as sperm maturation and capacitation. Characterization of novel defensins in the male reproductive tract can lead to increased understanding of their dual roles in immunity and sperm maturation. Methods In silico rat genomic analyses were used to identify novel beta-defensins related to human defensins 118–123. RNAs isolated from male reproductive tract tissues of rat were reverse transcribed and PCR amplified using gene specific primers for defensins. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their identity. RT-PCR analysis was performed to analyze the tissue distribution, developmental expression and androgen regulation of these defensins. Recombinant defensins were tested against E. coli in a colony forming unit assay to analyze their antimicrobial activities. Results Novel beta-defensins, Defb21, Defb24, Defb27, Defb30 and Defb36 were identified in the rat male reproductive tract. Defb30 and Defb36 were the most restricted in expression, whereas the others were expressed in a variety of tissues including the female reproductive tract. Early onset of defensin expression was observed in the epididymides of 10–60 day old rats. Defb21-Defb36 expression in castrated rats was down regulated and maintained at normal levels in testosterone supplemented animals. DEFB24 and DEFB30 proteins showed potent dose and time dependent antibacterial activity. Conclusion Rat Defb21, Defb24, Defb27, Defb30 and Defb36 are abundantly expressed in the male reproductive tract where they most likely protect against microbial invasion. They are developmentally regulated and androgen is required for full expression in the adult epididymis.

  12. Osteogenic Ability of Combined Hematopoetic Stem Cell, Hydroxyapatite Graft and Platelet Rich Fibrin on Rats (Rattus Novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rahmawati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, the incidence rate of tooth extraction as the main form of dental treatment reached as high as 79.6% in 2014. Teeth extraction leads to periodontal tissue defect whose treatment, incorporating the use of graft material Hydroxyapatite (HA and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF with stem cells, has become increasingly widespread. The stem cell potentially put to therapeutic use is the Hematopoetic Stem Cell (HSC. Aim and Objectives: to examine the effect of hematopoetic stem cell addition to HA graft and PRF post-tooth extraction on the number of osteoblasts and amount of Osteoprotegerin (OPG in periodontal defect treatment. Material and Methods: This study constituted laboratory-based experimental research with a post test-only control group. Twenty four rats (Rattus novergicus represented the animal study model in this research. Alveolar bone defect in the animal study model was induced by extracting the first molar of the mandible using sterile needle holder clamps. The sample population was divided into four groups: K0: the untreated control group; K1: socket filled with HA Graft and PRF. K2: socket filled with HSC 105 cells. K3: the socket filled with HA Graft and PRF with HSC 106 cells. Results: The K3 group had both the highest number of osteoblasts when compared with the control group (350.17 ± 33.42; P <0.001 and the strongest OPG expression of all treatment groups (11.36 ± 0.54; P <0.01. Conclusion: A combination of HA graft, PRF and HSC significantly increases the expression of OPG and the number of osteoblasts rendering it a potential treatment for tissue engineering-based periodontal defect.

  13. The effect of peroral administration of toxic cyanobacteria on laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus var. alba)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovský, O.; Kopp, Radovan; Ziková, A.; Blaha, L.; Kohoutek, J.; Ondráčková, P.; Paskerová, H.; Mareš, J.; Palíková, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, suppl.1 (2011), s. 35-45 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * microcystin * rat Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2011 http://www.nel.edu/Current_issue_0.htm

  14. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p < 0.0001). These in vivo results showed that exogenous oxytocin can be good choice to decrease the blood glucose level very fast.

  15. Larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus and analysis of the rat as potential reservoir for this ascarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio V Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara cati is a common feline parasite transmitted by the ingestion of embryonated eggs, by the transmammary route or by predation of paratenic hosts harbouring third-stage larvae in their bodies. In the present study, the larval distribution of T. cati in tissues and organs of Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with 300 embryonated eggs was analysed. Third-stage larvae were recovered from livers, lungs, kidneys, eyes, brains and carcasses of infected rats, following tissue digestion with HCl 0.5% for 24 h at 37°C. Some differences from the known larval distribution of Toxocara canisin the same rodent species were found.

  16. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  17. Use of Liposomal Bupivacaine for Postoperative Analgesia in an Incisional Pain Model in Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Stacey C; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Seymour, Travis L; Felt, Stephen A; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2017-01-01

    The local anesthetic bupivacaine is valuable for perioperative analgesia, but its use in the postoperative period is limited by its short duration of action. Here, we evaluated the application of a slow-release liposomal formulation of bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia. The aim was to assess whether liposomal bupivacaine effectively attenuates postoperative mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain. Rats (n = 36) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: saline, 1 mL/kg SC every 12 h for 2 d; buprenorphine HCl, 0.05 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 2 d (Bup HCl); 0.5% bupivacaine, 2 mg/kg SC local infiltration once (Bupi); liposomal bupivacaine, 1 mg/kg SC local infiltration once (Exp1); and liposomal bupivacaine, 6 mg/kg SC local infiltration once (Exp6). Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were evaluated daily on days -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The saline group exhibited both hypersensitivities through all 4 evaluated postoperative days. Bup HCl attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity for 2 d and thermal hypersensitivity for 1 d. Bupi attenuated only thermal hypersensitivity for 4 d. Rats in the Exp1 group showed attenuation of both mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity for 4 d, and those in the Exp6 group had attenuation of mechanical hypersensitivity on day 0 and thermal hypersensitivity for 4 d. These data suggest that a single local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine at a dose of 1 mg/kg SC effectively attenuates postoperative mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity for 4 d in a rat model of incisional pain.

  18. The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the ad libitum access to food and water, 5g/kg of saline was orally administered, to the group, every other day, for the period of 4 weeks. On the other hand, the test group comprised 14 male and 10 female albino wistar rats. In addition to the ad libitum access to food and water, 5g/kg of lemon juice was orally ...

  19. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Aqueous Obat Pahit Extract of Lingga Malay Ethnic on White Rats (Rattus novergicus

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    Fitmawati Fitmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obat pahit has been generally known and believed by Lingga Malay society as anti-aging agent. However, the study of Obat pahit is not scientifically proven. This research was aimed to prove immunomodulatory ability of Obat pahit potion from Lingga, Riau Archipelago. This study used white rats as an animal modelling, and Staphylococcus aureus as bacteria tester. The rats had been treated with aqueous Obat pahit extract from three TMPs on dose scales of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mL/200g of body weight through oral administration for 7 days. Furthermore, on the 8th days, the experiment animals were injected by the preparation of bacteria tester through intraperitoneal administration in the amount of 0.5 mL/200 gram of body weigth and subsequently incubated for 1 hour after the injection. There were 2 observed parameters on this study, i.e efectivity and capacity of phagocytosis by leukocytes. The observation of leukocytes-phagocytocis activity was carried out by making a smear preparat samples of peritoneum fluid from rats. After the observation under microscope on a magnification of 100 times. The result was obtained the Obat pahit from Kalan PMT swere more effective on dose 2, while from SP4 and Linau TMPs were much more effective on dose 1. It is therefore, using these data of the results, the advanced doses scale of this Obat pahit would not be necessary. Obat pahit potion from Malay Lingga Malay Ethnic could become raw materials of immunomodulatory herbal medicine based on traditional knowledge. It also potentially as a standardized herbal.

  20. Hepatoprotective Potential of Propolis toward Hepar Injury Rats (Rattus norvegicus Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

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    Diah Krisnansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of chronic liver disease continues to increase. One potentially hepatotoxic substances that cause chronic liver disease is carbon tetrachloride. The process of liver damage can be prevented by the antioxidant role of propolis. The aims of this research was to study the hepatoprotective potential of propolis toward hepar injury rats induced by carbon tetrachlorida. Method: This was an experimental study with pre-post test. Twenty five male Wistar rats aged 12–16 week old, weighing 125–200 gr were allocated into 5 groups. Group I: standard meal + aquadest-gavage; group II: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + aquadest-gavage, group III: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + 0,054 gr propolis-gavage, group IV: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + 0,108 gr propolis-gavage and group V: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + sylimarin 50 mg/kg-gavage. IL-6, SOD, NAS score+fibrotic were measured after treatment. Analysed of IL-6 and NAS score+fibrotic with Kruskal Wallis to Mann Whitney and analysed of SOD with One-Way ANOVA to LSD. Results: The study showed that there were significant differences in IL-6, SOD and NAS score + fibrotic between groups. Discussion: Provision of 0,054 gr and 0,108 gr have hepatoprotective potential toward hepar injury rats induced by carbon tetrachlorida. Further research need to identify antioxidants and hepatoprotective potential of propolis on human with liver disease. Keywords: IL-6, SOD, fibrotic, propolis

  1. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on Hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    de Campos Ciccone Carla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Results Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. Conclusion We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  2. Reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae among animals sympatric to humans in Senegal: extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in bacteria in a black rat (Rattus rattus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Dolejská, M.; Čížek, A.; Djigo, CH. A. T.; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 11 (2009), s. 751-754 ISSN 1996-0808 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antibiotics * resistance * Escherichia * Enterobacter * rat * Senegal Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.407, year: 2009 http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/ PDF / Pdf 2009/Nov/Literak%20et%20al. pdf

  3. Discriminating the drivers of edge effects on nest predation: forest edges reduce capture rates of ship rats (Rattus rattus), a globally invasive nest predator, by altering vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Jay; Didham, Raphael K; Barrett, Paul; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Hickey-Elliott, Andrée; Sievwright, Karin; Armstrong, Doug P

    2014-01-01

    Forest edges can strongly affect avian nest success by altering nest predation rates, but this relationship is inconsistent and context dependent. There is a need for researchers to improve the predictability of edge effects on nest predation rates by examining the mechanisms driving their occurrence and variability. In this study, we examined how the capture rates of ship rats, an invasive nest predator responsible for avian declines globally, varied with distance from the forest edge within forest fragments in a pastoral landscape in New Zealand. We hypothesised that forest edges would affect capture rates by altering vegetation structure within fragments, and that the strength of edge effects would depend on whether fragments were grazed by livestock. We measured vegetation structure and rat capture rates at 488 locations ranging from 0-212 m from the forest edge in 15 forest fragments, seven of which were grazed. Contrary to the vast majority of previous studies of edge effects on nest predation, ship rat capture rates increased with increasing distance from the forest edge. For grazed fragments, capture rates were estimated to be 78% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior (the farthest distance for grazed fragments). This relationship was similar for ungrazed fragments, with capture rates estimated to be 51% lower at the forest edge than 118 m into the forest interior. A subsequent path analysis suggested that these 'reverse' edge effects were largely or entirely mediated by changes in vegetation structure, implying that edge effects on ship rats can be predicted from the response of vegetation structure to forest edges. We suggest the occurrence, strength, and direction of edge effects on nest predation rates may depend on edge-driven changes in local habitat when the dominant predator is primarily restricted to forest patches.

  4. Refinement of intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatroch, Katie K; Knight, Cameron G; Reimer, Julie N; Pang, Daniel S J

    2017-02-21

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist for a recommended dose or volume and IP euthanasia has been described as unreliable, with misinjections leading to variable success in ensuring a timely death. The aims of this study were to assess and improve efficacy and consistency of IP euthanasia. In a randomized, blinded study, 51 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (170-495 g) received one of four treatments: low-dose low-volume (LL) IP pentobarbital (n = 13, 200 mg/kg pentobarbital), low-dose high-volume (LH) IP pentobarbital (n = 14, 200 mg/kg diluted 1:3 with phosphate buffered saline), high-dose high-volume (HH, n = 14, 800 mg/kg pentobarbital), or saline. Times to loss of righting reflex (LORR) and cessation of heartbeat (CHB) were recorded. To identify misinjections, necropsy examinations were performed on all rats. Video recordings of LL and HH groups were analyzed for pain-associated behaviors. Between-group comparisons were performed with 1-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc tests. Variability in CHB was assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). The fastest euthanasia method (CHB) was HH (283.7 ± 38.0 s), compared with LL (485.8 ± 140.7 s, p = 0.002) and LH (347.7 ± 72.0 s, p = 0.039). Values for CV were: HH, 13.4%; LH, 20.7%; LL, 29.0%. LORR time was longest in LL (139.5 ± 29.6 s), compared with HH (111.6 ± 19.7 s, p = 0.046) and LH (104.2 ± 19.3 s, p = 0.01). Misinjections occurred in 17.0% (7/41) of euthanasia attempts. Pain-associated behavior incidence ranged from 36% (4/11, LL) to 46% (5/11, HH). These data illustrate refinement of the IP pentobarbital euthanasia technique. Both dose and volume contribute to speed of death, with a dose of 800 mg/kg (HH) being the most effective method. An increase in volume alone does not significantly reduce variability. The

  5. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  6. The effect of monofluorophosphate implant in white rat mothers towards the level of fluor in the incisors of their young babies (Rattus-rattus

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    Widjijono Widjijono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has been widely used in the prevention of dental caries for a long time. To prevent dental caries, fluoride must be induced in low amount at high frequency. Inducing it through implantation process even make slow release of small concentration of fluoride. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze whether the induction of monofluorophosphate (MFP implant into the white rat mothers affects the level of fluoride in the incisors of their young babies. Method: The objects of the research were twenty white rat mothers in two days of pregnancy which then were divided into four groups (n=5. First, those mothers have been induced with implant under their back skin until their born young babies in the age of 35 days (n=5. The level of fluoride in the incisors of those young babies then is measured with Potentiometer. The obtained data were finally analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test and continued by with LSD test (p=0.05. Result: The result of this research showed that the means of the fluoride level in the incisors of those babies divided into those four groups in series were about 11956.16±201.35 ppb (K, 27328.04±234.56 ppb (P1, 37267.21±248.86 ppb (P2, and 18103.50±267.11 ppb (P3. The result of ANOVA test then showed that the induction of various MFP implant levels significantly affected the level of fluoride in the incisors of the babies. The mean differences among the treatment groups after being tested with LSD 0.05 were also significant. Conclusion: The finding confirm that the significant increasing of the optimal fluoride retention in the incisors of white rat babies can be achieved with the induction of fluoride with MFP ions implant in about 52.98 mg.Latar belakang: Pencegahan karies gigi menggunakan senyawa fluor telah banyak dilakukan dan berlangsung dalam jangka waktu lama. Pemberian fluor dalam jumlah rendah dan frekuensi tinggi merupakan pemenuhan kebutuhan pencegahan karies gigi. Pemberian dengan cara

  7. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  8. FGF-2 expression and the amount of fibroblast in the incised wounds of Rattus norvegicus rats induced with Mauli banana (Musa acuminata stem extract

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    Didit Aspriyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional wound treatment using herbal medicine is thought to maintain the health of families and society in general economically, effectively, and efficiently without inducing side effects. One genus of plant that can be used as a traditional medicine is the Mauli banana, indigenous to South Borneo. Mauli banana stem contains bioactive compounds, most of which are tannins along with ascorbic acid, saponin, β-carotene, flavonoids, lycopene, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Tanin has antibacterial and antioxidant effects at low concentrations, as wells as antifungal ones at high concentrations. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of Mauli banana stem extract at concentrations of 25%, 37.5%, and 50% on the quality of incised wound healing in male Rattus norvegicus rats by assessing FGF-2 expression and fibroblast concentration on days 3 and 7. Methods: This research represented an experimental laboratory-based investigation involving 32 rats of the Rattus norvegicus strain aged 2-2.5 months old. Sampling was performed using a simple random sampling technique since the research population was considered homogeneous and divided into 8 treatment groups (C3, M3-25, M3-37.5, M3-50, C7, M7-25, M7-37.5, M7-50. The rats in each group were anesthetized before their back was incised with length and width of 15x15mm with a depth of 2mm. Gel hydroxy propyl cellulose medium (HPMC was applied to the incised wound of each rat in the control group, while stem Mauli banana extract was applied to that of each rat in the treatment groups three times a day at an interval of 6-8 hours. On day 3, four rats from each group were sacrificed, while, in the remaining groups, the same procedure was performed until day 7, at which point they (8 groups were sacrificed for HE examination in order to assess the amount of fibroblast and for IHC examination to examine FGF-2 expression. Data regarding FGF-2 expression and the amount of fibroblast were analysed

  9. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  10. Assessment of the risks of rats (Rattus norvegicus and opossums (Didelphis albiventris in different poultry-rearing areas in Argentina Avaliação dos riscos sanitários de ratos (Rattus norvegicus e gambás (Didelphis albiventris em diferentes granjas avícolas na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E. Gómez Villafañe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in rats and opossums that inhabit poultry farms of Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, to determine the potential sanitary risk for humans that are in contact with these animals. The study was carried out on 48 poultry farms between spring 1999 and winter 2001. The study of opossums began in winter 2000. During the study period we captured 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris and 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. We have registered the presence of rats and opossums in 70% and 27% of the studied farms, respectively. The percentage of farms with rats was independent of the presence or absence of pigs. We did not detect the presence of Leptospira spp. and Trichinella spiralis in any individual. We detected the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in one Rattus norvegicus and one Didelphis albiventris. According to our results, the rats and opossums of poultry farms may not report a risk factor in the transmission of Trichinella and Leptospira under the present conditions; but the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in rats as well as in opossums suggests the idea of applying prophylactics measurements on poultry farms.A prevalência de Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. e Salmonella spp. foi estudada em ratos e gambás que habitam granjas avícolas da região de Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, com o objetivo de determinar o potencial risco sanitário para pessoas que ficam em contato com esses animais. O estudo foi realizado entre a primavera de 1999 e o inverno de 2001 em 48 granjas avícolas. O estudo em gambás iniciou-se no inverno de 2000. Foram capturados 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris e 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. Registrou-se a presença de ratos e de gambás em 70% e 27% das granjas estudadas, respectivamente. A percentagem de granjas com ratos foi independente da

  11. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baofa; Gu, Chen; Lu, Yi; Hegab, Ibrahim M.; Yang, Shengmei; Wang, Aiqin; Wei, Wanhong

    2017-08-01

    Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups. These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine. However, the hormonal responses took longer to habituate than the behavioral and molecular responses did. We conclude that the behavioral and c-fos mRNA responses are "primed" for habituation to repeated exposures to cat urine, while the hormonal responses show "resistance." The results support our hypothesis that the strongest anti-predator responses at three levels would occur during short-term exposure to cat urine and that these responses would subsequently disappear on prolonged exposure. This study assists understanding the way in which the different levels of defensive responses are integrated and react during chronic stress.

  12. Morphologic and quantitative study of the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of malnourished rats (Rattus norvegicus Estudo morfológico e quantitativo dos neurônios mientéricos do jejuno de ratos desnutridos (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCÍLIO HUBNER DE MIRANDA NETO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of maternal proteic desnutrition on the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the jejunum of rats from Rattus norvegicus species. It was used litters of female rats which received diet with normal proteic level during gestation and lactation (group NN, normal diet during gestation and hypoproteic diet during lactation (group ND; hypoproteic diet during gestation and normal diet during lactation (group DN; hypoproteic diet during both gestation and lactation (group DD. After weaning all the animals received diet of normal proteic level until the 60th day of age, when they were killed. The jejunum of the animals was subjected to whole-mount preparations stained by the method of Giemsa and used for the morphologic and quantitative analyses of the neurons of the myenteric plexus. We verified that maternal proteic malnutrition does not cause decrease on the number of myenteric neurons per unit area of jejunum in rats, but elicits mechanisms which assure that, when the animal again receives normal proteic level diet (22% there occurs storage of proteic material on the cytoplasm of the neurons, thus rendering them larger and strongly basophylic.Estudamos os efeitos da desnutrição protéica materna sobre os neurônios do plexo mientérico do jejuno de ratos da espécie norvegicus. Utilizamos filhotes de ratas que receberam dieta com teor protéico normal durante a gestação e a lactação (grupo NN, dieta normoprotéica durante a gestação e hipoprotéica durante a lactação (grupo ND; dieta hipoprotéica durante a gestação e normoprotéica durante a lactação (grupo DN; dieta hipoprotéica durante a gestação e lactação (grupo DD. Após o desmame todos os animais receberam dieta com teor protéico normal até os 60 dias de vida ocasião em que foram sacrificados. Preparados de membrana do jejuno foram corados pelo método de Giemsa e foram utilizados para análises morfológicas e quantitativas dos neurônios do plexo

  13. Identification of three Iranian species of the genus Rattus (Rodentia, Muridae using a PCR-RFLP technique on mitochondrial DNA

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    safieh Akbary rad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three species of the genus Rattus Fisher, 1803 have been reported from Iran: the brown rat (R. norvegicus, the black rat (R. rattus and the Himalayan rat (R. pyctoris. The first two were introduced, whilst R. pyctoris is native and lives in mountainous regions from Pakistan to north-eastern Iran. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA from twenty six rats were analysed using a PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism method to investigate inter-specific variation. Part of the 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes were amplified and digested with three restriction enzymes: AluI, MboI and HinfI. Restriction fragments resulted in four different haplotypes and allowed to distinguish the three Rattus species. Our results suggest that the Himalayan rats are more closely related to R. rattus than to R. norvegicus and provide the basics for further phylogenetic studies. Riassunto Identificazione di tre specie iraniane del genere Rattus (Rodentia, Muridae tramite PCR-RFLP su DNA mitocondriale. Tre specie del genere Rattus risultano diffuse in Iran: il surmolotto (R. norvegicus, il ratto nero (R. rattus e il ratto himalayano (R. pyctoris. Le prime due specie sono state introdotte, mentre R. pyctoris è presente nelle aree montane che si sviluppano dal Pakistan all’Iran nordorientale. In questo studio, il DNA mitocondriale di 26 individui è stato analizzato tramite PCR-RFLP per evidenziare variazioni inter-specifiche. Parte dei geni del rRNA 16S e del citocromo b è stata amplificata e quindi sottoposta a digestione tramite tre diversi enzimi: AluI, MboI e HinfI. I frammenti di restrizione hanno permesso di individuare quattro aplotipi mitocondriali e di distinguere le tre specie. I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono che il ratto

  14. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude

    Test). Preliminary results based on one fourth of the captured rats indicate, that the prevalence of pathogenic leptospira infected sewer rats are relatively high, as 28 out 48 rats were positive by PCR. This suggests that the sewer could be an environment representing high prevalence of leptospira...... among rats and thus an environment with high risk of transmission....

  15. The effect of oral lead acetate exposure on bax expression and apoptosis index granulose cells antral follicle in female wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus

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    Dian Aby Restanty

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To prove the effect of administered orally lead acetate exposure on Bax expression and the apoptosis index of granulosa cells on antral follicle female albino rats Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus. Methods: Post-test only control group, using female albino rats Wistar strain aged 10-12 wk (reproductive age weighing 100-200 g. Twenty-four animal samples were classified into one control group and three groups exposed to lead acetate in doses of 30, 100, and 300 ppm, respectively. Lead acetate was administered orally through a feeding tube over 30 d. Bax expression of granulosa cells on antral follicle was checked using immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis index were examined using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. Results: Lead increases apoptosis index on doses of 300 ppm. The increase of the Bax expression granulosa cell on antral follicle was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The exposure of lead acetate administrated orally can increase apoptosis index of granulosa cell on antral follicle although it doesn't affect Bax expression.

  16. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Joanna Makowska

    Full Text Available Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further

  17. Identification of cytochrome P450 differentiated expression related to developmental stages in bromadiolone resistance in rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    over-express the Cyp2a1 gene. TGhe altered gene expression has been suggested to be involved in the bromadiolone resistance by facilitating enhanced anticoagulant metabolism. To investigate the gene expression of these cytochrome P450 genes in rats of different developmental stages we compared...... expression profiles, from 8-, 12- and 20-week-old resistant rats of the Danish strain to profiles of anticoagulant-susceptible rats of same ages. The three age-groups were selected to represent a group of pre-pubertal, pubertal and adult rats. We found expression profiles of the pre-pubertal and pubertal...... resistant rats to concur with profiles of the adults suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the Danish bromadiolone resistance regardless of developmental stage. We also investigated the relative importance of the six cytochrome P450s in the different development stages of the resistant...

  18. Ozone Induces Glucose Intolerance and Systemic Metabolic Effects in Young and Aged Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone could impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in very young and aged rats. Brown Norway (BN) rats, 1,4, 12, and 24 months ol...

  19. An oral sensitization model in Brown Norway rats to screen for potential allergenicity of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Houben, G.F.; Spanhaak, S.; Penninks, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    We developed an oral sensitization protocol for food proteins for the rat. Young Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to 1 mg ovalbumin (OVA) by daily gavage dosing for 42 days without the use of an adjuvant. OVA-specific IgE and IgG responses were determined by ELISA. On an oral challenge with OVA

  20. Contribution of diet to δ15N, δ13C, and Δ14C values in the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, N.R.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is the outcome of a research project undertaken to determine how diet can affect the reliability of rat bone (especially that of Rattus exulans) for accurate radiocarbon analysis. It addresses questions about the reliability of R. exulans bone for radiocarbon dating with respect to the survival of bone in archaeological and natural burial sites, laboratory processing methods, and the extent to which diet influences radiocarbon ages of bone. I have shown that R. exulans bone can return reliable radiocarbon dates, based on bone survival and the efficacy of chemical treatment to remove burial contamination. In three dietary investigations, stable isotope (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and radiocarbon ( 14 C) analyses of modern populations and archaeological specimens also indicated that Rattus exulans and other omnivorous species can have radiocarbon values influenced by a diet linked to 14 C - depleted reservoirs. Moreover, depleted carbon reservoir effects are localised and variable in their magnitude. Work on modern populations also provided an improved means of isotopic analysis in an ecological study, where bomb-generated radiocarbon (Δ 14 C) signatures in the natural environment were used as for other 'tracer' studies, in conjunction with stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N). Results indicated that the changing atmospheric 14 C signal fixed into the biota in a given year by photosynthesis is transferred from plants through trophic levels to end-members, including rats. The additional isotopic 'clue' about diet given by radiocarbon analysis offered a better understanding of the variation in diets of R. exulans in different habitats. Variation in the isotopic signal among individuals supported other observations that diets of scavenging rats are opportunistic and associated with faunal availability in different habitats. To better understand diet-induced radiocarbon variations, I also examined the carbon contribution to bone protein from essential amino acids

  1. Sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to diagnose pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-07-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

  2. Antinociceptive effects of sustained-release buprenorphine in a model of incisional pain in rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, Helen H; Jampachairsri, Katechan; McKeon, Gabriel P; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Felt, Stephen A

    2014-03-01

    Effective management of postoperative pain is an essential component of the care and welfare of laboratory animals. A sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) has recently been introduced to the veterinary market and has been reported to provide analgesia for as long as 72 h. Using evoked mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity tests, we here evaluated the antinociceptive effects of Bup-SR in a model of incisional pain in rats. Paw withdrawal responses were obtained before and 1 through 4 d after surgery. Rats are assigned to receive Bup-SR (0.3, 1.2, or 4.5 mg/kg SC once) or buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl, 0.05 mg/kg SC twice daily for 3 d). Responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the 1.2 and 4.5 Bup-SR groups did not differ from those of rats in the Bup HCl group. Thermal latency on day 3 in rats that received 0.3 mg/kg Bup-SR was significantly different from baseline, indicating that this dose effectively decreased thermal hypersensitivity for at least 48 h. Marked sedation occurred in rats in the 4.5 Bup-SR group. Our findings indicate that Bup-SR at 0.3 or 1.2 mg/kg SC is effective in minimizing hypersensitivity with minimal sedation for at least 48 h (thermal hypersensitivity) and 72 h, respectively, in the incisional pain model in rats.

  3. Acute Toxicity of Cashew Nut Shell Extract (Anacardium occidentale L.) In Albino Rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout 1769).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlita; Satuti, N H Niken; Sagi, Mammed; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-01-01

    Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a crop producing cashew nut shell that contain phenolic compounds such as lacquer oil (cashew nut shell liquid) which can be used for many studies. This study was conducted to determine the potency of acute toxicity (LD50) of cashew nut shell extract on female albino Wistar rats using Weil method. Twenty rats used in this study. The rats was divided into five groups, each consist of four rats after acclimatization. Each group was given the extract of cashew nut shell orally (force-fed). The amount of cashew nut shell extract that were given to group I, II, III and IV were 2.5, 25, 250 and 2,500 mg kg-1 b.wt., respectively, while group V were given 0.5% sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMCNa) solution. Clinical symptoms were observed 24 h after the administration of extract include behavioral changes i.e., licking, scratching, twitching, tremors, wrihing, reactivity to stimuli, cerebral and spinal reflexes, secretions, breath, skin, hair and death. Probit analysis using Weil method was used as an effective dose. The results showed that the potency for acute toxicity (LD50) of cashew nut shell extract was 2,018 mg kg-1 which classified as moderately toxic category. The administration of extract also causes behavioral changes in animal including passivity and mucus secretion. All doses of the extract did not affect the development body weight and the weight of organs (spleen, liver, heart, kidneys and lungs) in female rats.

  4. The Sex Attractant Pheromone of Male Brown Rats: Identification and Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    Trapping brown rats is challenging because they avoid newly placed traps in their habitat. Herein, we report the identification of the sex pheromone produced by male brown rats and its effect on trap captures of wild female brown rats. Collecting urine- and feces-soiled bedding material of laboratory-kept rats and comparing the soiled-bedding odorants of juvenile and adult males, as well as of adult males and females, we found nine compounds that were specific to, or most prevalent in, the odor profiles of sexually mature adult males. When we added a synthetic blend of six of these compounds (2-heptanone, 4-heptanone, 3-ethyl-2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 4-nonanone) to one of two paired food-baited trap boxes, these boxes attracted significantly more laboratory-strain female rats in laboratory experiments, and captured ten times more wild female rats in a field experiment than the corresponding control boxes. Our data show that the pheromone facilitates captures of wild female brown rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  6. In vitro gastric digestion of cooked white and brown rice using a dynamic rat stomach model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Deng, Renpan; Wu, Xuee; Wang, Yong; Dong, Zhizhong; Dhital, Sushil; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-12-15

    The changes in physical, rheological and enzyme-digestive behaviours of cooked white and brown rice, with similar amylose content, were investigated using a dynamic in vitro rat stomach (DIVRS) model and a static soaking method. The brown rice had a higher resistance on disintegration and lower gastric emptying rate with 53% of the brown rice particles retained in the stomach at the end compared to 32% for the white rice. Furthermore, the release rate of maltose from the starch hydrolysis was higher in the white rice throughout the digestion suggesting the lower glycemic potency of the brown rice. These differences could be contributed from the rigid bran layer in the brown rice which would inhibit the moisture absorption into rice kernels, limit textural degradation, and generate higher gastric digesta viscosity leading to lower mixing and mass transfer efficiency. This study suggests that the structural difference could affect physiochemical properties during gastric digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Duplantier, J-M; Rahelinirina, S; Telfer, S; Brouat, C

    2010-06-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude area) was confirmed to be a widespread phenomenon. In rats from the plague focus, we observed that sex influenced plague susceptibility, with males slightly more resistant than females. Other individual factors investigated (weight and habitat of sampling) did not affect plague resistance. When infected at high bacterial dose (more than 10⁵ bacteria injected), rats from the plague focus died mainly within 3-5 days and produced specific antibodies, whereas after low-dose infection (plague resistance level and the course of infection in the black rat would contribute to a better understanding of plague circulation in Madagascar.

  8. Rodent ultrasonic communication: Male prosocial 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations elicit social approach behavior in female rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, Maria; Seffer, Dominik; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals with important communicative functions. Low-frequency 22-kHz USV typically occur in aversive situations, such as social defeat, whereas high-frequency 50-kHz USV can be observed in appetitive situations, like rough-and-tumble-play in juveniles or mating in adults. The 2 main USV types serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While 22-kHz USV probably serve as alarm calls, 50-kHz USV appear to serve a prosocial communicative function in the sexual and the nonsexual context. In the sexual context, however, this view has recently been challenged by playback studies where only very limited behavioral changes were observed in response to prosocial 50-kHz USV. The aim of the present study was therefore to test whether female rats display social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV by means of our established playback paradigm. To this aim, we exposed female rats to playback of the following 2 acoustic stimuli: (a) natural male 50-kHz USV and (b) time- and amplitude-matched white noise, with the latter serving as acoustic control for novelty-induced changes in behavior not linked to the communicative function of male prosocial 50-kHz USV. Our present findings show that female rats display high levels of social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV, but not time- and amplitude-matched white noise, supporting the conclusion that male prosocial 50-kHz USV are likely to play an important role in establishing social proximity and possibly regulate mating behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Heating Pad Performance and Efficacy of 2 Durations of Warming after Isoflurane Anesthesia of Sprague-Dawley Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Emily Q; Knight, Cameron G; Pang, Daniel Sj

    2017-11-01

    Anesthetic agents depress thermoregulatory mechanisms, causing hypothermia within minutes of induction of general anesthesia. The consequences of hypothermia include delayed recovery and increased experimental variability. Even when normothermia is maintained during anesthesia, hypothermia may occur during recovery. The primary aim of this study was to identify an effective warming period for maintaining normothermia during recovery. Adult male (n = 8) and female (n = 9) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 30 min (post30) or 60 min (post60) of warming after recovery from anesthesia. During a 40-min anesthetic period, normothermia (target, 37.5 ± 1.1 °C) was maintained by manual adjustment of an electric heating pad in response to measured rectal temperatures (corrected to estimate core body temperature). Warming was continued in a recovery cage according to treatment group. Rectal temperature was measured for a total of 120 min after anesthesia. Heating pad performance was assessed by measuring temperatures at various sites over its surface. One female rat in the post30 group was excluded from analysis. Normothermia was effectively maintained during and after anesthesia without significant differences between groups. In the post60 group, core temperature was slightly but significantly increased at 90 and 100 min compared with baseline. One rat in each treatment group became hyperthermic (>38.6 °C) during recovery. During recovery, the cage floor temperature required approximately 30 min to stabilize. The heating pad produced heat unevenly over its surface, and measured temperatures frequently exceeded the programmed temperature. Providing 30 min of warming immediately after anesthesia effectively prevented hypothermia in rats. Shorter warming periods may be useful when recovery cages are preheated.

  10. Hypocholesterolemic action of pre-germinated brown rice in hepatoma-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Daiki; Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2006-06-13

    The effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on cholesterol metabolism was studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with the ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A and compared with that of white rice (WR). The effect of brown rice (BR), the source of PGBR, was also studied. Hepatoma-bearing rats fed a WR diet exhibited hypercholesterolemia compared with normal rats fed the same diet. Feeding hepatoma-bearing rats a PGBR or BR diet suppressed hepatoma-induced hypercholesterolemia, and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and the activity of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid biosynthesis, in the microsomal fraction of the liver without affecting cholesterol synthesis in the host liver of hepatoma-bearing rats. These results suggest that PGBR as well as BR suppresses hypercholesterolemia induced by hepatoma growth by up-regulating cholesterol catabolism.

  11. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  12. [Mutations hooded and nonagouti in the gray rat (Rattus norvegicus): effect of selection on behavior and photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, L N; Pliusnina, I Z; Prasolova, L A

    2000-06-01

    Selection of wild Norway rats for behavior conducted in different directions was shown to affect the rate of appearance of coat-color mutants. In the population selected for domestication (reduced aggressive-fearful behavior toward humans), almost all animals acquired the semirecessive mutation hooded (h). Selection for aggressiveness (enhanced aggressive-fearful response) was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of homozygotes for a recessive mutation nonagouti (a). In the population selected for aggressive behavior, seasonal variation in the rate of appearance of mutant animals was observed. Experiments on the maintenance of nonselected rats under artificial short-day conditions showed possible interaction between alleles Agouti (A) and nonagouti but exclusively in heterozygotes for hooded. This interaction may lead to the inactivation of the normal A allele in some AaHh heterozygotes and their transformation into aa homozygotes, which would resemble paramutation. Discussion of the results is focused on several issues: recent evidence on coat-color genes and their function, directional (as opposed to random) nature of appearing mutations, and the possibility of meiotic inheritance of genetic changes occurring in early development.

  13. Effect of Dietary Amorphophallus sp From East Java on LDL-C Rats (Rattus novergicus Wistar Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widyarti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of indication of obesity is high LDL-C . Obesity has serious risk to health, it can cause heart disease and stroke. Effort to lower obesity using drugs have significant side effects such as insomnia, increased blood pressure, dry mouth and so forth. Therefore using natural products that contain glucomannan to reduce obesity and LDL-C is good choise. Glucomannan in the global market derived from Amorphophallus konjac. In this study, we used glucomannan from Amorphophallus endemic East Java to reduce fattened Wistar rats. Amorphophallus that used include Amorphophallus muelleri, A.variabilis (variant: Brongkos 32; Brongkos 5; Wonorejo, Brangsi and Amorphophallus campanulatus (Var Selopuro. Amorphophallus diet was given to white rats of Wistar strain that previously fattened using a mixture of cholesterol and lard, in addition to PARS (Chicken Feed Race Super as a basic food. Amorphophallus konjac was used as control. Measurement of LDL-C was conducted in four different time points, namely 1. Prior to dietary cholesterol, 2. 24 days after the dietary cholesterol, 3 11 days after Amorphophallus (+cholesterol diet, 4. 25 days after Amorphophallus (+cholesterol diet. The results showed that the diet of A.variabilis potentially lowered blood cholesterol levels for their respective 22.98%, 5.85% and 7.37% for consecutive variant Brongkos 32; Brongkos 5; Wonorejo. Diet from A.campanulatus and A.konjac had not been able to reduce cholesterol to the end of observation (25 days.

  14. Haematological profile of rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced BCG and provided leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Melva; Silitonga, Pasar M.

    2017-08-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng is a medicinal plant that has many benefits, such as an antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunostimulan. Immune status can be seen from hematological profile. This study aims to investigate hematology profile on rats induced BCG and leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. 24 male rats aged 3 months and weighing between 140-200 grams divided equally into six groups, P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5. P0 as controle was given aquadest. The P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 treatment groups were given 19 g / kg AEP + BCG, 31.5 g / kg AEP + BCG, 19g / kg AEP, 31.5 g / kg AEP and BCG consecutively. The BCG were used as antigen. The AEP was administered orally for 30 days and 100 µl BCG were intramusculary administered on day 14 th and day 21. On day 31st, the rats we decapitated and their blood were collected for hematology (leucocyte (WBC), Erythrocyte (RBC), thrombocyte (PLT) count, Haemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), MCV, MHC, and MHCH analysis. Data were analyzed with ANOVA. WBC increased significantly in treatment AEP 31.5 g / kg bw, 31.5 g AEP / kg bw + BCG and so were only given BCG. RBC tend to increase in all AEP treatment but tends to increase again when given a BCG. Hb increased in treatment P1, P2, T3 and P4, but the improvement was significant only in treatment P1. While PLT increase significantly in all treatments compared to the controls. HCT did not show significant differences but all of them were in the normal range. EAP without BCG and with the addition of BCG lowered ESR significantly, whereas BCG alone increased the ESR significantly. MCV increased significantly only in the treatment of P1 and show the same pattern with the MHC and MHCH. The conclusion that Plectranthus amboinicus Lour a positive impact on blood profiles with and without BCG. Plectranthus amboinicus Lour managed blood profile when administered together with BCG

  15. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  16. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Rattus rattus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, A.; Rahelinirina, S.; Rahalison, L.; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Brouat, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2008), s. 916-918 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic diversity * microsatellite * Rattus rattus * Rodentia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Effect Of Keren Fruit Extract (Muntingia calabura On Blood Glucose Levels Of Rats (Rattus novergicus Which Induced By Streptozotocin (STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vembriarto Jati Pramono

    2015-06-01

    control, group II (positive control, group III, IV, and V were given kersen fruit extract 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW, and 400 mg/kg BW respectively. Rats of groups I-V were induced with streptozotocin (STZ. Blood sugar values were analyzed using Analysis of Variance Repeated method (Repated ANOVA. The results showed blood glucose levels before treatment, week-0, and week-2 in the group I (133 mg/dL, 164 mg/dL, 105 mg/dL, group II (136 mg/dL, 362 mg/dL, 431 mg/dL, group III (133 mg/dL, 513 mg/dL, 109 mg/dL, group IV (100 mg/dL, 376 mg/dL, 153 mg/dL, and group V (83 mg/dL, 225 mg/dL, 169 mg/dL. Respectively based on statistical analysis showed a significant decreasies of blood sugar levels of the group III so that kersen extract with the dose of 100 mg / kg has the potential to antidiabetic.

  19. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Stierum, R.H.; Boorsma, A.; Schijf, M.A.; Prinsen, M.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Bloksma, N.; Arts, J.H.E.

    2008-01-01

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen

  20. Effect of pre-germination time of brown rice on serum cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohinejad, Shahin; Omidizadeh, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor; Hamid, Azizah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2010-01-30

    Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health. Brown rice (BR) and pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol, dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24, 48 h pre-germination) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24 and 48 h pre-germination). As compared to the control sample, the pre-germination time had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats. It was also found that the significantly (P < 0.05) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time. As compared to non-germinated brown rice, the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats. The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR. The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components, thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol. This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The in vivo antioxidant effect of vitamin C on hemogram in Paraquat treated male rats (rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is one of the most used herbicide globally; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on hemograms [hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and total white blood cells count] of rats under these toxic insults. The animals grouped (A-D, comprising subgroups without vitamin C (A1, B1, C1, D1 and subgroups on vitamin C (A2, B2, C2, D2, received different sub-lethal doses of PQ administered intraperitoneally monthly to the animals over a period of three months. The Hb values obtained were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 at month 1 and (P≤0.001 at months 2 and 3. These changes became more pronounced with increased dose and time. Vitamin C treated subgroups (B2, C2 and D2 had better Hb values than those without it (B1, C1 and D1 but the values were still significantly low when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. This same trend was observed in the PCV results obtained. The Control subgroups showed that vitamin C treated subgroup (A2 had a more improved hemogram values than subgroup on water only (A1, but they were all higher than that of the test subgroups. These PQ induced anaemia were ameliorated by the subsequent administration of vitamin C, and continuous treatment with vitamin C restored the health status of the animals so treated.

  2. Effects of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice on antioxidant status of type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-10

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.

  3. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR. Though brown rice (BR and germinated brown rice (GBR have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.

  4. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part I. Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones, and the establishment of distribution patterns; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. T. I. Alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Quantifizierung der Verteilung von Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl und Zn in den Organen Herz, Leber, Lunge, Niere, Muskulatur, Gehirn und Knochen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Oehlmann, J. [J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the current attempt was to investigate the suitability of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as a passive bioindicator using quantitative determinations of 12 chemical elements in different organs taken from rats which were caught in the Zoological Garden of Zittau. Aside from the determinations of so-called background levels, the focus of interest was with accumulations of certain elements within the organs depending on either sex or age of the rats. There were different affinities of the elements towards certain organs. Because of apparent sex and age-related differences in element concentrations and accumulation features, a well-planned sampling strategy for the use of rats as possible passive bioindicators is indeed required. The consideration of element distribution patterns within the organ system of Rattus norvegicus (based on body burden calculations (in part 2 of this work)) allows an effective use of the rat for purposes of integrative monitoring. (orig.) [German] Durch die Quantifizierung von 12 chemischen Elementen im Organsystem von wildlebenden Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus dem Tierpark Zittau (Sachsen) sollte die Eignung dieser Spezies als passiver Bioindikator untersucht werden. Neben der Ermittlung von sogenannten Hintergrundkonzentrationen standen insbesondere Fragen zur geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Akkumulation einzelner Elemente im Organsystem von Rattus norvegicus im Vordergrund. Spezifisch zeigten dabei einzelne Elemente unterschiedliche Affinitaeten zu den entsprechenden Geweben und Organen. Insbesondere die hierbei ermittelten geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Charakteristika einzelner Elemente macht eine detaillierte Ausarbeitung einer Beprobungsstrategie fuer den spaeteren Einsatz als passiver Bioindikator zwingend. Unter Beruecksichtigung des durch die Berechnung des Body Burden (Koerperlast) im 2. Teil der Arbeit ermittelten typischen Verteilungsmusters einzelner Elemente ist Rattus norvegicus zum

  5. Comparison of the endogenous ileal and faecal amino acid excretion in the dog (Canis familiaris) and the rat (Rattus rattus) determined under protein-free feeding and peptide alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, W H; Sritharan, K; Hodgkinson, S M

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare the endogenous ileal excretions of nitrogen and amino acids under protein-free and peptide alimentation by the dog and rat. Two diets were prepared, one that was devoid of protein and the other containing 23% enzyme hydrolysed casein. Chromic oxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. A total of 10 mixed breed dogs were fed hourly either a protein-free or enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet for a total of 10 days. A faecal sample was obtained from each dog on day 9 while digesta was obtained from the terminal 20 cm of the ileum directly after euthanasia on day 10. A total of 12 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received the same diets as the dogs. A faecal sample from each rat was obtained on day 7 while ileal digesta samples were obtained on day 8. The endogenous ileal excretions of most amino acids were greater in the dogs and rats that received the enzymatically hydrolysed casein diet compared with those receiving the protein free diet. Whereas the pattern of endogenous amino acid excretion was similar in the rats and dogs, the dogs excreted a significantly greater amount of nitrogen (1.91 vs. 2.27 and 1.63 vs. 4.12 g/kg dry matter intake for the protein-free and peptide alimentation method, respectively) and all amino acids except for glycine, isoleucine and leucine. Endogenous ileal amino acid excretions are higher in dogs compared to omnivorous animals such as rats and pigs but similar to the carnivorous cat.

  6. Efeitos das fontes e níveis de lipídios nas dietas de ratos machos da linhagem wistar (rattus norvegicus sobre frações lipídicas do sangue Effect of source and level of fat in the diet of wistar rats (rattus norvegicus on lipoidal fractions in the serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Sandra Nunes Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas quatro fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, óleo de canola, azeite de oliva e gordura suína em dois níveis na dieta (7 e 14%, verificando a influência do consumo dessas fontes lipídicas sobre algumas frações lipídicas do sangue de ratos. Assim, oito grupos de ratos machos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus norvegicus foram alimentados ad libitum por 56 dias com oito dietas distintas contendo as fontes e níveis citados de lipídios. As dosagens de colesterol total e triacilgliceróis no soro foram realizadas pelo método colorimétrico/enzimático utilizando "kit" comercial específico. O colesterol em HDL foi determinado por precipitação dos quilomícrons, VLDL e LDL, utilizando também "kit" específico. O aumento de lipídios na dieta para 14% elevou os valores de colesterol total, HDL-colesterol e LDL+VLDL-colesterol séricos, quando a fonte foi a gordura suína. Com 14% de lipídios na dieta, os menores valores de triacilgliceróis séricos foram observados nas fontes lipídicas óleo de soja e canola, com valores de 76,09 e 84,42 mg/dL, respectivamente.Four fat sources (soybean oil, canola oil, olive oil, swine fat were evaluated with regard to their influence, at two levels in the diet (7 and 14%, on some fat fractions in rats' blood. Thus, eight groups of Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus males were ad libitum fed eight different diets, containing the fat and level reported, for 56 days. The dosages of total serum cholesterol and thriacylglicerols were performed by the colorimetric/enzymatic method utilizing a commercial specific kit. The HDL cholesterol was determined by precipitation of kilomicra (VLDL and LDL by utilizing also a specific kit. The increase of fat in the diet to 14% raised the total cholesterol contents, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL + VLDL cholesterol when the source was swine fat. With 14% of fat in the diet, the lowest values of serum triacylglycerols were found for the fat sources soybean and canola oils

  7. Leanness of Lou/C rats does not require higher thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouze, Maud; Sibille, Brigitte; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Teulier, Loïc; Baetz, Delphine; Koubi, Harry; Servais, Stéphane; Duchamp, Claude

    2011-10-24

    Lou/C rats, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, remain lean throughout life and therefore represent a remarkable model of obesity resistance. To date, the exact mechanisms responsible for the leanness of Lou/C rats remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the leanness of Lou/C rats relies on increased thermogenic capacities in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Results showed that although daily energy expenditure was higher in Lou/C than in Wistar rats, BAT thermogenic capacity was not enhanced in Lou/C rats kept at thermoneutrality as demonstrated by reduced thermogenic response to norepinephrine in vivo, similar oxidative activity of BAT isolated mitochondria in vitro, similar levels of UCP1 mRNA and lower abundance of UCP1 protein in interscapular BAT depots. Relative abundance of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA was lower in Lou/C BAT while that of GLUT4, FABP or CPT1 was not altered. Activity-related energy expenditure was however considerably increased at thermoneutrality as Lou/C rats demonstrated an impressively high spontaneous running activity in voluntary running wheels. Prolonged cold-exposure (4 °C) depressed the spontaneous running activity of Lou/C rats while BAT thermogenic capacity was increased as reflected by rises in BAT mass, oxidative activity and UCP1 expression. It is concluded that the leanness of Lou/C rats cannot be ascribed to higher thermogenic capacity of brown fat but rather to, at least in part, increased locomotor activity. BAT is not deficient in this rat strain as it can be stimulated by cold exposure when locomotor activity is reduced suggesting some substitution between these thermogenic processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Digested BLG can induce tolerance when co-administered with intact BLG in Brown Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    the human gastro-duodenal digestion process. Four different fractions of BLG-digest was made, based on sizes of peptides or aggregates hereof. Intact BLG and the four fractions of BLG-digesta were characterized by protein chemical analyses. Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunised i.p. three times without...... sensitising capacity of intact BLG, indicating induction of tolerance or other protective mechanism by the digested BLG....

  9. Activity of thyroxine 5' deiodinase in brown fat of lean and obese zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y.; Fisher, D.A.; Stern, J.S.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    This study examines the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for conversion of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ in BAT, through activity of T/sub 4/ 5' deiodinase. Eighteen lean (Fa/.) and 18 age matched obese (fa/fa), about 16 weeks old, were each divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). Group 1 and 2 were fed Purina Rat Chow and a cafeteria diet respectively for 21 days, and maintained at 22/sup 0/C+/-2. Group 3 was fed rat chow and maintained at 8/sup 0/C+/-1 for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/5'deiodinase was determined in vitro. T/sub 3/ was measured by a radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ conversion was similar in the lean and the obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet (about 40 to 50 pmol T/sub 3//scapular BAT depot, per hour). However, lean rats exposed to the cold displayed about a 5 fold increase in T/sub 4/5' deiodinase activity (p<0.0001), with only a small increase displayed by the cold exposed obese rats. Our data suggest that a reduced capacity of the brown rat to produce T/sub 3/ may account for the reduced tolerance of obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet induced BAT thermogenesis.

  10. Efeitos da imposição de dieta hipoprotéica em ratos Wistar adultos (Rattus norvegicus Effects of hypoproteic diet supply on adult wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Orsi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da imposição de uma ração com 8% de proteínas por um período de 120 dias a ratos adultos, quando se analisaram a evolução do peso corpóreo, a dosagem de proteínas totais e frações protéicas, e as espessuras da parede total e da túnica muscular do duodeno. Verificou-se que para ratos adultos, a oferta de rações isocalóricas, porém com redução do teor de proteínas, levou à estagnação do peso corpóreo e à redução das proteínas totais e globulinas em animais desnutridos. A análise histomorfométrica da parede intestinal dos ratos desnutridos evidenciou comprometimento dos crescimentos hiperplásico e hipertrófico de suas túnicas, verificados pela menor espessura da parede duodenalIn this study the effect of the supply to adult rats of a diet of 8% protein for a period of 120 days was assessed, where body weight gain, dosage of total protein and proteic fractions, and thickness of the wall and muscle layer of the duodenum were analyzed. It was verified that the supply of isocaloric, yet low proteic-level diets, led to body weight stabilization, and decrease of total protein and globulins in malnourished rats. Histomorphometric analysis of the intestinal wall of disnurtured rats evidenced impairment of the hyperplasic and hypertrofic growth of its layers, verified by the decreased thickness of the duodenal wall

  11. Neurônios NADH-diaforase positivos do jejuno de ratos adultos (Rattus norvegicus desnutridos: aspectos quantitativos NADH-diaphorase positive neurons of the jejunum of disnurtured adult rats (Rattus norvegicus: quantitative aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Trannin de Mello Zanin

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Temos por objetivo contribuir com informações sobre os aspectos quantitativos dos neurônios mioentéricos NADH-diaforase positivos do jejuno de ratos submetidos a desnutrição protéica. Foram utilizados 10 ratos (90 dias de idade, divididos em grupos: controle (n=5, ±278g e desnutrido (n=5, ±280g. Nos 120 dias seguintes, os ratos do grupo controle receberam ração com teor protéico de 22%, os do grupo desnutrido, 8%. Ao final deste período, os ratos do grupo controle pesaram ±394,4g e os desnutrido ±273,5g.O jejuno foi submetido à técnica histoquímica da NADH-diaforase para evidenciação de células nervosas em preparado de membranas. Foram contados os neurônios presentes em 80 campos microscópicos em ambos os grupos. Verificaram-se no controle ±674,6 neurônios e no desnutrido ±1326,8 neurônios; A dieta não alterou a organização dos neurônios entretanto, levou a um menor desenvolvimento corporal nos animais desnutridos, contribuindo para que os neurônios destes sofressem menor dispersão e apresentassem maior densidade por mm².We aim at contributing with information on the quantitative aspects of the NADH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons of the jejunum of adult rats subjected to protein desnutrition. Ten rats aging 90 days were divided into two groups: control (n=5, ±278 g and disnurtured (n=5, ±280 g. In the following 120 days, the rats from the control group had chow with 22% protein level, and those from the disnurtured group, with 8% protein level. After this period, the control rats weighted ±394.4g and the disnurtured ±273.5g. The jejunum was subjected to the histochemical technique of the NADH-diaphorase to stain nerve cells in whole-mounts. The neurons found in 80 microscopic fields of both groups were counted. In the control ±674.6 neurons were observed, and ±1326.8 neurons were counted in the disnurtured group. The low-protein diet did not alter the organization of the neurons, but led to a

  12. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  13. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  14. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhananjoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... (Corbet and Hill, 1992). Of these, 69 species are reported in Manipur (Mandal et al., 2005). Mandal et al. (2005) reported five species and seven subspecies: Rattus rattus brunneusculus (Hodgson), Rattus rattus bullocki. Roonwal, Rattus rattus tistae Hinton, Rattut nitidus obsoletus Hinton, R. mackenziei ...

  15. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    Full Text Available Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci.We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks.Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

  16. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

  17. Cold-increase in brown fat thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase is attenuated in Zucker obese rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Y.; Stern, J.S.; Fisher, D.A.; Glick, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for enzymic conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ) to triiodothyronine (T 3 ) in BAT. A total of 34 lean and obese rats, ∼4 mo old were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow for 21 days, and group two (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed a cafeteria diet for 21 days, and groups 3 (6 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow and maintained in the cold (8 +/- 1 0 C) for 7 days. Activity of T 4 5'-deiodinase was determined as the rate of T 3 production from added T 4 under controlled in vitro conditions. Serum T 4 and T 3 were determined by radioimmunoassay. The rate of T 4 -to-T 3 conversion in BAT was similar in the lean and obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet. However, expressed per scapular BAT depot, lean rats exposed to cold displayed about a fivefold increase in BAT T 3 production whereas only a small increase was observed in the cold-exposed obese rats. Serum T 3 levels tended to be reduced in the Zucker obese rats. The data indicate a reduced capacity for T 3 production of Zucker rat BAT exposed to cold. This defect may account for the reduced tolerance of the obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis

  18. Aktivitas Antifibrotik Ekstrak Buah Delima Terstandar 40% Ellagic Acid pada Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus sebagai Hewan Model (ANTIFIBROTIC ACTIVITY OF POMEGRANATE FRUIT EXTRACT STANDARDIZED 40% ELLAGIC ACID ON RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AS ANIMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with chronic liver disease (fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver is increasing fromtime to time. However, until now there is no therapy that really effective to overcome that disease. Therapyfor liver fibrosis typically use substance that have antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory or anti fibrotic.Various efforts always done to find alternative therapies for liver fibrosis. One of them is the use ofpotential plants that suspected having such activity. Various parts of pomegranate have been shown tohave various activities that beneficial for health. This study was conducted to determine the effect ofpomegranate fruit extract standardized 40% ellagic acid on the improvement degree of liver fibrosis causedby cholestasis by measuring of serum alkaline phosphatase levels (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase(GGT, as a specific indicator of liver damage becaused of cholestasis. The research was conducted by using32 male rats, wistar strain, 2.5 month old, weighing between 150-200 grams. Animal models of liver fibrosis obtained by using BDL technique. Subjects were divided into a control group (P0 = without BDLand giving of pomegranate extract and treatment groups (P1 = BDL with administration of CMC, P2 =BDL with ellagic acid 90% and P3 = BDL with pomegranate fruit extract standardized 40% ellagic acid.CMC, extract (150 mg / kg BW / PO and ellagic acid (60 mg / kg BW / PO administered for 21 consecutivedays in the same volume. At the end of 21 days periods, biochemical evaluation was performed to measureserum levels of GGT and ALP. The result indicated that administration of pomegranate fruit extract ( P3significantly reduced GGT ( 10.5±9.2 mg/dl and ALP level ( 509.0±4.2 mg/dl close to normal level of GGTand ALP ( P0, GGT : 2.8 ± 1.4; ALP : 449.0±62.3 (p<0.05. The level of GGT and ALP in P3 group were lowercompared to the group ellagic acid (P2, GGT=48.5±4.8 and ALP = 691.0± 29.7 and group which only begiven CMC (P1, GGT

  19. Spatial reference memory in normal aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuail, Joseph A; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, or 28 months of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 and 18 months and 18 and 24 months. At 28 months, spatial learning was not worse than 24 months, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ∼50% of 24- to 28-month-old rats performed similarly to 6 months, whereas others were spatial learning impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344 × BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GIS-modelling the distribution of Rattus norvegicus in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats Rattus norvegicus in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di Rattus norvegicus in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche Rattus norvegicus nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari

  1. Sex Hormones Function as Sex Attractant Pheromones in House Mice and Brown Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-07-18

    Sex hormones of mammals control the expression of sexual characteristics and bodily functions. The male hormone testosterone and the female hormones progesterone and estradiol are known to occur in urine markings of mice. Here, we show that all three hormones are also present in urine of brown rats, and that they are effective sexual communication signals (pheromones) that elicit attraction behavior of prospective mates in both brown rats and house mice. When added as lures to trap boxes in field experiments, synthetic testosterone, for example, increased captures of adult female mice 15-fold, and a blend of progesterone and estradiol increased captures of male mice eightfold and male rats 13-fold. Remarkably, these hormones increased captures even though the food- and pheromone-based baits to which they were added had previously been shown to be superior to current commercial rodent attractants. We predict that these sex hormones will function as sex attractant pheromones in diverse taxa. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of Gram-negative Bacteria, E.coli and Cold Exposure on Free Radicals Production, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in the Lungs of Rats, Rattus norvigicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSaid, A Haffor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of LPS-gram negative bacteria and low ambient temperature on free radicals (FR) production, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lungs of rats, Rattus norvigisu. Twenty four male rats, matched with age and weigh, were divided randomly into four groups namely control (C), Bacteria (B), cold temperature (T), and bacteria plus cold (BT). The T group was exposed to 10-12degree C ambient temperature for 3 days. Animals of the BT was injected LPS bacteria (IP, 500 micron g/kg) during the last five hour of cold exposure to 10-12 degree C for 3 days. In comparison with C group FR increased significantly (p<0.05) in the experimental groups, indicating high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The activity of LDH increased significantly (p<0.05) in the T and BT groups, which demonstrated that bacteria and exposure to cold are causes for cellular injury in the lungs. The synergetic effect of both bacteria and cold on LDH was more intense, as compared with the single effect. The activity of GPx increased significantly (p<0.05) in the B and BT, as compared with the C group. The results of the present study is the first worldwide report to demonstrate that both cold exposure and bacteria infection are mediated by elevation in FR generation. (author)

  3. Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Patricia G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001. The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054. Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT.

  4. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    and behaviour of these populations. Aims.: The study aimed to uncover the population dynamics, movements and distribution of rats in populations living in sewers. Methods.: We studied rats in a capture–mark–recapture study in two adjacent but separate sewer systems in suburban Copenhagen, Denmark, covering......-to-day movements took place over shorter distances. There were no movements of rats between sewer systems and no sewer rats were observed to be active on the surface. The rat populations seemed to be substructured in smaller groups. Conclusions.: Sewer rat populations vary irregularly in abundance. Pipe dimensions...

  5. Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunjuntuk, Kansuda; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Rungruang, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) of Khao Dawk Mali 105 variety was produced by steaming germinated paddy rice, which is well-known for its nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we determined the in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of PGBR in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, (weight 200-250 g) were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) CCl(4), (3) white rice (WR)+CCl(4), (4) brown rice (BR)+CCl(4), and (5) PGBR+CCl(4) groups. PGBR, BR, and WR diets were produced by replacing corn starch in the AIN76A diet with cooked PGBR, BR, and WR powders, respectively. All rats except the control group were gavaged with 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v, 1 mL/kg) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4)-treated rats exhibited significant liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as obvious changes to liver histopathology compared to control. In addition, CCl(4) treatment decreased the activities of CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) content. However, the PGBR+CCl(4) group exhibited less liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as better antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content. Furthermore, PGBR inhibited degradation of CYP2E1 in CCl(4)-induced decrease of CYP2E1 activity. These data suggest that PGBR may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative stress and injury through enhancement of the antioxidant capacities, which may be due to complex actions of various bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, tocotrienol, and GABA.

  6. Evidence for a high fatty acid synthesis activity in interscapular brown adipose tissue of genetically obese Zucker rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavau, M; Bazin, R; Karaoghlanian, Z; Guichard, C

    1982-01-01

    Obese (fa/fa) rats (30 days old) exhibited a 50% increase in the weight of interscapular brown adipose tissue compared with their lean (Fa/fa) littermates. The tissue weight increase was accounted for by an increased fat content. Lipogenesis in vivo, as assessed by the incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into lipid, was increased 5-fold in brown adipose tissue of obese as compared with lean rats. Accordingly, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate-cleavage enzyme and malic enzyme in...

  7. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  8. (RattusNorvegicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... elucidate the consequence(s)of thiocyanate administration on the liver of adult male wistar rats. ... induced liver damage. But hepatocellular appearance was normal in the control group. Biochemical assays of serum total bilirubin and tissue AST increased ... disease because of its high functional reserve.

  9. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  10. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Lombardi

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2, a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient and mitochondria (longer lasting, suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis.

  11. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  12. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  13. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α 2 -macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic

  14. Preexposure to amorphous silica particles attenuates but also enhances allergic reactions in trimellitic anhydride-sensitized brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Schijf, M.A.; Kuper, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Irritant-induced inflammation of the airways may aggravate respiratory allergy induced by chemical respiratory allergens. Therefore, the effect of airway irritation by synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) on respiratory allergy to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was studied. Brown Norway (BN) rats were

  15. Mercuric chloride-induced autoimmunity in the brown Norway rat. Cellular kinetics and major histocompatibility complex antigen expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J.; Bosman, C. B.; Rozing, J.; Stijnen, T.; Hoedemaeker, P. J.; Weening, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    HgCl2 induces an autoimmune syndrome in Brown Norway rats that involves synthesis of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and development of nephritis with high proteinuria. HgCl2-induced changes in the composition of leukocyte populations and in the expression of MHC antigens in

  16. Dietary calcium supplementation in adult rats reverts brown adipose tissue dysfunction programmed by postnatal early overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Oliveira, Elaine; Guarda, Deysla Sabino; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; Quitete, Fernanda Torres; Calvino, Camila; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas; Manhães, Alex Christian; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction is associated with obesity and its comorbidities, such as hypertension, and the improvement of BAT function seems important for obesity management. Here we investigated the effects of dietary calcium supplementation on BAT autonomic nerve activity, sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular parameters in adult obese rats that were raised in small litters (SL group). Three days after birth, SL litters were adjusted to three pups to induce early overfeeding. The control group remained with 10 pups/litter until weaning (NL group). At PN120, the SL group was randomly divided into the following: rats fed with standard chow (SL) and rats fed with dietary calcium carbonate supplementation (SL-Ca, 10g/kg chow). Animals were killed either at PN120 or PN180. At both ages, SL rats had higher BAT autonomic nervous system activity, mass and adipocyte area, as well as increased heart rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic); 2 months of calcium supplementation normalized these parameters. At PN180 only, UCP1 and TRβ1 in BAT were decreased in SL rats. These changes were also prevented by calcium treatment. Also at PN180, the SL group presented higher tyrosine hydroxylase and adrenal catecholamine contents, as well as lower hypothalamic POMC and MC4R contents. Calcium supplementation did not revert these alterations. Thus, we demonstrated that dietary calcium supplementation was able to improve cardiovascular parameters and BAT thermogenesis capacity in adult animals that were early overfed during lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  18. The taxonomic status of Rattus dammermani Thomas and Rattus toxi Sody (Rodentia, Muridae) of Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musser, Guy G.

    1971-01-01

    Rattus dammermani Thomas, 1921 is known from southwestern Celebes. Rattus toxi Sody, 1941 is a subjective synonym of that taxon. Although the name dammermani has been listed in the literature as a subspecies of R. rattus, it is actually a valid species that is morphologically more closely related to

  19. THE EFFECT OF MAXIMUM PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MANGGONG BAMBOO (Gigantochloa manggong LEAF EXTRACT ON CATALASE ACTIVITY IN LIVER ORGAN OF RATS (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Supriyatin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gigantochloa manggong, one of endemic bamboo plant in Indonesia is suspected to have exogenous antioxidant potential. Exogenous antioxidant can help the activity of endogenous antioxidant in the body when overtraining occurs. Antioxidant can be measured by catalase enzymes activity. This study was carried out to determine the effect of maximum physical activity and leaf bamboo extract on catalase activity in liver organ of rats. This research used experimental method with completely randomized design (CRD. The test groups were the control rats (E0R0, leaf extract induced rats (E1R0, swimming activity treated rats (E0R1 and leaf extract induced and swimming activity treated rats (E1R1. Data were analyzed by the two-way ANOVA statistical test. Bamboo leaf extract non-toxic and leaf extract contained flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids dan saponins. Catalase units in the control group is 1.00 unit/ml, the induced leaf extract group is 0.89 unit/ml, the maximum physical activity group is 0.78 unit/ml and the maximum physical activity treated and induced leaf extract group is 0.56 unit/ml. Based on statistical test, catalase activity has no effect (p>0,05 on rats. It was concluded that maximum physical activity could not reduce catalase activity. Manggong bamboo leaves extract could not increase catalase activity and there was no effect between maximum physical activity and manggong bamboo leaf extract on catalase activity in liver organ of rats.

  20. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  1. A Study on Brown Seaweed Therapy ( Sargassum sp. toward MDA Levels and Histological Improvement on Rat Foot Suffering Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (AR, an autoimun disease, is characterized by the inflammation in the joint area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, that increasing levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and the decreasing levels of anti-oxidants. The treated with extract of brown seaweed (Sargassum sp. intended to find out the MDA levels in serum and the histological of the foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats. Malondialdehyde levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat foot joints was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the brown seaweed extract therapy (Sargassum sp. was significantly (p <0.01 reduce levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the serum of 21,24% and improving histological foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats.

  2. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

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    Craig H Warden

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC. Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age.

  3. Immune-mediated effects upon oral challenge of ovalbumin-sensitized Brown Norway rats: Further characterization of a rat food allergy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Houben, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no full validated enteral models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. To further validate a developed enteral Brown Norway (BN) rat food allergy model, systemic and local

  4. The activity of pomegranate extract standardized 40% ellagic acid during the healing process of incision wounds in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid on the incised wound in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 10 treatment groups. The five groups were sacrificed on the 8th day, while the others were sacrificed on the 15th day. Two groups of albino rats with incised wound were not treated at all (P0, the other two groups of albino rats with incised wound were treated with Betadine® (P1 ointment, and the rest of the groups were treated with pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid with a concentration of 2.5% (P2, 5% (P3, and 7.5% (P4. The treatments were carried out twice a day with an interval of 12 h for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the research, the skin tissue of those albino rats had been taken for histopathologic preparations before H and E staining was performed. Results: Collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis degree in Group P4 treated with 7.5% pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid for 14 days were significantly different from those in Groups P0, P1, P2, and P3, especially in the case of PMN inflammation (p<0.05. Conclusion: The administration of 7.5% pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid for 14 days on incised wounds of those albino rats can accelerate the wound healing process characterized by collagen deposition improvement, PMN infiltration in the wound area, angiogenesis, and fibrosis degree.

  5. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  6. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Mohd Zain Siti N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%, H. spumosum (29.8% and H. nana (28.4%. Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site and intrinsic (species, sex and age factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential

  7. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  8. Responses of the insulin signaling pathways in the brown adipose tissue of rats following cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wahl, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The insulin signaling pathway is critical for the control of blood glucose levels. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been implicated as important in glucose homeostasis. The effect of short-term cold exposure on this pathway in BAT has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of 4 hours of cold exposure on the insulin pathway in the BAT of rats. Whole genomic microarray chips were used to examine the transcripts of the pathway in BAT of rats exposed to 4°C and 22°C for 4 hours. The 4 most significantly altered pathways following 4 hours of cold exposure were the insulin signaling pathway, protein kinase A, PI3K/AKT and ERK/MAPK signaling. The insulin signaling pathway was the most affected. In the documented 142 genes of the insulin pathway, 42 transcripts (29.6%) responded significantly to this cold exposure with the least false discovery rate (Benjamini-Hochberg Multiple Testing: -log10 (p-value)  = 7.18). Twenty-seven genes (64%) were up-regulated, including the insulin receptor (Insr), insulin substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1 and Irs2). Fifteen transcripts (36%) were down-regulated. Multiple transcripts of the primary target and secondary effector targets for the insulin signaling were also up-regulated, including those for carbohydrate metabolism. Using western blotting, we demonstrated that the cold induced higher Irs2, Irs1, and Akt-p protein levels in the BAT than in the BAT of controls maintained at room temperature, and higher Akt-p protein level in the muscle. this study demonstrated that 4 hours of cold exposure stimulated the insulin signaling pathway in the BAT and muscle of overnight fasted rats. This raises the possibility that acute cold stimulation may have potential to improve glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity.

  9. Faillure in the effect of the analogue (hCG of luteinizing hormone on the luteal angiogenesis in rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonçalves Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the control of the ovarian activity is essential for the success of reproduction biotechnologies. Although a number of studies have been carried out in which the luteinizing hormone (LH was used to control the ovarian activity, little is known about its influence in the morphology and vascular formation of the corpus luteum, aiming to increase the local blood flow. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was the quantification of the vascular density of corpora lutea (Cls in animals treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG just after ovulation. Therefore, eighteen wistar rats were used in this experiment. Eight rats in the treated group and ten rats in the control group. Corpora lutea were divided into two groups: group (A treated with hCG in the following morning after copulation, and group (B control animals which received an injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Ovaries from each group were used for preparation of histological sections for vascular density qualification. No statistical significance was found between the two groups tested.

  10. Calcium-induced alteration of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum contacts in rat brown adipocytes

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    I. Golic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are key organelles maintaining cellular bioenergetics and integrity, and their regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis has been investigated in many cell types. We investigated the short-term Ca-SANDOZ® treatment on brown adipocyte mitochondria, using imaging and molecular biology techniques. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Ca-SANDOZ® drinking or tap water (control drinking for three days. Alizarin Red S staining showed increased Ca2+ level in the brown adipocytes of treated rats, and potassium pyroantimonate staining localized electron-dense regions in the cytoplasm, mitochondria and around lipid droplets. Ca-SANDOZ® decreased mitochondrial number, but increased their size and mitochondrial cristae volume. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous enlarged and fusioned-like mitochondria in the Ca-SANDOZ® treated group compared to the control, and megamitochondria in some brown adipocytes. The Ca2+ diet affected mitochondrial fusion as mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and mitofusin 2 (MFN2 were increased, and mitochondrial fission as dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1 was decreased. Confocal microscopy showed a higher colocalization rate between functional mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The level of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 was elevated, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. These results suggest that Ca-SANDOZ® stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial-ER contacts and the thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes

  11. Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M U; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

    2014-08-01

    To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats. Review. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (pdrugs studied were harmful with regard to implantation, reabsorption, teratogenity and mortality (p>0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (ppregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.

  12. Mutant Wars2 gene in spontaneously hypertensive rats impairs brown adipose tissue function and predisposes to visceral obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Trnovská, J.; Škop, V.; Marková, I.; Malínská, H.; Hüttl, M.; Kazdová, L.; Bardová, Kristina; Tauchmannová, Kateřina; Vrbacký, Marek; Nůsková, Hana; Mráček, Tomáš; Kopecký, Jan; Houštěk, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2017), s. 917-924 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04420S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * spontaneously hypertensive rat * quantitative trait loci * transgenic * Wars2 gene * mitochondrial proteosynthesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  13. Beyond an AFLP genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in Rattus rattus from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Jacquet, S; Ivanova, S; Loiseau, A; Duplantier, J-M; Streiff, R; Brouat, C

    2013-01-01

    Genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. This study follows on from an AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar. We successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with a plague resistance phenotype. Searching these sequences in the genome of the closely related species Rattus norvegicus assigned them to 14 genomic regions, revealing a random distribution of outliers in the genome (no clustering). We compared these results with those of an in silico AFLP study of the R. norvegicus genome, which showed that outlier sequences could not have been inferred by this method in R. rattus (only four of the 15 sequences were predicted). However, in silico analysis allowed the prediction of AFLP markers distribution and the estimation of homoplasy rates, confirming its potential utility for designing AFLP studies in nonmodel species. The 14 genomic regions surrounding AFLP outliers (less than 300 kb from the marker) contained 75 genes encoding proteins of known function, including nine involved in immune function and pathogen defence. We identified the two interleukin 1 genes (Il1a and Il1b) that share homology with an antigen of Y. pestis, as the best candidates for genes subject to plague-mediated natural selection. At least six other genes known to be involved in proinflammatory pathways may also be affected by plague-mediated selection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Development and characterization of an effective food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

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    Mar Abril-Gil

    Full Text Available Food allergy (FA is an adverse health effect produced by the exposure to a given food. Currently, there is no optimal animal model of FA for the screening of immunotherapies or for testing the allergenicity of new foods.The aim of the present study was to develop an effective and rapid model of FA in Brown Norway rats. In order to establish biomarkers of FA in rat, we compared the immune response and the anaphylactic shock obtained in this model with those achieved with only intraperitoneal immunization.Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis, and 14 days later, OVA by oral route daily for three weeks (FA group. A group of rats receiving only the i.p. injection (IP group were also tested. Serum anti-OVA IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA antibodies were quantified throughout the study. After an oral challenge, body temperature, intestinal permeability, motor activity, and mast cell protease II (RMCP-II levels were determined. At the end of the study, anti-OVA intestinal IgA, spleen cytokine production, lymphocyte composition of Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, and gene expression in the small intestine were quantified.Serum OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b concentrations rose with the i.p. immunization but were highly augmented after the oral OVA administration. Anti-OVA IgE increased twofold during the first week of oral OVA gavage. The anaphylaxis in both IP and FA groups decreased body temperature and motor activity, whereas intestinal permeability increased. Interestingly, the FA group showed a much higher RMCP II serum protein and intestinal mRNA expression.These results show both an effective and relatively rapid model of FA assessed by means of specific antibody titres and the high production of RMCP-II and its intestinal gene expression.

  15. Leptin immunoexpression and innervation in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue of cold-acclimated rats: the effects of L-arginine and L-NAME.

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    Bato Korac

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of nitric oxide on leptin immunoexpression and innervation in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT of room- and cold- acclimated rats. Animals acclimated both to room-temperature (22 +/- 1 degrees C and cold (4 +/- 1 degrees C were treated with L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOSs, or N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOSs, for 45 days. Leptin expression and localization in brown adipocytes was studied by immunohistochemistry, and innervation stained by the Bodian method. Strong leptin immunopositivity was observed in brown adipocytes cytoplasm of all room-acclimated groups, but nuclear leptin positivity was found only in L-NAME treated rats. In cold-acclimated control and L-NAME treated rats leptin immunopositivity was absent, while L-arginine treatment reversed the cold-induced suppression of leptin expression. Comparing to control, L-arginine, and even more L-NAME, at 22 +/- 1 degrees C induced greater innervation. In conclusion, L-arginine treatment changes leptin expression pattern on cold in rat IBAT.

  16. No priming of the immune response in newborn Brown Norway rats dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    Background: Other researchers have reported that the specific immune response to subsequent antigen challenge is primed in newborn mice or rats dosed orally by gavage. We wanted to investigate if priming of a subsequent specific IgE response could be achieved by dosing newborn rats orally...... with ovalbumin in the mouth as neonates do not prime the specific immune response. The decrease in immune response found in our experiments when dosing newborn animals in the mouth in opposition to the priming seen by others when dosing by intra-gastric intubation may be explained by a dissimilar antigen......E and IgG responses were decreased compared to the control groups, however, not always reaching statistical significance. A statistical significant decrease in the specific immune response was found in young adult rats dosed in the mouth as compared to by gavage. Conclusions: Dosing Brown Norway rats...

  17. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Aglécio Luis; Alegre, Sarah Monte; César, Carlos Lenz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. Methods Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG) microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change) and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL). Results RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422), higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01), IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001) and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05) in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05) in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01). GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01) and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001) in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05) and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01), adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001) and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05). The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05). Conclusion Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions. PMID:29236720

  18. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Morari, Joseane; Souza, Aglécio Luis de; Silva, Marilene Neves da; de Almeida, Amanda Roberta; Veira-Damiani, Gislaine; Alegre, Sarah Monte; César, Carlos Lenz; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Maia, Nilson Borlina; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG) microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change) and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL). RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422), higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01), IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001) and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05) in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05) in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01). GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01) and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001) in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05) and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01), adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001) and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05). The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05). Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions.

  19. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grosselli Lania

    Full Text Available Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats.Punch skin wounds (6 mm incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS, mineral oil (MO, green coffee oil (GCO, roasted coffee oil (RCO, green coffee ground oil (GCGO or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL.RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422, higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01, IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05 in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05 in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01. GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01 and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001 in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05 and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01, adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001 and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05. The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05.Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's-Like Disease Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoopong, Supin; Jarungjitaree, Sunit; Punbanlaem, Tideeporn; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Taechowisan, Thongchai

    2016-09-01

    The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control. Results show that pretreatment with GBR as well as 4-PBA significantly enhanced the motor activity after RT injection, and GBR affected significantly in open field test, only in the ambulation but not the mobility duration, and ameliorated the time to orient down (t-turn) and total time to descend the pole (t-total) in pole test as compared to RT group, but significantly lowered both t-turn and t-total only in 4-PBA group. The percentage of apoptotic cells in brain measured by flow cytometry and the inflammatory effect measured by ELISA of TNF-α showed significant increase in RT group as compared to the control (CT) group at P < 0.05. Apoptotic cells in RT group (85.98 %) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase versus CT group (17.50 %), and this effect was attenuated in GBR+RT group by decreasing apoptotic cells (79.32 %), whereas, increased viable cells (17.94 %) versus RT group (10.79 %). GBR in GBR + RT group could decrease TNF-α both in the serum and in brain. In summary, GBR showed a neuroprotective effect in RT-induced PD rats, and it may be useful as a value-added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative disease or PD.

  1. Morphoquantitative effects on striated skeletal muscle of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus subjected to a diet utilized in young children from rural Mozambique

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    Catarina Tivane Nhamposse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique is a country of sub-Saharan Africa where about 55% of the population lives below the absolute poverty line with less than one meal a day hardly surviving based on by donations. Food insecurity and precarious nutrition, especially in children, are factors that induce to levels of 44% of chronic malnutrition (CD in infants. The CD is responsible for one third of deaths in children under five years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphoquantitative effects in gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats fed with a diet utilized by people from rural areas of Mozambique. We used 75 Wistar rats weighing approximately 300 g divided in three groups: nourished or control (N, malnourished (D, and Mozambique or experimental group (M, measured at birth and at weaning. The animals were kept under the same housing conditions, temperature, humidity and light, but with different diets depending on the group: Group N with normal protein diet (20% casein, Group D with hypo-proteic diet (5% casein, and Group M with Mozambique diet. In all groups we evaluated the body mass at birth and weaning, and collected the right gastrocnemius muscle of male pups at weaning for analysis. Serial sections of 10 μm were performed in a cryostat prior to histology techniques of hematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius, NADH-tr and analysis in transmission electron microscope. Statistical evaluation was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant differences were found between groups N, D and M. In group M were observed a great variation of body mass that was approximately similar to group D; Group M also showed the same changes in muscle fiber which exhibited round-shaped contours, and predominance of type III collagen, similarly to malnourished group (D. Ultra-structurally, animals from Mozambique displayed a disorganization of the Z lines of sarcomeres, myofibrils disruption, decreased cross-sectional area and a smaller proportion of

  2. Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus

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    Braz José do Nascimento-Júnior

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gels containing the monoterpene borneol in induced oral mucositis using an animal model. Gels were prepared with borneol at 1.2% and 2.4% (w/w. Oral mucositis was induced by administration of three doses of 5-fluorouracil (30 mg/kg, i.p. and injury with acetic acid (50%, v/v soaked in filter paper applied to right cheek mucosa for 60s. Four subgroups comprising 12 animals each were formed. Six animals from each group were sacrificed at days seven and fourteen after oral mucositis induction. Mucous samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s Trichrome. The semiquantitative evaluation involved observation of inflammatory parameters. ImageJ® software was used in the quantitative evaluation. For statistical analyses, Two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-test (p <0.05, were employed. Borneol 2.4% gel proved effective in the treatment of oral mucositis with statistically significant differences between groups for angiogenesis control, inflammatory cell count reduction and percentage neoformed collagen increase. The confirmation of anti-inflammatory and healing action of borneol in oral mucositis in rats renders it a good marker for predicting this activity for plant extracts rich in this substance.

  3. HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC AND ANTI-OXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF GERMINATED BROWN RICE (GBR IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA-INDUCED RATS

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    Froilan Bernard Matias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia, as one of the causes of obesity, affects vital organs in the body, such as the liver and kidney, resulting to oxidative stress. Germinated Brown Rice (GBR as a food-based solution in dealing with this condition is highly recommended. In this study, the effects of GBR on hypercholesterolemia-induced rats were evaluated by measuring and analyzing the changes on body weight, serum lipid profiles (TC, TG, LDL and HDL, liver function (ALT and AST, kidney function (Crea and Urea and its antioxidant capacity (MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Thirty (30 SD male rats were divided into 5 groups (6 rats per group; Group A was given normal basal diet, Group B (hypercholesterolemic group was given a high fat diet, while Groups C, D, and E were given 12.5%, 25% and 50% GBR, respectively. Groups C, D and E were fed with high fat diet for 4 weeks, then fed with the GBR feeds, accordingly, for another 5 weeks. Sera and liver samples were collected for testing and evaluation. Hypercholesterolemia was successfully induced in Groups B, C, D, and E after 4 weeks. Noticeable responses were observed in groups fed with GBR after 5 weeks. Group E fed with 50% GBR showed the satisfactory results (significant at p<0.05 in weight gain, serum lipid profiles, liver function enzymes, creatinine, urea and oxidative stress markers compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of GBR were found to have a dose-response effect where higher percentage of GBR showed acceptable results as compared to the normal and hypercholesterolemic groups. GBR showed to effectively lessen TC, TG and LDL while increases HDL. It effectively protects the liver while its kidney protective ability was associated to its hypocholesterolemic properties. Oxidative stress was reduced as shown by a decline in lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant production. In addition, the abovementioned GBR‘s properties are combined effects of its

  4. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  5. The effect of mundu fruit Garcinia dulcis Roxb Kurz methanol extract on lyphoprotein profile and trygliseride white rat Rattus norvegicus L

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    Arum Setiawan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia dulcis (Roxb. Kurz (Guttiferae is a tropical fruit tree native to Indonesia and its known as an Asian medicinal plant used in folk medicines. In ethno pharmacology, Garcinia dulcis has been used in traditional medicine, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-malaria and anti-bacterial. The scientific studies of biological activity of Garcinia dulcis on lipide profile and trigliseride are relatively measly. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to know the effect of methanol extract of Garcinia dulcis fruit on total cholestrol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyseride rat hyperlipidemic. These studies using Garcinia dulcis fruit from Banyuasin, South Sumatra. In this observation, 30 male rat from Laboratory and Research Institute for Integrated Testing, Gadjah Mada University, 2 months old were used and divided into five groups randomly. The first group was given high cholesterol and lipid diet, as a normal group. The second group was given high cholesterol, lipid diet and simvastatin 3,6 mg/kg bow/day dosage, as a simvastatin group. The third, fourth and fifth groups was given high cholesterol, lipid diet and methanol extract 1.8; 2.7 and 3.6 mg/kg bow/day dosage. Total cholestrol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyseride contains using spectrophotometry method, were observed 1 and 30 days. The differences among groups were analyzed using Anova followed by LSD to locate the differences. LSD analysis showed that Garcinia dulcis methanol extract treatment doses of 3.6 mg/kg bw and simvastatin lowers total cholesterol levels highest in the amount of 32.17 mg/dL and 24.1 mg/dL, significantly different compared with the treatment dose of 1.8 mg/kg bw. Garcinia dulcis fruit methanol extract treatment doses of 3.6 mg/kg bw and simvastatin lowers triglyceride levels by 7.22 mg/dL and 24.58 mg/dL, significantly different compared

  6. epsilon-fructoselysine in urine of rats fed 14C-lysine-labeled casein browned by amino-carbonyl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Bunpei; Kojima, Kazumi; Saito, Susumu

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive substances were identified in urine of rats fed on browned casein, which had been labeled with U- 14 C-L-lysine. When browned casein was ingested by growing rats, high radioactivity was found in urine taken for 24 hr after feeding. Urinary recovery of radioactivity and specific radioactivity were about 9-times as high as those of the control. The radioactive substances were separated by Sephadex gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography 75 - 83% of the total radioactivity was recovered in the first peak of Sephadex gel filtration. The material with radioactivity was separated into two fractions by ionexchange chromatography. The ratio of radioactivity of these peaks on the chromatogram was about 30 to 70. The main peak was identified as epsilon-fructoselysine with an amino acid autoanalyzer. Urinary epsilon-fructoselysine content of 24 hr after a single dose feeding of 600 mg browned labeled casein was 13 - 18 mg per head. The relationship between epsilon-fructoselysine content as an absorption delayed-material in the small intestinal lumen and the amount excreted in urine was explained in a scheme together with results from previous studies. (author)

  7. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Agenor Storti-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG, which received injections of sterile saline; positive control groups (PCG, which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG, which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN, que receberam injeções de salina estéril; grupos controle positivos (GCP, que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP, nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P<0,0001. Neste grupo, 100,0% das ratas contraíram a infecção vaginal na primeira semana, mas não a mantiveram até a terceira semana. A forma farmacêutica de ADMP foi efetiva em induzir as fases de metaestro e

  8. Replacing white rice with pre-germinated brown rice mildly ameliorates hyperglycemia and imbalance of adipocytokine levels in type 2 diabetes model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Mariko; Nagase, Ryouhei; Yanagi, Megumi; Homma, Miyuki; Sasai, Yousuke; Ito, Yukihiko; Hayamizu, Kousuke; Nonaka, Shouta; Hosono, Takashi; Kise, Mitsuo; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PR) has been developed industrially in order to enhance the nutritional functions of its source material, brown rice (BR). The present study was aimed at clarifying the effect of PR on the type 2 diabetes mellitus. We employed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model of type-2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats were fed on either PR or white rice (WR) from the age of 4 to 35 wk. Age-matched male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a non-diabetic control were also fed on WR. The HbA(1c) level in OLETF rats was significantly higher than that in LETO rats. However, the level was lower in PR-fed OLETF rats than in WR-fed OLETF rats. The plasma concentrations of TNF-α and PAI-1 in OLETF rats were higher than those in LETO rats. However, both elevated levels were decreased by the PR-feeding, but not by the WR-feeding. On the other hand, the plasma adiponectin concentration in OLETF rats was lower than that in LETO rats. The decrease in adiponectin level of OLETF rats was ameliorated by PR-feeding. The size of adipocytes in PR-fed OLETF rats was smaller than that in WR-fed OLETF rats. In summary, intake of PR instead of WR ameliorates both insulin resistance and imbalance of the levels of plasma adipocytokines leading to diabetic complications.

  9. Wound Healing Activity of Brown Algae plus Polyherbal Extract in Normal and Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedekar F. Madkour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the wound healing efficacy of the experimental medicinal extract mixture (EMEM composed of brown algae, Cystoseira trinodis, plus three medicinal plants (garlic, liquorice and ginger. The extract was applied on induced excised wounds in rats, either healthy or induced hyperglycemia by alloxan. Healing activity was evaluated for up to 21 days after wounding in terms of decrease in surface area of wound, percentage of wound closure and tissue regeneration using digital planimetry analysis and histopathological examination. The study revealed that topical application of the extract improved and enhanced the healing process in diabetic rat model when compared with diabetic non-treated rats. The extract promoted wound contraction, reduced the wound closure time and induced proliferation of fibroblast as well as angiogenesis and re-epithelialization.

  10. Cold-increase in brown fat thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase is attenuated in Zucker obese rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y.; Stern, J.S.; Fisher, D.A.; Glick, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for enzymic conversion of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) to triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) in BAT. A total of 34 lean and obese rats, approx.4 mo old were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow for 21 days, and group two (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed a cafeteria diet for 21 days, and groups 3 (6 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow and maintained in the cold (8 +/- 1/sup 0/C) for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/ 5'-deiodinase was determined as the rate of T/sub 3/ production from added T/sub 4/ under controlled in vitro conditions. Serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ were determined by radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/-to-T/sub 3/ conversion in BAT was similar in the lean and obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet. However, expressed per scapular BAT depot, lean rats exposed to cold displayed about a fivefold increase in BAT T/sub 3/ production whereas only a small increase was observed in the cold-exposed obese rats. Serum T/sub 3/ levels tended to be reduced in the Zucker obese rats. The data indicate a reduced capacity for T/sub 3/ production of Zucker rat BAT exposed to cold. This defect may account for the reduced tolerance of the obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis.

  11. Notocotylus loeiensis N. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisiri, K; Morand, S; Ribas, A

    2011-02-01

    Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea), from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected). The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  12. Outer- and middle-ear contributions to presbycusis in the Brown Norway rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael Anne; Bateman, Kristin; Cannuscio, Joseph F; Saunders, James C

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of the outer and middle ears to the hearing loss associated with presbycusis in Brown Norway rats. Animals were formed into two groups; young adults (2-3 months old) and aged animals (approximately 34 months old). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were obtained with the outer ear intact or surgically removed. Tympanic membrane (TM) velocity transfer functions were measured from the umbo with the outer ear removed. The length of the auditory meatus, TM surface area, and TM thickness were quantified. The ABR thresholds were 17-26 dB less sensitive in the aged animals between 8.0 and 40.0 kHz when the outer ear was intact. A significant and reliable reduction in the aged rat velocity transfer function of 5-8 dB occurred between 10.0 and 32.0 kHz, while the low frequency velocity response was only a few decibels greater in the younger animals. The ABR threshold differences between young adult and aged ears were compensated by removing the outer/middle ear effects of aging to reveal a purely sensorineural component of presbycusis. The outer and middle ear effects were calculated directly when the ABR and TM velocity data were obtained with the outer ear removed. The outer ear intact condition was modeled in order to compare the ABR data obtained with the outer ear intact with the TM velocity data obtained with the outer removed. With either procedure, removal of the age-related contributions of the outer and middle ear to the ABR threshold resulted in similar age-related ABR threshold shifts between the two age groups. The pure sensorineural threshold shift component of the ABR response was restricted to frequencies between 5.0 and 20.0 kHz and reached a maximum of approximately 15 dB. These results support the conclusion that there is an outer- and middle-ear contribution to the threshold loss defining presbycusis. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on blood glucose and PAI-1 levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiromi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2004-02-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. The feeding of a PGBR diet to diabetic rats ameliorated the elevation of blood glucose and PAI-1 concentrations significantly, and tended to decrease the plasma lipid peroxide concentrations in comparison with rats fed a white rice diet. These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of white rice is effective for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  14. Duodenal lipid sensing activates vagal afferents to regulate non-shivering brown fat thermogenesis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Blouet

    Full Text Available Previous evidence indicates that duodenal lipid sensing engages gut-brain neurocircuits to determine food intake and hepatic glucose production, but a potential role for gut-brain communication in the control of energy expenditure remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut-brain-brown adipose tissue neuraxis to regulate thermogenesis. We demonstrate that direct administration of lipids into the duodenum increases brown fat temperature. Co-infusion of the local anesthetic tetracaine with duodenal lipids abolished the lipid-induced increase in brown fat temperature. Systemic administration of the CCKA receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the ability of duodenal lipids to increase brown fat thermogenesis. Parenchymal administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 directly into the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract also abolished duodenal lipid-induced activation of brown fat thermogenesis. These findings establish that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut-brain-brown fat axis to determine brown fat temperature, and thereby reveal a previously unappreciated pathway that regulates thermogenesis.

  15. Enzymes involved in adenosine metabolism in rat white and brown adipocytes. Effects of streptozotocin-diabetes, hypothyroidism, age and sex differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Z; Saggerson, E D

    1987-01-01

    1. Adipocytes were isolated from epididymal white fat and interscapular brown fat of male rats, and activities of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase were measured in cell extracts. 2. 5'-Nucleotidase activity in white adipocytes was increased in streptozotocin-diabetes, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased with age. That activity in brown adipocytes was unchanged in diabetes, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased with age. 5'-Nucleotidase activity was higher in...

  16. developing cerebellum of wistar rat (Rattus Novergicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanide poisoning may be encountered in a wide variety of settings. Cyanide salts and hydrocyanic acid are used in many common industrial processes such as electroplating, jewellery cleaning, precious metal extrac— tion, laboratory assays and some photographie pro— cesses? Metal cleaning solutions that contain ...

  17. Interscapular brown adipose tissue blood flow in the rat. Determination with 133xenon clearance compared to the microsphere method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1984-01-01

    The xenon clearance method was adapted to continuous measurement of interscapular brown adipose tissue (ISBAT) blood flow in anesthetized rats. The ISBAT-blood partition coefficient for xenon was determined to 3.6 ml X g-1. The blood flow values obtained by Xe clearance were compared with flow...... values obtained concomitantly by the microsphere technique in 17 cold acclimated rats, at ISBAT blood flows between 0.1 and 6 ml X g-1 X min-1. Variations in blood flows were obtained by infusion of noradrenaline at different rates. The blood flow values obtained from the xenon clearance method showed...... a close correlation to the blood flow values determined with microspheres. Y = 0.98. X + 0.15 (r = 0.96, P less than 0.001). The Xe clearance method has the advantages compared to the microsphere technique that it permits continuous monitoring of the blood flow and does not require the sacrifice...

  18. Plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir Rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the Madagascan focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Brouat

    Full Text Available Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar.We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150-200 km(2 within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats.Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations.

  19. Plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir Rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the Madagascan focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rajerison, Minoariso; Laffly, Dominique; Handschumacher, Pascal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar. We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers) in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150-200 km(2) within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats. Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations.

  20. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with 3H-GDP binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial 3 H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27 0 C although 3 H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although 3 H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria

  1. Relative importance of sympathetic outflow and insulin in the reactivation of brown adipose tissue lipogenesis in rats adapted to a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, N H; Moura, M A F; Brito, M N; Brito, S M R C; Garofalo, M A R; Kettelhut, I C; Migliorini, R H

    2002-03-01

    The effect of denervation or acute insulin deficiency on brown adipose tissue lipogenesis was investigated in rats adapted to a high-protein diet before and after diet reversion to a balanced diet. Denervation of rats fed the balanced diet induced a 50% reduction in in vivo rates of brown adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis, with decreased activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase. The markedly (80%) reduced fatty acid synthesis and enzyme activities in brown adipose tissue from rats adapted to the high-protein diet were not affected by denervation. Replacement of the high-protein diet by the balanced diet for 24 hours restored fatty acid synthesis to normal levels, but recovery of enzyme activities was only partial. Lipogenesis restoration and partial recovery of enzyme activities were impaired in denervated tissue from high-protein diet-fed rats. In all experimental conditions, the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ATP-citrate lyase showed a better correlation with brown adipose tissue lipogenesis than the generators of H(+), glucose-6-P dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. Anti-insulin serum administration during the 12- to 24-hour period after diet reversion completely blocked lipogenesis recovery in innervated and denervated tissues and drastically reduced brown adipose tissue lipogenesis of concomitantly injected rats fed the balanced diet. The data suggest that efficient and rapid adjustments of brown adipose tissue lipogenesis require sympathetic activation, and that this tissue can maintain significant, albeit reduced, rates of lipogenesis in the absence of sympathetic activation, but not in the absence of insulin. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company

  2. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Ito, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Keiko; Kise, Mitsuo; Ariga, Toshio; Rivner, Michael; Yu, Robert K

    2007-11-23

    To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR) on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR) or white rice (WR) diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV), sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase) activity. Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p < 0.001), improved NCV (1.2- and 1.3-fold higher, respectively), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively). The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p < 0.001). The in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp) on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT) with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the

  3. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariga Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR or white rice (WR diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV, sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase activity. Results Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p +/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively. The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT with low-density lipoprotein (LDL in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Conclusion PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the toxicity of HT-modified LDL and to directly

  4. Segmentation and characterization of interscapular brown adipose tissue in rats by multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu Prakash, K N; Verma, Sanjay K; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Goggi, Julian; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Tian, Xianfeng; Sugii, Shigeki; Leow, Melvin Khee Shing; Bhakoo, Kishore; Velan, Sendhil S

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to auto-segment and characterize brown adipose, white adipose and muscle tissues in rats by multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging with validation by histology and UCP1. Male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups for thermoneutral (n = 8) and cold exposure (n = 8) interventions, and quantitative MRI was performed longitudinally at 7 and 11 weeks. Prior to imaging, rats were maintained at either thermoneutral body temperature (36 ± 0.5 °C), or short term cold exposure (26 ± 0.5 °C). Neural network based automatic segmentation was performed on multi-parametric images including fat fraction, T2 and T2* maps. Isolated tissues were subjected to histology and UCP1 analysis. Multi-parametric approach showed precise delineation of the interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle regions. Neural network based segmentation results were compared with manually drawn regions of interest, and showed 96.6 and 97.1% accuracy for WAT and BAT respectively. Longitudinal assessment of the iBAT volumes showed a reduction at 11 weeks of age compared to 7 weeks. The cold exposed group showed increased iBAT volume compared to thermoneutral group at both 7 and 11 weeks. Histology and UCP1 expression analysis supported our imaging results. Multi-parametric MR based neural network auto-segmentation provides accurate separation of BAT, WAT and muscle tissues in the interscapular region. The cold exposure improves the classification and quantification of heterogeneous BAT.

  5. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  6. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  7. Aging affects isoproterenol-induced water drinking, astrocyte density, and central neuronal activation in female Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rachel N; Simsek, Zinar D; Curry, Brandon; Core, Sheri L; Beltz, Terry; Xue, Baojian; Johnson, Alan K; Thunhorst, Robert L; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2018-03-05

    Age-dependent impairments in the central control of compensatory responses to body fluid challenges have received scant experimental attention, especially in females. In the present study, we found that water drinking in response to β-adrenergic activation with isoproterenol (30 μg/kg, s.c.) was reduced by more than half in aged (25 mo) vs. young (5 mo) ovariectomized female Brown Norway rats. To determine whether this age-related decrease in water intake was accompanied by changes in central nervous system areas associated with fluid balance, we assessed astrocyte density and neuronal activation in the SFO, OVLT, SON, AP and NTS of these rats using immunohistochemical labeling for GFAP and c-fos, respectively. GFAP labeling intensity was increased in the SFO, AP, and NTS of aged females independent of treatment, and was increased in the OVLT of isoproterenol-treated rats independent of age. Fos immunolabeling in response to isoproterenol was reduced in both the SFO and the OVLT of aged females compared to young females, but was increased in the SON of female rats of both ages. Finally, fos labeling in the AP and caudal NTS of aged rats was elevated after vehicle control treatment and did not increase in response to isoproterenol as it did in young females. Thus, age-related declines in water drinking are accompanied by site-specific, age-related changes in astrocyte density and neuronal activation. We suggest that astrocyte density may alter the detection and/or processing of signals related to isoproterenol treatment, and thereby alter neuronal activation in areas associated with fluid balance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of inhaled citronella oil and related compounds on rat body weight and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H; Sa'diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-03-12

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: "Sereh Wangi" on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  9. Effects of Inhaled Citronella Oil and Related Compounds on Rat Body Weight and Brown Adipose Tissue Sympathetic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanida Batubara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae, Indonesian local name: “Sereh Wangi” on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  10. Effect of ascophyllan from brown algae Padina tetrastromatica on inflammation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Sulaiman; Kurup, G Muraleedhara; Mahadevan, R

    2013-12-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown algae Padina tetrastromatica and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Anti-inflammatory effect of ascophyllan fraction against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was studied. Paw edema in rats was induced by injecting 0.1 ml, 1 % carrageenan suspension in 0.9 % NaCl solution into the sub-plantar tissue of the right hind paw. Carrageenan caused a significant increase in the activity of inflammatory marker enzymes like lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and paw tissue and also increased the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw tissue. When compared to the reference drug diclofenac, ascophyllan fraction-3 (AF3) treatment significantly reduced the activities of anti-inflammatory enzymes, concentration of PGE2 and MPO. AF3 treatment decreased the mRNA level expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was decreased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with AF3. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with AF3. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of ascophyllan fraction on carrageenan-treated rats.

  11. Fluoxetine induces lean phenotype in rat by increasing the brown/white adipose tissue ratio and UCP1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A I; Braz, G R F; Pedroza, A A; Nascimento, L; Freitas, C M; Ferreira, D J S; Manhães de Castro, R; Lagranha, C J

    2015-08-01

    The serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the energy balance regulation. Energy balance is mediated by food intake and caloric expenditure. Thus, the present study investigated the mechanisms that might be associated with fluoxetine treatment-induced weight reduction. Wistar male rat pups received daily injections with subcutaneous fluoxetine (Fx-group) or vehicle solution (Ct-group) from day 1 until 21 days of age. Several analyses were conducted to verify the involvement of mitochondria in weight reduction. We found that body weight in the Fx-group was lower compared to control. In association to lower fat mass in the Fx-group (25%). Neither neonatal caloric intake nor food intake reveals significant differences. Evaluating caloric expenditure (locomotor activity and temperature after stimulus), we did not observe differences in locomotor activity. However, we observed that the Fx group had a higher capacity to maintain body temperature in a cold environment compared with the Ct-group. Since brown adipose tissue-(BAT) is specialized for heat production and the rate of heat production is related to mitochondrial function, we found that Fx-treatment increases respiration by 36%, although after addition of GDP respiration returned to Ct-levels. Examining ROS production we observe that Fx-group produced less ROS than control group. Evaluating uncoupling protein (UCP) expression we found that Fx-treatment increases the expression by 23%. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of serotonin system results in positive modulation of UCP and mitochondrial bioenergetics in brown fat tissue.

  12. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Q.; Bourguet, E.; De Meringo, H.; Millon, A.; Vidal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a ...

  13. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts...... the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1...... but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut...

  14. Hormonal regulation of rat foetal lipogenesis in brown-adipocyte primary cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, M; Roncero, C; Fabregat, I; Benito, M

    1988-01-01

    Insulin stimulates lipogenesis by 100% for 5 h by a covalent modulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and by 200% for 24 h by increasing malic enzyme and fatty acid synthase enzymic activities in brown-adipocyte primary cultures. At short times, noradrenaline and isoprenaline decrease lipogenesis. However, phenylephrine and glucagon have no effect. At long times, dexamethasone inhibits lipogenesis. This effect is precluded in the presence of insulin. Progesterone and tri-iodothyronine, alone or ...

  15. No evidence for avoidance of black rat scent by the presumably less ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, indigenous multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis) only appear to live commensally in houses when invasive black rats (Rattus rattus) are absent, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Avoidance through smell may cause the absence of M. natalensis from areas occupied by R. rattus, but this ...

  16. Susceptibilité de Rattus norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus de la ville de Recife à la Pasteurella pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. de Mello

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available L'auíeur a vérifié la susceptibilité de deux espèces de rongeurs domestiques de la ville de Recife. Etat du Pernambuco, R. norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus, les comparant aux souris albinos de la souche "Swiss" avec deux souches de P. pestis dont une était isolée au municipe d'Exu, Etat du Pernambuco âenommée PEXU 19 et Vautre provenante du Venezuela dite RANGEL. Les deux espèces de rongeurs ont montré une resistence modérée par rapport aux deux souches de P. pestis tandis que les souris ont révélé d'être hautement susceptibles.

  17. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  18. Effect of glucocorticoids on the activity, expression and proximal promoter of type II deiodinase in rat brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-deMena, Raquel; Calvo, Rosa-Maria; Garcia, Laura; Obregon, Maria Jesus

    2016-06-15

    Triiodothyronine (T3) is important for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Type II deiodinase (DIO2) produces T3 required for intracellular needs in BAT. Brown adipocytes in culture require T3 for the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2. Glucocorticoids induce adipocyte differentiation (lipogenesis). We investigated the regulation of DIO2 activity, Dio2 mRNA and Dio2 promoter activity by glucocorticoids in primary cultures of rat brown adipocytes using dexamethasone (DEX) and hydrocortisone (HC). DEX and HC regulated the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inhibiting DIO2 activity at short treatment times and large doses (1-10 μM) and stimulating DIO2 at low HC doses (1-100 nM) and longer times (DEX). Insulin depletion reduced DIO2 activity but the response to glucocorticoids remained unchanged. DEX and HC inhibited basal DIO2 activity. DEX had no effect on DIO2 half-life, whereas HC stabilized DIO2 activity. DEX and HC inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 mRNA expression (100-10000 nM, 14-96 h), but stabilized Dio2 mRNA, particularly DEX. DEX increased basal Dio2 mRNA levels, possibly through stabilization of Dio2 mRNA. An 807 bp construct of the murine Dio2 proximal promoter showed maximal reporter activity, with the cAMP response element (CRE) essential for transcriptional activity. DEX caused inhibition in most constructs containing the CRE element whereas HC stimulated reporter activity in the 807 bp construct. Glucocorticoids inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 at the transcriptional level in brown adipocytes, although DIO2 activity increased with HC, possibly due to stabilization of Dio2 activity and mRNA. The CRE and cEBP elements of the Dio2 promoter seem involved in the regulation by glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  20. Accumulation of dietary methylmercury in the testes of the adult brown norway rat: Impaired testicular and epididymal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, A.S.; Chen, H.; Zirkin, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Health and Public Hygiene; Rabuck, L.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The widespread consumption of fish containing elevated concentrations of methylmercury has prompted concern over the health effects of such a diet. Previous studies with rodents have indicated that exposure to dietary mercury (Hg) impairs male reproductive health. However, adverse effects were observed following doses in the range of milligrams per kilogram of body weight, whereas typical human consumption in the United States is in the range of micrograms per kilogram of body weight. This study examined the effects of dietary Hg on male rats using levels of the metal that are more similar to those typically consumed by humans. For 19 weeks, adult male Brown Norway rats were administered methylmercury twice weekly at 0.8, 8.0, or 80 {micro}g/kg. Intratesticular testosterone levels in the high-dose group were reduced by 44$, suggesting that steroidogenesis in these animals was dramatically impaired. Although sperm production was not significantly affected, numbers of sperm in the cauda epididymides of the high-dose group were reduced by 17%. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between fertility and testicular Hg content. These results raise the possibility that exposure to Hg at levels consumed by humans may result in steroidogenic impairment, reduced sperm counts, and fertility problems.

  1. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Jonathan D. de; Ezendam, Janine; Knippels, Leon M.J.; Odink, Jennie; Pourier, Milanthy S.; Penninks, Andre H.; Pieters, Raymond; Loveren, Henk van

    2007-01-01

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway (BN) rats. To study these effects BN rats were sensitized to either 1 or 10 mg peanut or ovalbumin by daily oral gavage and the TBTO-groups were fed a diet containing 80 mg TBTO per kg diet. Co-exposure to TBTO not only resulted in decreased general immunologic parameters such as weights of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphocyte proliferation rates in splenocytes, but also on allergic parameters. In the peanut allergen-model TBTO decreased allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production by spleen cells, number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes in the blood and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. In the ovalbumin allergen-model TBTO decreased the number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, allergen-specific IgE and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. The data imply that in the process of risk assessment of food allergy attention should be given to immunomodulating compounds present in the diet

  2. PENGGUNAAN PROTOZOA SARCOCYSTIS SINGAPORENSIS (APICOMPLEXA: SARCOCYSTIDAE UNTUK PENGENDALIAN TIKUS SAWAH RATTUS ARGENTIVENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryani Cyccu Tobing, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Lisnawita, dan Meirani.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of protozoan Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae for control rice field rat Rattus argentiventer.  Rats are still a number-one-pest in field rice of various areas in Indonesia. Biological control using microparasite                         Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae is a highly host-specific protozoan for controlling the rats. The objective of this research was to study the use of protozoa parasite S. singaporensis against rodent pest Rattus argentiventer. The design of experiment was Factorial Randomized Complete Design with ten treatments and four replications.  The first factor was sporocyt doses of S. singaporensis (control; 1 x 105; 2 x 105; 3 x 105; 4 x 105, while the second factor was rats sexual category (male and female. The results showed that dose of sporocysts S. singaporensis was significantly different but rats’ sexual category has no effect on the treatments. The highest mortalities was on dose  4 x 105 (100% at 12.08 days, food consumption decreased two to four days before rats died, weight of rats decreased because of the infection of S. singaporensis.

  3. Brown coal derived humate inhibits contact hypersensitivity; An efficacy, toxicity and teratogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Snyman, J.R.; Mokoele, T.; Cromarty, A.D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Faculty of Health Science

    2007-10-15

    The effects of two humate products were compared to that of prednisolone on a contact hypersensitivity rat model. Rats, sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), were placed on a daily oral treatment of 61 mg/kg BW of humate derived from either leonardite or bituminous coal or on prednisolone at one mg/kg BW and challenged 6 days later with a topical application of DNFB to the right ear. The inflamed ears were measured daily. In a toxicity study rats were exposed to daily oral treatment of leonardite humate at 1,000 mg/kg BW for 1 month. A teratogenicity study was done where pregnant rats were treated with 500 mg/kg BW on days 5 to 17 of pregnancy. Only the leonardite humate compared favourably with prednisolone in suppressing contact hypersensitivity. No signs of toxicity were observed and weight gain was normal during the 6-day and 1 month treatments and during the teratogenicity study with the leonardite humate. However, the rats on the other two products experienced slower weight gain. The identification of a naturally occurring nontoxic compound with anti-inflammatory activity is exciting and merits further evaluation in the treatment of patients suffering from inflammatory conditions.

  4. Effects of nebulized ketamine on allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in actively sensitized Brown-Norway rats

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    Qian Yan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and allergic inflammatory changes are regarded as the primary manifestations of asthma, the main goals of asthma treatment are to decrease inflammation and maximize bronchodilation. These goals can be achieved with aerosol therapy. Intravenous administration of the anesthetic, ketamine, has been shown to trigger bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine may protect against lung injury. However, ketamine inhalation might yield the same or better results at higher airway and lower ketamine plasma concentrations for the treatment of asthma. Here, we studied the effect of ketamine inhalation on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a Brown-Norway rat model of ovalbumin(OVA-induced allergic asthma. Animals were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of OVA and challenged by repeated intermittent (thrice weekly exposure to aerosolized OVA for two weeks. Before challenge, the sensitizened rats received inhalation of aerosol of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS or aerosol of ketamine or injection of ketamine respectivity. Airway reactivity to acetylcholine (Ach was measured in vivo, and various inflammatory markers, including Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, as well as induciable nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nitric oxide (NO in lungs were examined. Our results revealed that delivery of aerosolized ketamine using an ultrasonic nebulizer markedly suppressed allergen-mediated airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation and airway inflammatory cell infiltration into the BALF, and significantly decreased the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 in the BALF and expression of iNOS and the concentration of NO in the inflamed airways from OVA-treated rats. These findings collectively indicate that nebulized ketamine attenuated many of the central components of inflammatory changes and AHR in

  5. Chronic REM-sleep deprivation of rats elevates metabolic rate and increases UCP1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Michael; Swinson, Kevin L

    2005-07-01

    A cluster of unique pathologies progressively develops during chronic total- or rapid eye movement-sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats. Two prominent and readily observed symptoms are hyperphagia and decline in body weight. For body weight to be lost despite a severalfold increase in food consumption suggests that SD elevates metabolism as the subject enters a state of negative energy balance. To test the hypothesis that mediation of this hypermetabolism involves increased gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which dissipates the thermodynamic energy of the mitochondrial proton-motive force as heat instead of ATP formation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we 1) established the time course and magnitude of change in metabolism by measuring oxygen consumption, 2) estimated change in UCP1 gene expression in BAT by RT-PCR and Western blot, and 3) assayed serum leptin because of its role in regulating energy balance and food intake. REM-SD of male Sprague-Dawley rats was enforced for 20 days with the platform (flowerpot) method, wherein muscle atonia during REM sleep causes contact with surrounding water and awakens it. By day 20, rats more than doubled food consumption while losing approximately 11% of body weight; metabolism rose to 166% of baseline with substantial increases in UCP1 mRNA and immunoreactive UCP1 over controls; serum leptin decreased and remained suppressed. The decline in leptin is consistent with the hyperphagic response, and we conclude that one of the mediators of elevated metabolism during prolonged REM-SD is increased gene expression of UCP1 in BAT.

  6. Rodent-borne Trypanosoma from cities and villages of Niger and Nigeria: A special role for the invasive genus Rattus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatard, C; Garba, M; Gauthier, P; Hima, K; Artige, E; Dossou, D K H J; Gagaré, S; Genson, G; Truc, P; Dobigny, G

    2017-07-01

    Although they are known to sometimes infect humans, atypical trypanosomes are very poorly documented, especially in Africa where one lethal case has yet been described. Here we conducted a survey of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in 19 towns and villages of Niger and Nigeria, with a special emphasis on Niamey, the capital city of Niger. The 1298 rodents that were captured yielded 189 qPCR-positive animals from 14 localities, thus corresponding to a 14.6% overall prevalence. Rats, especially black rats, displayed particularly elevated prevalence (27.4%), with some well sampled sites showing 40-50% and up to 68.8% of Trypanosoma-carrying individuals. Rattus were also characterized by significantly lower Ct values than in the other non-Rattus species. DNA sequences could be obtained for 43 rodent-borne Trypanosoma and corresponded to 41 T. lewisi (all from Rattus) and 2 T. microti (from Cricetomys gambianus). These results, together with data compiled from the available literature, suggest that Rattus may play a particular role for the maintaining and circulation of Trypanosoma, especially T. lewisi, in Africa. Taken into account its strong abilities to invade coastal and inland regions of the continent, we believe that this genus deserves a particular attention in regards to potentially under-looked but emerging atypical trypanosome-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential expression of melanopsin mRNA and protein in the Brown Norwegian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2012-01-01

    and negative masking behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that melanopsin expression in albino rats is regulated by light and darkness. The present study was undertaken to study the influence of light and darkness during the circadian day and after extended periods of constant light and darkness...

  8. Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

    2015-07-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis.

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Alga Coklat (Sargassum sp. Terhadap Enzim Katalase Kelenjar Submandibularis Tikus Rattus Norvegicus Strain Wistar Akibat Iradiasi Linear Energy Transfer (LET Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sariano ferni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Intraoral radiography use some lower LET (Linear Energy Transfer and could penetrate submandibular salivary gland. Radiography have negative impact which is decrease catalase enzyme of human body. Brown algae (Sargassum sp. has a flavonoid antioxidant, polysaccharides as Fucoidan and alginat (Na-alginat can be used for immunomodulator, antioxidative and activation modulation of immune. Purpose: To knowing effectiveness of brown algae (Sargassum sp. on activity catalase enzyme submandibular salivary gland Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar with irradiation low LET. Material and Methods: 28 samples of Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar, weight 200gr, age 2-3months, gender male, sample divide into 4 groups, K1 (control with brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw K2 (use brown algae and irradiation 4 times, K3 (use brown algae and irradiation 8 times, K4 (use brown algae and irradiation 14 times. Brown algae been given 7days before apply irradiotion on day 8, then did euthanasia and took submandibular salivary gland. After that did measurement activity of catalase enzyme and counted by spectrophotometer with 240 λ. Result: Data were analyze by Shapiro-wilk, One Way ANOVA and Bonferroni. The activity of catalase enzyme have increased; 0,2586 ± 0,1050 (K1, 0,2595 ± 0,0630 (K2, 0,3252 ± 0,1663 (K3, 0,3668 ± 0,0852 (K4 but theres no significant differences  activity of catalase enzyme between one group to other group. Conclusion: Brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw can’t increase activity of catalase enzyme on Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar.

  10. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection.

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    Anne-Laure Zilber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus. Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics.

  11. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  12. Effect of combined nitrogen dioxide and carbon nanoparticle exposure on lung function during ovalbumin sensitization in Brown Norway rat.

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    Skander Layachi

    Full Text Available The interaction of particulate and gaseous pollutants in their effects on the severity of allergic inflammation and airway responsiveness are not well understood. We assessed the effect of exposure to NO(2 in the presence or absence of repetitive treatment with carbon nanoparticle (CNP during allergen sensitization and challenges in Brown-Norway (BN rat, in order to assess their interactions on lung function and airway responses (AR to allergen and methacholine (MCH, end-expiratory lung volume (EELV, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cellular content, serum and BALF cytokine levels and histological changes. Animals were divided into the following groups (n = 6: Control; CNP (Degussa-FW2: 13 nm, 0.5 mg/kg instilled intratracheally ×3 at 7-day intervals; OVA: ovalbumin-sensitised; OVA+CNP: both sensitized and exposed to CNP. Rats were divided into equal groups exposed either to air or to NO(2, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Exposure to NO(2, significantly enhanced lung inflammation and airway reactivity, with a significantly larger effect in animals sensitized to allergen, which was related to a higher expression of TH1 and TH2-type cytokines. Conversely, exposure to NO(2 in animals undergoing repeated tracheal instillation of CNP alone, increased BALF neutrophilia and enhanced the expression of TH1 cytokines: TNF-α and IFN-γ, but did not show an additive effect on airway reactivity in comparison to NO(2 alone. The exposure to NO(2 combined with CNP treatment and allergen sensitization however, unexpectedly resulted in a significant decrease in both airway reactivity to allergen and to methacholine, and a reduction in TH2-type cytokines compared to allergen sensitization alone. EELV was significantly reduced with sensitization, CNP treatment or both. These data suggest an immunomodulatory effect of repeated tracheal instillation of CNP on the proinflammatory effects of NO(2 exposure in sensitized BN rat. Furthermore, our findings suggest

  13. Green tea extract induces genes related to browning of white adipose tissue and limits weight-gain in high energy diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Han; Chien, Yi-Wen; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chan, Ching-Hung; Fan, Meng-Han; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: A wealth of research has reported on the anti-obesity effects of green tea extract (GTE). Although browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported to attenuate obesity, no study has disclosed the effects of GTE on browning in Sprague Dawley rats. Objectives: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of GTE on anti-obesity and browning, and their underlying mechanisms. Methods: Four groups of rats (n=10/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle or GTE by oral gavage at 77.5 or 155 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The gene expressions were analyzed using RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: GTE modulated HED-induced body weight, fat accumulation, and serum levels of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acids, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, GTE enhanced the serum high-density lipoprotein. Most importantly, the biomarkers of beige adipose tissue were up-regulated in WAT in GTE-given groups. GTE induced genes involved in different pathways of browning, and reduced transducin-like enhancer protein-3 in WAT. Conclusion: Our results suggest that GTE may improve obesity through inducing browning in HED-fed rats. Abbreviations : ALT: Alanine transaminase; AST: Aspartate transaminase; BAT: Brown adipose tissue; BMP-7: Bone morphogenetic protein-7; BW: Body weight; CIDEA: Cell death activator; CPT-1: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1; EFP: Epididymal fat pad; FFA: Free fatty acid; FGF-21: Fibroblast growth factor-21; GTE: Green tea extract; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; HED: high-energy diet; LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; MFP: Mesenteric fat pad; PGC-1α: Activates PPAR-γ coactivator-1; PPAR-γ: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; PRDM-16: PR domain containing 16; RFP: Renal fat pad; SD: Sprague Dawley; TC: Total

  14. A high-salt diet further impairs age-associated declines in cognitive, behavioral, and cardiovascular functions in male Fischer brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Patki, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Mowrey, Christopher; Alkadhi, Karim; Salim, Samina

    2013-09-01

    Aging-associated declines in cognitive, emotional, and cardiovascular function are well known. Environmental stress triggers critical changes in the brain, further compromising cardiovascular and behavioral health during aging. Excessive dietary salt intake is one such stressor. Here, we tested the effect of high salt (HS) on anxiety, learning-memory function, and blood pressure (BP) in male Fischer brown Norway (FBN) rats. Adult (A; 2 mo) and old (O; 20 mo) male rats were fed normal-salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diets for 4 wk after being implanted with telemeter probes for conscious BP measurement. Thereafter, tests to assess anxiety-like behavior and learning-memory were conducted. The rats were then killed, and samples of plasma, urine, and brain tissue were collected. We found that systolic BP was higher in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) than in A-NS (105 ± 0.8 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BP was higher in O-HS (124 ± 1.4 mm Hg) than in O-NS (117 ± 1.2 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, anxiety-like behavior (light-dark and open-field tests) was not different between A-NS and O-NS rats but was greater in O-HS rats than in A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Short-term memory (radial arm water maze test) was similar in A-NS and O-NS rats but was significantly impaired in O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, oxidative stress variables (in plasma, urine, and brain) as well as corticosterone (plasma) were greater in O-HS rats when compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). The antioxidant enzyme glyoxalase-1 expression was selectively reduced in the hippocampus and amygdala of O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05), whereas other antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase 1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that salt-sensitive hypertension and behavioral derangement are associated with a redox imbalance in the brain of aged FBN rats.

  15. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in zoo animals and identification of a rodent-borne strain in a Syrian brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Carina; Ryll, René; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Ulrich, Rainer G; Johne, Reimar

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33.3%) and carnivores (27.0%). However, RNA of the human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 was not detected in the serum samples from suids or carnivores. Using a broad spectrum RT-PCR, a ratHEV-related sequence was identified in a sample of a female Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus). Subsequent serum samples within a period of five years confirmed a HEV seroconversion in this animal. No symptoms of hepatitis were recorded. In a follow-up investigation at the same location, closely related ratHEV sequences were identified in free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), whereas feeder rats (Rattus norvegicus forma domestica) were negative for HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. Therefore, a spillover infection of ratHEV from free-living Norway rats is most likely. The results indicate that a wide range of zoo animals can be naturally infected with HEV or HEV-related viruses. Their distinct role as possible reservoir animals for HEV and sources of HEV infection for humans and other animals remains to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Is there morphological difference between branchiomeric and somitic muscles submitted to alcohol consumption? An experimental study in rats (Rattus norvegicus Existe diferença morfológica entre músculos branquioméricos e somíticos submetidos ao consumo de alcool? Um estudo experimental em ratos (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Carlos Andreo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is considered a physical dependence disorder. More than 18 million people are alcoholics in the USA and England and between 1/3 to ½ of them present some kind of physical disorder. In general the literature is focused on alcoholic trunk muscle disorders. These muscles have different embryological origins if compared to the masticatory muscles. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of alcohol on the masticatory muscles in order to compare them with the somitic muscles. For this purpose, 15 male Wistar rats weighing around 250g were used. The rats were divided into three groups: Normal control (N, Alcoholic (A and Isocaloric (I. Slices of the masseter muscle, temporalis muscle and rectus abdominal muscle were harvested and submitted to histochemical reactions (m-ATPase: acid and alkaline pre incubation and NADH-TR. The myofibers were classified in SO, FOG and FG. The results showed atrophy of the fast fibers (FG and FOG in the masticatory muscles but this atrophy was not statistically significant in this study (pO alcoolismo é considerado uma doença que causa desordens físicas e também dependência. Mais de 18 milhões de pessoas nos Estados Unidos são alcoólatras e na Inglaterra, entre 1/3 à ½ delas apresentam algum tipo de desordem física. No geral a literatura está focada para as desordens que acometem os músculos do tronco. Esses músculos têm origem embriológica diferente dos músculos da mastigação. O propósito desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do álcool sobre os músculos da mastigação (branquiméricos no intuito de compará-lo com as alterações que ocorrem nos músculos do tronco (miotômicos. Para isso 15 ratos machos Wistar, pesando ao redor de 250g foram utilizados. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: Controle normal (N; Alcoolizado (A e Isocalórico (I. Fragmentos dos músculos masseter, temporal e reto do abdome foram coletados e submetidos às reações de m-ATPase (com pr

  17. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks

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    Paul de Goede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition, as well as their possible interactions, on daily (clock gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue (WAT, but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM and brown adipose tissues (BAT. We therefore subjected male Wistar rats to a regular chow or free choice high-fat-high sugar (fcHFHS diet in combination with time restricted feeding (TRF to either the light or dark phase. In SM, all tested clock genes lost their rhythmic expression in the chow light fed group. In the fcHFHS light fed group rhythmic expression for some, but not all, clock genes was maintained, but shifted by several hours. In BAT the daily rhythmicity of clock genes was maintained for the light fed groups, but expression patterns were shifted as compared with ad libitum and dark fed groups, whilst the fcHFHS diet made the rhythmicity of clock genes become more pronounced. Most of the metabolic genes in BAT tissue tested did not show any rhythmic expression in either the chow or fcHFHS groups. In SM Pdk4 and Ucp3 were phase-shifted, but remained rhythmically expressed in the chow light fed groups. Rhythmic expression was lost for Ucp3 whilst on the fcHFHS diet during the light phase. In summary, both feeding at the wrong time of day and diet composition disturb the peripheral clocks in SM and BAT, but to different degrees and thereby result in a further desynchronization between metabolically active tissues such as SM, BAT, WAT and liver.

  18. Preexposure to amorphous silica particles attenuates but also enhances allergic reactions in trimellitic anhydride-sensitized brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Schijf, Marcel A; Kuper, C Frieke

    2008-08-01

    Irritant-induced inflammation of the airways may aggravate respiratory allergy induced by chemical respiratory allergens. Therefore, the effect of airway irritation by synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) on respiratory allergy to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was studied. Brown Norway (BN) rats were topically sensitized on day 0 and on day 7, subsequently exposed for 6 h/day for 6 days to 27 mg/m(3) SAS, and challenged by inhalation to a minimally irritating concentration of 12 mg/m(3) TMA, 24 h after the last SAS exposure. An additional group was exposed to SAS before a second challenge to TMA. Control groups were treated with vehicle, and/or did not receive SAS exposure. Breathing parameters, cellular and biochemical changes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathological airway changes 24 h after challenge were the main parameters studied. Exposure to SAS alone resulted in transient changes in breathing parameters during exposure, and in nasal and alveolar inflammation with neutrophils and macrophages. Exposure to SAS before a single TMA challenge resulted in a slightly irregular breathing pattern during TMA challenge. SAS also diminished the effect of TMA on tidal volume, laryngeal ulceration, laryngeal inflammation, and the number of BAL (lung) eosinophils in most animals, but aggravated laryngeal squamous metaplasia and inflammation in a single animal. The pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrate and edema induced by a second TMA challenge was diminished by the preceding SAS exposure, but the number of lymphocytes in BAL was increased. Thus, a respiratory particulate irritant like SAS can reduce as well as aggravate certain aspects of TMA-induced respiratory allergy.

  19. The effects of high nautal radioactivity on the bone marrow activities of Rattus-rattus in Ramsar: A chromosomal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, M.; Sahabi, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The area under study is Ramsar known as one of the high level natural radioactive areas in the world with radiation levels ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 mR.h -1 . The radioactivity of the area is due to 226 Ra and its daughters which have been brought up to the earth surface by the water of the warm springs. It is necessary to say that the radioactive area of Ramsar is divided into three parts: with high, medium and low radiation areas. The control area is Babol with a radius of 10 kilometers. The area has natural background radiation. In the control area thirty Rattus-rattus and in the area of study sixty Rattus-rattus were trapped. It was tried that the Rattuses chosen be from a distance of maximum 500 meters, and from the three different parts of the radioactive areas. Then all the ninety Rattuses were transported to Tehran for experiment. An average of 10-30 Rattuses were trapped for one week, and the maximum time between the trapping and the dissection was one month. The chromosomal study was followed by the Ford technique. The staining was routine and G. banding. No chromosomal disorders and morphological anomalies were considered. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig

  20. Host stress and immune responses during aerosol challenge of Brown Norway rats with Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan T Gater

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation exposure models are becoming the preferred method for the comparative study of respiratory infectious diseases due to their resemblance to the natural route of infection. To enable precise delivery of pathogen to the lower respiratory tract in a manner that imposes minimal biosafety risk, nose-only exposure systems have been developed. Early inhalation exposure technology for infectious disease research grew out of technology used in asthma research where predominantly the Collison nebulizer is used to generate an aerosol by beating a liquid sample against glass. Although infectious aerosol droplets of 1-5µm in size can be generated, the Collison often causes loss of viability. In this work, we evaluate a gentler method for aerosolization of living cells and describe the use of the Sparging Liquid Aerosol Generator (SLAG in a rat pneumonic plague model. The SLAG creates aerosols by continuous dripping of liquid sample on a porous metal disc. We show the generation of 0.5 to 1µm Y. pestis aerosol particles using the SLAG with spray factors typically ranging from 10-7 to 10-8 with no detectable loss of bacterial viability. Delivery of these infectious particles via nose-only exposure led to the rapid development of lethal pneumonic plague. Further, we evaluated the effect of restraint-stress imposed by the nose-only exposure chamber on early inflammatory responses and bacterial deposition. Elevated serum corticosterone which peaked at 2 hrs post-procedure indicated the animals experienced stress as a result of restraint in the nose-only chamber. However, we observed no correlation between elevated corticosterone and the amount of bacterial deposition or inflammation in the lungs. Together these data demonstrate the utility of the SLAG and the nose-only chamber for aerosol challenge of rodents by Y. pestis.

  1. Ultrastructural alterations of choroid plexuses of lateral ventricles of rats (Rattus norvegicus submitted to experimental chronic alcoholism Alterações ultraestruturais dos plexos coróides dos ventrículos laterais de ratos (Rattus norvegicus submetidos a alcoolismo crônico experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS FERNANDO TIRAPELLI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult male rats (Wistar lineage were alcoholized with sugar cane liquor diluted at 30(0 GL during 300 days and sacrificed every 60 days in 5 stages. Samples of choroid plexuses of lateral ventricles were collected and examined at transmission electronic microscope to detect possible ultrastructural alterations and to raise possible pathological correlations. Gradual changes were observed in these animals during all the experiment: dilatation and enlargement of cisternae of Golgi complex, dilatation of RER, presence of digestive vacuoles and a large amount of pinocytic vesicles as well as vesicles with electronlucent content throughout cytoplasm, as well as an enlargement of intercellular space between basolateral interdigitation of the cells and of the connective tissue. The changes observed in the epithelium and connective tissue of choroid plexuses specially in 240 and 300 days of treatment are presumably due to a disturbance in hydroelectrolitic homeostasis, contributing to several morpho-functional disturbs of central nervous system. No changes were observed in the control group animals.Ratos machos adultos (linhagem Wistar foram alcoolizados com aguardente de cana diluída a 30(0 GL durante 300 dias e sacrificados a cada 60 dias em 5 etapas. Amostras dos plexos coróides dos ventrículos laterais foram coletadas e examinadas ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão para detectar possíveis alterações ultraestruturais e suas correlações patológicas. Alterações graduais foram observadas nestes animais durante todo o experimento: dilatação e aumento das cisternas de complexo de Golgi, dilatação do retículo endoplasmático rugoso, presença de vacúolos digestivos e grande quantidade de vesículas pinocíticas assim como de vesículas de conteúdo elétron-lúcido por todo o citoplasma, além de aumento do espaço intercelular, entre as interdigitações das células assim como no tecido conjuntivo. As alterações observadas no

  2. Nickel-induced allergy and contact dermatitis: does it induce autoimmunity and cutaneous sclerosis? An experimental study in Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mogairen, Sultan M; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S; Hamdani, Muhammad; Husain, Sufia; Al-Mohimed, Bandar; Adam, M; Al-Hammad, A; El Rab, Mohammed O Gad

    2010-07-01

    Nickel sensitization is a growing problem and the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nickel chloride can induce autoimmunity and cutaneous sclerosis in immunosensitive rats. Nickel chloride, in a dose of 4.5 mg in 0.2 ml NS, was administered by the oral and subcutaneous routes to 20 Brown Norway rats. Autoantibodies (ANA, anti-RNP, anti-SCL70 and anti-centromere) were measured and compared in pre- and post-challenge serum samples. Histological studies were also performed in skin biopsies obtained from six positively responding rats and compared with an equal number of control rats at the 14th week post-challenge. Serum ANA was high in a significant number of rats in both the oral (P nickel-treated groups (P = 0.02), while the anti-SCL70 was high in a significant number of rats in only the orally nickel-treated group (P = 0.04). Histologically, subcutaneous and oral nickel-treated groups showed sclerodermic features of the skin (P = 0.22, P = 0.5), respectively. It may be concluded that nickel chloride can induce scleroderma-related autoantibodies and cutaneous sclerosis. More prolonged duration of exposure is probably associated with greater risk. This is the first study showing the potential risk of nickel in triggering the development of cutaneous sclerosis in susceptible hosts.

  3. In utero Exposure to Germinated Brown Rice and Its GABA Extract Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Der-Jiun, Ooi; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the influence of diet on insulin resistance. Our study provides insight into the effect of germinated brown rice (GBR) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on early environment-driven programming and susceptibility to insulin resistance in rat offspring. Male rat offspring from female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone, HFD + GBR, or HFD + GABA extract throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned 4 weeks after delivery and followed up for 8 weeks. A biochemical analysis and an assessment of the hepatic expression of insulin signaling genes were performed. The results showed that intrauterine exposure to HFD caused metabolic perturbations in rat offspring which gravitated towards insulin resistance even though the rat offspring did not consume an HFD. GBR and GABA attenuated the HFD-induced changes by underlying regulation of the insulin signaling genes. The results suggest that intake of GBR and GABA during pregnancy and lactation can influence the programming of genes in rat offspring, thereby enhancing insulin sensitivity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Nutrigenomic effects of germinated brown rice and its bioactives on hepatic gluconeogenic genes in type 2 diabetic rats and HEPG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah

    2013-03-01

    Chronic sustained hyperglycemia underlies the symptomatology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dietary components contribute to it. Germinated brown rice (GBR) improves glycemic control but the mechanisms involved are still the subject of debate. We now show one mechanism by which GBR lowers blood glucose. Effects of GBR, brown rice, and white rice (WR) on fasting plasma glucose and selected genes were studied in type 2 diabetic rats. GBR reduced plasma glucose and weight more than metformin, while WR worsened glycemia over 4 weeks of intervention. Through nutrigenomic suppression, GBR downregulated gluconeogenic genes (Fbp1 and Pck1) in a manner similar to, but more potently than, metformin, while WR upregulated the same genes. Bioactives (gamma-amino butyric acid, acylated steryl glycoside, oryzanol, and phenolics) were involved in GBR's downregulation of both genes. Plasma glucose, Fbp1 and Pck1 changes significantly affected the weight of rats (p = 0.0001). The fact that GBR downregulates gluconeogenic genes similar to metformin, but produces better glycemic control in type 2 diabetic rats, suggests other mechanisms are involved in GBR's antihyperglycemic properties. GBR as a staple could potentially provide enhanced glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus better than metformin. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Perinatal maternal high-fat diet induces early obesity and sex-specific alterations of the endocannabinoid system in white and brown adipose tissue of weanling rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana M; Dias-Rocha, Camilla P; Souza, André S; Muros, Mariana F; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Trevenzoli, Isis H

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development. Female rats received standard diet (9 % energy content from fat) or HF diet (29 % energy content from fat) before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring were killed for tissue harvest. Maternal HF diet induced early obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipid accumulation in brown adipose tissue associated with sex-specific changes of the ECS's components in weanling rats. In male pups, maternal HF diet decreased CB1 and CB2 protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In female pups, maternal HF diet increased visceral and decreased subcutaneous CB1. In brown adipose tissue, maternal HF diet increased CB1 regardless of pup sex. In addition, maternal HF diet differentially changed oestrogen receptor across the adipose depots in male and female pups. The ECS and oestrogen signalling play an important role in lipogenesis, adipogenesis and thermogenesis, and we observed early changes in their targets in adipose depots of the offspring. The present findings provide insights into the involvement of the ECS in the developmental origins of metabolic disease induced by inadequate maternal nutrition in early life.

  6. Effectiveness of Brown Algae Extract to Reduce Serum Malondialdehyde and Protein Carbonyl Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiana Batubara

    2017-03-01

    Results: There were no significant differences in serum MDA levels among groups (p=0,405. However, serum PCO level in group administered with 450mg/kgBW of brown algae extract decreased significantly compared to control group (p=0.001, group administered with 150mg/kgBW (p=0.001 and 300mg/kgBW (p=0,037. Conclusion: Administration of brown algae extract did not decrease serum MDA levels significantly. Administration of 450mg/kgBW brown algae extract is effective to decrease serum PCO level significantly.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Shafiyyah, C O; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Lau, Y L; Siti Aminah, F

    2012-12-01

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from Sentul and Chow Kit areas. Five species of rats were captured and supplied by Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The most common was Rattus rattus diardii (Malayan Black rat), 67%, followed by Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat), 10%, Rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, Rattus tiomanicus (Malaysian field rat), 9% and Rattus exulans (Polynesian rat), 4%. Rattus rattus diardii is commonly known to live in human environment and they are normally identified as pests to human community. More male rats were captured (61%) compared to female (39%). Out of 137 samples, 81.8% samples were positive with intestinal parasites, with 86.2% from Sentul area and 78.5% from Chow Kit area. Six different parasites were detected. The most common intestinal helminth parasite detected was Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (80.3%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (23.4%), Capillaria hepatica (13.9%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (2.9%). Intestinal protozoan detected was Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (8.8%). Trypanosoma lewisi (1.5%) was the only blood parasite detected.

  8. Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Veech, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is classically activated by sympathetic nervous stimulation resulting from exposure to cold. Feeding a high-fat diet also induces development of brown fat, but is decreased by caloric restriction. Blood ketone bodies, which function as alternative energy substrates to glucose, are increased during caloric restriction. Here we discuss the unexpected observation that feeding an ester of ketone bodies to the mouse, which increases blood ketone body concentrations, resu...

  9. PREDICTORS OF TRYPANOSOMA LEWISI IN RATTUS NORVEGICUS FROM DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Colleen Edith; Schoeman, M Corrie; Appleton, Christopher Charles; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Hope, Karen J; Matthews, Glenda Beverly

    2018-03-16

    This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi; Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps ecidnina and L. lamborni, two rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban. Three hundred and seventy nine R. norvegicus were live-trapped at 48 sites in 4 locality types of Durban during a one year period. Rats were euthanized, cardiac blood was taken to check for hemoparasites and ectoparasites were removed for identification. Parasite species richness was higher in pups (2.11) and juveniles (1.02) than adults (0.87). Most rats in the study harbored 1 or 2 of the 5 parasites examined. Rats with trypanosomes and fleas were more prevalent in the city center and harbor, and juveniles were most affected. Rats with lice were more prevalent in informal settlements and urban/peri-urban areas and pups had the highest infestations. There was a significant positive association between rats with fleas and trypanosomes and a negative association between rats with lice and trypanosomes. Location and rat age were significant predictors of T. lewisi, X. cheopis and P. spinulosa. Mites showed no strong associations with trypanosomes. Ectoparasite associations are possibly habitat and life-cycle related. We conclude that Durban's city center, which offers rats harborage, an unsanitary environment and availability of food, is a high transmission area for fleas and trypanosomes, and consequently, a potential public health risk.

  10. The Growth of Brown Adipose Tissue in Cold-acclimatized Rats after Depletion of Mast Cell Histamine by Compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daló Nelson L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold acclimatization (4-5°C is accompanied by 2-3 fold increase of brown adipose tissue (BAT. This rapid growth of interscapular BAT was studied after histamine depletion. In control rats maintained at room temperature (28 ± 2°C the BAT histamine content was 23.4 ± 5.9 (mean ± SD µg/g of tissue and cold acclimatization (5±1°C produced a significant increase of BAT weight, but reduced the histamine content to 8.4 ± 1.9 µg/g. The total weight of BAT after 20 days of acclimatization was unaffected by depletion of histamine due to compound 48/80. The low level of histamine in BAT of cold acclimatized rats could be due to a fast rate of amine utilization; alternatively an altered synthesis or storage process may occur during acclimatization.

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines (Phase III): Two Generation Developmental and Reproductive Safety Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2, and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Instrument Co., Michigan City, IN) with a visual display and an electronic sensor (Model ZPS-05-SR09-EZ-ST-D, Building Automation Products, Inc., Gays ...effects detected in ultrasonic distress vocalizations (“calls to mom ”) for either male or female offspring (Table 64). F1 Generation (Adult Tests...DH, Hasiba U , Spero JA, and Gavaler J (1985). Comparative hematology and coagulation: studies on rodentia (rats). Comp Biochem Physiol. 82 (1): 211

  12. Invasion genetics of the introduced black rat (Rattus rattus) in Senegal, West Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Adam; Estoup, A.; Duplantier, J.-M.; Bryja, Josef; Ba, K.; Galan, M.; Tatard, C.; Cosson, J.-F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2013), s. 286-300 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : approximate bayesian computation * bioinvasion * Bayesian clustering * founder effects * genetic admixture * microsatellites * multiple introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.840, year: 2013

  13. Ketone esters increase brown fat in mice and overcome insulin resistance in other tissues in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veech, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is classically activated by sympathetic nervous stimulation resulting from exposure to cold. Feeding a high-fat diet also induces development of brown fat, but is decreased by caloric restriction. Blood ketone bodies, which function as alternative energy substrates to glucose, are increased during caloric restriction. Here we discuss the unexpected observation that feeding an ester of ketone bodies to the mouse, which increases blood ketone body concentrations, results in an activation of brown fat. The mechanism of this activation of brown fat is similar to that occurring from cold exposure in that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels are increased as are levels of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, which is also increased by ketone ester feeding. Other effects of feeding ketone esters, in addition to their ability to induce brown fat, are discussed such as their ability to overcome certain aspects of insulin resistance and to ameliorate the accumulation of amyloid and phosphorylated tau protein in brain, and improve cognitive function, in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Genetic map of AFLP markers in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) derived from the H x B/Ipcv and B x H/cub sets of recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonné, A. C. M.; den Bieman, M. G.; Gillissen, G. F.; Křen, Vladimír; Křenová, D.; Bílá, V.; Zídek, Václav; Kostka, Vlastimil; Musilová, Alena; Pravenec, Michal; Van Zutphen, B. F. M.; Van Lith, H. A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2003), s. 77-89 ISSN 0006-2928 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015; GA ČR GA305/00/1646 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) BIO4CT960562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : AFLP technique * rat * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.569, year: 2003

  15. Decline of prefrontal cortical-mediated executive functions but attenuated delay discounting in aged Fischer 344 × brown Norway hybrid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Caesar M; Vetere, Lauren M; Orsini, Caitlin A; McQuail, Joseph A; Maurer, Andrew P; Burke, Sara N; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2017-12-01

    Despite the fact that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function declines with age, aged individuals generally show an enhanced ability to delay gratification, as evident by less discounting of delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. The present study was designed to evaluate relationships between 2 aspects of PFC-dependent cognition (working memory and cognitive flexibility) and intertemporal choice in young (6 months) and aged (24 months) Fischer 344 × brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. Rats were also evaluated for motivation to earn rewards using a progressive ratio task. As previously reported, aged rats showed attenuated discounting of delayed rewards, impaired working memory, and impaired cognitive flexibility compared with young. Among aged rats, greater choice of delayed reward was associated with preserved working memory, impaired cognitive flexibility, and less motivation to work for food. These relationships suggest that age-related changes in PFC and incentive motivation contribute to variance in intertemporal choice within the aged population. Cognitive impairments mediated by PFC are unlikely, however, to fully account for the enhanced ability to delay gratification that accompanies aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  17. THE EFFECT OF BETA GLUCAN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISAE ON THE INCREASE OF THE NUMBER OF BRAIN CELLS IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA BRAIN OF PARKINSON’S WISTAR STRAIN RAT (RATTUS NORVEGICUS MODEL INDUCED WITH ROTENONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruroh Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ackground and aims. One of many neurodegenerative diseases afflicting the elderly is Parkinson. Beta glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisae is very potential to be used as a regenerative therapy of Parkinson's disease. Beta glucan can increase the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from the bone marrow into the damaged tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs which have been mobilized can regenerate and differentiate into brain cells so that the symptoms of Parkinson would be reduced. This research aims to find out the effects of the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae toward the number of brain cells in substantia nigra Parkinson’s rat model. Method. The research was experimental in vivo using the draft of randomized post test only controlled group design. There were five groups that become the sample in this research with 5 rats for each group, i.e. negative control group, positive control group, Treatment Group 1, 2 and 3 (Rotenone + Saccharomyces cerevisae 18 mg/kgBB, 36 mg/kgBB, 72 mg/kgBBfor 4 weeks. Variable measured in this study was the number of brain cells in substantia nigra. The results of this study showed that Treatment Group 3 (72 mg/kgBB was a group with the largest number of brain cells than the other treatment groups. Statistical data obtained showed that the average number of brain cells in negative control group was 192.00 cells; positive control amounted to 116.80 cells; Treatment 1 amounted to 135.40 cells; Treatment 2 amounted to 140.80 cells; and Treatment 3 amounted to 161.80 cells. Result. The result of ANOVA test showed a significant difference between groups (p< 0.05, while the correlation test result indicated a strong correlation between the dose of Saccharomyces cerevisae and the number of substantia nigra of rat’s brain cells (r = 0,818. Conclusion. From this research, it can be concluded that the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae with a dose of 18mg/kgBB, 36mg/kgBBdan 72 mg/kgBB is able to increase

  18. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by Toxocara canis larvae Alterações de comportamento em Rattus norvegicus experimentalmente infectados por larvas de Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Chieffi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis is a common canine nematode parasite and one of its possible transmission mechanisms is the predation of infected rodents by canids. Fifty Rattus norvegicus were used to study behavioral alterations in rodents infected by T. canis larvae. The rats were divided into three groups: G1, 20 rats infected with 300 T. canis eggs; G2, 20 rats infected with 2,000 T. canis eggs; and G3, 10 non-infected rats. Thirty and 60 days post-infection, rats from all the groups were submitted to an open-field apparatus for five min and subsequently, to an elevated plus-maze apparatus, again for five min. The data obtained indicated improvement in mobility (total locomotion time and rearing frequency and exploratory behavior in infected rats, principally in G2, which provides some support for the hypothesis that behavioral alterations in rodents infected by Toxocara canis larvae enhance the transmission rate of this ascarid to dogs.Toxocara canis é um nematódeo parasita habitual do intestino delgado de cães. Um dos mecanismos conhecidos de transmissão para cães é representado pela predação de pequenos roedores que, como hospedeiros paratênicos albergam larvas de Toxocara canis em seus tecidos. Para avaliar a ocorrência de alterações de comportamento em roedores infectados por Toxocara canis 50 exemplares de Rattus norvegicus foram utilizados no experimento. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: G1 - 20 ratos infectados com 300 ovos de Toxocara canis; G2 - 20 ratos infectados com 2.000 ovos de Toxocara canis e G3 - 10 ratos sem infecção. Trinta e 60 dias após a infecção avaliou-se a ocorrência de alterações comportamentais nos três grupos submetendo os animais, primeiramente, a uma arena de campo aberto durante cinco minutos e, a seguir, a labirinto em cruz elevado por mais cinco minutos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram aumento significativo da mobilidade (tempo total de movimentação e número de vezes em que os animais se

  19. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T R; McDonough, Molly M; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-09-28

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly recognized characters that demonstrate lineage separation in the fossil record of Siwalik murines and examines the most reasonable nodal placement of the diverging lineages in a molecular phylogenetic tree by ancestral state reconstruction. Our specimen-based approach strongly indicates that Siwalik murines of the Karnimata clade are fossil members of the Arvicanthini-Otomyini-Millardini clade, which excludes Rattus and its relatives. Combining the new interpretation with the widely accepted hypothesis that the Progonomys clade includes Mus, the lineage separation event in the Siwalik fossil record represents the Mus/Arvicanthis split. Our test analysis on Bayesian age estimates shows that this new calibration point provides more accurate estimates of murine divergence than previous applications. Thus, we define this fossil calibration point and refine two other fossil-based points for molecular dating.

  20. Co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins in the lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy of rat brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Giralt, M; Viñas, O; Iglesias, R; Mampel, T; Villarroya, F

    1995-01-01

    The relative abundance of the mitochondrial-encoded mRNAs for cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I was lower in brown adipose tissue (BAT) from lactating rats than in virgin controls. This decrease was in parallel with a significant decrease in mitochondrial 16 S rRNA levels and in the relative content of mitochondrial DNA in the tissue. BAT from lactating rats showed lowered mRNA expression of the nuclear-encoded genes for the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase and the adenine nucleotide translocase isoforms ANT1 and ANT2, whereas mRNA levels for the ATP synthase beta-subunit were unchanged. However, the relative content of this last protein was lower in BAT mitochondria from lactating rats than in virgin controls. It is concluded that lactation-induced mitochondrial hypotrophy in BAT is associated with a co-ordinate decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes for mitochondrial proteins. This decrease is caused by regulatory events acting at different levels, including pre- and post-transcriptional regulation. BAT appears to be a useful model with which to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the co-ordination of the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes during mitochondrial biogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8948428

  1. Recovery effect of pre-germinated brown rice on the alteration of sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor expression in rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboon, J; Nudmamud-Thanoi, S; Thanoi, S

    2017-02-01

    Depression and antidepressant drugs induce adverse effects in male reproduction. Therefore, it is important to investigate alternative treatment for depression without adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor (AR) expression in rat model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups including control (distilled water only), depression induced by forced swimming test (FST), FST + fluoxetine (antidepressant drug), FST + GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) (standard) and FST + PGBR. When compared with the control, sperm motility showed a significant decrease in FST + fluoxetine group. Sperm morphology also decreased significantly in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups. The morphological changes of seminiferous tubules showed significant increases in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups, while AR expression showed significant decreases in depression, FST + fluoxetine and FST + GABA groups. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in all sperm quality parameters, testicular structure and AR expression in FST + PGBR group. These findings reflect the recovery effects of PGBR treatment on sperm quality, morphological changes of seminiferous tubules and AR expression in stress-induced rats. Therefore, PGBR may potentially develop for the treatment for depression without adverse effect on male reproduction. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Insulin dan Ekstrak Zingiber officinale Terhadap Berat Badan Lahir Anak Rattus Norvegicus Model Diabetes Melitus Pragestasional

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    Ratih Mega Septiasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes during pregnancy can be divided into pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes. The risk of fetal Diabetes Mellitus pregestational (DMpG patients can be either macrosomia or low birth weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the administration effect of insulin and Zingiber officinale extract on birth weight of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model. This research is an experimental research using post test only control group design. Samples contained 30 pregnant Rattus norvegicus and divided into 5 groups, where K0 (negative control group and K1 (positive control group given aquadest 1cc, K2 given insulin 1IU, K3 given ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW, K4 given insulin 1IU and ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW. Treatment was administered during the first 16 days of pregnancy. On the 17th day, the rats were terminated and then the birth weight was measured with the scale. Data analysis using One-way ANOVA test followed by Tamhane test. The results showed that there was a difference of birth weight in the insulin treatment group and ginger extract treatment group (p-value = 0,037 < α =0,05. The conclusion of this study was Zingiber officinale can be used as a single therapy or combination with insulin of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model.

  3. Acid hydrolysis of wheat gluten induces formation of new epitopes but does not enhance sensitizing capacity by the oral route: a study in "gluten free" Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Tina F; Jacobsen, Susanne; Madsen, Charlotte B

    2014-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) are used in the food and cosmetic industry as emulsifiers. Cases of severe food allergic reactions caused by HWPs have been reported. Recent data suggest that these reactions are caused by HWPs produced by acid hydrolysis. To examine the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level of specific IgE but with a low functionality. Orally all three gluten products induced specific IgG1 and IgE but with different dose-response relations. Sensitizing rats i.p. or orally with unmodified or enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten induced specific IgG1 responses with similar binding capacity which was different from that of acid hydrolyzed gluten indicating that acid hydrolysis of gluten proteins induces formation of 'new' epitopes. In rats not tolerant to gluten acid hydrolysis of gluten enhances the sensitizing capacity by the i.p. but not by the oral route. In addition, acid hydrolysis induces formation of new epitopes. This is in contrast to the enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten having an epitope pattern similar to unmodified gluten.

  4. Aging influences multiple indices of oxidative stress in the heart of the Fischer 344/NNia x Brown Norway/BiNia rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shinichi; Rice, Kevin M; Kakarla, Sunil; Katta, Anjaiah; Desai, Devashish H; Walker, Ernest M; Wehner, Paulette; Blough, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P lead to age-associated alterations in cardiac oxidative stress.

  5. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  6. Effects of Brown Seaweed (Sargassum polycystum Extracts on Kidney, Liver, and Pancreas of Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Motshakeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The edible seaweed Sargassum polycystum (SP is traditionally used against several human diseases. This investigation evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of SP ethanolic and aqueous extracts on the pancreatic, hepatic, and renal morphology of type 2 diabetic rats (T2DM. T2DM was induced by feeding rats on high calorie diet followed by a low dose streptozotocin. Changes in the diabetic rat organs in SP treated groups with different doses of extracts were compared with normal rats, diabetic control rats, and metformin treated rats. After 22 days of treatment, the pathological lesions of the livers and kidneys in the diabetic rats were quantitatively and qualitatively alleviated (P<0.05 by both the SP extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight and by metformin. All the treated diabetic groups revealed marked improvement in the histopathology of the pancreas compared with the control diabetic group. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of SP and metformin revealed pancreas protective or restorative effects. The seaweed extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight reduced the liver and kidney damages in the diabetic rats and may exert tissue repair or restoration of the pancreatic islets in experimentally induced diabetes to produce the beneficial homeostatic effects.

  7. Inhibition of Formation of Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats by Edible Green AlgaeCapsosiphon fulvescensand Brown AlgaeHizikia fusiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Sook; Ullah, H M Arif; Elfadl, Ahmed K; Ghim, Soong-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jin; Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2018-01-01

    Capsosiphon fulvescens (green seaweed) and Hizikia fusiforme (brown seaweed) are marine algae consumed as food supplements, especially in Japan, China and Korea, and are considered traditional medicinal tonics for certain ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. F344 male rats (5 weeks, 150 g) were divided into six groups as follows. Group 1: Injected with normal saline solution and fed control diet (untreated control). Group 2: Injected with AOM and fed control diet (treated control). Group 3: Injected with AOM and fed 1% C. fulvescens diet. Group 4: Injected with AOM and fed 2% C. fulvescens diet. Group 5: Injected with AOM and fed 2% H. fusiforme diet. Group 6: Injected with AOM and fed 6% H. fusiforme diet. Test animals received subcutaneous injections of AOM (15 mg/1 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in treated control and experimental groups. We evaluated the effects of dietary C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme at two different dose levels: 1 and 2% C. fulvescens, and 2 and 6% H. fusiforme, on colonic carcinogenesis by AOM in rats. Our results suggest that body weights were not significantly different amongst groups. We found that feeding C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme with a control diet significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the development of ACF in experimental groups. C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme in food also significantly (p<0.05) reduced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in the colonic tissues of experimental groups. These results demonstrate the chemopreventive potential of C. fulvescens and H. fusiforme against CRC in an AOM-induced rats. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of a cocoa-enriched diet on immune response and anaphylaxis in a food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocoa intake decreased Th2 immune-related antibodies in rats. In consequence, we aimed to study in depth this cocoa action, particularly assessing its effect on a rat model of food allergy (FA) and also on an anaphylactic response. The involvement of the intestinal immune system was analyzed to allow the action mechanisms to be investigated. The role of cocoa flavonoids in the antiallergic properties of cocoa was also established. Brown Norway rats were fed either a reference diet or diets containing conventional cocoa (CC) or nonfermented cocoa (NFC). FA to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced and, later, an anaphylactic response was provoked. As expected, the synthesis of anti-OVA IgE and other Th2-related antibodies was inhibited by CC diet. In addition, the release of mast cell protease II after anaphylaxis was partially prevented by CC, although other variables were not modified. The CC diet also attenuated the increase of some Th2-related cytokines released from mesenteric lymph node and spleen cells, and modulated the intestinal gene expression of molecules involved in allergic response. These results demonstrated the local and systemic influence of CC diet. The effects of the NFC diet were weaker than those of CC, suggesting that cocoa components other than flavonoids play a role in cocoa's action. In conclusion, by acting on intestinal and systemic immune functions, a cocoa-enriched diet in rats exhibited a protective effect against FA and partially against anaphylaxis, making this a food of high interest to the fields of health and immunonutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel O. Simões

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

  10. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Hiperlipidemia

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    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi

    2014-09-01

    Results with descriptive analysis obtained that mean of positive control’s pre-test triglyceride level was 104.80 mg/ dl and treatment groups I, II and III respectively 108.15 mg/ dl, 106.47 mg/ dl and 107.43 mg/ dl whereas positive control’s post-test triglyceride level was 51.09 mg/ dl and for the treatment groups were 94.64 mg /dl, 71.01 mg/ dl and 58.75 mg/ dl. One Way ANOVA test obtained p <0.05 which indicated the difference between the treatment of various doses of red dragon fruit juice to white rats’ triglyceride levels. Based on that, means there is the effect of various doses of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus.

  11. The environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene causes eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation and in vitro airways hyperreactivity in the Brown Norway rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielsen, C.; Zeamari, S.; Vos, J. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Leusink-Muis, A.; Bloksma, N. [Department of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    Based on observations that the persistent environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene (HCB) induces inflammatory skin lesions and eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology as well as in vivo airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat (Michielsen et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:11-20, 2001), which are features of human Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), we have investigated whether HCB induced other features of CSS such as asthma and systemic vasculitis involving the heart and kidneys in this strain of rat. To this end, BN/SsNOlaHsd rats received control feed or feed supplemented with 450 mg/kg HCB. On days 6, 14 or 21, tracheas were isolated to assess non-specific in vitro airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to cumulative concentrations of arecoline and serotonin. In addition, lungs were lavaged to count and differentiate lavage cells, and skin, lungs, heart, kidneys, and lymph nodes were processed for histopathological investigation. HCB induced eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat, which became more severe with time and was associated with significant in vitro AHR to arecoline. Moreover, as in CSS-patients, systemic effects on spleen and lymph nodes were observed in HCB-fed BN/SsNOlaHsd rats, as well as development of skin lesions with vascular changes and eosinophilic infiltrates. In contrast, cardiac or renal involvement, frequently seen in CSS-patients, was not seen in HCB-fed rats. More importantly, there were no indications of necrotizing vasculitis, a hallmark feature of CSS, in the lungs and skin of BN/SsNOlaHsd rats. Thus, it is concluded that the persistent environmental pollutant HCB possibly induces a mild or early stage of CSS in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat that may evolve into fully developed CSS after prolonged exposure to HCB. (orig.)

  12. The environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene causes eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation and in vitro airways hyperreactivity in the Brown Norway rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michielsen, C.; Zeamari, S.; Vos, J.; Leusink-Muis, A.; Bloksma, N.

    2002-01-01

    Based on observations that the persistent environmental pollutant hexachlorobenzene (HCB) induces inflammatory skin lesions and eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology as well as in vivo airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat (Michielsen et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172:11-20, 2001), which are features of human Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), we have investigated whether HCB induced other features of CSS such as asthma and systemic vasculitis involving the heart and kidneys in this strain of rat. To this end, BN/SsNOlaHsd rats received control feed or feed supplemented with 450 mg/kg HCB. On days 6, 14 or 21, tracheas were isolated to assess non-specific in vitro airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to cumulative concentrations of arecoline and serotonin. In addition, lungs were lavaged to count and differentiate lavage cells, and skin, lungs, heart, kidneys, and lymph nodes were processed for histopathological investigation. HCB induced eosinophilic and granulomatous lung pathology in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat, which became more severe with time and was associated with significant in vitro AHR to arecoline. Moreover, as in CSS-patients, systemic effects on spleen and lymph nodes were observed in HCB-fed BN/SsNOlaHsd rats, as well as development of skin lesions with vascular changes and eosinophilic infiltrates. In contrast, cardiac or renal involvement, frequently seen in CSS-patients, was not seen in HCB-fed rats. More importantly, there were no indications of necrotizing vasculitis, a hallmark feature of CSS, in the lungs and skin of BN/SsNOlaHsd rats. Thus, it is concluded that the persistent environmental pollutant HCB possibly induces a mild or early stage of CSS in the BN/SsNOlaHsd rat that may evolve into fully developed CSS after prolonged exposure to HCB. (orig.)

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Hiperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a disease that causes the most deaths in the world. One of its main risk factor is triglyceride levels which make the emergence of plaque in coronary artery. Statin as an option drug in reducing triglyceride levels apparently reported to cause myopathy and kidney failure when used in a long term. Natural product like red dragon fruit began to be developed as a safer alternative. The content of various substances such as niacin, vitamin C and fiber in it useful as antihypertriglyceridemia. This study aims to determine the effect of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus. This study was an experimental study with pre and post test with control group design. The subjects were 24 male experimental animals (Rattus norvegicus were divided into 4 groups: one positive control group given simvastatin 0.18 mg/ 200 gram of  weight and three groups treated with red dragon fruit juice doses of 3.6; 5.4 and 7.2 gram/ 200 gram of weight. Then, data were analyzed escriptively with One-Way ANOVA test using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. Results with descriptive analysis obtained that mean of positive control’s pre-test triglyceride level was 104.80 mg/ dl and treatment groups I, II and III respectively 108.15 mg/ dl, 106.47 mg/ dl and 107.43 mg/ dl whereas positive control’s post-test triglyceride level was 51.09 mg/ dl and for the treatment groups were 94.64 mg /dl, 71.01 mg/ dl and 58.75 mg/ dl. One Way ANOVA test obtained p <0.05 which indicated the difference between the treatment of various doses of red dragon fruit juice to white rats’ triglyceride levels. Based on that, means there is the effect of various doses of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus.

  14. Effect of the Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown essential oil and its main constituents, citral and limonene, on the tracheal smooth muscle of rats

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    Poliana M.M. Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae species, has effects sedative, analgesic and spasmolytic properties. This study had as its main objective to evaluate the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa effect and that of its main constituents, citral and limonene, over tracheal smooth muscle from Wistar rats. EOLa, citral and limonene promoted relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle in contractions induced by potassium (60 mM K+, presenting an EC50 of 148 ± 7 μg/mL for the EOLa, 136 ± 7 μg/mL for citral and 581 ± 7 μg/mL for limonene. In contractions induced by Acetylcholine (Ach; 10 μM the EC50 for the EOLa and citral were of 731 ± 5 μg/mL and 795 ± 9 μg/mL, respectively. In preparations pre-incubated with 1000 μg/mL of the EOLa and citral, both agents were found to block the influx of BaCl2 by VOCCs. This study demonstrated that the EOLa and its main component citral present antispasmodic effect over tracheal smooth muscle of rats.

  15. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters of growing Wistar rats. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of diets with whole rice processed ingredients on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters was studied using an animal model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. The cecum weight, cecal content pH, cecal sIgA content, and β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activities were determined. Calcium apparent absorption, total bone mineral content and density and right femur parameters (ashes, organic content, calcium and P) were evaluated. The results showed that animals fed with whole grain diets have lower food intake in comparison with the C diet, and decreased cecal content pH (7.06 vs. 6.33) and β-glucosidase activity (1.66 vs. 0.21 μmol p-nitrophenol g(-1) cc h(-1)). Even though calcium apparent absorption was not different among treatments (∼70%), none of the whole grain diets improved calcium related bone parameters over the control fed rats (cellulose as dietary fibre).

  16. BMP4 Expression Following Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous and Carbonate Apatite Transplantation on Rattus norvegicus

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    Tania Saskianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone defects in children still have a high incidence. Conventional bone graft technique that has been used as a defect therapy is still not effective, so new techniques with tissue engineering approach are needed. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 as one of the indicators of osteogenic differentiation has not been widely studied, especially in the transplantation with combination of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous (SHED and carbonate apatite. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the expression of BMP4 after SHED and carbonate apatite transplantation on Rattus norvegicus. Material and Methods: The combinations of SHED and carbonate apatite were transplanted on alveolar bone defects of 4 rats (Rattus norvegicus as the treatment groups and another 4 rats were transplanted with carbonate apatite as the control groups. After 21 days, staining with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE and Immunohistochemistry (IHC BMP4 was performed. Results: BMP4 expression in the treatment groups was significantly higher when compared to the control groups. Discussion: Carbonate apatite has low crystallization rate and high osteoconductivity that produce more osteoblasts and increased BMP4 expression. Conclusion: The transplantation of SHED and carbonate apatite increased BMP4 expression as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation in rats.

  17. Draft genome of the emerging pathogen, Kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat

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    Shih Keng Loong

    Full Text Available Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.

  18. Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2013-09-01

    Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world.

  19. Rodenticide resistentie bij de bruine rat (Rattus norvegicus, Berkenhout)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Schoelitsz, B.

    2011-01-01

    Resistentie kan een oorzaak zijn voor het falen van een chemische bestrijding van een bruine rattenpopulatie. Men spreekt van resistentie op het moment dat ratten wel rodenticiden opnemen, maar er, door een overerfbaar afgenomen gevoeligheid, niet meer aan komen te overlijden of pas na langere

  20. Basic Microsurgery Training Using the Laboratory Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    there been any personnel/staffing changes (PI/CI/ AI /TC/Instructor) since the last IACUC approval of protocol, or annual review? ___ Yes _X_ No If yes...Include Name, Protocol function - PI/CI/ AI /TC/Instructor, IACUC approval - Yes/No) DELETIONS: (Include Name, Protocol function - PI/CI/ AI /TC

  1. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-12-05

    This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1α and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani I; Ismail, Maznah; Mahmud, Rozi B; Salisu, Abubakar M; Zakaria, Zuki A

    2013-07-30

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. GBR and its bioactives could be a potential

  3. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  4. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  5. Karakteristik Toksisitas Hidroksiapatit yang Disintesis dari Kalsit Terhadap Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas dan Isti Rahayu Suryani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA in biomedical application is well warranted. It has shown to havean excellent biocompatibility in human tooth and bones. The present study was conducted to know the toxicitycharacteristics of hydroxyapatite synthesized from Mojokerto calcite in Rattus norvegicus. In this study 30Rattus norvegicus were used as experimental animals. The animals were divided into 3 groups (n=10 to be givenHA-calcite, HA-200 (Waco, Japan, and aquadest (control orally. The animals were observed 7 days and thenwere analyzed for: fatality rate and clinical behavior, hematology test, organ morphology, and histopathologyappearance. The result showed that there was not any animal death during 7 days observation. None of the animalexhibited any noteworthy findings in clinical behavior, hematology test, organ morphology, and histopathologyappearance. In conclusion, HA-calcite did not show any acute toxicity characteristic; therefore, it was potential tobe used as an alternative material for bone substitution.

  6. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  7. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  8. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that GBR bioactives increase bone density, which might be via the activation of zinc formation and increased calcium content, and that X-ray edge detection technique is effective in the measurement of bone density and can be employed effectively in this respect. PMID:24187491

  9. Effects of the Brown Seaweed Laminaria japonica Supplementation on Serum Concentrations of IgG, Triglycerides, and Cholesterol, and Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbial communities play critical roles in various aspects of body function of the host. Prebiotics, such as dietary fiber, can affect health of the host by altering the composition of intestinal microbiota. Although brown seaweed Laminaria japonica is rich in dietary fiber, studies on its prebiotic potential are quite rare. In this study, basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with dried L. japonica (DLJ, heat-treated dried L. japonica (HLJ, or heated dried L. japonica with added fructooligosaccharide (FHLJ was fed to rats for 16 weeks. Serum concentrations of IgG, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured. In addition, the intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. As compared to the control group, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed significantly higher serum IgG concentration, but had lower weight gain and serum triglyceride concentration. Moreover, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed lower Fimicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio when compared with the control group. As compared with the control group, obesity-associated bacterial genera (Allobaculum, Turicibacter, Coprobacillus, Mollicute, and Oscilibacter, and the genera with pathogenic potentials (Mollicute, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Prevotella decreased while leanness-associated genera (Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Prevotella, and lactic acid bacterial genera (Subdoligranulum, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium increased in all treatment groups. On the contrary, butyric acid producing genera including Subdoligranulum, Roseburia, Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, and Anaerotruncus increased significantly only in FHLJ group. The overall results support multiple prebiotic effects of seaweed L. japonica on rats as determined by body weight reduction, enhanced immune response, and desirable changes in intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting the great potential of L. japonica as an

  10. In utero exposure to germinated brown rice and its oryzanol-rich extract attenuated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in F1 generation of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-21

    The development of insulin resistance is multifactorial, with maternal pre- and postnatal nutrition having significant influences. In this regard, high fat diet (HFD) feeding in pregnancy has been shown to increase risks of metabolic diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of supplementation of HFD with germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma oryzanol-rich extract (OE) on insulin resistance and its epigenetic implications in pregnant rats and their offsprings. Pregnant female Sprague dawley rats were fed with HFD alone, HFD + GBR or HFD + OE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Their offsprings were weaned at 4 weeks post-delivery and were followed up until 8 weeks. Serum levels of adipokines were measured in dams and their offsprings, and global DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns were estimated from the liver. The dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had lower weight gain, glycemic response, 8-Iso prostaglandin, retinol binding protein 4 and fasting insulin, and elevated adiponectin levels compared with the HFD group. Fasting leptin levels were lower only in the GBR groups. Hepatic global DNA methylation was lower in the GBR groups while hepatic H4 acetylation was lower in both GBR and OE dams. In the offsprings, DNA methylation and H4 acetylation were only lower in the OE group. However, dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had higher hepatic H3 acetylation. GBR and OE can be used as functional ingredients for the amelioration of HFD-induced epigeneticallymediated insulin resistance.

  11. FIELD TRIALS OF FENITROTHION, MALATHION, AND DDT DUSTS AGAINST FLEAS ON RATTUS RATTUS DIARDII IN CILOTO, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah percobaan penanggulangan pinjal Xenopsyll cheopis dari tikus Rattus rattus diardii dilaku­kan di Ciloto dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978. Racun serangga yang digunakan 50 % mala-thion wdp, 40 % fenitrothion wdp dan 75 % DDT wdp. dicampur dengan serbuk bedak sehingga ter­dapat 5 % zat racun aktif (active ingredient. Percobaan dilakukan pada 3 dusun. Pengamatan dilakukan dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978 di daerah percobaan dan daerah kontrol DDT 5 % tidak effektif untuk pemberantasan pinjal, malathion 5 % effektif sampai 15 minggu dan Fenitrothion 5 % sampai 19 minggu sesudah perlakuan pertama. Ketiga racun serangga juga effektif untuk tungau dan kutu, tapi tidak demikian untuk tungau dewasa mesostigmatik (mesostigmatic mites.

  12. Beta-3 adrenergic agonist, BRL-26830A, and alpha/beta blocker, arotinolol, markedly increase regional blood flow in the brown adipose tissue in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Yoshida, T; Nishimura, M; Nakanishi, T; Kondo, M; Yoshimura, M

    1992-09-01

    Regional vascular effects of some adrenergic agents, focussing on brown adipose tissue (BAT), were investigated using tracer microspheres with a reference sample method in the anesthetized rat. Intravenous injections of 0.5 mg/kg BRL-26830A, a beta 3-adrenergic agonist, increased heart rate, but changes in blood pressure and cardiac output were not significant. The drug decreased blood flow in the brain, the spleen and the kidneys, but markedly increased it in BAT. At 2 mg/kg, arotinolol, an alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, decreased blood pressure by 20 mmHg and increased cardiac output by 95 ml/min/kg. It slightly but significantly decreased blood flow in the liver and the spleen, but markedly increased the flow in BAT. Acebutolol, a beta 1-adrenergic blocker, decreased blood flow in the liver, the spleen, the pancreas, the kidneys, the adrenals, the skeletal muscle and the skin. Bunazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker, decreased it in all organs and tissue expect the brain and BAT. The pattern of redistribution of blood flow by arotinolol was very similar to that caused by BRL-26830A. Acebutolol and bunazosin rather decreased the blood flow in the BAT. These results indicate that stimulation of beta 3-adrenergic receptors, in BAT results in vasodilation, and that arotinolol may bind to those beta 3-adrenergic receptors.

  13. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER-β reactivity at the glandular epithelium, while the group treated with EST showed immunoreactivity at the glandular, luminal, and stromal epithelium. GBR phenolics moderately regulate the expression of ER-β, HSP70, and IL-4 receptor genes, and gave a positive immunoreaction to ER-β antigen in the uterus. ASG regulates the expression of CaBP9k and IL-4 receptor genes, and ORZ regulates the expression of the CaBP9k gene, while GABA at 100 mg/kg regulates the expression of the HSP70 gene. GBR and its bioactives might have an effect on estrogen

  14. α2u-globulins mediate manipulation of host attractiveness in Toxoplasma gondii-Rattus novergicus association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Anand; Kumar, Vineet; Chiang, Yin Ning; Yew, Joanne Y; Cheemadan, Sabna; Vyas, Ajai

    2015-09-01

    Uninfected female rats (Rattus novergicus) exhibit greater attraction to the males infected with protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This phenomenon is contrary to the aversion towards infected males observed in multitude of other host-parasite associations. In this report, we describe a proximate mechanism for this anomaly. We demonstrate that T. gondii infection enhances hepatic production and urinary excretion of α2u-globulins in rats. We further demonstrate that α2u-globulins are sufficient to recapitulate male sexual attractiveness akin to effects of the infection. This manipulation possibly results in greater horizontal transmission of this parasite between the infected male and the uninfected female. It supports the notion that in some evolutionary niches parasites can alter host sexual signaling, likely leading to an increased rate of sexual transmission.

  15. Coumatetralyl resistance of Rattus tanezumi infesting oil palm plantations in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andru, J; Cosson, J F; Caliman, J P; Benoit, E

    2013-03-01

    Rodent control is an important issue in human health and agriculture. Oil palm plantations are rapidly expanding in Indonesia and this is having a major economic and ecological impact. Rodent control in oil palm plantations is based principally on the use of anti-vitamin K (AVK), the main anticoagulant used being coumatetralyl, a first-generation AVK. We conducted a comparative study in two well established oil palm plantations in Indonesia: (1) one without chemical control in Riau and (2) another with intensive coumatetralyl use on Bangka Island. Rat species were identified by the molecular barcoding method. Susceptibility to coumatetralyl was then assessed within the two populations and we screened for mutations in vkorc1, which encodes the molecular target of AVK. Different species were found in the two areas: Rattus tiomanicus in Riau, and a mix of R. tanezumi and a close relative one in Bangka. The rats in Riau were much more susceptible to coumatetralyl than those in Bangka. This study is the first to demonstrate physiological tolerance to AVK in these species. vkorc1 displayed low levels of polymorphism, and no SNP was associated with the high-tolerance phenotypes of R. tanezumi clade, even those exposed to very high concentrations (32 × the effective dose of 0.36 mg kg(-1)). The biochemical basis of this tolerance remains unknown, but may involve the vkorc1 promoter and/or cytochrome P450 metabolism. We discuss our results and the selective role of anticoagulant use in the occurrence of phenotypic tolerance.

  16. Pengaruh Jamu Dengan Tribulus Terrestris Terhadap Kualitas Sperma Tikus Wistar Jantan (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelealu, Delano; Tendean, Lydia; Wantouw, Benny

    2015-01-01

    : Tribulus terrestris dikenal sebagai bahan yang dapat memperbaiki kualitas sperma. Salah satu jenis jamu yang diproduksi di Indonesia mengandung Tribulus terrestris Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jamu dengan Tribulus terrestris terhadap konsentrasi, motilitas, dan morfologi spermatozoa tikus wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental. Sampel 9 ekor tikus wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus) dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok yakni, kelompok P0 ...

  17. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  18. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Tollenaere, C.; Rahalison, L.; Ranjalahy, M.; Rahelinirina, S.; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Brouat, Carine

    2008-01-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a fu...

  19. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede's principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede's principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede's principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r (2) = 0.737, P = 0.004). Our study shows that GBR

  20. Rat-to-human transmission of Cowpox infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, Tom F W; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2002-01-01

    We isolated Cowpox virus (CPXV) from the ulcerative eyelid lesions of a 14-year-old girl, who had cared for a clinically ill wild rat that later died. CPXV isolated from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) showed complete homology with the girl's virus. Our case is the first proven rat-to-human transmission

  1. Pemberian makanan enteral berformulasi bahan pangan lokal terhadap kadar zat besi dan hemoglobin pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Ariani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteral nutrition is nutrition used to fulfill the needs of nutrition entirely and as the supplement for malnutrition patient. In a certain condition of a patient, this nutrition is usually given in the form of liquid. Local material foods such as tempeh, rice, mung bean, and ganyong have adequate nutrition, therefore they are suitable for being used as main raw materials in the making of enteral nutrition. Objective: To know the influence of feeding enteral nutrition formulated with local food material toward malnutrition white rats (Rattus norvegicus of which the parameters are iron (Fe, hemoglobin (Hb level and weight. Method: This research used Completely Random Design (CRD. Twenty-seven of malnutrition male white rats were divided into 3 groups of treatment with 9 repetitions for each group of the treatment. Group A was given enteral nutrition diet of formula A (tempeh, rice, and mung bean as the main raw material, group B was given enteral nutrition diet of formula B (tempeh, rice, mung bean, and ganyong as the main raw material, and group C (as the positive control was given commercial enteral nutrition. The daily giving of enteral nutrition is 20 g/day during 30 days. The analysis of Fe and Hb level and the measurement of weight firstly were done before the treatment is given. The next measurement was conducted in 15th day and 31st day. Statistical analysis used ANOVA test dan DMRT of significance 5%. Results: The result showed that the treatment of the enteral nutrition feeding of formula B was more optimal than formula A in terms of the way to increase the level of Hb and Fe. Those two components will give positive effect toward the increasing of the weight of malnutrition white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Conclusion: The enteral nutrition of formula B is more proper to be developed as the main material of making enteral food in order to treat the malnutrition.

  2. Effect of Turmeric Etanol Extract (Curcuma Longa L) on Low Density Lipoprotein Level and Liver Histopathology Image in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model Induced by Streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Pratiwi; Djoko Winarso; Nunung Handoyo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine levels of LDL and liver damage in rats (Rattus norvegicus) models of type 1 diabetes mellitus inducted by streptozotocin (STZ) with etanol extract of turmeric (Curcuma Longa L) therapy. Animals used rat (Rattus norvegicus) 3-month-old males who were divided into 5 groups, each group consisting of four mice. The group was divided according to treatment: negative control (not induced by STZ), the positive control group (STZ induced), groups of rats DM 1 wit...

  3. Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-03-01

    The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  4. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Bint Mahmud,4 Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed,1 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Aminu Ishaka11Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Usmanu, Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.Methods: Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA, and γ-oryzanol (ORZ at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (mRNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β, calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k, complement protein (C3, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70, and interleukin (IL-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry.Results: The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001. GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg, EST (0.2 mg/kg, and ORZ (200 mg/kg (P<0.05. Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg compared

  5. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  6. Infeksi Ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus pada Rattus norvegicus di Maumere Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Arief Mulyono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kasus leptospirosis dan infeksi Hantavirus dilaporkan mengalami peningkatan berkaitan dengan adanya pemanasan global.  Rattus norvegicus merupakan reservoir dari dua penyakit tersebut. Adanya infeksi ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus pada R. norvegicus merupakan faktor resiko terjadinya penularan Leptospira dan Hantavirus di populasi manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi infeksi ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus pada R. norvegicus di Kota Maumere, Flores. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014 di daerah perimeter dan buffer pelabuhan Maumere, Flores. Populasi penelitian adalah R. norvegicus di Kota Maumere, Flores. Subyek penelitian adalah R. norvegicus yang tertangkap. Deteksi Leptospira pada R. norvegicus dengan teknik PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk gen 16S rRNA dan deteksi Hantavirus pada R. norvegicus dengan teknik nested-PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk segmen L. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan R. norvegicus yang tertangkap sejumlah 114 ekor. Prevalensi Leptospira pada R. norvegicus 4,3%, prevalensi Hantavirus 22,8% dan infeksi ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus sebesar 1,8%.  Penularan leptospirosis dan infeksi Hantavirus berpotensi terjadinya di Kota Maumere. Kata kunci:  leptospirosis, Leptospira, Hantavirus, Maumere ABSTRACT Infection of Leptospirosis and Hantavirus are increased which related to global warming. Rattus norvegicus is reservoirs of both of diseases infections. Dual infection of Leptospira and Hantavirus in R. norvegicus become risk factor of Leptospira and Hantavirus infection in the human. The objective of this study is to figure out the prevalence of Dual infection in R. norvegicus. This study was descriptive research with cross-sectional design. The population of study was R. norvegicus in Maumere City, Flores. The rats  (n=114 were

  7. Apoptosis of Rattus novergicus gingival fibroblasts caused by silver nano-particles gel exposure

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    Kharinna Widowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of silver nanoparticle are growing, especially in medical science. It’s used in many concentration. In dentistry, it’s used to decrease halitosis, periodontal diseases, and wound healing. It can affect the viability of the cells, give bad effects to the human’s health and environment if used in a long duration and in certain concentration. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to learn the apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts in Rattus novergicus which is exposed with 15 µg/ml silver nano-particle gel by the expression of caspase-3. Method: This study used 9 male wistar rats and were divided into 3 groups. Sample in group A were cut (hurt in the oral gingiva and exposed to Ag-Np gel 15 µg/ml for 3 days. After 3 days, they were sacrificed and cut the gingival fibroblasts off 3x4 cm size with scalpel. Samples in group B were cut in the oral gingiva and exposed to Ag-Np Gel 15 µg/ml for 5 days. After 5 days they were sacrificed and the gingival fibroblasts off 3 x 4 cm with a scalpel. Samples in group C were cut in the oral gingiva and exposed to none for 3 days then cut the gingival fibroblasts off 3 x 4 cm size with scalpel. The expressions of caspase-3 in the apoptotic and wound healing process were analyzed by Immunohistochemical test. This data was analyzed by using the t-test method. Result: Mean expression numbers of caspase-3 in the group A=5.67; group B=11.33; and group C (control=18.67. T-test sign.number of group A and C=0.009; group B & C=0.000. Conclusion: The exposure of 15 µg/ml silver gel nanoparticle to gingival fibroblasts of Rattus novergicus reduces the expressions of caspase-3 in the day-3 and day-5 post exposure. The amounts of cell death through the apoptotic pathway which were analyzed by the expressions of caspase-3 will decrease too.

  8. Selection of Rattus norvegicus oocytes for in vitro maturation by brilliant cresyl blue staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego Duarte; da Rosa Braga, Bianca Letícia; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie Louise; Proença, Letícia Auler; Felix Lopes, Rui Fernando; de Oliveira, Alexandre Tavares Duarte

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the rate of meiosis resumption and nuclear maturation of rat (Rattus norvegicus) oocytes selected for in vitro maturation (IVM) after staining of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with blue cresyl brilliant (BCB) using different protocols: exposure for 30, 60 or 90 min at 26 μM BCB (Experiment 1), and exposure for 60 min at 13, 20 or 26 μM BCB (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the selection of oocytes exposed to BCB for 60 min was found to be the most suitable, as meiosis resumption rates in the BCB(+) group (n = 35/61; 57.37%) were the closest to the observed in the control (not exposed) group (n = 70/90; 77.77%) and statistically higher than the values observed for the BCB(-) group (n = 3/41; 7.32%). Additionally, the more effective evaluation of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%) was observed in COCs exposed for 60 min. In Experiment 2, the 13 μM BCB(+) group presented rates of meiosis resumption (n = 57/72; 72.22%) similar to the control group (n = 87/105; 82.86%) and higher than other concentration groups. However, this results of the analysis between BCB(-) oocytes was also higher in the 13 μM BCB group (n = 28/91; 30.78%) when compared with BCB(-) COCs exposed to 20 μM (n = 3/62; 4.84%) or 26 μM (n = 3/61; 4.92%) BCB. The nuclear maturation rate in the 13 μM BCB group was similar between BCB(+) or BCB(-) oocytes. The 20 μM BCB group had a lower rate of nuclear maturation of BCB(-) oocytes than other groups. Thus, our best results in the selection of Rattus norvegicus oocytes by staining with BCB were obtained using the concentration of 13 μM and 20 μM, and an incubation period of 60 min.

  9. Detection of Leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis from Rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

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    Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira

    Full Text Available Knowledge of potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. The aim of this study was to investigate the infection by Leishmania in small mammals in an area located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. For the capture of the animals, Sherman and Tomahawk traps were used and distributed in the peridomicile of houses with reports of autochthonous cases of CL or VL. Six catches were carried out on two consecutive nights with intervals of two months during one year and samples of spleen, liver, tail skin, ear skin and bone marrow of the animals were obtained. Parasitological and molecular methods were used to detect the infection. Identification of the Leishmania species was performed by PCR RFLPhsp70. Twenty five animals of four species were captured: ten Rattus rattus, nine Didelphis albiventris, five Cerradomys subflavus and one Marmosops incanus. In the PCR-hsp70, five animals were positive (20%. The Leishmania species identified in PCR-RFLPhsp70 were: Leishmania braziliensis in D. albiventris (2, C. subflavus (1 and R. rattus (1 and Leishmania infantum in R. rattus (1. The highest positivity rate for L. braziliensis was obtained in the liver samples. The spleen was the only tissue positive for L. infantum. It was isolated in culture medium L. braziliensis from two samples (liver and spleen of R. rattus. This is the first record of isolation of L. braziliensis from R. rattus in the southeastern region of Brazil. These results are relevant to the knowledge of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region, mainly in the investigation of the presence of hosts and possible reservoirs of the parasite.

  10. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  11. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  12. Germinated brown rice (GBR reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of β-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairuszah Ithnin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1 positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR, (G2 fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g/weight of rat (kg, (G3 fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4 fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5 negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR. GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of β-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p p = 0.0001. It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of β-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer.

  13. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of beta-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Saiful Yazan; Armania, Nurdin; Tze, Tan Hern; Azhar, Yaacob; Nordiana, Abdul Hadi; Norazalina, Saad; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Saidi, Moin; Maznah, Ismail

    2010-03-26

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in all the groups treated with GBR (G2, G3 and G4) compared to the control group (G1). Spearman rank correlation test showed significant positive linear relationship between total beta-catenin and COX-2 score (Spearman's rho = 0.616, p = 0.0001). It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer.

  14. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  15. Human leptospirosis caused by a new, antigenically unique Leptospira associated with a Rattus species reservoir in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Michael A Matthias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a prospective study of leptospirosis and biodiversity of Leptospira in the Peruvian Amazon, a new Leptospira species was isolated from humans with acute febrile illness. Field trapping identified this leptospire in peridomestic rats (Rattus norvegicus, six isolates; R. rattus, two isolates obtained in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of the Iquitos region. Novelty of this species was proven by serological typing, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. We have named this species "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal, and have determined that it is phylogenetically related to, but genetically distinct from, other intermediate Leptospira such as L. fainei and L. inadai. The type strain is serovar Varillal strain VAR 010(T, which has been deposited into internationally accessible culture collections. By microscopic agglutination test, "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal was antigenically distinct from all known serogroups of Leptospira except for low level cross-reaction with rabbit anti-L. fainei serovar Hurstbridge at a titer of 1:100. LipL32, although not detectable by PCR, was detectable in "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal by both Southern blot hybridization and Western immunoblot, although on immunoblot, the predicted protein was significantly smaller (27 kDa than that of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri (32 kDa. Isolation was rare from humans (2/45 Leptospira isolates from 881 febrile patients sampled, but high titers of MAT antibodies against "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal were common (30% among patients fulfilling serological criteria for acute leptospirosis in the Iquitos region, and uncommon (7% elsewhere in Peru. This new leptospiral species reflects Amazonian biodiversity and has evolved to become an important cause of leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon.

  16. Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten Induces Formation of New Epitopes but Does Not Enhance Sensitizing Capacity by the Oral Route: A Study in “Gluten Free” Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Tina F.; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acid hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs) are used in the food and cosmetic industry as emulsifiers. Cases of severe food allergic reactions caused by HWPs have been reported. Recent data suggest that these reactions are caused by HWPs produced by acid hydrolysis. Objectives To examine the sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. Methods High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Results Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level of specific IgE but with a low functionality. Orally all three gluten products induced specific IgG1 and IgE but with different dose-response relations. Sensitizing rats i.p. or orally with unmodified or enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten induced specific IgG1 responses with similar binding capacity which was different from that of acid hydrolyzed gluten indicating that acid hydrolysis of gluten proteins induces formation of ‘new’ epitopes. Conclusions In rats not tolerant to gluten acid hydrolysis of gluten enhances the sensitizing capacity by the i.p. but not by the oral route. In addition, acid hydrolysis induces formation of new epitopes. This is in contrast to the enzymatic hydrolyzed gluten having an epitope pattern similar to unmodified gluten. PMID:25207551

  17. Aceturato de diminazeno e dipropionato de imidocarb no controle de infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente Diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era iniciado o tratamento com as drogas (dia zero. O estudo foi dividido em dois protocolos terapêuticos e os fármacos foram administrados via intramuscular. O primeiro protocolo foi aplicado nos grupos A, B, C e D e o segundo protocolo nos grupos E, F, G e H. O grupo controle foi identificado como grupo I, não medicados. No primeiro protocolo, os ratos receberam uma dose única dos fármacos no dia zero e sempre que se observasse T. evansi na circulação periférica. No segundo protocolo, os roedores receberam as mesmas doses, no entanto, por cinco dias consecutivos. No primeiro protocolo, os dois princípios ativos não apresentaram eficácia curativa, ocorrendo reincidência da parasitemia após alguns dias do tratamento. No segundo protocolo, o aceturato de diminazeno eliminou a forma tripomastigota da circulação e os ratos foram eutanasiados após 90 dias do início do tratamento. Os roedores tratados com dipropionato de imidocarb apresentaram recidiva da infecção após 30 dias. Na histopatologia não se observou alteração renal e hepática relacionada à doença ou aos medicamentos testados. Com base nos resultados, foi concluído que o aceturato de diminazeno, quando administrado por cinco dias consecutivos, é efetivo no tratamento da tripanossomose em ratos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rats (Rattus norvegicus

  18. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  19. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    . carinii DNA was detected in 47 of 51 wild rats and in 10 of 12 nonimmunosuppressed laboratory rats. Evidence for three novel formae speciales of rat-derived P. carinii was found, and these were provisionally named Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. rattus-secundi, Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. rattus...... samples. We report a lack of variation in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions that is consistent with an evolutionary bottleneck in the P. carinii f. sp. carinii population. This study shows that human- and rat-derived P. carinii organisms are very different, not population. This study shows that human- and rat-derived...... organisms are very different, not only in genetic composition but also in population structure and natural history....

  20. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii Isolates from the Urban Rat Populations of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Amran, Fairuz; Galloway, Renee L.; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Rats are considered the principal maintenance hosts of Leptospira. The objectives of this study were isolation and identification of Leptospira serovars circulating among urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Three hundred urban rats (73% Rattus rattus and 27% R. norvegicus) from three different sites were trapped. Twenty cultures were positive for Leptospira using dark-field microscopy. R. rattus was the dominant carrier (70%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that all isolates were pathogenic Leptospira species. Two Leptospira serogroups, Javanica and Bataviae, were identified using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (85%) and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (15%). We conclude that these two serovars are the major serovars circulating among the urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur. Despite the low infection rate reported, the high pathogenicity of these serovars raises concern of public health risks caused by rodent transmission of leptospirosis. PMID:23358635

  1. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

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    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  2. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  3. Bioaktivitas Gel Aloe vera pada Gonad Tikus Putih Jantan (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suardita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to determine Bioactivity of Aloe vera gel on gonad of male white rats (Rattus norvegicus. This research used complately random design, with three treatments namely T0, received placebo as a control; T1, received gel of Aloe vera 300 mg/kg body weight orally; and T2, received gel of Aloe vera 400 mg/kg body weight orally. Aloe vera gel was administrated every day for 21 days. All the treatments repeated three times, and each experimental unit used one white rat. Data found was analyzed using one way of Anova, and the Least Significant Differences (LSD Test was applied for further analysis. Results showed that Aloe vera gel administration with a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight had effected significantly on the number of spermatogonia cells, live-daed rasio of spermatozoa, and the percentage of sperm abnormality. The result of the research indicates that Aloe vera gel is potentially cytotoxic to testes cells, and so, it’has a high possibilities as an alternative herbal contraceptive agent for animals /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  4. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  5. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    that glycolytic flux is important for β-adrenergically induced oxygen consumption, and highlights that glucose oxidation serves multiple purposes in brown adipocytes. Together the studies describe novel aspects of glucose consumption adding to the understanding of substrate oxidation in activated brown adipocytes....... Taken together the research presented in this thesis describes novel aspects of BAT physiology, adding to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte activation and fuel preferences....

  6. Spatial modeling of rat bites and prediction of rat infestation in Peshawar valley using binomial kriging with logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Saleem

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we propose to develop a geostatistical computational framework to model the distribution of rat bite infestation of epidemic proportion in Peshawar valley, Pakistan. Two species Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus are suspected to spread the infestation. The framework combines strengths of maximum entropy algorithm and binomial kriging with logistic regression to spatially model the distribution of infestation and to determine the individual role of environmental predictors in modeling the distribution trends. Our results demonstrate the significance of a number of social and environmental factors in rat infestations such as (I) high human population density; (II) greater dispersal ability of rodents due to the availability of better connectivity routes such as roads, and (III) temperature and precipitation influencing rodent fecundity and life cycle.

  7. Chow fed UC Davis strain female Lepr fatty Zucker rats exhibit mild glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased urine volume, all reduced by a Brown Norway strain chromosome 1 congenic donor region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig H Warden

    Full Text Available Our objective is to identify genes that influence the development of any phenotypes of type 2 diabetes (T2D or kidney disease in obese animals. We use the reproductively isolated UC Davis fatty Zucker strain rat model in which the defective chromosome 4 leptin receptor (LeprfaSte/faSte results in fatty obesity. We previously produced a congenic strain with the distal half of chromosome 1 from the Brown Norway strain (BN on a Zucker (ZUC background (BN.ZUC-D1Rat183-D1Rat90. Previously published studies in males showed that the BN congenic donor region protects from some phenotypes of renal dysfunction and T2D. We now expand our studies to include females and expand phenotyping to gene expression. We performed diabetes and kidney disease phenotyping in chow-fed females of the BN.ZUC-D1Rat183-D1Rat90 congenic strain to determine the specific characteristics of the UC Davis model. Fatty LeprfaSte/faSte animals of both BN and ZUC genotype in the congenic donor region had prediabetic levels of fasting blood glucose and blood glucose 2 hours after a glucose tolerance test. We observed significant congenic strain chromosome 1 genotype effects of the BN donor region in fatty females that resulted in decreased food intake, urine volume, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance test, plasma triglyceride levels, and urine glucose excretion per day. In fatty females, there were significant congenic strain BN genotype effects on non-fasted plasma urea nitrogen, triglyceride, and creatinine. Congenic region genotype effects were observed by quantitative PCR of mRNA from the kidney for six genes, all located in the chromosome 1 BN donor region, with potential effects on T2D or kidney function. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the BN genotype chromosome 1 congenic region influences traits of both type 2 diabetes and kidney function in fatty UC Davis ZUC females and that there are many positional candidate genes.

  8. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα in white adipose tissue (WAT. Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (eWAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg and OEA (5 mg/kg co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2. This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs, and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2 and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16 genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity.

  9. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  10. Improved ovulation rate and implantation in rats treated with royal jelly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ovaries and uteris of 12 mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were examined to determine the effect of commercial royal jelly on ovulation, ovarian weight and implantation rates. Rats were split in two groups of 6 each. Group one served as the treatment and group two the control. A daily dose of 25mg of royal jelly ...

  11. Bromadiolone resistance does not respond to absence of anticoagulants in experimental populations of Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, A.C.; Leirs, H.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) is documented to be associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. The aim of this study was to quantify these effects in small populations of Norway rat in Denmark and to se...

  12. Laurie M Brown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Laurie M Brown. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 874-878 Personal Reflections. To Have Been a Student of Richard Feynman · Laurie M Brown · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  13. Distribution of anticoagulant rodenticide resistance in Rattus norvegicus in the Netherlands according to Vkorc1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Schoelitsz, B.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rodenticide resistance to anticoagulants in Rattus norvegicus will lead to increased difficulties in combating these pest animals. Here, the authors present the results of a survey in the Netherlands where tissue samples and droppings were tested using a newly developed TaqMan PCR test

  14. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed to Fucoidan Preparations from Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Torode, Thomas A.; Marcus, Susan E.; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S.; Herv?, C?cile; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and...

  16. Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of Black Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken P Aplin

    Full Text Available The Black Rat (Rattus rattus spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats.

  17. Salsalate ameliorates metabolic disturbances by reducing inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing human C-reactive protein and by activating brown adipose tissue in nontransgenic controls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnovská, J.; Šilhavý, Jan; Kuda, Ondřej; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Škop, V.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Kazdová, L.; Haluzík, M.; Pravenec, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), č. článku e0179063. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04420S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : inflammation * insulin resistance * C-reactive protein * spintaneously hypertensive rat * salsalate Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones); Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) (UMG-J) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  18. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  19. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  20. Field Brown Dwarfs & GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M.; Jordi, C.

    Because of their very red colours and intrinsic faintness, field brown dwarfs will represent a small but valuable subset of the GAIA catalogue. The return of the astrometric satellite is expected to be important because of the inherent difficulty of obtaining good parallaxes in general and for this class of objects in particular. Our first estimates show that, due to the photometric sensitivity of the astrometric CCD (ASM1) towards relatively blue objects, GAIA is unlikely to detect field brown dwarfs that have not been already seen is previous near-IR surveys, to the notable exception of the galactic plane region. The real advantage of GAIA over ground-based surveys will be the very accurate (to within a few percents) astrometric data for a few thousands brown dwarfs. These data should permit a detailed mapping of the transition region between stellar and substellar regimes, together with the kinematical and density patterns of the youngest brown dwarfs in our neighbourhood.

  1. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    post only group design, take place in Biology Laboratorium and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University in December 20th, 2009 until Februari 30th, 2010. The population is the white rat strain Japan (Rattus Norvegicus taken from Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences Andalas University. There are 20 samples devided into 4 groups with 1 group controller and three treated groups. P1=4800 mg/kgbw/day, P2=7200 mg/kgbw/day and P3=9600 mg/kgbw/day used as MSG dose, given orally about two seminiferus epitel cycles. The analysis by Anova test with 95% of trust and if there would sense of in meaning, continued with Multiple Comparissons test, kind of Bonferroni.The result of the research taken that the MSG given with 4800 mg/kgbw/day, 7200 mg/kgbw/day and 9600 mg/kgbw/day showed the significant effect to FSH (p=0,000 and LH (p=0,000, but for the Multiple Comparissons Bonferroni test between groups in FSH, there were not yet have the meaning in effect (p>0,05 then to LH for the treated groups, between P1, P2 there were not any significant differences (p>0,05 P1 and P3 got the significant differenciates (p<0,05 and P2 with P3 got the significant effect (p<0,05.The research concluded that the MSG given for the male rat could decrease the FSH and LH. Suggested to do the following research to find the minimal dose change level FSH and LH.Key word : MSG, FSH, LH

  2. Transcriptomics in brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Brown algae are distributed worldwide on rocky shores. They are importenet components of ecosystems, they provide habitat, shelter and serve as nurseries for various marine organisms. The geographic as well as depth distribution of macroalgae is constrained by abiotic factors, especially light and temperature. It is therefore likely that due to the global change, distribution patterns of these organisms will change. In this work the molecular acclimation of two prominent brown macroalgae, Sac...

  3. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  4. Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Luana G.; Santos, Kátia C.; Cunha, Patrícia S.; Barreto, André S.; Peixoto, Magna G.; Arrigoni-Blank, Fátima; Blank, Arie F.; Alves, Péricles B.; Bonjardin, Leonardo R.; Santos, Márcio R.V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in rat mesenteric artery. Material and Methods: Chemical composition of EOLA was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in vitro in rat superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with geranial (48.58%) and neral (35.42%) being the major constituents. In intact rings precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe: 1 μM), EOLA (100-1000 μg/mL) induced relaxation, where the maximal effect (Emax) was 110.8 ± 10.8%. This effect was not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 134.8 ± 16.5%), after tetraethylammonium (TEA) (Emax = 117.2 ± 4.96%), or in rings precontracted with KCl (80 mM) (Emax = 112.6 ± 6.70%). In addition, EOLA was able to inhibit the contraction caused by CaCl2 and produced a small but significant (P<0.05) additional effect (from 70.5 ± 3.4 to 105.3 ± 13.5%, n = 5) on the maximal relaxation of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM). Conclusions: The results demonstrated that EOLA induces endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, which appears to be caused, at least in part, by blocking Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. PMID:22144776

  5. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  6. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  7. Production by Streptococcus sanguis of Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) with Activity Against Streptococcus rattus

    OpenAIRE

    Skilton, C. J.; Tagg, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    A collection of 340 Streptoccus sanguis strains from 19 plaque specimens was isolated from cultures on tryptone, yeast extract, cystine (TYC) agar supplemented with sucrose (20 per cent) plus bacitracin (0.05 units/ml). By application of a deferred antagonism test procedure it was shown that 183 (53.8 per cent) of these relatively sucrose- and bacitracinresistant S. sanguis strains produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) having activity against strains of S. rattus, but apparcn...

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian Cap Tikus Terhadap Kualitas Spermatozoa Wistar Jantan (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Melmambessy, Ellen E; Tendean, Lydia; Rumbajan, Janette M

    2015-01-01

    : Alkohol merupakan suatu senyawa organik yang tersusun dari unsur-unsur karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen. Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, istilah alkohol sering dikaitkan dengan minuman keras. Salah satu jenis minuman keras produk lokal di Manado adalah Cap Tikus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian Cap Tikus terhadap kualitas spermatozoa wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus). Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel adalah tik...

  9. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KOMBINASI DEKOKTA AKAR BELUNTAS (Pluchea indica L. DAN INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajava L. TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus YANG DIINDUKSI KARAGENAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersamukti Rahmatullah Achmad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsh fleabane roots (Pluchea indica L. and guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. are traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory. The research has been conducted with the aim of knowing the anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of decoction of Marsh fleabane  roots (Pluchea indica L. and infusion of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L., and also determining  the effective concentration of such combination. The research used artificial edema method in white rat's leg ( Rattus norvegicus with the observation for 6 hours on the change of leg volume in white rat.  The measurement of white rat's leg volume used a pletismometer. The type of treatment was devided into 5 groups: negative control (Aquadest, positive control (Na Diclofenac, combination 1 (MFR 10% : IGL 8%, combination 2 (MFR 5% : IGL 5%, and combination 3 (MFR 8% : IGL 10%.  The data obtained were processed using One-Way ANOVA method with the result seen on the percent inhibition of inflammation resulting concentration of MFR 5%: IGL 5% amounting to 23.47%, and subsequently combined with a concentration of MFR 10% : IGL 8% and concentrations MFR 8% : IGL 10% respectively by the percent inhibition of inflammation by 20.70% and 13.75%.  The data obtained show the combination with a concentration of 5% : 5% have anti- inflammatory effect are better than the other combinations as well as comparable to the positive  control

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: rat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egicus_L.png Rattus_norvegicus_NL.png Rattus_norvegicus_S.png Rattus_norvegicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+no...rvegicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=NS ...

  11. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 90}Y-BR96 mAbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Erik; Ljungberg, Michael; Martensson, Linda; Nilsson, Rune; Tennvall, Jan; Strand, Sven-Erik; Joensson, Bo-Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with {sup 90}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for {sup 177}Lu and 12.5 Gy for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom

  12. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  13. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti-prolifer...

  14. The reduction of aorta histopathological images through inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation in hypercholesterolemia rattus norvegicus treated with polysaccharide peptide of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Andri Wihastuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Atherosclerosis is chronic inflammatory process triggered by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can increase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2level, which induce atherosclerosis through the processes such as formation of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT, foam cells, and atherosclerotic plaque. Antioxidant is needed to control negative effects of oxidative stress. One source of antioxidant, which has potential to be developed, is PsP from Ganoderma lucidum. This study aims to prove the effect of PsP in decreasing H2O2, PVAT, foam cells and atherosclerotic plaque. Materials and Methods: This study was experimental randomized post-test with control group design using 25 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups (negative control, positive control, and 3 high-fat diet group with PsP dose: 50, 150, 300 mg/kgBW. Measured parameters were H2O2, PVAT, foam cell, and atherosclerotic plaques. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc test. Results: Mean H2O2 levels, PVAT thickness, foam cell numbers, and atherosclerotic plaque were low in negative control group. ANOVA showed that PsP significantly (P

  15. Cytogenetic radio-sensitivity in wild and laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, F.B.; Badr, Ragaa.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations have been found differ considerably between different species and also between individuals of the same species (Andrews, 1958; Carlson, 1954; Scott and Bigger, 1974). The work of Blumel (1950) on drosophila and crowley and curtis (1963) on mice represent few examples of the vast differences in frequencies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in different species. however, in most cases, all experimental work on the genetic effects of radiation has been carried out on laboratory stocks that have been living under artificial conditions. Domestication of many organisms has been found to be associated with many genetical changes (Berry, 1969). Searle, berry and Beechey (1970) have reported significant differences between irradiated wild and laboratory mice in the frequency of translocations in spermatocyte ,metaphases. Badr and Badr (1971 a, b) have found that the responses of two different populations of rats, a laboratory albino strain (Rattus norvegicus) and a wild type (Rattus Rattus) to various doses of X-ray irradiation in terms of mitotic activity, mortality rate and mean survival times are significantly different. In this report, the differential response of two populations of the rat (Rattus norvegicus), wild and laboratory types, to X-ray irradiation in bone marrow cells has been studied. These comparative studies are needed to supplement the now available information on the response of the wild form of experimental animals and thereby to provide a better understanding of the magnitude of radiosensitivities within a species. 4 tabs., 1 tab

  16. Comparative non-metric and morphometric analyses of rats at residential halls of the University of Benin campus, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, E A; Ekeolu, O K; Asemota, O D; Uwagie-Ero, E A; Aighewi, I T; Ighedosa, S U; Usifoh, S F; Olugasa, B O; Asemota, O; Fagboya, T N E

    2017-09-26

    In mammals and across rat species, the variation in conformation is markedly observed in the head and the variation in the shape of the head is mostly determined by the shape of the skull. Hence comparative topographic analysis and morphometry is a veritable tool in precise categorization of peri-domestic rats and species identification. Killed rodents around residential dwellings of students on campus were collected and measurements taken of external morphology. Thirty-one external head and corporal parameters; and 40 cranial measurements respectively were obtained. Topographic features and specific anatomical landmarks measured were matched using congruent anatomical landmarks and compared to referenced standard measurements. External morphometry suggests that all retrieved samples were more closely related to the species Rattus rattus. However, craniodental analysis of captured rats reveals variations from the mean of typical R. rattus. In comparison with Mastomys natalensis, the mean averages of the rat species were perceptibly different for only two of the parameters viz palatine fissure length (PL) (p=0.039) and distance between interparietal bone (DP) (p=0.06). In contrast, the mean of whole length of skull (WL), length of diastema (PI), length of nasal bone (NL), length of frontal bone (LF) and occipital width (OH) were significantly different from that of R. rattus with p values of 0.047, 0.036, 0.048, 0.032 and 0.034 respectively. This study focuses on peridomestic rat's identification within the University campus based on morphometry, providing unique landmarks for differentiation between Mastomys, Mus, Rattus and other rat species with emphasis on the need for more comprehensive investigation, categorization and morphometric profiling of rat population in Nigeria. Metric data generated for rat profiling in Nigeria is pivotal for a more comprehensive strategy for prevention of Lassa fever. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  17. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Imam, Mustapha Umar

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), gamma-oryzanol (ORZ), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR) on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx), periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn), collagen 1&2 (Col1&2), calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP); body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg); estrogen (0.2 mg/kg), or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg), compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham) group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the bone tissue was determined using the Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA). The results indicate that groups treated with GABA (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant upregulation of SPARC, calcitonin receptor, and BMP-2 genes (P < 0.05), while the ORZ-treated group (100 and 200 mg/kg) revealed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of Osx, Postn, RUNX-2, and Col1&2. Similarly, IL-6 concentration decreased, while osteocalcin levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups as compared to ovariectomized non-treated groups. GABA and ORZ from

  18. Effects of Acute Oral 5-aminotetrazole (5-AT) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Army in explosives and propellants. Perchlorate is known to interfere with iodide uptake in the thyroid gland and as such, states and the USEPA are...less tox ic compound than perchlorate and it should be pursued as a replacement. Considering that 5 -AT is also used in the synthesis of two other...the Army that is a thyroid -active drinking water contaminant. This information is critical to the research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT

  19. Effects of Acute and Subacute Oral Methylnitroguanidine (MeNQ) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    developed neonicotinoid insecticides [3]. There is some evidence that clothianidin exposure in mice can impact spermatogenesis and testes health [4...received from the manufacturer, which was wet (30.8% water ; Sigma SDS). All dosing suspensions were prepared accounting for the water weight such...corn oil. Each solution was stirred with a magnetic stir bar until a homogenous suspension was achieved. Dosing suspensions were allowed to

  20. Atherosclerosis and atherosensitivity in two southwest Algerian desert rodents, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, and in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Aoufi S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salima El-Aoufi,1 Mohamed-Amine Lazourgui,1 Lakhdar Griene,2 Boubekeur Maouche31Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie des Organismes/MMDED, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, Algeria; 2Laboratoire d'Hormonologie, Centre Pierre et Marie Curie, C.H.U Mustapha, Algeria; 3Laboratoire de Physicochimie Théorique et Chimie Informatique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, AlgeriaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes worldwide; thus, it is a major medical concern. The endothelium contributes to the control of many vascular functions, and clinical observations show that it is a primary target for diabetic syndrome. To get better insight into the mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, we studied the interspecific differences in the arterial metabolisms of two, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, as well as Rattus norvegicus (Wistar rat, well known for its atheroresistance. Twenty-two enzymatic activities and six macromolecular substances were histochemically compared in the two desert species and in Wistar aortas (abdominal and thoracic and arteries (femoral and caudal embedded in a common block. In the healthy adult rodents, enzyme activities were very intense. They demonstrated that aortic myocytes are capable of various synthesis and catabolism processes. However, considering the frequency of atherosclerosis and its phenotypes, significant differences appeared between the species studied. Our comparative study shows that aortic atherosensitive animals have several common metabolic characteristics, which are found in Psammomys rich in metachromatic glycosaminoglycans (involved in the inhibition of lipolysis and in calcification of the organic matrix, reduced activity in enzymes related to the Krebs cycle (weakening energetic power, and low lipolytic enzyme, adenosine triphosphatase, and adenosine diphosphatase activities

  1. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Bourguet, Edouard; De Meringo, Hélène; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds' breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides , responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.

  2. Hematological changes in the house rat after 32P internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Pareek, B.P.; Gupta, M.L.; Khan, A.S.; Devi, P.U.

    1982-01-01

    Male house rats (Rattus rattus) were injected with 32 P at the dose of 1.46 kBq/g body weight. The blood was collected at post-injection intervals of 1/4, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days and various hematological parameters were estimated. An initial decrease in leukocyte count and total plasma protein content (on days 2 to 4) was noted whereas erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percentage and hematocrit value decreased at later intervals only (on days 6 to 8). The plasma cholesterol level registered significant increase on day 2. The possible reasons for these changes have been discussed in the present report. (author)

  3. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Mahmud,4 Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki,5 Mustapha Umar Imam1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. Methods: In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA, gamma-oryzanol (ORZ, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2, osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx, periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn, collagen 1&2 (Col1&2, calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP; body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg; estrogen (0.2 mg/kg, or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg, compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the

  4. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI Decreased the Celluler Expression of NF-Kβ and IL-1β on Wound Macrophages of Rattus novergicus Post Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustine Hanafi Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of tooth extraction or dental surgery was 48.5% of all dental care in Indonesia. Tooth extraction carries potential health risks and side effects such as pain, swelling, trismus and dysfunction of the oral cavity during recovery. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI is one of innate immunity proteins that can inhibit the activation of macrophages. We are expecting the provision of SLPI can decrease excessive inflammatory response in healing after tooth extraction. This study was to investigate the administration of SLPI on cellular expression of NF-Kβ and IL-1β on wound macrophages of Rattus novergicus post tooth extraction. The research design is in vivo experimental study. In total, 20 rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=5 and underwent tooth extraction on left incisor teeth of mandible. One of the groups did not receive SLPI administration (control group and the socket was stitched after tooth extraction. Meanwhile, the remaining three groups (experimental groups were given SLPI administration after tooth extraction with three different doses (0.1 µM, 0.5 µM and 2.5 µM, respectively. After SLPI administration, the socket of experimental groups was stitched. The effects of SLPI administration were evaluated by counting at the percentage of NF-Kβ translocation and the expression of expression of IL-1 in macrophages cells of the rat socket using immunohistochemistry analysis. The cellular expression of NF-Kβ and IL-1β were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 on groups with SLPI may decrease cellular expression of NF-Kβ and IL-1β on wound macrophages cells of rats post tooth extraction in a dosedependent manner.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL SURFACE-PROPERTIES OF STREPTOCOCCUS-RATTUS WITH THOSE OF OTHER MUTANS STREPTOCOCCAL SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; DESOET, JJ; DEGRAAFF, J; ROUXHET, PG; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    Mutans streptococci comprise a group of seven closely related, yet distinct species. The distinction between the four species used in this study, namely Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus cricetus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus mutans, has been made only recently on the basis of DNA

  6. Expression profiling of the VKORC1 and Calumenin gene in a Danish strain of bromadiolone-resistant Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been associated with two genes, VKORC1 and Calumenin, which encodes proteins essential to the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system. Mutations in the VKORC1 gene are considered the genetic basis for anticoagulant resistance...

  7. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been suggested to be due to mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin and bromadiolone. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may however also contribute to resistance. We...

  8. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude Kjær; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Background: Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.), has been suggested to be conferred by mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may also contribute to resistance, however. To examine...

  9. Metagenomic Screening of Urban Rattus Norvegicus for Virus and Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Arn

    the way for increasing rates of pathogen discovery and identification, thereby enabling faster containment of wildlife vectors. In this thesis, I have used metagenomics to assess the virome and resistome of the wild urban R. norvegicus. Many new potential viruses are discovered through virome analyses......Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) are ubiquitous around areas populated by human and are known vectors of pathogens to humans. Therefore the surveillance of R. norvegicus is important if we want to understand which pathogens they spread. Metagenomics and second-generation sequencing are paving......; including the first known R. norvegicus associated polyomavirus, a novel papillomavirus, several circular ssDNA viruses and some cardioviruses. The resistome analyses on these samples reveals many shared as well as location-specific antibiotic resistance genes, but there is a clear selection for vancomycin...

  10. PENGARUH KEBISINGAN TERHADAP KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS SPERMATOZOA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus JANTAN DEWASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erris Erris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Salah satu penyebab menurunnya kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa adalah stres. Bising sebagai bentuk  stres  fisik  dan  psikologis  mengaktifkan  respon  sentral  dan  perifer  sistem  endokrin.  Aktivasi sistem endokrin sumbu Hipotalamus-Hipofisis-Adrenal melibatkan neurohormon corticotropin releasing hormon(CRH, CRH menuju gonadotrophin releasing hormon (GnRH  dan  mengganggu  aktivitas kelenjar adenohipofise untuk menghasilkan folicle stimulating hormon(FSH dan luteinizing hormon (LH, LH dan FSH yang menurun secara umum mengganggu proses spermatogenesis dan khususnya terhadap kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan post test control  group  design.  Variabel  yang  diperiksa  meliputi  jumlah,  motilitas  dan  morfologi  spermatozoa. Penelitian ini menggunakan 24 ekor tikus putih jantan dewasa (Rattus norvegicus, yang terdiri dari 3 kelompok perlakuan dan 1 kelompok kontrol, perlakuan berdasarkan perbedaan intensitas bising yaitu 65 , 85 dan 105 dB yang diberikan setiap 8 jam/hari selama 48 hari (satu tahap spermatogenesis tikus. Hasil penelitian dianalisis dengan uji ANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang bermakna (p<0.05 terhadap kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa tikus putih jantan dewasa (Rattus norvegicus meliputi jumlah, persentase motil dan morfologi spermatozoa. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah terlihat kebisingan dengan intensitas 65-105 dB dapat menurunkan kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa. Disarankan untuk penelitian lebih lanjut agar dilihat juga pengaruh kebisingan dengan melakukan pemeriksan histologi pada sel leydig, sel sertoli dan pemeriksaan kadar hormon testosteron.Kata kunci : kualitas, kuantitas, spermatozoon, tikus putih, kebisingan.AbstractOne of causes in decreasing quantity and quality of spermatozoon is stress. Noise as the physical and pshycological stress is activating the central response and periphery endocrinal

  11. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torode, Thomas A; Marcus, Susan E; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  13. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  14. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  15. Systems genetic analysis of brown adipose tissue function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Saba, L. M.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Trnovská, J.; Škop, V.; Hüttl, M.; Marková, I.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Smith, H.; Tabakoff, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2018), s. 52-66 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04420S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * coexpression modules * quantitative trait locus * recombinant inbred strains * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Human genetics Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2016

  16. Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in south Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hooft Pim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. Results To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. Conclusions This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing

  17. Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Armanda D; Nair, Deenadayalan; Taylor, Peter J; Brettschneider, Helene; Kirsten, Frikkie; Mostert, Elmarie; von Maltitz, Emil; Lamb, Jennifer M; van Hooft, Pim; Belmain, Steven R; Contrafatto, Giancarlo; Downs, Sarah; Chimimba, Christian T

    2011-02-16

    South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing historical insights into introductions and for directing

  18. Bacteria Isolated from Conspecific Bite Wounds in Norway and Black Rats: Implications for Rat Bite–Associated Infections In People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabek, Erin; Tang, Patrick; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Koehn, Martha; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bites associated with wild and domestic Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) may have a variety of health consequences in people. Bite-related infections are among the most significant of these consequences; however, there is little data on the infectious agents that can be transmitted from rats to people through biting. This is problematic because without an accurate understanding of bite-related infection risks, it is difficult for health professionals to evaluate the adequacy of existing guidelines for empirical therapy. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the bacterial species associated with rat bites by studying bite wounds that wild rats inflict upon one another and to review the literature regarding rat bites and bite wound management. Wild Norway and black rats (n=725) were trapped in Vancouver, Canada, and examined for bite wounds in the skin. All apparently infected wounds underwent aerobic and anaerobic culture, and isolated bacteria were identified. Thirty-six rats had bite wound–related infections, and approximately 22 different species of bacteria belonging to 18 genera were identified. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate; however, the majority of infections (72.5%) were polymicrobial. Rat bites can result in infection with a number of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In humans, these wounds are best managed through early recognition and cleansing. The benefit of prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is debatable, but given the deep puncturing nature of rodent bites, we suggest that they should be considered a high risk for infection. Antibiotics selected should include coverage for a broad range of bacterial species. PMID:24528094

  19. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  1. Toxins not neutralized by brown snake antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Roopwant K.; Henry, Peter J.; Mirtschin, Peter; Jelinek, George; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian snakes of the genus Pseudonaja (dugite, gwardar and common brown) account for the majority of snake bite related deaths in Australia. Without antivenom treatment, the risk of mortality is significant. There is an accumulating body of evidence to suggest that the efficacy of the antivenom is limited. The current study investigates the protein constituents recognized by the antivenom using 2-DE, immuno-blot techniques and rat tracheal organ bath assays. The 2-DE profiles for all three snake venoms were similar, with major species visualized at 78-132 kDa, 32-45 kDa and 6-15 kDa. Proteins characterized by LC-MS/MS revealed a coagulant toxin (∼42 kDa) and coagulant peptide (∼6 kDa), as well as two PLA 2 (∼14 kDa). Peptides isolated from ∼78 kDa and 15-32 kDa protein components showed no similarity to known protein sequences. Protein recognition by the antivenom occurred predominantly for the higher molecular weight components with little recognition of 6-32 kDa MW species. The ability of antivenom to neutralize venom activity was also investigated using rat tracheal organ bath assays. The venoms of Pseudonaja affinis affinis and Pseudonaja nuchalis incited a sustained, significant contraction of the trachea. These contractions were attributed to PLA 2 enzymatic activity as pre-treatment with the PLA 2 inhibitor 4-BPB attenuated the venom-induced contractions. The venom of Pseudonaja textilis incited tracheal contractility through a non-PLA 2 enzymatic activity. Neither activity was attenuated by the antivenom treatment. These results represent the first proteomic investigation of the venoms from the snakes of the genus Pseudonaja, revealing a possible limitation of the brown snake antivenom in binding to the low MW protein components

  2. The increasing of odontoblast-like cell number on direct pulp capping of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpal perforation care with direct pulp capping in the case of reversible pulpitis due to mechanical trauma was performed with chitosan which has the ability to facilitate migration, proliferation, and progenitor cell differentiation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the increasing number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan for seven and fourteen days. Methods: Samples were molars of male Rattus norvegicus strain wistar, aged between 8–16 weeks, divided into two treatment groups, namely group I given chitosan and group II as a control group given Ca(OH2. Those Rattus norvegicus’ occlusal molar teeth were prepared with class I cavity, and then chitosan and Ca(OH2 were applied as the pulp capping materials. Afterwards, glasss ionomer cement type IX was used as a restoration material. Their teeth and jaw were then cut on the seventh day and the fourteenth day. Next, histopathological examination was carried out to observe the odontoblast like cells. All data were then analyzed by t test. Degree of confidence obtained, finally, was 95%. Results: The results obtained showed that the significant differences of odontoblast like cells on the seventh day observation was 0.001 (p = 0.001, and on the fourteenth day observation was 0.002 (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of rattus norvegicus using chitosan is higher than the one using Ca(OH2 for seven and fourteen days.Latar belakang: Perawatan perforasi pulpa pada kasus pulpitis reversible karena trauma mekanis bur dilakukan direct pulp capping dengan cara pemberian bahan secara topikal pada daerah perforasi. Kitosan memiliki kemampuan untuk memfasilitasi migrasi, proliferasi dan diferensiasi sel progenitor pulpa. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jumlah peningkatan odontoblas-like cell pada perawatan direct pulp capping gigi

  3. Celular viability of rat small bowel mucosa, after hypovolemic shock correction with NaCl 7,5% solution

    OpenAIRE

    BRITO, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; NIGRO, Amaury José Texeira; MONTERO, Edna Frasson de Souza; NASCIMENTO, José Luiz Martins do; SILVA, Paula Roberta Ferreira da; SIQUEIRA, Roberta Bianca Peres

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Study the effect of the volemic correction with different solutions, in the mucous of the small bowel in rats. METHODS: Were used 120 rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus), males, adults, seemingly healthy, with individual weight varying between 310 and 410g, originating from of the Instituto Evandro Chagas of Belém of Pará, submitted to an adaptation period of 15 days, receiving water and ration ad libitum, during the role experiment. For the research, ten animals were distributed...

  4. Serosurvey of Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in rats captured from two zoos in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Maysa; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Joaquim, Sâmea Fernandes; Ferreira, Fernando; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2017-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.

  5. Uji Efek Afrodisiak Ekstrak Etanol Buah Pare (Momordica Charantia L.) Terhadap Libido Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarapi, Vini Alvionita

    2015-01-01

    UJI EFEK AFRODISIAK EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH PARE (Momordica charantia L.) TERHADAP LIBIDO TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN GALUR WISTAR (Rattus norvegicus) Vini Alvionita Sarapi1), Widdhi Bodhi1), Gayatri Citraningtyas1) 1)Program Studi Farmasi FMIPA UNSRAT Manado, 95115 ABSTRACT Bitter melon fruit is a plant that used to treat impotence and increased libido but has not been studied scientifically. This research aimed to determine the aphrodisiac effect of ethanol extract bitter melon fruit against l...

  6. Differences in immunological susceptibility to cadmium toxicity between two rat strains as demonstrated with cell biological methods. Effect of cadmium on DNA synthesis of thymus lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselt, A. F.; Leene, W.; de Groot, C.; Kipp, J. B.; Evers, M.; Roelofsen, A. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    When 2 inbred rat strains, the Brown-Norway rat and the Lewis rat were exposed to the same amount of CdCl2 for 15 days, a completely different immunological reaction pattern could be demonstrated. Despite the same amount of intrathymic cadmium in both strains, the Brown-Norway rat showed a

  7. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  8. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  9. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon; Eom, Soo Hyun; Chun, ChangJu; Im, Young Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering

  10. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINTAL MUNA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muna L, Astirin OP, Sugiyarto. 2011. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus. Bioteknologi 8: 65-77. Penelitiian ini betujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Pandanus conoideus Lam. var. buah kuning terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, berat dan panjang fetus, keadaan morfologi fetus, serta struktur skeleton fetus tikus putih. Dalam penelitian ini diggunakan 25 tikus bunting yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok secara acak, sehingga masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor tikus. Setiap kelompok diberi dosis yang berbeda. P1 (kontrol diberi 1 mL minyak wijen, P2 , P3, P4 dan P5 diberi ekstrak masing-masing: 0,02 mL, 0,04 mL, 0,08 mL dan 0,16 mL. Ekstrak tersebut diberikan secara oral pada kebuntingan hari ke 5 sampai hari ke 17 (fase organogenesis. Pengamatan dilakukan pada hari ke 18 dengan cara bedah sesar untuk menggambil fetus dari uterus. Morfologi fetu s diamati setelah fetus dikeluarkan dari uterus, sedangkan untuk pengamatan struktur skeleton dibuat preparat wholemount dengan pewarnaan ganda Alcian blue dan Allizarrin Red-S. Hasil percobaan diianalisis dengan ANAVA satu jalur. Hasil penelitiann menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak tidak berpengaruh terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, serta berat dan panjang fetus (P≥0,05. Pemberian ekstrak pada induk mengakibatkan kecacatan skeleton (lordosis fetus pada dosis 0,16 mL dan menghambat osifikasi fetus.

  11. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Soo Hyun [School of Life Sciences, Steitz Center for Structural Biology, and Department of Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, ChangJu, E-mail: cchun1130@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Young Jun, E-mail: imyoungjun@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-12

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering.

  12. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  13. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  14. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Rahelinirina, S; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2008-12-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a functionally important region of the gene. We then compared (i) CCR5 genotypes of dying and surviving plague-challenged rats and (ii) CCR5 allelic frequencies in plague focus and plague-free populations. Our results suggested a higher prevalence of the substitution in resistant animals compared to susceptible individuals, and a tendency for higher frequencies in plague focus areas compared to plague-free areas. Therefore, the CCR5 polymorphism may be involved in Malagasy black rat plague resistance. CCR5 and other undetermined plague resistance markers may provide useful biological information about host evolution and disease dynamics.

  15. EFEK PEMBERIAN SUSU SAPI BUBUK TERHADAP KADAR SERUM HDL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR MODEL DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Umami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the cow’s milk powder to increased serum levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL of white male rat model with diabetes mellitus type 2. The design of this study was a post-test control group study conducted in 30 male rats which randomly divided into five groups. Negative control group was the group of rats which fed normally, the positive control group was induced by streptozotocin (STZ without given cow’s milk, group P1, P2, P3 were given a normal diet and cow’s milk 0.9; 1.8, and 2.7 g orally every day. The results of this study were the levels of HDL in K(-=44.22 mg/dl, K(+=47.45 mg/dl, P1=56.56 mg/dl, P2=51.82 mg/dl, and P3=59.45 mg/dl. The conclusion was the milk powder was not significantly increase levels of HDL (p>0.05. More longer intervention was suggested for further research to get more significant of HDL level on type 2 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: HDL serum level, high fat diet, milk powder, streptozotocinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap peningkatan kadar serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus berjenis kelamin jantan model diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian post test control group dengan 30 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok K(- adalah tikus yang diberi pakan normal, kelompok K(+ diinduksi dengan streptozotocin (STZ tanpa diberi susu, kelompok P1 sampai P3 diberi diet normal dan susu 0,9; 1,8, dan 2,7 g secara oral setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar HDL pada K(-=44,22 mg/dl, K(+=47,45 mg/dl, P1=56,56 mg/dl, P2=51,82 mg/dl, dan P3=59,45 mg/dl. Susu sapi bubuk mampu meningkatkan kadar HDL tikus model DM tipe 2 akan tetapi tidak signifikan (p>0,05. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan waktu lama penelitian yang berbeda sehingga bisa berdampak yang lebih signifikan untuk kadar HDL pada DM tipe 2.Kata kunci

  16. Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in Urban Rats and Their Histopathological Reaction in the Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathalingam Sinniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans can get infected with several zoonotic diseases from being in close contact with rats. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and histopathological changes caused by Calodium hepaticum and Cysticercus fasciolaris in infected livers of wild caught urban rats. Of the 98 urban rats (Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus autopsied, 64.3% were infected; 44.9% were infected with Caladium hepatica, 39.3% were infected with Cysticercus fasciolaris, and 20.4% were infected with both parasites. High infection rates suggest that urban rats are common reservoir for both parasites, which are potentially a threat to man. Calodium hepaticum infections were identified by the presence of ova or adults in the liver parenchyma. They appear as yellowish white nodules, measuring 1–7 mm in diameter or in streaks scattered widely over the serosal surface of the liver. Cysticercus fasciolaris infections are recognized morphologically by their shape (round or oval and are creamy white in colour. Histological studies of Calodium hepaticum showed areas of granulomatous lesions with necrotic areas around the dead ova and adults. In almost all cases, the rats appeared robust, looked healthy, and showed no visible signs of hepatic failure despite the fact that more than 64.0% of their livers were infected by either one or both parasites.

  17. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Zaki, Z.T.; Emarah, E.A.M.; Hussein, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  18. Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces predator aversion in rats through epigenetic modulation in the host medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari Dass, Shantala Arundhati; Vyas, Ajai

    2014-12-01

    Male rats (Rattus novergicus) infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii relinquish their innate aversion to the cat odours. This behavioural change is postulated to increase transmission of the parasite to its definitive felid hosts. Here, we show that the Toxoplasma gondii infection institutes an epigenetic change in the DNA methylation of the arginine vasopressin promoter in the medial amygdala of male rats. Infected animals exhibit hypomethylation of arginine vasopressin promoter, leading to greater expression of this nonapeptide. The infection also results in the greater activation of the vasopressinergic neurons after exposure to the cat odour. Furthermore, we show that loss of fear in the infected animals can be rescued by the systemic hypermethylation and recapitulated by directed hypomethylation in the medial amygdala. These results demonstrate an epigenetic proximate mechanism underlying the extended phenotype in the Rattus novergicus-Toxoplasma gondii association. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  20. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed,…

  1. [Predictors for abundance of Rattus tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia-xiang; Zhong, You-hong; Du, Chun-hong; Dong, Xing-qi; Yang, Shu-hui

    2013-02-01

    To explore the predictors on the abundance of Rattus (R.) tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci. Thirty natural villages that experienced previous plague cases in Lianghe county, Yunnan province, were selected followed by random selection of 20 households in each village through computer technique. Live traps were set in households to capture small mammals which were then identified to species in the field according to their morphological features. Data on potential factors for abundance of R. tanezumi were collected through questionnaires and field observation and were coded and computerized using EpiData software and further analyzed by hurdle regression model under R software. A total of 166 rodents (133 R. tanezumi and 33 Suncus murinus) were captured. from final multilevel hurdle regression model showed that the likelihood of R. tanezumi captures increased by 1.67- to 2.76-fold in households belonged to Dai ethnic families that stored foodstuff in metal pail, often raising dogs, and having adjacent houses. The number of R. tanezumi captures increased by 2.18-fold in the villages where over 80% of the households would raise chickens. In the villages with communal latrine, the likelihood and the number of R. tanezumi capture increased 1.93-fold and 2.38-fold, respectively. While the likelihood of R. tanezumi captures would reduce by 45% - 61% in those households where there were cats and cattle being raised and maize grown in the village. The number of R. tanezumi captures would reduce by 63% in the households where there were outside toilet. The abundance of R. tanezumi seemed to be closely related to the ecological environment factors. Programs on plague control and prevention should relate to ecological factors that influencing the abundance of R. tanezumi.

  2. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  4. Expression of circulating leucocytes before, during and after myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in experimentally infected rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Jomara M.; Pereira,Mônica C.T.; Evangelista,Luciene G.; Leite,Antônio C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of circulating white blood cells was investigated in rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with larvae of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly. Leucocytes were counted prior to infection (control group) as well as at 6, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) and at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Total leucocyte numbers did not differ markedly among the groups. Significant differences were registered when values from control and animals harborin...

  5. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  6. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT TERHADAP KADAR HORMON ESTRADIOL DAN KADAR HORMON PROGESTERON PADA TIKUS PUTIH BETINA (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    andri ani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan pola demografi di negara maju dan negara berkembang, angka kejadian infertilitas di negara maju dilaporkan sekitar 5%-8% dan di negara berkembang sekitar 30%.WHO memperkirakan sekitar 8%-10% atau sekitar 50-80 juta pasangan suami istri di seluruh dunia mengalami masalah infertilitas, sehingga membuat infertilitas menjadi masalah mendesak. Untuk itu diperlukan pengendalian infertilitas, salah satunya adalah kewaspadaan perubahan gaya hidup, perubahan ini juga mempengaruhi pola konsumsi makanan dengan lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji yang banyak mengandung zat aditif (penyedap rasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap kadar hormon estradiol dan kadar hormon progesteron pada tikus putih betina ( Rattus norvegicus .Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pendekatan post test only control group design, terhadap tikus putih betina dengan berat 200 – 250 gr. Sampel terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol ( K , perlakuan I, II dan III . Kelompok perlakuan diberikan monosodium glutamat dengan dosis masing-masing : 45 mg, 54 mg dan 63 mg setiap hari diberikan peroral yang dilarutkan dengan aquabides 2 ml selama 20 hari yang dimulai pada awal fase proestrus. Setelah 20 hari perlakuan tikus di korbankan dan diambil darahnya. Pemeriksaan kadar hormone estradiol dan progesteron menggunakan Elisa Spectrophotometer.  Kemudian hasilnya dianalisa dengan menggunakan One Way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparison jenis Bonferroni.Hasil penelitian pemberian  monosodium glutamat dengan dosis 45 mg/ ekor/ hari, 54 mg/ekor/ hari dan 63 mg/ ekor /hari dapat menurunkan kadar hormon estradiol tikus putih betina (Rattus norvegicus secara signifikan. Dan pemberian monosodium glutamate dengan dosis 45 mg/ ekor/ hari dapat menurunkan kadar hormon progesteron tikus putih betina (Rattus norvegicus walaupun tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan , dan pada

  7. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  8. Ectoparasitos de roedores da região urbana de Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos em Rattus Norvegicus norvegicus Ectoparasites in rodents of the urban region of Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Fleas, anoplura and acari indices in Rattus norvegicus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marcos Linardi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos, globais e específicos foram determinados para os ectoparasitos de Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capturados em zona urbana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de junho de 1980 a setembro de 1982. Tendo-se em vista os valores limites ou críticos atribuídos aos índices pulicidianos, sobretudo ao índice "cheopis" e propostos por diversos autores como medida complementar de vigilância epidemiológica para peste bubônica, a comunidade de Belo Horizonte poderia ter estado exposta a esta infecção, uma vez que os índices globais anuais de 0,3 a 2,4 e a pulga prevalente foi Xenopsylla cheopis (99,2%, com os maiores índices coincidindo com o final da estação seca-fria. Em duas ocasiões, a comunidade poderia ter permanecido altamente exposta à infecção, já que os índices-limites tolerados foram suplantados: 8,8 (outubro 1980 e 6,2 (setembro 1982. Sugere-se que medidas profiláticas como anti-ratização e desinsetização sejam eficazmente aplicadas ao final da estação seca-fria, ou anteriormente à chegada das chuvas, sendo sucedidas pela desratização. Informações sobre índices anoplurianos e acarianos são importantes para que se possa, no exclusivas de roedoresThe total and specific indices of fleas, lice and mites were determined for ectoparasites on Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capture in urban areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas state, Brazil, from June 1980 to September 1982. In view of the limiting or critical values attributed to flea indices above all the [quot ]cheopis[quot ] index, proposed by several authors as a complementary measure for bubonic plague surveillance, the community of Belo Horizonte would have been exposed to this infection. The annual total indices ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 and the prevalent flea was Xenopsylla cheopis (99.2%, with the highest indices coinciding with the late dry-cool season. On two occasions, in this period, the community would

  9. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L Urban TERHADAP FERTILITAS TIKUS PUTIH BETINA (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Mariyam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai obat tradisional. Pegagan mengandung sejumlah bahan aktif golongan triterpenoid yang diduga mampu mempengaruhi organ-organ reproduksi betina. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemberian ekstrak daun pegagan terhadap fertilitas tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus betina galur wistar, yang meliputi persentase implantasi, persentase kehilangan gestasi dan persentase kematian pasca implantasi.   Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap terhadap tikus betina dengan berat 200-240 gram. Sampel terdiri dari 30 ekor tikus yang dibagi 5 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol, kelompok perlakuan diberikan ekstrak daun pegagan. Analisis data menggunakan One way Anova dan dilanjutkan dengan Post Hoc Test. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan pemberian ekstrak daun pegagan dosis 125 mg dapat menurunkan persentase implantasi, meningkatkan persentase kehilangan gestasi dan meningkatkan kematian pasca implantasi namun tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol sedangkan dosis 200 mg, 275 mg dan 350 mg dapat menurunkan persentase implantasi, meningkatkan kehilangan gestasi dan meningkatkan kematian pascaimplantasi. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan ekstrak daun pegagan (Centella asiatica (L urban dapat menurunkan fertilitas tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus betina.

  10. Activation of brown adipose tissue in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Maya, Yoshifumi; Wagner, Martin; Arias-Loza, Paula; Werner, Rudolf A; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) attracts growing interest as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Hyperthyroidism is well-known to increase BAT activity, but the role of hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between different thyroid hormone (TH) states and BAT activity. FDG-PET studies were retrospectively evaluated in thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy both at euthyroidism during TH replacement or at hypothyroidism after TH cessation. Serum TH levels were compared between patients with active BAT and control patients with non-active BAT matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Additionally, animal experiments with controls (n = 5) and hypothyroid rats (n = 5) were performed. Out of 124 patients, 6 patients with active BAT were identified. These patients showed significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than matched controls (P hypothyroid animals showed BAT activation at room temperature (24 °C), whereas controls did not (P hypothyroidism, which might be the result of a feedback mechanism to maintain body temperature in a state of reduced basal thermogenesis. Future research needs to explore the underlying mechanistic and biological implications.

  11. A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by house mouse and black rat populations in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, J A; DE Andrade, R R C; Gurubel-González, Y; Palomo-Arjona, E; Sodá-Tamayo, L; Meza-Sulú, J; Ramírez-Sierra, M; Dumonteil, E; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Machaín-Williams, C; DE Oliveira, D; Reis, M G; Torres-Castro, M A; Robles, M R; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Costa, F

    2017-08-01

    The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.

  12. Production of the blood pressure lowing peptides from brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoru, Sato; Takashi, Oba; Takao, Hosokawa; Toshiyasu, Yamaguchi; Toshiki, Nakano; Tadao, Saito; Koji, Muramoto; Takashi, Kahara; Katsura, Funayama; Akio, Kobayashi; Takahisa, Nakano

    2005-07-01

    Brown alga ( Undaria pinnatifida) was treated with alginate lyase and hydrolyzed using 17 kinds of proteases and the inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates for the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) was measured. Four hydrolysates with potent ACE-inhibitory activity were administered singly and orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreases significantly after single oral administration of the brown alga hydrolysates by protease S ‘Amano’ (from Bacillus stearothermophilus) at the concentration of 10 (mg protein) (kg body weight)-1. In the 17 weeks of feeding experiment, 7-week-old SHRs were fed standard diet supplemented with the brown alga hydrolysates for 10 weeks. In SHRs fed 1.0 and 0.1% brown alga hydrolysates, elevating of systolic bloodpressure was significantly suppressed for 7 weeks. To elucidate the active components, the brown alga hydrolysates were fractionated by 1-butanol extraction and HPLC on a reverse-phase column. Seven kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified by amino acid composition analysis, sequence analysis, and LC-MS with the results Val-Tyr, Ile-Tyr, Ala-Trp, Phe-Tyr, Val-Trp, Ile-Trp, and Leu-Trp. Each peptide was determined to have an antihypertensive effect after a single oral administration in SHRs. The brown alga hydrolysates were also confirmed to decrease the blood pressure in humans.

  13. Metabolically Active Three-Dimensional Brown Adipose Tissue Engineered from White Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica P; Anderson, Amy E; McCartney, Annemarie; Ory, Xavier; Ma, Garret; Pappalardo, Elisa; Bader, Joel; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2017-04-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from several sources, human white adipose tissue (WAT), rat WAT, and rat BAT, then differentiated toward both white and brown adipogenic lineages in two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. ASCs derived from WAT were successfully differentiated in 3D poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels into mature adipocytes with BAT phenotype and function, including high uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA and protein expression and increased metabolic activity (basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and maximum respiration). By utilizing this "browning" process, the abundant and accessible WAT stem cell population can be engineered into 3D tissue constructs with the metabolic capacity of native BAT, ultimately for therapeutic intervention in vivo and as a tool for studying BAT and its metabolic properties.

  14. Effects of Oral Tag 1-MeATN02 (TRIAMINOGUANIDINIUM-1-METHYL-5-NITRIMINOTETRAZOLATE-TAG-MNT/K-26) Exposure to Female Rats (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) TAG-MNT/K-26 Exposure to Female Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    1984b; McLellan et aI., 1992; Parker et aI., 2006). However, the primary toxicity of RDX is its induction of epileptiform seizure and death following...oral ingestion (Stone et aI., 1969; Burdette et aI., 1988; Kasuske et aI., 2009). The mechanism of seizure induction has recently been shown to...8217 21 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.1 3.2 0.’ 0.’ 0.’ , .. ’.7 0.’ 2. RBO ,," 72 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.0 7.2 7.7 (M/l,Il,..) S.D. " 0.2 02 0.5 0.5 0.3 𔃼 HOB M’M 14.1 13.6

  15. Notes on the two Species of Siphunculata or Sucking-lice occuring on Rattus spp. in the Malayan and Pacific Regions, with Special reference to Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thopson, G.B.

    1938-01-01

    In another paper (Thompson, 1938) attention is called to the fact that specimens of lice from any of the numerous species and subspecies of the widely distributed genus Rattus and its allies should prove interesting, and might possibly throw some light on the relationships of their hosts. The notes

  16. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in a Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Model with CorMatrix and Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    Model with CorMatrix and Adipose Derived Stem Cells ." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Pl) I TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Major Lucas Neff DEPARTMENT...ability of the matrix to work in concert with adipose derived stem cells for further augmentation of healing. 3 FDGXXX Attachments: Attachment 1...Introduction: The increasing use of explosive devices has led to a dramatic increase in traumatic injury accompanied by severe tissue trauma and

  18. Effect of Dietary Amorphophallus sp From East Java on LDL-C Rats (Rattus novergicus Wistar Strain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Widyarti; Nunung Harijati; Rodiyati Azrianingsih

    2011-01-01

    One of indication of obesity is high LDL-C . Obesity has serious risk to health, it can cause heart disease and stroke. Effort to lower obesity using drugs have significant side effects such as insomnia, increased blood pressure, dry mouth and so forth. Therefore using natural products that contain glucomannan to reduce obesity and LDL-C is good choise. Glucomannan in the global market derived from Amorphophallus konjac. In this study, we used glucomannan from Amorphophallus endemic East Java...

  19. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  20. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  1. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  2. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Biscornet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped.A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7-71.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7% but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9% than in Rattus rattus (4.4%. Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs. Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats.This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s. Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts.

  3. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  4. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Ribas, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 35-38 ISSN 1252-607X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Trematoda * lesser rice field rat * Thailand Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  5. The potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen as scaffold on bone defect regeneration process in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of dentistry, alveolar bone damage can be caused by periodontal disease, traumatic injury due to tooth extraction, cyst enucleation, and tumor surgery. One of the ways to regenerate the bone defect is using graft scaffold. Thus, combination of chitosan and collagen can stimulate osteogenesis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen on bone defect regeneration process. Method: Twelve Rattus norvegicus were prepared as animal models in this research. A bone defect was intentionally created at both of the right and left femoral bones of the models. Next, 24 samples were divided into four groups, namely Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50, Group 2 using chitosan collagen-scaffold (80:20, Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only, and Control Group using 3% CMC-Na. On 14th day, those animals were sacrificed, and histopathological anatomy examination was conducted to observe osteoclast cells. In addition, immunohistochemistry examination was also performed to observe RANKL expressions. Result: There was a significant difference in RANKL expressions among the groups, except between Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only and control group (p value > 0.05. The highest expression of RANKL was found in Group 1 with chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50, followed by Group 2 with chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20. Moreover, there was also a significant difference in osteoclast generation, except between Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50 and Group 2 using chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20, p value 0.05. Less osteoclast was found in the groups using chitosan – collagen scaffold (Group 1 and Group 2. Conclusion: Combination of chitosan and chicken shank collagen scaffold can improve regeneration process of bone defect in Rattus novergicus animals through increasing of RANKL expressions, and decreasing of osteoclast.

  6. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  7. Molecular Detection of Strongyloides ratti in Faecal Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A PCR method targeting the small subunit of the rRNA gene was performed in this study for the detection of DNA from Strongyloides ratti (an animal model of S. stercoralis) in faecal samples of wild Brown rats, Rattus norvegicus. Results: Strongyloides ratti was detected in 34.2 % of collected rats by different ...

  8. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  9. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  10. Cytoskeleton and Morphogenesis in Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    KATSAROS, CHRISTOS; KARYOPHYLLIS, DEMOSTHENES; GALATIS, BASIL

    2006-01-01

    • Background Morphogenesis on a cellular level includes processes in which cytoskeleton and cell wall expansion are strongly involved. In brown algal zygotes, microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) participate in polarity axis fixation, cell division and tip growth. Brown algal vegetative cells lack a cortical MT cytoskeleton, and are characterized by centriole-bearing centrosomes, which function as microtubule organizing centres.

  11. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches....

  12. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  13. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  14. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  15. Thermochemical modelling of brown dwarf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, A. J.; Kamp, I.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Rab, Ch.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    The physical properties of brown dwarf discs, in terms of their shapes and sizes, are still largely unexplored by observations. ALMA has by far the best capabilities to observe these discs in sub-mm CO lines and dust continuum, while also spatially resolving some discs. To what extent brown dwarf

  16. Effects of glucocorticoids on human brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Johanna L; Agada, Hadiya; Jang, Christina; Ward, Micheal; Wetzig, Neil; Ho, Ken K Y

    2015-02-01

    Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of brown adipocytes. Human brown adipocytes sourced from supraclavicular fat biopsies were grown in culture and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Human white adipocytes sourced from subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were cultured as controls. Effects of dexamethasone on growth, differentiation (UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A expression), and function (oxygen consumption rate (OCR)) of brown adipocytes were quantified. Dexamethasone (1 μM) significantly stimulated the proliferation of brown preadipocytes and reduced that of white preadipocytes. During differentiation, dexamethasone (at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) stimulated the expression of UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by fourfold to sixfold the OCR of brown adipocytes. Isoprenaline (100 nM) significantly increased (Peffects were significantly reduced (Peffects on development and function of brown adipocytes. These findings provide strong evidence for an effect of GCs on the biology of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and for the involvement of the BAT system in the metabolic manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  18. EFEKTIFITAS PEMBERIAN JUS LABU SIAM (Sechium edule TERHADAP PROFIL LIPID TIKUS (Rattus novergicus MODEL HIPERLIPIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita Listianasari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL, LDL metabolism disorder becoming the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Flavonoid, phenol, vitamin C contained in squash have strong cardioprotective effect but its optimal dose has not been known yet. The objective of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of squash juice administration with varying doses on the lipid profile of hyperlipidemia model-rat with High Fat Diet induced. This research was done in laboratory experimental research with pre and posttest control group design.The experimental animals were consisted of 36 rats and divided into negative control, positive control, treatment I (drug, treatment II, III, IV (squash juice dose 1 ml, 2 ml, 4 ml/ 100 g BW rat/day with treatment for 38 days. The rat’s blood was taken before and after treatment for lipid profile. TC, HDL, LDL levels were measured using spectrophotometer Microlab 300 with CHOD-PAP. TG level was measured using Microlab 300 with GPO-PAP. Considering the statistic analysis, squash juice at doses 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml / 100 g BW rat/day, could reduce significantly (p < 0.05 TC, TG, LDL levels of rats. HDL level of rat could increase significantly (p < 0.05 with squash juice at dose 1 ml/100 g BW rat/day. There was no significant difference between the three doses of squash juice, so that squash juice at dose 1 ml/100 g BW rat/day is the best dose to reduce the lipid profile of hyperlipidemia model-rat. Hiperlipidemia merupakan gangguan metabolisme profil lipid (kolesterol total, trigliserida, HDL, LDL yang menjadi penyebab utama timbulnya penyakit kardiovaskular. Flavonoid, fenol, vitamin C yang terkandung dalam buah labu siam mempunyai efek kardioprotektif yang kuat akan tetapi belum diketahui dosis optimal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis efektifitas pemberian jus labu siam dengan variasi dosis terhadap profil lipid tikus model hiperlipidemia. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimental

  19. Efficacy of hand-broadcast application of baits containing 0.005% diphacinone in reducing rat populations in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Perry, Charlotte F.; Spurr, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rats (R. exulans/i>), and Norway rats (R. norvegicus) impact insular bird, plant, and invertebrate populations worldwide. We investigated the efficacy of hand-broadcast application of Ramik® Green containing 0.005% diphacinone for rodent control in paired 4-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in both wet and mesic forest in Hawaiʽi. Radio telemetry of black rats, the predominant species, indicated 100% mortality in both treatment plots within about one week of bait application. Live trapping and non-toxic census bait block monitoring two to four weeks after each of 12 repeat bait applications in the wet forest, and three repeat bait applications in the mesic forest, indicated rat abundance was reduced on average by 84–88%. However, reinvasion could have occurred within this time. Rat populations in the treatment plots usually recovered to pre-poison levels within two to five months. House mice (Mus musculus), Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), and feral cats (Felis catus) also ate bait or other animals that had eaten bait. This study demonstrates the efficacy of ground-based broadcast toxicant baits for the control of rats in Hawaiian montane wet forests.

  20. RNA sequencing of trigeminal ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after glyceryl trinitrate infusion with relevance to migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Sørensen, Lasse Maretty; Ramachandran, Roshni

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate...... transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. METHODS: Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed...... a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA) to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time. RESULTS: 15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down...

  1. PENGARUH JUS BUAH PEPAYA (Carica papaya L. TERHADAP PROFIL FARMAKOKINETIK SIMETIDIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Julaicha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drugs used with foods or drinks can affect the drug effects. This study aims to observe the effect of papaya juice (Carica papaya L. to the pharmacokinetics profile of cimetidine in white rats. The animal were randomly in three group. Group 1 (cimetidine was given a single oral cimetidine 3,6 mg/200gBW. Group 2 (cimetidine and papaya juice dose I was given cimetidine 3,6 mg/200gBW together with papaya juice 4,5 g /200gBW. Group 3 (cimetidine and papaya juice dose II was given cimetidine 3,6 mg/200gBW together with papaya juice 9 g /200gBW. The serial blood was collected for 4 hours on lateralis vein of rats tail. Determination of cimetidine in plasma performed by spectrophotometer UV. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cimetidine were calculated by regresi linear method and recidual method and were analyzed by One Way ANOVA using 95 % confidence interval. Based on research results showed that the group II and group III increased of ka, Cpmaks, tmaks, Cl, AUC and decreased ke, t½ab and t½el. Group III provides the most affect the cimetidine pharmacokinetics profile with decreased absorption and elimination and increased metabolism of cimetidine in rat.

  2. Reciprocal Trading of Different Commodities in Norway Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-02-19

    The prevalence of reciprocal cooperation in non-human animals is hotly debated [1, 2]. Part of this dispute rests on the assumption that reciprocity means paying like with like [3]. However, exchanges between social partners may involve different commodities and services. Hitherto, there is no experimental evidence that animals other than primates exchange different commodities among conspecifics based on the decision rules of direct reciprocity. Here, we show that Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) apply direct reciprocity rules when exchanging two different social services: food provisioning and allogrooming. Focal rats were made to experience partners either cooperating or non-cooperating in one of the two commodities. Afterward, they had the opportunity to reciprocate favors by the alternative service. Test rats traded allogrooming against food provisioning, and vice versa, thereby acting by the rules of direct reciprocity. This might indicate that reciprocal altruism among non-human animals is much more widespread than currently assumed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autocrine effects of transgenic resistin reduce palmitate and glucose oxidation in brown adipose tissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Mlejnek, Petr; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Šilhavý, Jan; Strnad, Hynek; Eigner, Sebastian; Eigner-Henke, Kateřina; Škop, V.; Malínská, H.; Trnovská, J.; Kazdová, L.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2016), s. 420-427 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MZd(CZ) NT14325 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * autocrine * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2016

  4. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Norway rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Song

    Full Text Available Central Eastern Asia, foremost the area bordering northern China and Mongolia, has been thought to be the geographic region where Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus have originated. However recent fossil analyses pointed to their origin in southern China. Moreover, whereas analyses of fossils dated the species' origin as ∼ 1.2-1.6 million years ago (Mya, molecular analyses yielded ∼ 0.5-2.9 Mya. Here, to study the geographic origin of the Norway rat and its spread across the globe we analyzed new and all published mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b (cyt-b; N = 156 and D-loop (N = 212 sequences representing wild rats from four continents and select inbred strains. Our results are consistent with an origin of the Norway rat in southern China ∼ 1.3 Mya, subsequent prehistoric differentiation and spread in China and Asia from an initially weakly structured ancestral population, followed by further spread and differentiation across the globe during historic times. The recent spreading occurred mostly from derived European populations rather than from archaic Asian populations. We trace laboratory strains to wild lineages from Europe and North America and these represent a subset of the diversity of the rat; leaving Asian lineages largely untapped as a resource for biomedical models. By studying rats from Europe we made the observation that mtDNA diversity cannot be interpreted without consideration of pest control and, possibly, the evolution of rodenticide resistance. However, demographic models explored by forward-time simulations cannot fully explain the low mtDNA diversity of European rats and lack of haplotype sharing with their source from Asia. Comprehensive nuclear marker analyses of a larger sample of Norway rats representing the world are needed to better resolve the evolutionary history of wild rats and of laboratory rats, as well as to better understand the evolution of anticoagulant resistance.

  5. Two key temporally distinguishable molecular and cellular components of white adipose tissue browning during cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2015-08-01

    White to brown adipose tissue conversion and thermogenesis can be ignited by different conditions or agents and its sustainability over the long term is still unclear. Browning of rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rpWAT) during cold acclimation involves two temporally apparent components: (1) a predominant non-selective browning of most adipocytes and an initial sharp but transient induction of uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α, PPARγ and PPARα expression, and (2) the subsistence of relatively few thermogenically competent adipocytes after 45 days of cold acclimation. The different behaviours of two rpWAT beige/brown adipocyte subsets control temporal aspects of the browning process, and thus regulation of both components may influence body weight and the potential successfulness of anti-obesity therapies. Conversion of white into brown adipose tissue may have important implications in obesity resistance and treatment. Several browning agents or conditions ignite thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). To reveal the capacity of WAT to function in a brownish/burning mode over the long term, we investigated the progression of the rat retroperitoneal WAT (rpWAT) browning during 45 days of cold acclimation. During the early stages of cold acclimation, the majority of rpWAT adipocytes underwent multilocularization and thermogenic-profile induction, as demonstrated by the presence of a multitude of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-immunopositive paucilocular adipocytes containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) in their nuclei. After 45 days, all adipocytes remained PRDM16 immunopositive, but only a few multilocular adipocytes rich in mitochondria remained UCP1/PGC-1α immunopositive. Molecular evidence showed that thermogenic recruitment of rpWAT occurred following cold exposure, but returned to starting levels after cold

  6. Control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Shiels, Aaron B; Vidal, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. On large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now routinely performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative management tool. However, a synthesis of the motivations, techniques, costs, and outcomes of such rat-control projects is lacking. We reviewed the literature, searched relevant websites, and conducted a survey via a questionnaire to synthesize the available information on rat-control projects in island natural areas worldwide to improve rat management and native species conservation. Data were collected from 136 projects conducted over the last 40 years; most were located in Australasia (46%) and the tropical Pacific (25%) in forest ecosystems (65%) and coastal strands (22%). Most of the projects targeted Rattus rattus and most (82%) were aimed at protecting birds and endangered ecosystems. Poisoning (35%) and a combination of trapping and poisoning (42%) were the most common methods. Poisoning allows for treatment of larger areas, and poison projects generally last longer than trapping projects. Second-generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone) were used most often. The median annual cost for rat-control projects was US$17,262 or US$227/ha. Median project duration was 4 years. For 58% of the projects, rat population reduction was reported, and 51% of projects showed evidence of positive effects on biodiversity. Our data were from few countries, revealing the need to expand rat-control distribution especially in some biodiversity hotspots. Improvement in control methods is needed as is regular monitoring to assess short- and long-term effectiveness of rat-control. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Study of the endoparasitic fauna of commensal rats and shrews caught in traditional wet markets in Taichung City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Wang, Kai-Sung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Rats live in close proximity to human populations. Feral rodents are known to transmit diseases and act as reservoir hosts to many zoonotic parasites that pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study is to investigate endoparasitic infections in commensal rats and shrews caught in traditional wet markets in Taichung City, Taiwan. A total of 51 commensal wild rodents and shrews were caught in traditional wet markets in Taichung City, including 32 Rattus norvegicus, 11 R. rattus, and eight Suncus murinus. All tissues, organs, and intestinal contents were carefully examined after euthanasia for the detection of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 94.1%, and the infection rates in R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.8%, 90.9%, and 100.0%, respectively. Four cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana, and Raillietina celebensis), seven nematodes (Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Capillaria hepatica, Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Syphacia muris, and Trichosomoides crassicauda), and one protozoan (Sarcocystis spp.) were detected. Our findings indicate that commensal rodents and shrews found in the traditional wet markets of Taichung City are hosts to various zoonotic parasites and, therefore, pose a serious health risk to humans and domestic animals in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Energy metabolism and nutrient oxidation in young pigs and rats during feeding, starvation and re-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, Kirsten; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2005-01-01

    The investigation included individual measurements of energy metabolism and oxidation of nutrients in 12 castrated male pigs (Sus scrofa) (20-40 kg) and 12 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) (65-105 g). Measurements were carried out in 5-6 days balance periods with ad libitum feeding, followed by 3-4 ...... to pigs shall be taken cautiously, keeping in mind that modern pigs have been selected for a high growth rate and protein deposition which has not been the case for the laboratory rat....

  9. Raspberry ketone induces brown-like adipocyte formation through suppression of autophagy in adipocytes and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Sy-Ying; Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Lee, Yen-Mei; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2018-02-13

    Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics is a promising approach for obesity treatment. Although raspberry ketone (RK) has been reported to possess antiobesity activity, its effects on the formation of brown-like adipocytes remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of RK on WAT browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats with ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced obesity. RK (100 μM) significantly induced browning of 3T3-L1 cells by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and the expression of browning-specific proteins (PR domain containing 16, PRDM16; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PGC-1α; uncoupling protein-1, UCP-1) and lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase). RK significantly reduced the expression of the autophagy-related protein Atg12 and increased the expression of p62 and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Additionally, these effects of RK were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP (20 μM). In addition, RK (160 mg/kg, gavage, for 8 weeks) significantly reduced body weight gain (Ovx+RK, 191.8 ± 4.6 g vs. Ovx, 223.6 ± 5.9; P < .05), food intake, the amount of inguinal adipose tissue (Ovx+RK, 9.05 ± 1.1 g vs Ovx, 12.9 ± 0.92 g; P < .05) and the size of white adipocytes in Ovx rats. Moreover, compared to expression in the Ovx group, the levels of browning-specific proteins were significantly higher and the levels of autophagy-related proteins were significantly lower in the Ovx+RK group. Therefore, this study elucidated the mechanism associated with RK-induced WAT browning and thus provides evidence to support the clinical use of RK for obesity treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Determination of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae as the persistent Leptospira serovars circulating in the urban rat populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sim, Shin Zhu; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Galloway, Renee L; Souris, Marc; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including Malaysia. Over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the Leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate Leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Rat trappings were carried out between October 2011 to February 2014 in five urban cities which were chosen as study sites to represent different geographical locations in Peninsular Malaysia. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and PCR were carried out to identify the Leptospiral serogroup and determine the pathogenic status of the isolates, respectively while pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR were used to characterize the isolates. Three rat species were identified from the three hundred and fifty seven rats captured with Rattus rattus, being the dominant rat species (285, 80 %) followed by Rattus norgevicus (53, 15 %) and Rattus exulans (19, 5 %). Only 39 samples (11.0 %) were positive by culture and further confirmed as pathogenic Leptospira by PCR. Significant associations were shown between host infection with locality, season, host-age and species. Based on MAT, two serogroups were identified in the population namely; L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica (n = 16) and L. interrogans serogroup Bataviae (n = 23). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) distinguished the two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (41 %), and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (59 %). RAPD-PCR yielded 14 distinct patterns and was found to be more discriminative than PFGE. This study confirms two Leptospira serovars circulating among the urban rats population in Peninsular

  11. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract from the leaves of Artocarpus altilis "breadfruit" in Rattus norvegicus induced hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis, in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305, using Rattus norvegicus specimens males, mean weight 204.5 g, who were orally administered 0.05 g/100g and 0.2 g/100 g of aqueous extract of A. altilis; included a negative control group received physiological saline and hyperlipidemic positive control group. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were made measurements of the concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Found significant reductions (p < 0.01 in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels relative to the positive control group. We also found a significant difference (p < 0.01 between triglyceride concentrations of the animals treated with both doses of the aqueous extract of A. altilis. Conclude that the aqueous extract from the leaves of A. altilis has hypolipidemic effect at the doses tested for the model of hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305.

  12. Different distribution of adriamycin in normal and leukaemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1981-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR) accumulates in well-perfused organs in the rat. This effect is especially evident for long periods in marrow and spleen of healthy animals. In rats bearing the Brown Norway Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (BNML) the in vitro distribution is significantly different. Maximum ADR levels in

  13. Oral sensitization to food proteins: A Brown Norway rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Spanhaak, S.; Houben, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. Objective: This paper describes the development of an enteral model for food

  14. Assessment of protein allergenicity studies in brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there

  15. The hematological effects of tritium-labelled compounds and phosphorous-32 on field rats (R. r. mindanensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B. de la; Soriano, E.A.; Padrelanan, E.M.; Paradero, R.R.; Gregorio, J.S.; Yumul, B.V.; Medina, F.I.S.

    1975-01-01

    The range of normal values for red blood cells, hemoglobin, blood platelets, total white blood cells and differential count for the adult male and female field rates (Rattus rattus) was determined. The mean values for the eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes which were 2.3%, 25.69% and 69.05% for the male rats were higher than the corresponding mean values of 1.2%, 20.48% and 64.44% in the female. The hemoglobin values of 14.61 gms/100 ml in the female rats were found to be higher than 12.8 gm/100 ml in the male rats. During the whole period of the hematological investigation, bone marrow studies were not available. Although occasional binucleate, lymphocytes and a typical granulocytes were seen in the peripheral blood, no manifestations in the different peripheral blood elements were detected to indicate the presence of a leukaemic process in the irradiated animals. Regarding the somatic effects of internal radiation which will shorten the life span of the experimental animals, only one male rat which was exposed to 50 μCi tritiated thymidine developed a tumor in the right kidney. In general, no shortening of life span was observed and the treated parent rats could still reproduce and give birth to certain progenies with heritable defects

  16. Assessment of hepatoprotective role of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract in Rattus norvegicus after vanadium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Prabhu N.; Shukla, Aparna; Saxena, Nishi; Arya, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and its potency has been compared with Liv.52 following V 2 O 5 , induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. LD 50 estimated for V 2 O 5 , was 69.6 mg/kg b.wt. The administered doses of V 2 O 5 , were LD 50 /10 th for acute and 1/7 th , 1/14 th and 1/21 th of sublethal dose for subacute (7, 14 and 21 ds) respectively. Body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was assessed in terms of hepatic total proteins, total lipids and total cholesterol. V 2 O 5 intoxication significantly increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol, while significantly decreased body weight and total proteins. Pretreatment with dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and 0.125 ml/kg b.wt. of Liv.52 syrup restored the increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol and decreased parameters like body weight and total proteins toward normalcy. The results reveal that Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract modulates V 2 O 5 toxicity like well known hepatoprotectant, however the modulation is less than Liv.52. (author)

  17. Variation in Protein and Calorie Consumption Following Protein Malnutrition in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Z. German

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catch-up growth rates, following protein malnutrition, vary with timing and duration of insult, despite unlimited access to calories. Understanding changing patterns of post-insult consumption, relative rehabilitation timing, can provide insight into the mechanisms driving those differences. We hypothesize that higher catch-up growth rates will be correlated with increased protein consumption, while calorie consumption could remain stable. As catch-up growth rates decrease with age/malnutrition duration, we predict a dose effect in protein consumption with rehabilitation timing. We measured total and protein consumption, body mass, and long bone length, following an increase of dietary protein at 40, 60 and 90 days, with two control groups (chronic reduced protein or standard protein for 150+ days. Immediately following rehabilitation, rats’ food consumption decreased significantly, implying that elevated protein intake is sufficient to fuel catch-up growth rates that eventually result in body weights and long bone lengths greater or equal to final measures of chronically fed standard (CT animals. The duration of protein restriction affected consumption: rats rehabilitated at younger ages had more drastic alterations in consumption of both calories and protein. While rehabilitated animals did compensate with greater protein consumption, variable responses in different ages and sex highlight the plasticity of growth and how nutrition affects body form.

  18. Perubahan Profil Farmakokinetika Ibuprofen yang Diberikan dengan Kombinasi Vitamin C pada Tikus Putih (Rattus Norvegicus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattrio Desrianto Prabowo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is one of the NSAID (NonSteroid Anti Inflamation Drug drugs that has been widely used as antipyretic agent, analgesic dan anti-inflamation. Vitamin C is an important nutrient for the body and has been widely used to maintain health. Earlier study indicate patterns of interaction between vitamin C and NSAID drugs. The aims of this research were to study the influence of vitamin C to the pharmacokinetics profile of ibuprofen. The study was conducted using 9 rats rats, divided into 3 groups (n=3 per group. Each group was treated the following treatment : control ibuprofen (ibuprofen 7.2 mg/200 gBW, dose 1 group (ibuprofen 7,2 mg/200 gBW, and vitamin C 4,5 mg/200 gBW, and dose 2 group (ibuprofen 7,2 mg/200 gBW and vitamin C 9 mg/200 gBW. Blood sampling is done from the vein of rat’s tail at minutes 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360. The quantitation of ibuprofen in plasma was determined by UV spectrophotometer at maximum wavelength. Result showed that vitamin C changed the absorption of ibuprofen by prolonged the maximum plasma concentration time, reduce maximum levels of ibuprofen and vitamin C also changed the elimination of ibuprofen by prolonged the elimination time. Keywords: Ibuprofen, Vitamin C, Pharmacokinetics ABSTRAK Ibuprofen merupakan salah satu obat golongan NSAID (Non Steroid Anti-Inflamation Drug yang secara luas digunakan oleh masyarakat sebagai antipiretik, analgesik, dan anti-inflamasi. Vitamin C merupakan nutrisi penting bagi tubuh yang dikonsumsi secara luas oleh masyarakat untuk menjaga kesehatan. Penelitian awal menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pola akan kemungkinan teradinya interaksi antara vitamin C dengan obat golongan NSAID. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh vitamin C terhadap profil farmakokinetika ibuprofen. Uji dilakukan dengan membagi 9 ekor tikus dalam 3 kelompok (tiap kelompok 3 ekor. Tiap kelompok diberi perlakuan sebagai berikut: kontrol ibuprofen (ibuprofen 7,2 mg/200 g

  19. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  20. Effect of Turmeric Etanol Extract (Curcuma Longa L on Low Density Lipoprotein Level and Liver Histopathology Image in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model Induced by Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Pratiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine levels of LDL and liver damage in rats (Rattus norvegicus models of type 1 diabetes mellitus inducted by streptozotocin (STZ with etanol extract of turmeric (Curcuma Longa L therapy. Animals used rat (Rattus norvegicus 3-month-old males who were divided into 5 groups, each group consisting of four mice. The group was divided according to treatment: negative control (not induced by STZ, the positive control group (STZ induced, groups of rats DM 1 with etanol turmeric extract therapy a dose of 1.2 g / kg, groups of rats DM 1 with etanol turmeric extract therapy a dose of 1.8 g / kg, and groups of rats DM 1 with etanol turmeric extract therapy a dose of 2.7 g / kg. LDL levels measured by direct method and the severity of liver damage was observed through histopatology picture. The results showed that the etanol extract of turmeric dose of 2.7 g / kg in a rats model of type 1 diabetes mellitus can lower LDL levels up to 59.55%, and reduced the severity of fatty liver with reduced fat vacuoles. The conclusion from this study that the etanol extract of turmeric contains antioxidants that can lower LDL levels and reduced the severity of fatty liver in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Evaluation of marine brown algae Sargassum ilicifolium extract for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpi, Chandraraj C.; Nagathan, Channabasappa V.; Karajgi, Santosh R.; Kalyane, Navanath V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The methanolic extract of Sargassum ilicifolium (Pheophyceae) was used to evaluate its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in the present study. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity was tested using Acetic acid writhing method and Eddy hot plate method in Male albino mice and Wister rats respectively at a dose level of 1, 10, 50, 100mg/kg p.o. At the same dose, its anti-inflammatory activity was also tested using Carrageenan induced rat paw edema method Result Acetic acid writhing test and Eddy's hot plate episodes were significantly and dose dependently reduced. Carrageenan (a standard inflammatory agent) induced paw edema in rats was significantly reduced after intraperitonal administration of methanolic extract. Results: showed dose dependant significant activity in comparison with standard and control. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of the brown seaweeds Sargassum ilicifolium have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at moderate doses. PMID:23900805

  2. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  3. Bartonella species and trombiculid mites of rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012-March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7-19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini-Blankaartia and Schoengastiini-Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.-positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.-negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.-positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.-negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human-rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human

  4. ACTIVITY TEST OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L. LEAF METHANOL EXTRACT AS CONTRACEPTION ANTIFERTILITY TO WHITE MICE (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Retno Dwi Ariani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about if the guava (Psidium guajava L. leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a positive test as contraception antifertility to white mice (Rattus norvegicus. The sample is guava leaf from Mungkid, Magelang Central of Java Indonesia. The animals experiment are the white mice on 140-300 g for female, 200-250 g for male and about 3 months of age in average. The steps of this research are : (1 preparing  sample, i.e. washing, drying on to indirect sunlight and make the sample into powder, (2 isolation the guava leaf powder in soxhlet instrument with hexane, (3 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf hexane extract produced, (4 maseration the sample with methanol, (5 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf methanol extract produced, (6 conducting contraception antifertility activity test to guave leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages to mice white. The results of this research are guava leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a negative contraception antifertility test to white mice but in these dossages have indicated that an antiimplantation effect (the total natality of fetus is less than the total implantation site in mice white.   Keywords: Guava leaf, contraseption antifertility, methanol extract, white mice, implantation

  5. GLUCOSE AND TOTAL PROTEIN LEVEL IN LABORATORY RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SHORT-TERM FASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose level (UV enzymatic method and total protein level (Biuret method were measured in the blood samples of the rats exposed to short-term starvation. We found a statistically significant increase in the glucose level in experimental animals during starvation, which is also evident in males and females in the experimental group (p <0.05, while decrease in the total protein level was not statistically significant. During starvation, more significant weight loss was observed in females compared to males.Key words: glucose, total protein, serum, Rattus

  6. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  7. Brown dwarfs in retrogradely precessing cataclysmic variables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of retrogradely precessing accretion disks that have a white dwarf primary and a main sequence secondary with observational data and with theory on retrograde precession via tidal torques like those by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth [1, 2]. Assuming the primary does not accrete much of the mass lost from the secondary, we identify the theoretical low mass star/brown dwarf boundary. We find no observational candidates in our study that could qualify as brown dwarfs.

  8. Brown tumor of mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiq, A.; Hanif, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted and released by the parathyroid glands, the activity of which is controlled by the ionized serum calcium level. Increased PTH secretion results in hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary types. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone secretion occurring as a result of abnormality in one or more of the parathyroid glands. Brown tumors are non-neoplastic lesions as a result of abnormal bone metabolism in cases of hyperparathyroidism, creating a local destructive phenomenon. A rare case of a young female patient with brown tumors in her mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, is reported. (author)

  9. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  10. EFICÁCIA DE TRÊS MEDICAMENTOS NO CONTROLE DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI EM RATOS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) LINHAGEM WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rovaina Laureano Doyle

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou verificar os achados laboratoriais e histológicos da infecção experimental por Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, 1888, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) da linhagem Wistar, testando a eficácia de três medicamentos. Foram utilizados 40 ratos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 cada, sendo cada grupo composto por 5 machos e cinco fêmeas, os quais foram tratados com três quimioterápicos distintos após a detecção de parasitemia superior a oit...

  11. DNA Riboprinting and Biochemical Studies on The Effect of Exposure to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzook, E.A.; EL-Abiad, N.M.; Awwad, M.H.; El-Aragi, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on some molecular and biochemical aspects in male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Three groups of rats were exposed to PEMF (10, 15, 20 pulses/day three times per week for three weeks) with frequency of 8-12 GHz. An unexposed group was considered the control group. At the end of experiment, serum levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, testosterone, triglycerides and cholesterol were determined. The results revealed that exposure to electromagnetic field induced significant increases in scrum total protein, globulin, triglycerides and testosterone hormone on the second exposed group only. Non significant changes were found in serum levels of albumin and cholesterol in the same group with decreased A/G ratio. All the tested parameters were not affected on the other two exposed groups. An indicative hypothesis for spotting the effect of electromagnetic spectrum on the liver of albino rats was proposed based on the examination of total DNA genome by using PacI, Sfil, Notl and SWal restriction endonucleases. The results achieved have established the value of the physical map as an additional complement to the standard biodosimetric methods

  12. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  13. Quality of diets with fluidized bed combustion residue treatment: I. Rat trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, N.J.; Reid, R.L.; Head, M.K.; Hern, J.L.; Bennett, O.L.

    Feeding trials were conducted with rats (Rattus rattus) to examine effects of soil application, or dietary inclusion, of fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) on the composition and quality of foods. Four diets (vegetable protein, egg protein, chicken, chicken + dietary FBCR) prepared with either FBCR or lime (control) treatments, were fed to weanling, female rats in three growth and reproduction trials. Intake, growth rate, and composition of body and organs of rats were measured. Rats in one trial were bred, their litters maintained on dietary treatments, and the offspring rebred. Treatment (FBCR vs. lime) x diet interactions on food composition and animal responses generally were not significant. Treatment had little effect on element composition of diets; mineral concentrations were in normal ranges. Diet treatment with FBCR depressed (P<0.01) food intake and growth of rats in one trial, but not in others, and had no effect (P<0.05) on body water, protein, ether extract, or gross energy composition. Some differences in element concentrations in the carcass and organs of rats and pups resulted from FBCR treatment, but effects were small and inconsistent. Litters from the first reproductive cycle appeared normal, except for animals fed the chicken + dietary FBCR treatment, on which pups showed poor growth and anemia. Offspring from certain diets were rebred and litters showed a high mortality, although this was not associated specifically with FBCR treatment. Results indicated no major detrimental effects on food composition, or growth, tissue element accumulation, and reproduction in the rat relating to use of FBCR as a soil amendment. 20 refs., 9 tabs.

  14. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, Nigeria and implication on human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ogunniyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in Ile-Ife while just a case of human Acanthocephalan infection in Nigeria is available.Fifty (house-rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in houses and raw food sellers' stalls in a market in Ile-Ife. A caught rat was removed from the cage and sacrificed by cervical jerking. A rat was weighed, measured, quickly following which thick and thin blood films on microscope slides were made from blood collected from the tail vein. The rat was examined for ectoparasites then dissected to check for endoparasites.Two ectoparasites (Xenopsylla cheopis and Laelaptid mite were recovered from 19 (38.0% of the rats. Five genera of helminthes (Moniliformis, Hymenolepis, Taenia, Trichuris and Trichinella were recovered from 29 (58.0% of the rats while seven genera of protozoa organisms (Amoeba, Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Retortamonas, Trichomonas, Chilomastix and Trypanosoma were recovered from 48 (96.0% of them. There was no correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.111 between the weight of the individual rat and the total number of alimentary canal acquired parasites.In relation to human health, implications of the rats serving as reservoir hosts for the different pathogens are highlighted. In view of the possibility of unexpected zoonosis arising from the parasites found in the peridomestic rats in this investigation and others not found, and in view of the difficulties that may be associated with diagnosing such ailment, especially by a clinician who trained locally, this report should be like raising awareness to these salient facts.

  15. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF Toxoplasma gondii IN SERONEGATIVE URBAN RATS AND PRESENCE OF ANTIBODIES IN COMMUNICATING DOGS IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Bruno Bergamo; Toledo, Roberta dos Santos; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Bugni, Felipe Monteiro; Costa, Letícia da; Marana, Elizabete Regina Marangoni; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Su, Chunlei; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2016-01-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. One hundred and eighty-one Rattus rattus and one Mus musculus were caught in 37 places. Blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the bioassay. Serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. Sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. Antibodies were found in nine (4.9%) rats. Tissues of nine rats bioassayed were positive and four isolates were obtained. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed using 12 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG2-alt, C22-8, C29-2, L358, PK1, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, Apico, CS3). Genotyping revealed that the four strains isolated from this study have been isolated before in cats and chickens from Brazil. None of the isolates was identified like clonal archetypal T-types I, II, and III. The rats presented lower serologic Toxoplasma gondii prevalence (8.8%) compared to contacting dogs (70.5%).

  16. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  17. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  18. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  19. Brown midrib sorghum deserves a look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage sorghum varieties have been developed to allow them to thrive under low moisture and poor soil conditions while producing adequate amounts of forage. In addition, newer varieties, such as the brown midrib (BMR) hybrids, can be alternatives to conventional varieties as they contain less lignin...

  20. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  2. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  3. Civil Rights Law and the Brown Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jack

    The Brown decision of 1954 was the product of a planned program of litigation begun in the late 1920s and the early 1930s by a group of Black lawyers. Their work would not have succeeded if the ethos of the United States had not been changing simultaneously. The growth of a climate more conducive to civil rights is reflected in the presidential…

  4. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...