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Sample records for brown midrib mutants

  1. Genetic background impacts soluble and cell wall-bound aromatics in brown midrib mutants of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effects that genetic background has on two sorghum brown midrib (bmr) mutants, plant phenolics, lignin biosynthetic enzymes and stem anatomy were evaluated in wild-type (WT), bmr-6, bmr-12 and double-mutants (bmr-6 and bmr-12) in near isogenic , RTx430 and Wheatland backgrounds. The...

  2. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin ...

  3. Anatomical traits of seven corn-inbred lines including two with gene brown midrib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cebrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical investigations of the stem in seven Zea mays L. Inbred lines were performed on specimens bred in the Experimental Institute of Breeding and Plant Acclimatization in Smolice. Two of the lines (bm1 and bm2 including the gene brown midrib were characterized by a higher digestability. The remaining five lines (S215, S335, 5336, S336A and S339 were selective inbred lines used as components in hybrid breeding at the Institute in Smolice. The investigated lines were compared in respect to 50 anatomical traits of the stem. The comparisons were performed by means of the Wrocław dendrite method. The lines formed three distinct groups according to the degree of similarity. The first group consisted of two lines with the gene brown midrib (bm1 and bm2, the second of four lines (5215, S336, S336A and S339, and the third of line S335. The inclusion of both the lines with gene bm into one group was based on similarity regarding the set of traits of parenchyma, particularly of the peripheral part of the stem, as well as metaxylem and metaphloem traits. However, these lines differed considerably in respect to epidermis traits. It was peculiar that the stomata of the Amaryllis type occurred in one of the lines (S339. Each line made a specific mosaic of traits. The sets of traits characterizing the particular lines were specific in such a degree that they could be used, like a fingerprint, for their identification.

  4. Efficacy of singular and stacked brown midrib 6 and 12 in the modification of lignocellulose and grain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Scott E; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2010-03-24

    In sorghum, brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 impair the last two steps of monolignol synthesis. bmr genes were introduced into grain sorghum to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic tissues for grazing or bioenergy uses following grain harvest. Near-isogenic grain sorghum hybrids (AWheatland x RTx430) were developed containing bmr6, bmr12, and the bmr6 bmr12 double mutant (stacked), and their impacts were assessed in a two-year field study. The bmr genes did not significantly impact grain or lignocellulosic tissue yield. Lignocellulosic tissue from bmr6, bmr12, and stacked hybrids had reduced lignin content and increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) compared to those of the wild type (WT). The lignin content of the stacked lignocellulosic tissue was further reduced compared to that of bmr6 or bmr12. Surprisingly, bmr12 modestly increased carbohydrates in lignocellulosic tissue, and bmr6 increased fiber and lignin content in grain. These data indicate that bmr6 and bmr12 have broader effects on plant composition than merely lignin content, which has promising implications for both livestock utilization and bioenergy conversion.

  5. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity

  6. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  7. Effect of ambient temperature on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed brown-midrib maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15°C to 25°C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15°C, but no differences were found at 25°C and 35°C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals.

  8. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinant Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3 mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225, and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying and ear (younger lignifying internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the

  9. Comparison of brown midrib-6 and -18 forage sorghum with conventional sorghum and corn silage in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A L; Grant, R J; Pedersen, J F; O'Rear, J

    2004-03-01

    Total mixed rations containing conventional forage sorghum, brown midrib (bmr)-6 forage sorghum, bmr-18 forage sorghum, or corn silage were fed to Holstein dairy cows to determine the effect on lactation, ruminal fermentation, and total tract nutrient digestion. Sixteen multiparous cows (4 ruminally fistulated; 124 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated Latin square design with 4-wk periods (21-d adaptation and 7 d of collection). Diets consisted of 40% test silage, 10% alfalfa silage, and 50% concentrate mix (dry basis). Acid detergent lignin concentration was reduced by 21 and 13%, respectively, for the bmr-6 and bmr-18 sorghum silages when compared with the conventional sorghum. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greatest for cows fed bmr-6 (33.7 kg/d) and corn silage (33.3 kg/d), was least for cows fed the conventional sorghum (29.1 kg/d), and was intermediate for cows fed the bmr-18 sorghum (31.2 kg/d), which did not differ from any other diet. Total tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (54.4%) and corn silage (54.1%) diets and was lower for the conventional (40.8%) and bmr-18 sorghum (47.9%) diets. In situ extent of NDF digestion was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (76.4%) and corn silage (79.0%) diets, least for the conventional sorghum diet (70.4%), and intermediate for the bmr-18 sorghum silage diet (73.1%), which was not different from the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the bmr-6 sorghum hybrid outperformed the conventional sorghum hybrid; the bmr-18 sorghum was intermediate between conventional and bmr-6 in most cases. Additionally, the bmr-6 hybrid resulted in lactational performance equivalent to the corn hybrid used in this study. There are important compositional differences among bmr forage sorghum hybrids that need to be characterized to predict animal response accurately.

  10. Methane emission, digestive characteristics and faecal archaeol in heifers fed diets based on silage from brown midrib maize as compared to conventional maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Schweigel-Röntgen, Monika; Kreuzer, Michael; Ortmann, Sylvia; Gill, Fiona; Kuhla, Björn; Meyer, Ulrich; Lohölter, Malte; Derno, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to compare silage prepared from maize having a brown midrib (BMR) mutation with control (CTR) maize to identify their effects on enteric methane emission, digesta mean retention time (MRT), ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In addition, the utility of archaeol present in faecal samples was validated as a proxy for methane production. Seven German Holstein heifers were fed total mixed rations with a maize-silage proportion (either BMR or CTR) of 920 g/kg dry matter (DM) in a change-over design. Heifers were fed boluses with markers to measure MRT; faeces were collected for 7 days and rumen fluid was collected on the penultimate day. Methane emission was measured in respiration chambers on one day. Data were analysed by t-test and regression analysis. DM intake did not differ between the two diets. The apparent digestibility of DM and most nutrients was unaffected by diet type, but apparent digestibility of neutral and acid detergent-fibre was higher in those heifers fed BMR than in those fed CTR. Comparisons between diets revealed no difference in particle or solute MRT in the gastro-intestinal tract and the reticulorumen. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acid and ammonia in rumen fluid and its pH were not affected by silage type. Independent of the mode of expression [l/d, l/kg DM intake, l/kg digested organic matter], methane emissions were not affected by maize-silage type, but with BMR, there was a trend towards lower methane production per unit of digested neutral detergent fibre than there was with CTR silage. Results of the present study show that feeding heifers BMR silage does not increase methane emissions despite a higher fibre digestibility as compared to CTR silage. Therefore, it is assumed that improvements in animal productivity achieved by feeding BMR silage, as some studies have reported, can be obtained without extra environmental cost per unit of milk or meat. Neither faecal archaeol content [µg

  11. Digestibility, ruminal fermentation, ingesta kinetics and nitrogen utilisation in dairy cows fed diets based on silage of a brown midrib or a standard maize hybrid.

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    Gorniak, Tobias; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Lebzien, Peter; Breves, Gerhard; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate an experimental brown midrib (Bm) maize hybrid in comparison with a control (Con) non-Bm maize hybrid on ruminal and total tract digestibility, ruminal fermentation, ruminal ingesta kinetics, nitrogen (N) utilisation and microbial efficiency. A total of six ruminally and duodenally cannulated German Holstein cows were used. Animals were fed diets of either 11.5 kg dry matter (DM) of a Con or a Bm maize silage plus 4.1 kg DM of concentrate. Ruminal and total tract digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre did not differ between hybrids. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations and pH in the rumen were not affected, but ruminal mean retention time was lower for Diet Bm (Con: 45.4 ± 2.39 h; Bm: 40.6 ± 2.39 h; least squares means ± standard error). Cows fed Diet Bm had greater efficiency of N utilisation (Con: 30.1 ± 1.37%; Bm: 33.1 ± 1.37%) and increased flow of microbial crude protein at the duodenum (MCPF) (Con: 7.0 ± 0.37 g/MJ metabolisable energy (ME); Bm: 8.1 ± 0.37 g/MJ ME). Thus, MCPF and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) were greater for Diet Bm (MCPF - Con: 1117 ± 52.1 g/d; Bm: 1306 ± 52.1 g/d; uCP - Con: 1594 ± 57.9 g/d; Bm: 1807 ± 57.9 g/d) and ruminal N balance was lower for Diet Bm (Con: 98.7 ± 8.92 g/d; Bm: 65.6 ± 8.92 g/d). The present results show that the Bm maize hybrid might be advantageous for dairy cow nutrition with regard to N utilisation and MCPF. However, further research is necessary to draw more precise conclusions on the potential of Bm maize hybrids in general.

  12. Rendimiento y calidad de híbridos de sorgo con y sin nervadura café Yield and quality of sorghum hybrids with and without brown midrib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Daniel Bolaños Aguilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comparar el rendimiento de materia seca (RMS y la calidad de variedades de sorgo de grano y forrajero con o sin nervadura café (bmr, al emplear plantas con concentraciones promedio de 300 g kg-¹ de MS. Se estudiaron tres variedades de grano (Solarius, Aralba y Topsilo y tres forrajeras (Sweet Virginia, Big Kauna y Sucrosorgho. Sweet Virginia and Big Kahuna contienen el gen bmr. El RMS varió de 11.10 t, de Topsilo, a 17.12 t ha-1 de Sweet Virginia, relacionada con la altura de planta y con la proporción tallo/planta. Topsilo tuvo mayor número de rebrotes (1.5 m-¹. La relación panícula/planta no fue diferente entre variedades. El número de plantas m-¹ varió entre variedades pero no afectó el RMS. La concentración de proteína varió de 75.45 g kg-¹ MS en Big Kahuna, a 104.3 g kg-¹ MS en Solarius, y tuvo relación inversa con el RMS, con la altura de la planta y con la relación tallo/planta. Las variedades con mayor concentración de proteína (Solarius, Aralba y Topsilo, fueron las de menor RMS, menor altura y menor relación tallo/planta. El área foliar por planta fue la fuente de variación de la proteína entre las variedades de grano. La digestibilidad varió de 596 g kg-¹ MS en Aralba, a 720.4 g kg-¹ MS en Sweet Virginia, y estuvo relacionada con la concentración de lignina. Esta última variedad junto con Big Kahuna y Solarius fueron las de mayor digestibilidad. La alta digestibilidad de Solarius (no portador de bmr se debió a su baja proporción (0.35 tallo/planta. La variedad Sweet Virginia es una importante opción en la alimentación animal dado a su elevado RMS y digestibilidad. Solarius tuvo bajo RMS, pero es útil cuando se requieren altos consumos de materia seca digestible por animal (vacas lecheras, además de contar con la mayor concentración de proteína.The aim was to compare yield of dry matter (RMS and quality of grain and foliage sorghum varieties with and without brown midrib (bmr, by

  13. Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bao-hua; YANG Yang; SHI Yong-feng; LIN Lu; CHEN Jie; WEI Yan-lin; Hei LEUNG

    2013-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)induced IR64 mutant bank.The mutant,designated as Ibsl1 (light brown spotted-leaf 1),displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions.Agronomic traits including plant height,growth duration,number of filled grains per panicle,seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected.Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene,tentatively named Ibsl1(t),which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6.By developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers,the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588.The Ibsl1(t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identified near the chromosomal region.The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.

  14. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...

  15. Synthesis of CMC from Palm Midrib Cellulose as Stabilizer and Thickening Agent in Food

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    Firman Sebayang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The using of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC from palm midrib as stabilizer on ice-cream making is done in three steps. First step is isolation process of α-cellulose from palm midrib powder, FTIR analysis shows that the compound is a cellulose molecule. The second step is alkalization with isopropanol as the solvent, carboxymethylation with monochloroacetic acid, and neutralization with CH3COOH 90% then ethanol, methanol and aquadest are used for purification followed with centrifugation process and adding in acetone which gives carboxymethyl cellulose a positive result in qualitative analysis. FTIR peak obtained is similar to that of commercial CMC, with the degree of substitution 0.82 and viscosity 0.076 ml/g. The last step is ice cream making process. In this step, CMC is added into the ice-cream batter with variated concentration of CMC starting from 0 to 0.5%. Ice-cream produced is then given melting time test and the overrun value is determined. Based on the research, 0.5% addition of CMC shows the most optimum melting time which is 31.02 minutes and overrun value of 42.34%. Organoleptic test given to 15 respondents also show that ice-cream with addition of 0.5% CMC gives the best result for the soft texture, sweet taste, fragrance aroma and light brown colour. CMC for thickening agent in syrup is measured with Ostwald viscometer. It shows that syrup is thicker with the addition of CMC. The highest vitamin-C content in passion fruit syrup is in addition of 0.3% which is 330.20.

  16. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae

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    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.

    2016-11-01

    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  17. 水稻淡褐斑叶突变体lbsll的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉保华; 杨杨; 施勇烽; 林璐; 陈洁; 黄奇娜; 魏彦林; Hei LEUNG; 吴建利

    2012-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. The mutant, designated as lbs.ll (light brown spotted-leaf 1), displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions. Agronomic traits including plant height, growth duration, seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively termed lbsll (t), which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6. With developed SSR markers, the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588. The Ibsll (t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been i-dentified near the chromosomal region. The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.%通过EMS诱变籼稻品种IR64获得一个稳定遗传的淡褐色斑点叶突变体lbsll(light broun spotted leaf1).在自然条件下,突变体播种后10~14 d,叶片上出现淡褐色斑点,随后逐渐扩散至全叶,第1叶至剑叶上均有淡褐色斑,为全生育期性状.斑点性状的表达对株高、生育期、结实率和千粒重等农艺性状具有显著的影响.遗传分析结果表明,该淡褐色斑点叶性状受一个隐性核基因控制.将突变体lbsll与正常叶色水稻Morobereken杂交构建F2定化群体,利用SSR标记,最终将该淡褐叶基因lbsll(t)定位在第6染色体短臂上一个约130 kb的区段上.定位的结果和发展的群体为该基因的进一步精细定位和克隆奠定了基础.

  18. Evaluation of Three Protein-Extraction Methods for Proteome Analysis of Maize Leaf Midrib, a Compound Tissue Rich in Sclerenchyma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Leaf morphology is closely related to the growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) plants and final kernel production. As an important part of the maize leaf, the midrib holds leaf blades in the aerial position for maximum sunlight capture. Leaf midribs of adult plants contain substantial sclerenchyma cells with heavily thickened and lignified secondary walls and have a high amount of phenolics, making protein extraction and proteome analysis difficult in leaf midrib tissue. In the prese...

  19. Mechanical properties of untreated and alkaline treated fibers from zalacca midrib wastes

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    Raharjo, Wahyu Purwo; Soenoko, Rudy; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Choiron, Mochammad Agus; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    The environmental concern has been raised due to the abundance of waste from synthetic materials which cannot be biodegraded after their life-time. It provides opportunity to exploit natural resources which are neglected. For example, midrib wastes from zalacca plants after cutting are able to utilize as composite reinforcement. The aim of this research was to characterize the mechanical properties of zalacca midrib fibers. As other ones, zalacca midrib fibers consisted of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which their compositions were 42.54, 34.35 and 28.01 % respectively. To raise their cellulose content, the zalacca fibers were alkaline treated by immersion in the sodium hydroxide for 2 hours and rinsing in the distilled water. The concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied 1 and 5%. To investigate the influence of alkaline treatment, the mechanical testing and morphological analysis was performed. The tensile testing was done to obtain ultimate strength, elastic modulus and strain to fracture. The surface morphology of fibers was observed by SEM. The average ultimate tensile strength of zalacca fibers ranged from 182.12 MPa (untreated) to 417.94 MPa (5%NaOH treated). The diameter measurement showed that the alkaline treatment reduce the average fiber diameters due to the decline of the hemicellulose and lignin content as fiber matrix. This caused the increase of the tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the reduction of diameters as divider meanwhile the cellulose content as structural supporter of the fibers was relatively constant. From the SEM analysis, it was shown that the alkaline treatment reduced the fiber matrix so that its surface morphology became rougher due to the microfibrils appearance.

  20. Applying genotyping (TILLING and phenotyping analyses to elucidate gene function in a chemically induced sorghum mutant population

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    Franks Cleve

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought/heat stresses and its strong potential as a bioenergy feedstock. Completion of the sorghum genome sequence has opened new avenues for sorghum functional genomics. However, the availability of genetic resources, specifically mutant lines, is limited. Chemical mutagenesis of sorghum germplasm, followed by screening for mutants altered in important agronomic traits, represents a rapid and effective means of addressing this limitation. Induced mutations in novel genes of interest can be efficiently assessed using the technique known as Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genomes (TILLING. Results A sorghum mutant population consisting of 1,600 lines was generated from the inbred line BTx623 by treatment with the chemical agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from M2 and M3 lines in the field. A subset of 768 mutant lines was analyzed by TILLING using four target genes. A total of five mutations were identified resulting in a calculated mutation density of 1/526 kb. Two of the mutations identified by TILLING and verified by sequencing were detected in the gene encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT in two independent mutant lines. The two mutant lines segregated for the expected brown midrib (bmr phenotype, a trait associated with altered lignin content and increased digestibility. Conclusion TILLING as a reverse genetic approach has been successfully applied to sorghum. The diversity of the mutant phenotypes observed in the field, and the density of induced mutations calculated from TILLING indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for members of

  1. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Bart; Heylen, Kim; Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanhouteghem, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Bleyaert, Peter; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

    2009-05-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection and spraying of lettuce, LOPAT characteristics, FAME analysis, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization. Ninety-eight isolates (66%) exhibited a fluorescent pigmentation and were associated with the genus Pseudomonas. Fifty-five of them induced an HR+ (hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves) response. The other 43 fluorescent isolates were most probably saprophytic bacteria and about half of them were able to cause rot on potato tuber slices. BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the Pseudomonas midrib rot isolates. The delineated BOX-PCR patterns matched quite well with Pseudomonas morphotypes defined on the basis of colony appearance and variation in fluorescent pigmentation. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses allowed most of the fluorescent isolates to be allocated to Pseudomonas, and they belonged to either the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, Pseudomonas putida group, or the Pseudomonas cichorii/syringae group. In particular, the isolates allocated to this latter group constituted the vast majority of HR+ isolates and were identified as P. cichorii by DNA-DNA hybridization. They were demonstrated by spray-inoculation tests on greenhouse-grown lettuce to induce the midrib rot disease and could be re-isolated from lesions of inoculated plants. Four HR+ non-fluorescent isolates associated with one sample that showed an atypical midrib rot were identified as Dickeya sp.

  2. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii.Methods:and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree.Conclusions:Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii.

  3. Evaluation of Three Protein-Extraction Methods for Proteome Analysis of Maize Leaf Midrib, a Compound Tissue Rich in Sclerenchyma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Xiaolin; Ku, Lixia; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Leaf morphology is closely related to the growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) plants and final kernel production. As an important part of the maize leaf, the midrib holds leaf blades in the aerial position for maximum sunlight capture. Leaf midribs of adult plants contain substantial sclerenchyma cells with heavily thickened and lignified secondary walls and have a high amount of phenolics, making protein extraction and proteome analysis difficult in leaf midrib tissue. In the present study, three protein-extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics, i.e., phenol extraction, TCA/acetone extraction, and TCA/acetone/phenol extraction, were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated based on 2DE maps and MS/MS analysis using the midribs of the 10th newly expanded leaves of maize plants. Microscopy revealed the existence of substantial amounts of sclerenchyma underneath maize midrib epidermises (particularly abaxial epidermises). The spot-number order obtained via 2DE mapping was as follows: phenol extraction (655) > TCA/acetone extraction (589) > TCA/acetone/phenol extraction (545). MS/MS analysis identified a total of 17 spots that exhibited 2-fold changes in abundance among the three methods (using phenol extraction as a control). Sixteen of the proteins identified were hydrophilic, with GRAVY values ranging from -0.026 to -0.487. For all three methods, we were able to obtain high-quality protein samples and good 2DE maps for the maize leaf midrib. However, phenol extraction produced a better 2DE map with greater resolution between spots, and TCA/acetone extraction produced higher protein yields. Thus, this paper includes a discussion regarding the possible reasons for differential protein extraction among the three methods. This study provides useful information that can be used to select suitable protein extraction methods for the proteome analysis of recalcitrant plant tissues that are rich in sclerenchyma cells.

  4. Convenient detection of the citrus greening (huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by direct PCR from the midrib extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujikawa

    Full Text Available A phloem-limited bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing, one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants using leaf midribs as explants in ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xia; Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Ye, Shengtuo; Chen, Leiyu; Guo, Pingan; Huang, Xing; Peng, Dingxiang

    2014-05-01

    In this study, leaf midribs, the elite explants, were used for the first time to develop an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.] via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Sensitivity of leaf midribs regeneration to kanamycin was evaluated, which showed that 40 mg l(-1) was the optimal concentration needed to create the necessary selection pressure. Factors affecting the ramie transformation efficiency were evaluated, including leaf age, Agrobacterium concentration, length of infection time for the Agrobacterium solution, acetosyringone concentration in the co-cultivation medium, and the co-cultivation period. The midrib explants from 40-day-old in vitro shoots, an Agrobacterium concentration at OD600 of 0.6, 10-min immersion in the bacteria solution, an acetosyringone concentration of 50 mg l(-1) in the co-cultivation medium and a 3-day co-cultivation period produced the highest efficiencies of regeneration and transformation. In this study, the average transformation rate was 23.25%. Polymerase chain reactions using GUS and NPTII gene-specific primers, Southern blot and histochemical GUS staining analyses further confirmed that the transgene was integrated into the ramie genome and expressed in the transgenic ramie. The establishment of this system of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants will be used not only to introduce genes of interest into the ramie genome for the purpose of trait improvement, but also as a common means of testing gene function by enhancing or inhibiting the expression of target genes.

  6. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  7. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  8. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  9. Browning Characteristics of Dioscorea batatas Decne%铁棍山药褐变特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喜亭; 王会珍; 赵月丽; 宋萍萍; 李明军

    2009-01-01

    Browning characteristic of Dioscorea batatas Decne was studied, including the relationship between the distribution of phenols and browning, between the degree of browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase(PPO),peroxidase(POD),and phenylalanine ammonialyase(PAL),and the effect of pH and tempreture on non-enzymatic browning.The phenols distribution mainly locates near periderm area and midribs in yam tuber, where the most serious browning is present.The relationship between the activities of PPO,POD,PAL and the browning degree shows positive correlation, and the correlation degree ranks:PPO>POD>PAL.Acidic condition is propitious to inhibiting non-enzymatic browning. Under the lower or higher temperature than 40℃,non-enzymatic browning all decreases.%研究了铁棍山药的褐变特性,包括酚类物质的分布与褐变的关系,多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)的活性变化与褐变度的关系及pH和温度对其非酶褐变的影响.结果表明:酚类物质的分布情况与褐变发生部位相一致;PPO、POD和PAL的活性与褐变度呈正相关,其相关性依次为PPO>POD>PAL;酸性条件有利于抑制非酶褐变,低于或高于40℃,非酶褐变均有降低的趋势.

  10. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  11. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  12. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  13. Ras signalling regulates differentiation and UCP1 expression in models of brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Hansen, Jacob B

    2010-01-01

    on two unrelated models of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation. RESULTS: A constitutively active H-Ras mutant (Ras V12) caused a complete block of adipose conversion, as manifested by a lack of both lipid accumulation and induction of adipocyte gene expression. The Ras V12-mediated impediment......-Ras mutant (Ras N17) did not inhibit differentiation, but led to increased expression of genes important for energy dissipation in brown fat cells, including UCP1. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the intensity of Ras signalling is important for differentiation and UCP1 expression in models...

  14. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  15. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  16. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  17. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  20. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  3. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  9. Characterization and Fine Mapping of the ibf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Cui; Shengci Fan; Tian Shao; Zejun Huang; Dali Zheng; Ding Tang; Ming Li; Qian Qian; Zhukuan Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The pigment is an important character in plant development. In the present study, we characterized and fine mapped one inhibitor for brown furrows gene (ibf) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). in the Ibf mutant, brown pigments specifically accumulate in the furrows of hulls as seeds mature and reach a maximum level in dry seeds. Genetic analysis showed that the mutant phenotype is controlled by one recessive nuclear gene, which was finally mapped in a 90-kb reglon on the long arm of chromosome 9. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting analysis revealed that there was a 26 kb deletion in the 90-kb region in the mutant. Since all the open reading frames outside the gap in the delimited reglon had no detectable difference in DNA sequence with the wild-type, we postulated that the Ibf locus should be located in the gap. Through gene annotation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we selected OsKF1 encoding a kelch repeat-containing F-box family protein as the candidate gene of ibf.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  12. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  13. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies.

  14. Purine transport by malpighian tubules of pteridine-deficient eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D T; Bell, L A; Paton, D R; Sullivan, M C

    1979-06-01

    Uptakes of guanine into Malpighian tubules of wild-type Drosophila and the eye color mutants white (w), brown (bw), and pink-peach (pp) have been compared. Tubules for each of these mutants are unable to concentrate guanine intracellularly. The transport of xanthine and riboflavin is also deficient in w tubules. The transport of guanosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and guanosine monophosphate is similar in wild-type and white Malpighian tubules. These data and other information about these mutants make it likely that these pteridine-deficient eye color mutants do not produce pigments because of the inability to transport a pteridine precursor. This view supports the hypothesis that mutants which lack both pteridine and ommochromes do so because precursors to both classes of pigments share a common transport system.

  15. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  16. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  17. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  18. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  19. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  20. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  1. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  2. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  3. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  4. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  5. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  6. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  7. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  8. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  9. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  10. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  11. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  12. [Genetic analysis and gene mapping of two novel quail-like mutants from the silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Anli; Qiu, Zhiyong; Xia, Dingguo; Qian, Heying; Shen, Xingjia

    2014-04-01

    Two novel body marking mutants were discovered during silkworm (Bombyx mori) breeding. The mutants have no obvious eye-spots compared with normal marking (+) individuals, but their star spots and semilunar markings on dorsal sides are normal, and there are dots and lines with longitudinal wave markings on dorsal sides of the 6th to 7th abdominal segments which consist quail markings in between star spots and semilunar markings. The whole body markings are very similar to that of quail mutant (q); thus these mutants are named as quail-like mutants (q-l). Young larvae of one mutant are in brown color, and develop normally. Their cocoons are regular and uniform in size. Thus, this mutant is designated as brown quail-like (q-lb). Another mutant's larvae are in light purple skin; thus this mutant is named as purple quail-like (q-lp). They take little amount of mulberry leaves, and are weak and develop slowly and unevenly. Their larval bodies and cocoons are small. Genetic analysis revealed that both q-lb and q-lp were recessive genes, and they were allelic, with q-lb recessive to q-lp. These genes are different from quail mutant (q) and located on the chromosome 8 after tested by the morphological markers, P3(2), p(2), Ze(3), L(4), re(5), E(6), q(7), I-a(9), ms(12), ch(13), oa(14), cts(16), mln(18), msn(19), rb(21) and so(26) and SSR markers.

  13. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  14. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  15. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  16. Morphological characterization and molecular mapping of an irradiation-induced Speckled mutant in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D; Tong, X-L; Hu, H; Wu, S-Y; Li, C-L; Xiong, G; Xiang, Z-H; Dai, F-Y; Lu, C

    2016-04-01

    Speckled (Spc), an X-ray-induced lethal mutant of Bombyx mori, exhibits a mosaic dark-brown-spotted larval epidermis in both sexes and egg-laying problems only in females. Here, we report the morphological characterization and molecular mapping of the Spc mutant. Morphological investigations revealed that the epidermal ultrastructure of the small, dark-brown spots was more dense than that of the white regions in both Spc/+ mutants and wild type, and that the lethality of the Spc/Spc mutants occurred during early embryogenesis. Furthermore, the ovarioles and ovipositor were disconnected in approximately 85.5% of Spc/+ females, a further 2.5% had a connection between the ovarioles and ovipositor that was too narrow to lay eggs. The remaining females showed a normal connection similar to that of the wild type. We successfully narrowed down the location of the Spc mutation to a region on chromosome 4 that was ∼1041 kb long. Gene-prediction analysis identified 25 candidate genes in this region. Chromosome structure analysis indicated that a ∼305 kb deletion was included in the mapping region. Temporal and spatial reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed that several genes in the mapped region are associated with the Spc mutant. Although the genes responsible for the Spc mutation were not definitively identified, our results further the current understanding of the complex mechanism underlying the multiple morphological defects in Spc mutants.

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  3. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. What Brown saw and you can too

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  1. Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaphachoat, Parawee; Wei, Bi-Yin; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Wang, I-Wen; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Yu, Su-May; Yen, Ming-Liang; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu

    2012-04-01

    A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth, low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library. This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes, TDC-1 and TDC-3, were activated. Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine, which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5' hydroxylase (T5H) in rice plants. Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth, darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286. The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer, but not tryptamine. These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth, low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin, which when converted to serotonin dimer, leads to a dark brown plant color.

  2. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    CERN Document Server

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of this problem, we give different representations of the generalized Brown-Resnick processes - including random shifting and a mixed moving maxima representation - and derive various kinds of finite approximations that can be used for simulation purposes. Furthermore, error bounds are calculated in the case of the original process by Brown and Resnick (1977). For a one-paramatric class of Brown-Resnick processes based on the fractional Brownian motion we perform a simulation study and compare the results of the different met...

  3. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129...

  4. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  5. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  6. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  7. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  8. Microlensing Planet Around Brown-Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Batista, V; Christie, G; Choi, J -Y; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Monard, L A G; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Porritt, I; Shin, I -G; Tan, T G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Liebig, C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around brown dwarfs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field brown dwarf via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 +- 0.001), relatively tightly-separated (~0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 +- 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a brown dwarf with a mass 0.022 M_Sun. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the brown dwarf host, in a manner analogous to planets.

  9. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  10. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  11. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  12. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  13. Shaping the Brown Dwarf Desert: Predicting the Primordial Brown Dwarf Binary Distributions from Turbulent Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumper, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ($\\leq 5$ AU) brown dwarf companions to solar-mass stars, known as the brown dwarf desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly-bound than stellar binaries, have been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for brown dwarfs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that brown dwarfs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the brown dwarf desert, as well as wide brown-dwarf binary systems. Further, we demonstrate analytically that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low-mass (VLM) binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly-bound than stellar systems. In addit...

  14. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and...

  16. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1982. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  18. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F.; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M.; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders. PMID:27438137

  20. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calderon-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO, in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  1. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  2. Bacterial mutants for enhanced succinate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, G.J.E.; Beauprez, J.J.R.; Foulquie, M.M.R.; Heijnen, J.J.; Maertens, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for obtaining enhanced metabolite production in micro-organisms, and to mutants and/or transformants obtained with said method. More particularly, it relates to bacterial mutants and/or transformants for enhanced succinate production, especially mutants and/

  3. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  4. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  5. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  6. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  7. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  8. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  9. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  10. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  11. Computing at Brown--An Ongoing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Discusses conclusions based on results of two Brown University research projects aimed at understanding social and educational significance of computing in higher education: 1984 university-wide survey of students, faculty, and staff, and a 1985 survey of incoming freshmen. The conclusions discussed relate to computer use, experience, attitudes,…

  12. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  13. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  14. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  15. Identification of a Long Rice Spikelet Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-jun; WANG Bin; HAN Zan-ping; XIE Zhao-hui; MOU Chun-hong; WANG Xu-dong

    2004-01-01

    A spontaneously occurring rice (Oryza sativa L. ) mutant, characterized by homeotic conversion in glumes and stamens, was found in the progeny of a cross. The mutant showed long glumes and glumaceous lodicules and morphological transformation of stamens into pistils. Mutant florets consisted of 1 to 3 completely developed pistils, some pistilloid stamens with filaments, but tipped by bulged tissue and 0 to 3 stigmas. It seens that the mutant phenotype of the homeotic conversions in glumes and stamens is similar to that of the B loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. The mutant is controlled by a single recessive gene as a segregation ratio of 3:1 (wild type to mutant plants) was observed in the F2 generation.

  16. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  17. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio, E-mail: yyoneda@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  18. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  19. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  20. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  1. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  2. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  3. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  4. Map-based cloning and expression analysis of BMR-6 in sorghum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jieqin Li; Lihua Wang; Qiuwen Zhan; Yanlong Liu

    2015-09-01

    Brown midrib mutants in sorghum are associated with reduced lignin content and increased cell wall digestibility. In this study, we characterized a bmr-6 sorghum mutant, which shows reddish pigment in the midrib and stem after the fifth-leaf stage. Compared to wild type, Kalson lignin content of bmr-6 is decreased significantly. We used histological analysis to determine that the mutant exhibited a modified pattern of lignin staining and found an increased polysaccharide content. We cloned BMR-6 gene, a gene encoded a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), using a map-based cloning approach. Genetic complementation confirmed that CAD is responsible for the BMR-6 phenotype. BMR-6 gene was expressed in all tested sorghum tissues, with the highest being in midrib and stem. Transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated cytomplasmic localization of BMR-6. We found that the expression level of bmr-6 was significantly decreased in the mutant but expression of SbCAD3 and SbCAD5 were significantly increased. Our results indicate that BMR-6 not only affects the distribution of lignin but also the biosynthesis of lignin in sorghum.

  5. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  6. Comparison of cloud models for Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Ch; Allard, F; Dehn, M; Hauschildt, P; Homeier, D; Lodders, K; Marley, M; Rietmeijer, F; Tsuji, T; Woitke, P

    2007-01-01

    A test case comparison is presented for different dust cloud model approaches applied in brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. We aim to achieve more transparency in evaluating the uncertainty inherent to theoretical modelling. We show in how far model results for characteristic dust quantities vary due to different assumptions. We also demonstrate differences in the spectral energy distributions resulting from our individual cloud modelling in 1D substellar atmosphere simulations

  7. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  8. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  9. Brown Dwarfs From Mythical to Ubiquitous

    CERN Document Server

    Liebert, J

    1998-01-01

    Astrophysical objects below the stellar mass limit but well above the mass of Jupiter eluded discovery for nearly three decades after Kumar first proposed their existence, and for two decades after Tarter proposed the name "brown dwarfs." The first unambiguous discoveries of planetary (51 Peg B) and brown dwarf (Gliese 229B) companions occurred about three years ago. Yet while extrasolar planets are now being discovered at a breathtaking rate, brown dwarf companions to ordinary stars are apparently rare; likewise imaging surveys show that GL229B is still unique as a distant companion to a low mass star. On the other hand, the deep imaging studies of the Pleiades and several imbedded young clusters show that the mass function (ie. of single objects) extends in substantial numbers down to at least 40 Jupiter masses. The high mass / stellar density Orion Nebula Cluster may have relatively fewer low mass objects. In the field of the solar neighborhood, the infrared sky surveys DENIS and especially 2MASS show that...

  10. Parallax measurements of cool brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Manjavacas, E; Reffert, S; Henning, T

    2013-01-01

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models, break the age-mass degeneracy and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of 6 cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. We derive the absolute J-mag. The six T brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5 and magnitudes in J between 13.9 and 18.0, with photometric distances below 25 pc. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega-2000 camera on the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto, during a time period of 27 months, between March 2011 and June 2013. The number of epochs varied between 11 and 12 depending on the object. The reduction of the astrometric measurements was carried out with respect to the field stars. The relative parallax and proper motions were transformed into absolute measurements using the background galaxies in ou...

  11. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  12. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  13. Rescue of white egg 1 mutant by introduction of the wild-type Bombyx kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO-XING QUAN; ISAO KOBAYASHI; KATSURA KOJIMA; KEIRO UCHINO; TOSHIO KANDA; HIDEKI SEZUTSU; TORU SHIMADA; TOSHIKI TAMURA

    2007-01-01

    In silkworms, the white egg 1 (w-1) mutant, which is characterized by white eyes and white eggs, is deficient in Bombyx kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) activity. To investigate whether the w-1 mutant phenotype is rescued by introducing the wild-type KMO gene, we constructed transgenic silkworms with the wild-type Bombyx KMO gene under the control of either the cytoplasmic actin gene promoter (A3KMO) or the native KMO gene promoter (KKMO). We created two transgenic lines with A3KMO and one line with KKMO constructs. The eyes of adults in these lines were brown, and the eggs laid by the transgenic females were also brown. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) analysis showed that the A3KMO silkworm lines expressed the transcript in the mid-gut, fat bodies, and Malpighian tubules. The KKMO line expressed the transcript only in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules. The intensity of eye and egg color in the transgenic lines was proportional to the KMO expression level. Interestingly, transgenic larvae with the A3KMO construct had a light brown larval cuticle, but the KKMO line did not. These results indicate that the wild-type KMO gene can be used as a marker gene for visually screening transgenic silkworms.

  14. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of a new peanut seed coat mutant for the physiological regulatory mechanism involved in seed coat cracking and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Wan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed-coat cracking and undesirable color of seed coat highly affects external appearance and commercial value of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.. With an objective to find genetic solution to the above problems, a peanut mutant with cracking and brown colored seed coat (testa was identified from an EMS treated mutant population and designated as peanut seed coat crack and brown color mutant line (pscb. The seed coat weight of the mutant was almost twice of the wild type, and the germination time was significantly lower than wild type. Further, the mutant had lower level of lignin, anthocyanin, proanthocyandin content and highly increased level of melanin content as compared to wild type. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the seed coat transcriptome in three stages of seed development in the wild type and the pscb mutant. The RNA-Seq analysis revealed presence of highly differentially expressed phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway genes in all the three seed development stages, especially at 40 days after flowering (DAF40. Also, the expression of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidase were found to be activated significantly especially in the late seed developmental stage. The genome-wide comparative study of the expression profiles revealed 62 differentially expressed genes common across all the three stages. By analyzing the expression patterns and the sequences of the common differentially expressed genes of the three stages, three candidate genes namely c36498_g1 (CCoAOMT1, c40902_g2 (kinesin and c33560_g1 (MYB3 were identified responsible for seed-coat cracking and brown color phenotype. Therefore, this study not only provided candidate genes but also provided greater insights and molecular genetic control of peanut seed-coat cracking and color variation. The information generated in this study will facilitate further identification of causal gene and diagnostic markers for breeding improved peanut varieties with smooth and desirable seed coat color.

  16. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  17. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.

  18. Study on culturing Trichodema mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ai; WANG Wei-ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichodema mutants strains T5, T0803, T1010, T1003were cultured in different conditions and media, also in the presence of fungicides at 40 mg/kg (CK or procymidone + chlorothalonil, or maneb or phosethyl-Al) . The pH values of media were 5, 6, 7 and 8 and hyphae were grown at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ℃. After being cultured for 3, 4, 5, or 6 days, the strains were transferred at a lower temperature to sporulate (20℃) Obtained data were analyzed statistically, with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) differing dependes on the treatments (R = 40.0,42.4, 48.0, 62.8,107.0). The results indicated that the most important factor was the nature of the strain (R =107.0), while the change in temperature and time of cultivation produced the lowest effect (R =40.0). Each factor variance was significant and A3B4C2D1E3 was the optimum combined condition, in which strain T1010 grew more quickly and sporulated most.

  19. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  20. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very low mass pre-stellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which André et al. have identified as a pre-stellar core with mass between ˜0.020 M⊙ and ˜0.030 M⊙. We re-analyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit at ˜0.075 M⊙, is between 0.66 and 0.86 . We conclude that, if Oph-B11 is destined to collapse, it probably will form a brown dwarf. However, the flows required to trigger this appear to be so contrived that it is difficult to envisage this being the only way, or even a major way, of forming isolated brown dwarfs. Moreover, Oph-B11 could easily be a transient, bouncing, prolate core, seen end-on; there could, indeed should, be many such objects masquerading as very low mass pre-stellar cores.

  1. Extrasolar Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Models

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A; Lunine, J I; Guillot, M P; Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S

    1997-01-01

    With the discovery of the companions of 51 Peg, 55 Cnc, $\\tau$ Boo, gas giants and/or brown dwarfs with masses from 0.3 through 60 times that of Jupiter assume a new and central role in the emerging field of extrasolar planetary studies. In this contribution, we describe the structural, spectral, and evolutionary characteristics of such exotic objects, as determined by our recent theoretical calculations. These calculations can be used to establish direct search strategies via SIRTF, ISO, and HST (NICMOS), and via various ground--based adaptive optics and interferometric platforms planned for the near future.

  2. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  3. Chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors suppresses brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jiyoung; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds promise to combat obesity through energy-spending, non-shivering thermogenesis. Understanding of regulation of BAT development can lead to novel strategies to increase BAT mass and function for obesity treatment and prevention. Here, we report the effects of chronic activation of PRR on brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized brown pre-adipocytes from the classical interscapular BAT of mice. Activation of NOD1, TLR4, or TLR2 by their respective synthetic ligand suppressed brown marker gene expression and lipid accumulation during differentiation of brown-like adipocytes of C3H10T1/2. Activation of the PRR only during the commitment was sufficient to suppress the differentiation. PRR activation suppressed PGC-1α mRNA, but induced PRDM16 mRNA at the commitment. Consistently, PRR activation suppressed the differentiation of immortalized brown pre-adipocytes. Activation of PRR induced NF-κB activation in both cells, which correlated with their abilities to suppress PPARγ transactivation, a critical event for brown adipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chronic PRR activation suppressed brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes, possibly through suppression of PPARγ transactivation. The results suggest that anti- inflammatory therapies targeting PRRs may be beneficial for the BAT development.

  4. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tim J; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E; Townsend, Kristy L; Cypess, Aaron M; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-03-21

    Maintenance of body temperature is essential for the survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation. Owing to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anatomically located in the interscapular region of mice; and recruitable BAT (rBAT), which resides within white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, and has alternatively been called beige, brite or inducible BAT. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate the formation and thermogenic activity of BAT. Here we use mouse models to provide evidence for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis. Genetic ablation of the type 1A BMP receptor (Bmpr1a) in brown adipogenic progenitor cells leads to a severe paucity of cBAT. This in turn increases sympathetic input to WAT, thereby promoting the formation of rBAT within white fat depots. This previously unknown compensatory mechanism, aimed at restoring total brown-fat-mediated thermogenic capacity in the body, is sufficient to maintain normal temperature homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These data suggest an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells. This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease.

  5. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  6. Regulation of brown fat adipogenesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Matsuo

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation.To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO mice. In addition, we reconstituted KO cells with wild type, substrate-trapping (D/A and sumoylation-resistant (K/R PTP1B mutants, then characterized differentiation and signaling in these cells. KO, D/A- and WT-reconstituted cells fully differentiated into mature adipocytes with KO and D/A cells exhibiting a trend for enhanced differentiation. In contrast, K/R cells exhibited marked attenuation in differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with WT cells. Expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PGC1α mirrored the differentiation pattern. In addition, the differentiation deficit in K/R cells could be reversed completely by the PPARγ activator troglitazone. PTP1B deficiency enhanced insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 tyrosyl phosphorylation, while K/R cells exhibited attenuated insulin-induced IR and IRS1 phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with WT cells. In addition, substrate-trapping studies revealed that IRS1 is a substrate for PTP1B in brown adipocytes. Moreover, KO, D/A and K/R cells exhibited elevated AMPK and ACC phosphorylation compared with WT cells.These data indicate that PTP1B is a modulator of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that adipocyte differentiation requires regulated expression of PTP1B.

  7. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  11. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  12. Investigating the magnetism of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmychov, O; Harrington, D; Kuhn, J

    2013-01-01

    We model the spectra of two brown dwarfs observed with the low resolution spectropolarimeter LRIS (Keck observatory) during several rotational phases in order to infer their magnetic properties. The spectra modeled include the intensity signal (Stokes I/Ic) as well as the polarimetric signals (Stokes Q/Ic, U/Ic, and V/Ic), all coming from the 0-0 vibrational band of the CrH molecule at approx. 8610 A. In order to model the Stokes profiles, we solve a set of the radiative transfer equations for the CrH transitions in the presence of an external magnetic field. We present the upper limits for the magnetic field strengths for the objects observed, based on the modeling of the intensity signal I/Ic and the signal-to-noise information only. The proper modeling of the polarimetric signals, that requires more careful data reduction, is underway. Nevertheless, our preliminary results show a hint for kG magnetic fields for both brown dwarfs, that is in a good agreement with the result obtained from the simultaneous ra...

  13. Thermodestruction of brown coals of different genetic types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butuzova, Ludmila; Isaeva, Lubov [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 70 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Turchanina, Oksana [Donetsk National Technical University, 48 Artema str., 83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Krzton, Andrzej [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Sowinskiego, 44-102, Gliwice (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The influence of brown coal genetic type and method of chemical pre-treatment on its behavior in pyrolysis processes has been shown. An important role of brown coal reductivity in coal thermal decomposition has been ascertained. It has been found that chemical pre-treatment permits variation of the rate of pyrolysis, the yields of pyrolysis products and structure of semi-cokes.

  14. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  15. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  16. Explaining millimeter-sized particles in brown dwarf disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pinilla; T. Birnstiel; M. Benisty; L. Ricci; A. Natta; C.P. Dullemond; C. Dominik; L. Testi

    2013-01-01

    Context. Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emis

  17. Differential gene expression in white and brown preadipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeuf, S.; Klaus, S.; Klingenspor, M.; Schneider, T.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Keijer, J.

    2001-01-01

    White (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue are tissues of energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that brown and white preadipocytes are differentially determined, but so far not much is known about the genetic control of this determination process. The ai

  18. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.

  19. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  20. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Introduction Approximately 70% of ER+ breast cancers harbor expression of the estrogen receptor and are dependent upon its activity for various aspects of the...resistance to current FDA approved ER antagonists, but that more potent and selective estrogen receptor antagonists will be sufficiently active to...antagonists and their potency against ER mutants both in vitro and in vivo . Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer W81XWH-14-1-0359 9 4. Impact A) Impact

  1. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  2. Brown v. Plata: prison overcrowding in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Scott, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    California's prisons are currently designed to house approximately 85,000 inmates. At the time of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2011 decision in Brown v. Plata, the California prison system housed nearly twice that many (approximately 156,000 inmates). The Supreme Court held that California's prison system violated inmates' Eighth Amendment rights. The Court upheld a three-judge panel's order to decrease the population of California's prisons by an estimated 46,000 inmates. They determined that overcrowding was the primary cause of the inmates' inadequate medical and mental health care. As a result, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) has been working to redistribute inmates and parolees safely and decrease the overall population to the mandated levels. These large-scale adjustments to California's penal system create potential opportunities to study the long-term effects on affected inmates.

  3. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyngararasan M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  4. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  5. Accretion and Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the magnetospheric accretion and outflow signatures in sub-stellar objects is a natural extension of similar studies conducted on classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), and helps understand if brown dwarfs (BDs) follow the same formation mechanism as stars. Over the past decade, evidence for accretion in very low-mass stars (VLMs) and BDs has been accumulated using various techniques, which indicates that the overall accretion characteristics are continuous across the sub-stellar boundary. Outflow activity in VLMs and BDs has been confirmed based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden emission lines observed in the optical, and in millimetre continuum images of CO J=2-1 emission. This review summarizes the past and current state of observational work on accretion and outflow activity in VLMs and BDs, particularly with the advent of new instruments such as VLT/X-Shooter which has allowed the study of several accretion and outflow indicators over a wider wavelength range.

  6. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  8. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  9. Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh D. Wankhade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT. Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The recent appreciation that adult humans possess functional BAT strengthens this prospect. Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and “beige” adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. This review aims to provide a brief overview of BAT research and summarize recent findings concerning the physiological, cellular, and developmental characteristics of brown adipocytes. In addition, some key genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic targets of BAT/Beige cells that have been reported to have therapeutic potential to combat obesity will be discussed.

  10. Regulation of brown and beige fat by microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Pan, Ruping; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold. Later on, it was also discovered in human adults, suggesting its potential role in energy balance and metabolism. Moreover, "brown-like" adipocytes present in WAT depots, so called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells, were discovered by several groups. In recent years, miRNAs were found to have important regulatory function during brown fat differentiation, brown fat activation and white fat "browning". In this review, we focus on the regulation of brown and beige fat by miRNAs including the role in their differentiation and function, providing evidence for their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases.

  11. Shades of Brown: A Model for Thermogenic Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Michael Dempersmier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is specialized to burn fuels to perform thermogenesis in defense of body temperature against cold. Recent discovery of metabolically active and relevant amounts of BAT in adult humans have made it a potentially attractive target for development of anti-obesity therapeutics. There are two types of brown adipocytes: classical brown adipocytes as well as brown adipocyte-like cells, so called beige/brite cells, that arise in white adipose tissue in response to cold and hormonal stimuli. These cells may derive from distinct origins, and while functionally similar, have different gene signatures. Here, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of brown and beige/brite adipocytes as well as transcriptional regulation for development and function of murine brown and beige/brite adipocytes focusing on EBF2, IRF4 and ZFP516, in addition to PRDM16 as a coregulator. We also discuss hormonal regulation of brown and beige/brite adipocytes including several factors secreted from various tissues, including BMP7, FGF21 and irisin, as well as those from BAT itself, such as Nrg4 and adenosine.

  12. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  13. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393].

  14. Cloning of fiber-specific cDNAs and their structural variations in 4 fiber mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A mRNA preferentially expressed in cotton fiber was cloned from fiber total RNA of normal upland cotton TM-1 (wild-type) by using RT-PCR and corresponding cDNA (signed as TM-E6) was sequenced. TM-E6 gene had no intron and contained an open reading frame of 771 bp long, and might encode a peptide of 246 amino acids. Other 4 genes, Fl-E6, Li-E6, N-E6 and Bl-E6, which were homologous to TM-E6 gene, were also isolated from 4 fiber mutants of Fiberless Xu-zhou 142, Ligon lintless, Naked seed and Brown lint, respectively. Sequence analysis of each of these mutant genes revealed many variations in structure and nucleotide composition of gene when compared with the sequence of TM-E6 gene. (ⅰ) There was a changeable repetitive segment in which GGCTCA (Gly-Ser) was repeated 3-5 times between the 82nd and the 93rd codons in different mutant genes. Since the change of Gly-Ser repetitive segment occurred not only in the mutants but also in the wild-type cotton, the repeat frequency might not be associated with the mutation of fiber characteristics. (ⅱ) Among the 4 mutant genes, the percentage of changed codons was 7.05% in Fl-E6, 4.98% in Li-E6, and 4.15% in N-E6 and Bl-E6. It seems that the percentage of changed codons in E6 sequence was posi-tively correlated to the degree of fiber morphological varia-tion. (ⅲ) E6 polypeptides of two long-fiberless mutants (Fi-berless Xuzhou 142 and Ligon lintless) contained high simi-lar (99.4%) variation in the region of 1-174 amino acids from N-terminus, and those of short-fiberless mutants (Fi-berless Xuzhou and naked seed) revealed identical variation in the region of 116th-220th amino acids. It also seems that there was a parallel relation between E6 protein variation and fiber phenotype mutation. (ⅳ) Li-E6 and Bl-E6 genes also expressed at low level in seed coat besides at high level in fiber.

  15. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  16. TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, HAIYING; Wan, Bo; Grubisic, Ivan; Kaplan, Tommy; Tjian, Robert

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Mammals produce two distinct types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (white fat) is the more common type and is used to store energy; brown adipose tissue (brown fat) is mostly found in young animals and infants, and it plays an important role in dissipating energy as heat rather than storing it in fat for future use. In adults, higher levels of brown fat are associated with lower levels of fat overall, so there is considerable interest in learning more about this form of f...

  17. Acquired Brown Syndrome Treated With Traction of Superior Oblique Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Hoon; Paik, Hae Jung; Chi, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Brown syndrome is a rare strabismic disease characterized by a limited elevation in adduction of the eye. The lengthening/weakening of superior oblique muscle is the main way of surgical intervention for this disease. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed as having acquired Brown syndrome in his right eye after injury in his face. We experienced successful release of this Brown syndrome through mere pulling outward of superior oblique tendon during surgical exploration. We briefly discuss why this manipulation of superior oblique tendon that we performed was successful.

  18. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  19. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  20. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  1. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  2. Enhanced cellulase production in mutants of Thermomonospora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennington, G.; Lupo, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic actinomycete, secretes multiple forms of endo-beta, 1-4-glucanase (EG) when grown on cellulose-mineral salts liquid medium. The EG activity (measured as carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis) was separated by ion exchange chromatography into three distinct components which differed in their kinetic properties. Exposure of T. curvata to ultraviolet light, N-nitrosoguanidine, or ethane methyl sulfonate produced mutants with enhanced EG production. Selection of colonies which cleared cellulose agar plants containing 2-deoxyglucose or glycerol yielded mutants having 1.5 to 2.6 times the extracellular EG and saccharifying activity (measured by filter-paper and cotton-fiber hydrolysis). The secretion of extracellular protein was increased proportionally in mutant cultures. (Refs. 40).

  3. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population. The human...

  4. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  5. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  7. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  8. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  10. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  11. The formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that ~60% of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2Msun. Currently, there is no consensus on how these objects form. I will briefly review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will focus on the disc fragmentation theory and discuss how it addresses critical observational constraints, i.e. the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will examine whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in low-mass star and brown dwarf formation.

  12. Integrated Pest Management Plan Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Browns Park National...

  13. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: Where to look for them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation for the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100–5000 AU around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  14. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: where to look for them?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100-5000 AU) around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  15. Narrative report : Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  18. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  19. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins with a brief...

  20. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  1. John Browne (1642-1702): anatomist and plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Akiyama, Matthew; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Yalçin, Bulent; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to many other physicians of his age, John Browne (1642-1702), an English anatomist and surgeon, managed to strike a balance in his career that spanned relative obscurity, prestige, and notoriety. Among his more prestigious credits, Browne was Surgeon in Ordinary to King Charles II and William III. He also had numerous publications to his name, some of which are credited as great innovations. His career, however, was tempered by his most important book, which has been critiqued by his contemporaries as well as modern historians as plagiarism. Although Browne undeniably copied the works of others and published them under his name, he was not alone in this practice. Various forms of intellectual thievery were common in Browne's day, and there were many perpetrators. The life of this overlooked figure in the history of anatomy and the stigma attached to him will be examined.

  2. Aging Kit mutant mice develop cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    Full Text Available Both bone marrow (BM and myocardium contain progenitor cells expressing the c-Kit tyrosine kinase. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of c-Kit mutations on: i. myocardial c-Kit(+ cells counts and ii. the stability of left ventricular (LV contractile function and structure during aging. LV structure and contractile function were evaluated (echocardiography in two groups of Kit mutant (W/Wv and W41/W42 and in wild type (WT mice at 4 and 12 months of age and the effects of the mutations on LV mass, vascular density and the numbers of proliferating cells were also determined. In 4 month old Kit mutant and WT mice, LV ejection fractions (EF and LV fractional shortening rates (FS were comparable. At 12 months of age EF and FS were significantly decreased and LV mass was significantly increased only in W41/W42 mice. Myocardial vascular densities and c-Kit(+ cell numbers were significantly reduced in both mutant groups when compared to WT hearts. Replacement of mutant BM with WT BM at 4 months of age did not prevent these abnormalities in either mutant group although they were somewhat attenuated in the W/Wv group. Notably BM transplantation did not prevent the development of cardiomyopathy in 12 month W41/W42 mice. The data suggest that decreased numbers and functional capacities of c-Kit(+ cardiac resident progenitor cells may be the basis of the cardiomyopathy in W41/W42 mice and although defects in mutant BM progenitor cells may prove to be contributory, they are not causal.

  3. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as well as heteroallelic offspring of these two strains ('xCT/sut') and their associated genetic backgrounds. Homozygous sut mutant males showed reduced spontaneous alternation in spontaneous alternation tasks as well as reduced movement in an open field maze, but xCT and xCT/sut strains did not show significant changes in these tasks compared to appropriate controls. Neither xCT nor sut mutants showed differences from controls in rotarod tests. Female behavioral phenotypes were independent of estrus cycle stage. To ensure that homozygous xCT, sut, and xCT/sut strains all represent protein null alleles, we measured whole brain xCT protein levels using immunoblots. xCT, sut and xCT/sut strains showed no detectable xCT protein expression, confirming them as null alleles. Previously published microdialysis experiments showed reduced striatal glutamate in xCT mutants. Using the same methods, we measured reduced interstitial glutamate levels in the striatum but not cerebellum of sut mutants. However, we detected no glutamate change in the striatum or cerebellum of sut/xCT mice. We detected no changes in whole brain EAAT-1, -2, or -3 expression. We conclude that the behavioral and chemical differences exist between slc7a11 mutant strains, but we were unable to definitively attribute any of these differences to loss of system xc-.

  4. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease.

  5. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  7. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  8. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Tidal evolution of planets around brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bolmont, Emeline; Leconte, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. This has important implications for the tidal evolution of planets around BDs. We used a standard equilibrium tidal model to compute the orbital evolution of a large ensemble of planet-BD systems. We tested the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both the BD and planet, and the tidal dissipation factors. We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than \\sim 0.1 are repelled from the BD. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their ...

  10. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  11. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  12. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  13. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  14. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  15. Pref-1 preferentially inhibits heat production in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-05-01

    In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for heat production (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.

  16. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  17. nip, a symbiotic Medicago truncatula mutant that forms root nodules with aberrant infection threads and plant defense-like response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veereshlingam, Harita; Haynes, Janine G; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated and studied a novel symbiotic mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula, designated nip (numerous infections and polyphenolics). When grown on nitrogen-free media in the presence of the compatible bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nip mutant showed nitrogen deficiency symptoms. The mutant failed to form pink nitrogen-fixing nodules that occur in the wild-type symbiosis, but instead developed small bump-like nodules on its roots that were blocked at an early stage of development. Examination of the nip nodules by light microscopy after staining with X-Gal for S. meliloti expressing a constitutive GUS gene, by confocal microscopy following staining with SYTO-13, and by electron microscopy revealed that nip initiated symbiotic interactions and formed nodule primordia and infection threads. The infection threads in nip proliferated abnormally and very rarely deposited rhizobia into plant host cells; rhizobia failed to differentiate further in these cases. nip nodules contained autofluorescent cells and accumulated a brown pigment. Histochemical staining of nip nodules revealed this pigment to be polyphenolic accumulation. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that nip nodules expressed only a subset of genes associated with nodule organogenesis, as well as elevated expression of a host defense-associated phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene. nip plants were observed to have abnormal lateral roots. nip plant root growth and nodulation responded normally to ethylene inhibitors and precursors. Allelism tests showed that nip complements 14 other M. truncatula nodulation mutants but not latd, a mutant with a more severe nodulation phenotype as well as primary and lateral root defects. Thus, the nip mutant defines a new locus, NIP, required for appropriate infection thread development during invasion of the nascent nodule by rhizobia, normal lateral root elongation, and normal regulation of host defense-like responses

  18. Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning Agents: Irisin and FGF21 in the Development of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrżak, B; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the pediatric population, especially in early infancy, the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the highest. Further in life BAT is more active in individuals with a lower body mass index and one can expect that BAT is protective against childhood obesity. The development of BAT throughout the whole life can be regulated by genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified: white, brown, and beige adipocytes. The process by which BAT can become beige is still unclear and is an area of intensive research. The "browning agents" increase energy expenditure through the production of heat. Numerous factors known as "browning agents" have currently been described. In humans, recent studies justify a notion of a role of novel myokines: irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the metabolism and development of obesity. This review describes a possible role of irisin and FGF21 in the pathogenesis of obesity in children.

  19. A dominant semi dwarf mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the winter of 1997, a semi dwarf mutant was found in the F6 population of M9056/ R8018 xuan in Hainan Province. In the spring of 1998, the seeds were sown in Hefei, Anhui Province and the plant height of the population was measured at maturity.

  20. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  1. Colored HOMFLY polynomials can distinguish mutant knots

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We illustrate from the viewpoint of braiding operations on WZNW conformal blocks how colored HOMFLY polynomials with multiplicity structure can detect mutations. As an example, we explicitly evaluate the (2,1)-colored HOMFLY polynomials that distinguish a famous mutant pair, Kinoshita-Terasaka and Conway knot.

  2. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  3. GAMPMS: Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thomas; McDougal, Owen M; Andersen, Tim

    2015-06-30

    The prominence of endogenous peptide ligands targeted to receptors makes peptides with the desired binding activity good molecular scaffolds for drug development. Minor modifications to a peptide's primary sequence can significantly alter its binding properties with a receptor, and screening collections of peptide mutants is a useful technique for probing the receptor-ligand binding domain. Unfortunately, the combinatorial growth of such collections can limit the number of mutations which can be explored using structure-based molecular docking techniques. Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening (GAMPMS) uses a genetic algorithm to conduct a heuristic search of the peptide's mutation space for peptides with optimal binding activity, significantly reducing the computational requirements of the virtual screening. The GAMPMS procedure was implemented and used to explore the binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α3β2-isoform with a library of 64,000 α-conotoxin (α-CTx) MII peptide mutants. To assess GAMPMS's performance, it was compared with a virtual screening procedure that used AutoDock to predict the binding affinity of each of the α-CTx MII peptide mutants with the α3β2-nAChR. The GAMPMS implementation performed AutoDock simulations for as few as 1140 of the 64,000 α-CTx MII peptide mutants and could consistently identify a set of 10 peptides with an aggregated binding energy that was at least 98% of the aggregated binding energy of the 10 top peptides from the exhaustive AutoDock screening.

  4. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  5. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  6. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  7. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathasivam Sivakumar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding, limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases, gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases

  8. Deletion of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in leptin-deficient mice improves brown adipose tissue function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Becerril

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin and nitric oxide (NO on their own participate in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the functional interplay between both factors in this process has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of the absence of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS gene in the regulation of energy balance in ob/ob mice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Double knockout (DBKO mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes were generated, and the expression of molecules involved in the control of brown fat cell function was analyzed by real-time PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry. Twelve week-old DBKO mice exhibited reduced body weight (p<0.05, decreased amounts of total fat pads (p<0.05, lower food efficiency rates (p<0.05 and higher rectal temperature (p<0.05 than ob/ob mice. Ablation of iNOS also improved the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice. DBKO showed a marked reduction in the size of brown adipocytes compared to ob/ob mutants. In this sense, in comparison to ob/ob mice, DBKO rodents showed an increase in the expression of PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, a transcriptional regulator of brown adipogenesis. Moreover, iNOS deletion enhanced the expression of mitochondria-related proteins, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (Pgc-1alpha, sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1 and sirtuin-3 (Sirt-3. Accordingly, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 (Ucp-1 and Ucp-3 were upregulated in brown adipose tissue (BAT of DBKO mice as compared to ob/ob rodents. CONCLUSION: Ablation of iNOS improved the energy balance of ob/ob mice by decreasing food efficiency through an increase in thermogenesis. These effects may be mediated, in part, through the recovery of the BAT phenotype and brown fat cell function improvement.

  9. Amuvatinib has cytotoxic effects against NRAS-mutant melanoma but not BRAF-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Inna V; Fang, Bin; Koomen, John M; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Smalley, Keiran S M

    2014-10-01

    Effective targeted therapy strategies are still lacking for the 15-20% of melanoma patients whose melanomas are driven by oncogenic NRAS. Here, we report on the NRAS-specific behavior of amuvatinib, a kinase inhibitor with activity against c-KIT, Axl, PDGFRα, and Rad51. An analysis of BRAF-mutant and NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines showed the NRAS-mutant cohort to be enriched for targets of amuvatinib, including Axl, c-KIT, and the Axl ligand Gas6. Increasing concentrations of amuvatinib selectively inhibited the growth of NRAS-mutant, but not BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines, an effect associated with induction of S-phase and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Mechanistically, amuvatinib was noted to either inhibit Axl, AKT, and MAPK signaling or Axl and AKT signaling and to induce a DNA damage response. In three-dimensional cell culture experiments, amuvatinib was cytotoxic against NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines. Thus, we show for the first time that amuvatinib has proapoptotic activity against melanoma cell lines, with selectivity observed for those harboring oncogenic NRAS.

  10. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  11. Pref-1 in brown adipose tissue: specific involvement in brown adipocyte differentiation and regulatory role of C/EBPδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Jordi; Villena, Josep A; Hondares, Elayne; Carmona, María C; Sul, Hei Sook; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1) is known to play a central role in regulating white adipocyte differentiation, but the role of Pref-1 in BAT (brown adipose tissue) has not been analysed. In the present study we found that Pref-1 expression is high in fetal BAT and declines progressively after birth. However, Pref-1-null mice showed unaltered fetal development of BAT, but exhibited signs of over-activation of BAT thermogenesis in the post-natal period. In C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) α-null mice, a rodent model of impaired fetal BAT differentiation, Pref-1 was dramatically overexpressed, in association with reduced expression of the Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1) gene, a BAT-specific marker of thermogenic differentiation. In brown adipocyte cell culture models, Pref-1 was mostly expressed in pre-adipocytes and declined with brown adipocyte differentiation. The transcription factor C/EBPδ activated the Pref-1 gene transcription in brown adipocytes, through binding to the proximal promoter region. Accordingly, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced C/EBPδ knockdown led to reduced Pref-1 gene expression. This effect is consistent with the observed overexpression of C/EBPδ in C/EBPα-null BAT and high expression of C/EBPδ in brown pre-adipocytes. Dexamethasone treatment of brown pre-adipocytes suppressed Pref-1 down-regulation occurring throughout the brown adipocyte differentiation process, increased the expression of C/EBPδ and strongly impaired expression of the thermogenic markers UCP1 and PGC-1α [PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) co-activator-α]. However, it did not alter normal fat accumulation or expression of non-BAT-specific genes. Collectively, these results specifically implicate Pref-1 in controlling the thermogenic gene expression program in BAT, and identify C/EBPδ as a novel transcriptional regulator of Pref-1 gene expression that may be related to the specific role of glucocorticoids in BAT differentiation.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torode, Thomas A; Marcus, Susan E; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  13. Relationship in between Chemical Oxidation and Browning of Flavanols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.; Qi, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. At present, influencing factors of phenol chemical oxidation is little research. In order to study non-enzymatic browning factors, this research utilized catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid to establish simulation systems. The browning degree and products of flavanols were investigated by transmittance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main results and conclusions were follows. The brown generation is increased after phenols of chemical oxidation at 50°C and at pH 3.7 phosphate buffered saline, the sequence of influencing factor of browning is pH > kind of phenol > temperature. Oxidation of compounds of catechin and epicatechin results in formation of their Methylene quinone or o -Quinones. In addition, oxidation products of catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were mixture of different molecular sizes. The research has showed that brown generation correlated well with chemical oxidation of phenols and chemical oxidation reaction generated larger molecular weight polymers.

  14. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  15. Role of phosphate and carboxylate ions in maillard browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, George P

    2004-02-25

    The Maillard reaction of carbohydrates and amino acids is the underlying chemical basis for flavor and color formation in many processed foods. Phosphate and other polyatomic anions will accelerate the rate of Maillard browning, and this effect has been explained by invoking enhanced proton abstraction from intermediate Amadori compounds. In this work, the effect of phosphate and carboxylate ions on browning was measured for a series of reducing sugars with and without the presence of beta-alanine. Significant browning was observed for sugars alone suggesting that polyatomic anions contribute to Maillard browning by providing reactive intermediates directly from sugars. A mechanism is proposed for decomposition of sugars by polyatomic anions and efforts to trap reactive species using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) are described. The results of this study suggest how complications may arise from the popular usage of phosphate buffers in the study of Maillard reaction kinetics. In addition, the results imply how phosphates may be useful for enhancing browning during food processing.

  16. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  18. Dissecting the brown adipogenic regulatory network using integrative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rachana N.; Bues, Johannes J.; Gardeux, Vincent; Schwalie, Petra C.; Alpern, Daniel; Chen, Wanze; Russeil, Julie; Raghav, Sunil K.; Deplancke, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling, which makes them attractive therapeutic targets to tackle obesity. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying brown adipogenesis are still poorly understood. To address this, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin state during mouse brown fat cell differentiation, revealing extensive gene expression changes and chromatin remodeling, especially during the first day post-differentiation. To identify putatively causal regulators, we performed transcription factor binding site overrepresentation analyses in active chromatin regions and prioritized factors based on their expression correlation with the bona-fide brown adipogenic marker Ucp1 across multiple mouse and human datasets. Using loss-of-function assays, we evaluated both the phenotypic effect as well as the transcriptomic impact of several putative regulators on the differentiation process, uncovering ZFP467, HOXA4 and Nuclear Factor I A (NFIA) as novel transcriptional regulators. Of these, NFIA emerged as the regulator yielding the strongest molecular and cellular phenotypes. To examine its regulatory function, we profiled the genomic localization of NFIA, identifying it as a key early regulator of terminal brown fat cell differentiation. PMID:28181539

  19. Two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    During the last years the existence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has been widely accepted by the research community. Its unique ability to dissipate chemical energy stored in triglycerides as heat makes it an attractive target for new drugs against obesity and its related diseases. Hence the tissue is now subject to intense research, the hypothesis being that an expansion and/or activation of the tissue is associated with a healthy metabolic phenotype. Animal studies provide evidence for the existence of at least two types of brown adipocytes. Apart from the classical brown adipocyte that is found primarily in the interscapular region where it constitutes a thermogenic organ, a second type of brown adipocyte, the so-called beige adipocyte, can appear within white adipose tissue depots. The fact that the two cell types develop from different precursors suggests that they might be recruited and stimulated by different cues and therefore represent two distinct targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this commentary is to discuss recent work addressing the question whether also humans possess two types of brown adipocytes and to highlight some issues when looking for molecular markers for such cells.

  20. In Vitro Prevention of Browning in Plantain Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent C. Onuoha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The in vitro propagation of plantain (Musa paradisiaca is still faced with lots of challenges such as blackening or browning of tissues prior to culture due to the oxidation of phenolic compound by polyphenolic oxidase enzyme present in the tissue when excised. Approach: Understanding browning processes in plantain and possible ways of minimizing it during excision of explants with particular emphasis on the use of antioxidants was purposed. Tissues were surfaced sterilized with 0.1% (w/v HgCL2 for 1-6 min to get a pure culture and then treated for 2 h with different concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mg mL- of potassium citrate and citrate (K-C: C as an antioxidant to check browning while sterile distilled water was used as control. Results and Conclusion: The result showed that contamination free culture (100% was achieved in the explants treated with HgCL2 for 6 min. Also the various concentration of K-C: C prevented browning within 2 h before culturing the tissues inferring that browning in young plantain excised tissue can be greatly reduced by presoaking or pretreatment with antioxidant solution of potassium citrate-citrate before culturing them.

  1. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  2. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    disease-free survival, the majority of breast cancer patients will present recurrent antiestrogen resistant metastatic lesions following prolonged...exposure to these therapies. By investigating how these lesions become resistant to antiestrogen while maintaining expression of ERα, we found...Retreat. Invited oral presentation. C) Other products Nothing to report. Targeting  ESR1-­‐Mutant  Breast  Cancer   W81XWH-­‐14-­‐1-­‐0360

  3. Characterization of a Legionella micdadei mip mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, W A; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Cianciotto, N P

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Legionella micdadei is dependent upon its ability to infect alveolar phagocytes. To better understand the basis of intracellular infection by this organism, we examined the importance of its Mip surface protein. In Legionella pneumophila, Mip promotes infection of both human m...... into the phagocyte. Similarly, the mutant was less able to parasitize Hartmannella amoebae. Taken together, these data argue that Mip specifically potentiates intracellular growth by L. micdadei....

  4. A resolved outflow of matter from a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Natta, A; Testi, L; Randich, S; Whelan, Emma T.; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs amongst newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  5. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  6. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  7. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  8. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  9. Detectability of dirty dust grains in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, C H; Thi, W F; Woitke, P; Helling, CH.

    2006-01-01

    Dust clouds influence the atmospheric structure of brown dwarfs, and they affect the heat transfer and change the gas-phase chemistry. However, the physics of their formation and evolution is not well understood. In this letter, we predict dust signatures and propose a potential observational test of the physics of dust formation in brown dwarf atmosphere based on the spectral features of the different solid components predicted by dust formation theory. A momentum method for the formation of dirty dust grains (nucleation, growth, evaporation, drift) is used in application to a static brown dwarf atmosphere structure to compute the dust grain properties, in particular the heterogeneous grain composition and the grain size. Effective medium and Mie theory are used to compute the extinction of these spherical grains. Dust formation results in grains whose composition differs from that of grains formed at equilibrium. Our kinetic model predicts that solid amorphous SiO2[s] (silica) is one of the most abundant so...

  10. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  11. MicroRNAs Are Required for the Feature Maintenance and Differentiation of Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J.; Nguyen, Long N.; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X.; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L.; Lodish, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue–specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes. PMID:25008181

  12. MicroRNAs are required for the feature maintenance and differentiation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J; Nguyen, Long N; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L; Lodish, Harvey; Sun, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes.

  13. Refined exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155 taking into account additional information on its use in foods as consumed. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown HT and concluded that dietary exposure in both adults and 1-10 year old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brown HT of 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brown HT in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for six out of 37 food categories in which Brown HT is authorised. A limited number of analytical results were also reported to EFSA, all below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three different scenarios were considered, including i exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, ii a combination of MPLs and reported maximum use levels and iii reported maximum use levels only. Considering the first two scenarios, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for all age groups, with exception for the elderly. In comparison to the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, while the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high level exposure estimates of Brown HT are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the reported use levels only.

  14. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Identiifcation and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Rice Spotted-Leaf Mutant with Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hai-chao; SHI Yong-feng; FENG Bao-hua; WANG Hui-mei; XU Xia; HUANG Qi-na; LÜ Xiang-guang; WU Jian-li

    2014-01-01

    A spotted-leaf mutant of rice HM143 was isolated from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. Brown lesions randomly distributed on leaf blades were observed about 3 wk after sowing. The symptom lasted for the whole plant growth duration. Histochemical analysis indicated that cell death occurred in and around the site of necrotic lesions accompanied with accumulation of hydrogen hyperoxide. Agronomic traits were largely similar to the wild type IR64 except seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight which were signiifcantly decreased in the mutant. Disease resistance of the mutant to multiple races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was signiifcantly enhanced. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively termed splHM143. In addition, using molecular markers and 1 023 mutant type individuals from an F2 segregating population derived from the cross HM143/R9308, the spotted-leaf gene was ifnally delimited to an interval of 149 kb between markers XX25 and ID40 on the long arm of chromosome 4. splHM143 is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identiifed near the chromosomal region.

  16. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  17. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui; OOI; Engchoon; Vincent; ANG; Put; O; Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  18. Hanbury Brown and Twiss anticorrelation in disordered photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kondakci, H Esat; Keil, Robert; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of coherent light transmitted through disordered one-dimensional photonic lattices. Although such a lattice exhibits transverse Anderson localization when a single input site is excited, uniform excitation precludes its observation. By examining the Hanbury Brown--Twiss correlation for a uniformly excited disordered lattice, we observe intensity anticorrelations associated with photon antibunching--a signature of non-Gaussian statistics. Although the measured average intensity distribution is uniform, transverse Anderson localization nevertheless underlies the observed anticorrelation.

  19. [Hibernoma: brown fat retroperitoneal tumor. Report of a pediatric case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Laura; Sierre, Sergio; Bosalec, Andrea; Lipsich, José

    2011-12-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, composed of brown fat. This tissue is predominant in hibernating animals and hence its name. Because of its rarity in Pediatrics and difficult diagnosis, we report a 3 month-old patient with a diagnosis consistent with an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound and computed tomography exams showed an infiltrative retroperitoneal tumor, with hypervascular and lipomatous features. After tumor excision, histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of hibernoma or brown fat tumor. This presentation describes the characteristics of this type of tumor, rare in children, and reviews the fatty tumors, according to their frequency in pediatric patients.

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxins contamination in brown rice from pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas A...

  1. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  2. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  3. Brown Dwarfs: A New Class of Stellar Lighthouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Brown dwarfs, thought just a few years ago to be incapable of emitting any significant amounts of radio waves, have been discovered putting out extremely bright "lighthouse beams" of radio waves, much like pulsars. A team of astronomers made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. Artist's Conception of Brown Dwarf Artist's conception of "mini-aurorae" at poles of brown dwarf, producing beams of strong radio emission. CREDIT: Hallinan et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information "These beams rotate with the brown dwarf, and we see them when the beam passes over the Earth. This is the same way we see pulses from pulsars," said Gregg Hallinan of the National University of Ireland Galway. "We now think brown dwarfs may be a missing link between pulsars and planets in our own Solar System, which also emit, but more weakly," he added. Brown dwarfs are enigmatic objects that are too small to be stars but too large to be planets. They are sometimes called "failed stars" because they have too little mass to trigger hydrogen fusion reactions at their cores, the source of the energy output in larger stars. With roughly 15 to 80 times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, brown dwarfs were long thought to exist. However, it was not until 1995 that astronomers were able to actually find one. A few dozen now are known. In 2001, a group of summer students at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory used the VLA to observe a brown dwarf, even though they had been told by seasoned astronomers that brown dwarfs are not observable at radio wavelengths. Their discovery of a strong flare of radio emission from the object surprised astronomers and the students' scientific paper on the discovery was published in the prestigous scientific journal Nature. Hallinan and his team observed a set of brown dwarfs with the VLA last year, and found that three of the objects emit extremely

  4. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S; Lodders, K

    2002-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  5. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov S. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil. The study showed that the indicators used in the biological condition of the soil, could be recommended for use for diagnosis, monitoring, and regulation of chemical pollution of brown soil. According to the degree of resistance to chemical contamination, the brown soils of Russia form the following series: typical brown - brown carbonate - brown leached

  6. The role of brown adipose tissue in temperature regulation. [of hibernating and hypothermic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The thermogenetic capacities of brown adipose tissue were studied on marmots, rats and monkeys in response to cold exposure. All experiments indicated that the brown fat produced heat and slowed the cooling of tissues.

  7. Pharmacological Activation of Thyroid Hormone Receptors Elicits a Functional Conversion of White to Brown Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z. Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT into a tissue with brown adipose tissue (BAT-like activity, often referred to as “browning,” represents an intriguing strategy for combating obesity and metabolic disease. We demonstrate that thyroid hormone receptor (TR activation by a synthetic agonist markedly induces a program of adaptive thermogenesis in subcutaneous WAT that coincides with a restoration of cold tolerance to cold-intolerant mice. Distinct from most other browning agents, pharmacological TR activation dissociates the browning of WAT from activation of classical BAT. TR agonism also induces the browning of white adipocytes in vitro, indicating that TR-mediated browning is cell autonomous. These data establish TR agonists as a class of browning agents, implicate the TRs in the browning of WAT, and suggest a profound pharmacological potential of this action.

  8. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  9. Characterisation of cuticular mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Plants are protected by the extracellular cuticle, which is made up of cutin, cutan and waxes. The cutin composition of a variety of plants has been known and models of the biosynthesis of cutin monomers exist but not many enzymes have been identified. It is generally accepted that a defect in the cuticle leads to an organ fusion phenotype. In the model plant A. thaliana many fusion mutants have been identified but the identification of genes involved have not lead to a complete picture of th...

  10. Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Chlorogenic Acid by Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Verloop, J.W.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectra

  11. After Brown U.'s Report on Slavery, Silence (So Far)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article, discusses Brown University's slavery report, a 106-page narrative examination of the early connections between Brown University and slavery, that has been greeted--so far--with silence. The report, done at the behest of Ruth J. Simmons, Brown's president and herself a descendant of slaves, is an unsparing look at a shameful side of…

  12. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX1...85879,SRX143805,SRX478163 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  2. Using of AFLP to evaluate gamma-irradiated amaranth mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labajová Mária

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of several gamma-irradiated mutants of amaranth Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid are most genetically similar to their non-irradiated control genotypes, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP based analysis. A total of 40 selective primer combinations were used in reported analyses. First analyses of gamma-irradiated amaranth mutant lines were done used the AFLP. In the study, primers with the differentiation ability for all analysed mutant lines are reported. The very specific changes in the mutant lines´ non-coding regions based on AFLP length polymorphism were analysed. Mutant lines of the Ficha cultivar (C15, C26, C27, C82, C236 shared a genetic dissimilarity of 0,11 and their ISSR profiles are more similar to the Ficha than those of K-433 hybrid mutant lines. The K-433 mutant lines (D54, D279, D282 shared genetic dissimilarity of 0,534 but are more distinct to their control plant as a whole, as those of the Ficha mutant lines. Different AFLP fingerprints patters of the mutant lines when compared to the Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid AFLP profiles may be a consequence of the complex response of the intergenic space of mutant lines to the gamma-radiance. Although a genetic polymorphism was detected within accessions, the AFLP markers successfully identified all the accessions. The AFLP results are discussed by a combination of biochemical characteristics of mutant lines and their control genotypes.

  3. Distribution of soluble amino acids in maize endosperm mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Alejandro Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For human nutrition the main source of vegetable proteins are cereal and legume seeds. The content of total soluble amino acids in mature endosperm of wild-type, opaque and floury maize (Zea mays L. mutants were determined by HPLC. The total absolute concentration of soluble amino acids among the mutants varied depending on the mutant. The o11 and o13 mutants exhibited the highest average content, whereas o10, fl3 and fl1 exhibited the lowest average content. In general, the mutants exhibited similar concentrations of total soluble amino acids when compared to the wild-type lines, with the clear exception of mutants o11 and fl1, with the o11 mutant exhibiting a higher concentration of total soluble amino acids when compared to its wild-type counterpart W22 and the fl1 mutant a lower concentration when compared to its wild-type counterpart Oh43. For methionine, the mutants o2 and o11 and wild-type Oh43 exhibited the highest concentrations of this amino acid. Significant differences were not observed between mutants for other amino acids such as lysine and threonine. The high lysine concentrations obtained originally for these mutants may be due to the amino acids incorporated into storage proteins, but not those present in the soluble form.

  4. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  5. Astronaut Curtis Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, STS-66 pilot, mans the pilot's station during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  6. Stylistic Analysis of Robert Browning's Poem "Patriot into Traitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumtaz; Irshad, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    The stylistic analysis of Robert Browning's poem "Patriot into Traitor" is done by using graphological, phonological, morphological and lexico-syntactic patterns. This analysis is helpful in decoding the underlying meanings of the poem. It clearly brings to surface what the poet really wants to impart.

  7. Gaia, Non-Single Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A

    2014-01-01

    In its all-sky survey, Gaia will monitor astrometrically and photometrically millions of main-sequence stars with sufficient sensitivity to brown dwarf companions within a few AUs from their host stars and to transiting brown dwarfs on very short periods, respectively. Furthermore, thousands of detected ultra-cool dwarfs in the backyard of the Sun will have direct (absolute) distance estimates from Gaia, and for these Gaia astrometry will be of sufficient precision to reveal any orbiting companions with masses as low as that of Jupiter. Gaia observations thus bear the potential for critical contributions to many important questions in brown dwarfs astrophysics (how do they form in isolation and as companions to stars? Can planets form around them? What are their fundamental parameters such as ages, masses, and radii? What is their atmospheric physics?), and their connection to stars and planets. The full legacy potential of Gaia in the realm of brown dwarf science will be realized when combined with other det...

  8. Regulation of brown adipose tissue by stress and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDue to the increasing incidence of obesity, more means of treating obesity are necessary. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential target tissue via which obesity can be treated due to its unique ability to use energy to produce heat. Not much is known however about the mechanisms via w

  9. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  10. Ms.Brown is introducing their exhibition to Miss Jiang.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Miss Jiang:I want to know more about the International HouseholdUtensil Exhibition.Ms.Brown:It is an exhibition with a 32-year history,catering to clientsfrom South Africa and Mexico.Over the past 32 years,the exhibition hasbeen well known for its high efficiency in signing contracts.

  11. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  12. Derek Denny-Brown: the man behind the ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Faber, Ingrid; Martins, Carlos Roberto; Casseb, Raphael F; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C; Teive, Hélio A G

    2017-02-01

    The authors present an historical review about the main contributions of Professor Derek Denny-Brown to neurology. Some of his achievements include the first description of sensory neuronopathies, and some of the essential textbooks on the function and anatomy of the basal ganglia. In 2016, on the 35th anniversary of his death, modern neurologists are still strongly influenced by his legacy.

  13. Scientific Works by Wiener and Lévy After Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    2008-07-01

    Brownian motion was recognized as a scientific research object by R. Brown in 1827, and then many scientists studied the motion within science. Two famous mathematicians, N. Wiener and P. Lévy, studied Browniam motion mainly in mathematics. We appreciate their works and would like to note that their results play very important role in the study of biological phenomena.

  14. Fighting Back Like a Man: The Morality of "Murphy Brown."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Mickey

    A study used Carol Gilligan's work on the legitimization of the female voice to examine the degree to which care and justice perspectives are expressed in the voice of television character "Murphy Brown" in the situation comedy of the same name. Two episodes of the show were analyzed to examine how Murphy resolved moral dilemmas. Although the…

  15. Gastrointestinal tract of the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potter, M.A.; Lentle, R.G.; Birtles, M.J.; Thomas, D.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The caeca of the brown kiwi Apteryx mantelli increased in length isometrically with body mass, but wall mass and thus mucosal thickness increased allometrically. Kiwi caeca are sacculate, with greater thickness of mucosa in the proximal portions. The caecal mucosa is similar to the small intestinal

  16. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  17. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  18. A New Bromophenol from the Brown Alga Leathesia nana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Li XU; Xiao FAN; Fu Hang SONG; Jie Lu ZHAO; Li Jun HAN; Jian Gong SHI

    2004-01-01

    A novel bromophenol was isolated from ethanolic extract of the brown alga Leathesia nana S.et G. The structure was elucidated as (E)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl- propenal by spectroscopic methods including IR, HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  19. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  20. Neuroradiologic findings in brown snake envenomation: Computed tomography demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midyett, F.A. [Townsville General Hospital, Townsville, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1998-08-01

    A case of fatal brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation is presented. The CT examinations show rapid development and progression of atypical bilateral intracerebral haematomas (ICH) which produce a fatal outcome despite correction of the underlying coagulopathy. The striking CT appearance suggests coagulopathy and is predictive of increased mortality. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 10 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Belu, Adrian R; Raymond, Sean N; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D K; Von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G C; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting brown dwarfs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (PHZ out). Habitable planets with PHZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g. 8-10 hrs) can be screened with 100 percent completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous brown dwarfs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g. from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved - 3 telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known brown dwarfs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5 +5.6-1.4 and 56 +31-13 percent, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that bro...

  2. A Stock Pricing Model Based on Arithmetic Brown Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yong-xin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new stock pricing model based on arithmetic Brown motion. The model overcomes the shortcomings of Gordon model completely. With the model investors can estimate the stock value of surplus companies, deficit companies, zero increase companies and bankrupt companies in long term investment or in short term investment.

  3. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…

  4. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  5. Primary hyperparathyroidism with rare presentation as multiple brown tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Doshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism with an uncommon presentation as multiple brown tumours, which may easily be mistaken for a primary bone neoplasm. A brief literature review and its clinical and surgical management are also discussed here.

  6. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  7. Brown adipose tissue takes up plasma triglycerides mostly after lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Dijk, Wieneke; Buijs, Jeroen T.; Kersten, Sander; Havekes, Louis M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Berbée, Jimmy F.P.; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning TGs that are stored within intracellular lipid droplets and need to be replenished by the uptake of TG-derived FA from plasma. It is currently unclear whether BAT takes up FA via uptake of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), after lipolysis-mediated li

  8. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  9. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  10. Forward and Inverse Modeling of Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Jonathan

    Ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), here defined as the L, T, and Y spectral classes, consist of the lowest mass stars and the substellar brown dwarfs. Over 1200 are currently known, from effective temperatures of 2400 K down to "room temperature" objects of 300 K. Observations of UCDs show tremendous diversity in their spectral characteristics. However, factors such as metallicity, non-solar C/O ratios, surface gravity, vertical mixing efficiency, cloud levels, and cloud thickness remain largely unexplored within atmosphere models. This leads to a very limited understanding of the physical and chemical causes of brown dwarf diversity. One of the main motivations of this proposal is to greatly expand the kinds of modeling efforts that we envision for UCD science to obtain fundamentally new insights from the spectra of several hundred objects. First, we will expand our self-consistent grids of combined atmosphere and evolution models. With this traditional approach we can test the sensitivity of synthetic spectra of changes in parameters like surface gravity, cloud thickness, partial cloudiness, cloud particle size, and vertical mixing efficiency. Second, we will use powerful retrieval techniques to invert the model-to-data comparison problem. These Bayesian techniques allow the inference of P-T profile structure and molecular abundances, directly from the data. The first target populations are benchmark brown dwarfs, which have a well-studied main sequence companion, and where metallicity, age, and even mass can be independently constrained. The second is the 500+ UCDs across all spectral types that have NIR spectra already in hand in the SpeX spectral library. The third population is brown dwarfs that are variable in emission. This work is directly relevant to the NASA Astrophysics Theory (ATP) program. The proposed falls within the ATP scope of "Stellar Astrophysics and Exoplanets," which specifically includes brown dwarfs. The current proposal both facilitates "the

  11. SHAPING THE BROWN DWARF DESERT: PREDICTING THE PRIMORDIAL BROWN DWARF BINARY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM TURBULENT FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumper, Peter H.; Fisher, Robert T., E-mail: robert.fisher@umassd.edu [University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, N. Dartmouth, MA 02747-2300 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ({<=}5 AU) BD companions to solar mass stars, known as the BD desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly bound than stellar binaries, has been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for BDs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that BDs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the BD desert, as well as wide BD binary systems. Further, we show that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low mass binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly bound than stellar systems. In addition, in order to capture the stochastic variation intrinsic to turbulence, we generate 10{sup 4} model turbulent cores with synthetic turbulent velocity fields to show that the turbulent fragmentation model accommodates a small fraction of binary BDs with wide separations, similar to observations. Indeed, the picture which emerges from the turbulent fragmentation model is that a single fragmentation mechanism may largely shape both stellar and BD binary distributions during formation.

  12. NTT Observations Indicate that Brown Dwarfs Form Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Dusty Disks Detected around Very Young Substellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Summary An international team of astronomers [2] is announcing today the discovery of dusty disks surrounding numerous very faint objects that are believed to be recently formed Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula [3]. This finding is based on detailed observations with SOFI, a specialised infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory. It is of special interest because it sheds light on the origin and nature of substellar objects, known as "Brown Dwarfs" . In particular, these results suggest that Brown Dwarfs share a common origin with stars and that Brown Dwarfs are more similar in nature to stars than to planets and, like stars, have the potential to form with accompanying systems of planets. Moreover, the presence of dusty protoplanetary disks around the faintest objects in the Orion Nebula cluster confirms both the membership of these faint stars in the cluster and their nature as bona-fide substellar objects, making this the largest population of Brown Dwarf objects yet known . These important results are being reported today to the American Astronomical Society Meeting in Pasadena (California, USA). PR Photo 22a/01 : Infrared picture of the Orion Nebula (NTT + SOFI). PR Photo 22b/01 : "Finding Chart" for Very Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula. PR Photo 22c/01 : Animated GIF presentation of PR Photos 22a+b/01. Faint substellar objects in the Milky Way Over the past 5 years, several groups of astronomers have identified a type of very faint, substellar objects within our Milky Way galaxy. These gaseous objects have very low masses and will never shine like normal stars because they cannot achieve central temperatures high enough for sustained thermal nuclear reactions to occur in their cores. Such objects weigh less than about 7% of our Sun and have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs" , "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets

  13. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  14. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  15. Constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of Tan protein in brain and epidermis of Ceratitis capitata and of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type and tan mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M M; Sabio, G; Badaracco, A; Quesada-Allué, L A

    2011-09-01

    The present report shows a partial biochemical characterization and life cycle expression of N-β-alanyldopamine hydrolase (Tan protein) in Ceratitis capitata and Drosophila melanogaster. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD), the main tanning precursor of insect brown cuticles. It also plays an important role in the metabolism of brain neurotransmitters, recycling dopamine and histamine. In contrast to NBAD-synthase, Tan is expressed constitutively in epidermis and does not respond directly to microbial challenge. Immunodetection experiments showed the novel localization of NBAD-hydrolase in the embryo central neural system and in different regions of the adult brain, in addition to optic lobes. We sequenced and characterized Drosophila mutants tan¹ and tan³. The latter appears to be a mutant with normal expression in neural tissue but weak one in epidermis.

  16. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed.

  17. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in acetate metabolism: isolation and characterization of Acn- mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M T

    1996-09-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn- ("ACetate Nonutilizing") mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism.

  18. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  19. [Multiple brown tumors in a female hemodialyzed patient with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Gil, F; González, F; Ablanedo, P

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal brown tumours are relatively uncommon, and brown tumours that involve multiple bones are considered very rare. We describe a 29-year-old woman with chronic renal failure (CRF) who had undergone hemodialysis for 21 years and developed multiple brown tumours associated with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple brown tumours involving scapula, ribs, spine and sacroiliac bone. Microscopic analysis of the brown tumour showed dense infiltration of the marrow space by reactive fibroblastic tissue with irregularly distributed multinucleated osteoclastic giants cells and marked increase in hematopoietic elements.

  20. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  1. Mutants of downy mildew resistance in Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Anderson, P A; Ochoa, O E; Michelmore, R W

    1994-07-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm 1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from gamma- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm 1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci.

  2. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Luo, Pan; Di, Dong-Wei; Wang, Li; Wang, Ming; Lu, Cheng-Kai; Wei, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Zi; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-07-06

    Identification of mutants with impairments in auxin biosynthesis and dynamics by forward genetic screening is hindered by the complexity, redundancy and necessity of the pathways involved. Furthermore, although a few auxin-deficient mutants have been recently identified by screening for altered responses to shade, ethylene, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or cytokinin (CK), there is still a lack of robust markers for systematically isolating such mutants. We hypothesized that a potentially suitable phenotypic marker is root curling induced by CK, as observed in the auxin biosynthesis mutant CK-induced root curling 1 / tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (ckrc1/taa1). Phenotypic observations, genetic analyses and biochemical complementation tests of Arabidopsis seedlings displaying the trait in large-scale genetic screens showed that it can facilitate isolation of mutants with perturbations in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. However, unlike transport/signaling mutants, the curled (or wavy) root phenotypes of auxin-deficient mutants were significantly induced by CKs and could be rescued by exogenous auxins. Mutants allelic to several known auxin biosynthesis mutants were re-isolated, but several new classes of auxin-deficient mutants were also isolated. The findings show that CK-induced root curling provides an effective marker for discovering genes involved in auxin biosynthesis or homeostasis.

  3. Myostatin inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of Smad3-mediated β-catenin stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Kon; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Sung Goo; Ko, Yong; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul

    2012-02-01

    Brown adipocytes play an important role in regulating energy balance, and there is a good correlation between obesity and the amount of brown adipose tissue. Although the molecular mechanism of white adipocyte differentiation has been well characterized, brown adipogenesis has not been studied extensively. Moreover, extracellular factors that regulate brown adipogenic differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the mechanism of the regulatory action of myostatin in brown adipogenic differentiation using primary brown preadipocytes. Our results clearly showed that differentiation of brown adipocytes was significantly inhibited by myostatin treatment. In addition, myostatin-induced suppression of brown adipogenesis was observed during the early phase of differentiation. Myostatin induced the phosphorylation of Smad3, which led to increased β-catenin stabilization. These effects were blocked by treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor. Expression of brown adipocyte-related genes, such as PPAR-γ, UCP-1, PGC-1α, and PRDM16, were dramatically down-regulated by treatment with myostatin, and further down-regulated by co-treatment with a β-catenin activator. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that myostatin is a potent negative regulator of brown adipogenic differentiation by modulation of Smad3-induced β-catenin stabilization. Our findings suggest that myostatin could be used as an extracellular factor in the control of brown adipocyte differentiation.

  4. Google: a narrativa de uma marca mutante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete de Azevedo Kreutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As marcas mutantes já fazem parte de nossa realidade, embora ainda não totalmente percebidas e/ou aceitas como tal. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a relevância dessas novas estratégias de comunicação e branding, identificando suas principais características. Para isso, utilizamos o método de estudo de caso, o Google, ancorado nos métodos de pesquisa bibliográfica e de internet. A escolha foi intencional, posto que a organização é referência em sua categoria, mecanismo de busca, e reflete essa estratégia comunicacional contemporânea. Como resultado, as informações obtidas nos possibilitam compreender essa tendência de comportamento de marca que busca a interação com seus públicos.

  5. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  6. Colony mutants of compatible nocardiae displaying variations in recombining capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, G H; Walsh, R S

    1972-03-01

    Colonial morphology mutants of Nocardia erythropolis were isolated following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The alleles rou-1/smo-1 were located by recombinant analysis and found to be linked to previously mapped characters. On the basis of recombinant class type patterns obtained from various selective characters it was postulated that the rou-1 allele may span a region of unique nucleotides in the Mat-Ce genome. Recombination frequencies of rou-1 and smo-2 bearing mutants of the Mat-Ce mating type were found to differ by over 1000 fold. Attempts to demonstrate that low recombination frequencies produced by the Smo mutants were due to Rec(-) genes were unsuccessful. No increased sensitivity to either UV or X irradiation was observed by the Smo mutants. Acriflavine treatment of either Rou or Smo colony mutants failed to accelerate reversion or to alter the recombining potentials of the mutants.

  7. Screening and identification of mutants of Magnaporthe grisea by REMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ruyi; LIU Juan; ZHOU Yijun; FAN Yongjian; ZHENG Xiaobo

    2007-01-01

    The plasmid pUCATPH was used to establish a transformation system in wild-type isolate M131 of Magnaporthe grisea.Six hundred and thirty-nine transformants were obtained by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) with hygromycin B (hyg B) resistance as a tag.Morphological analysis of two of the REMI mutants confirmed that they produced little melanin under black light and continued for three generations.Pathogenicity identification of six mutants screened proved that they made pathogenicity changes on three sets of differential varieties with different resistance genes.Rep-PCR analyses showed that two morphological mutants and two pathogenicity mutants differed from wild-type isolate M131 at the molecular level.RFLP analyses were performed to study the four mutants at the molecular level and the integration sites of the plasmid DNA.The results showed that the plasmid was inserted into all four mutants and that the insertion sites were random.

  8. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus.

  9. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii Altered in Cercosporin Synthesis and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, R G; Walker, D C; Rollins, J A; Ehrenshaft, M; Daub, M E

    1991-10-01

    We have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus.

  10. Attenuated virulence of pigment-producing mutant of Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria in HeLa cells and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Abolghait

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are potential water/foodborne pathogens, whereas Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria is one of the most virulent species to human and fish. Most current experimental evidence has publicized that suicide plasmid dependent IS1-element untargeted integration into A. veronii bv. sobria ATCC 9071T strain was recently used to generate brown pigment-producing and spontaneous pelleting (BP+SP+ mutant. Current study was conducted to compare virulence of wild-type ATCC 9071T strain and its BP+SP+ mutant with respect to cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and lethality in Nile tilapia. It was found that the cytotoxicity of wild-type ATCC 9071T strain to HeLa cells has reached 75% versus 50% for the cytotoxicity of BP+SP+ mutant. Further, the median lethal dose (LD50 of wild-type ATCC 9071T strain in Nile tilapia was 8.25 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU/ml, compared to 9.16 Log10 CFU/ml for the LD50 of BP+SP+ mutant. Thus, current study supports the notion that non pigment-producing Aeromonas strains are more virulent than pigment-producing ones.

  11. [Eremothecium ashbyii mutants resistant to 2,6-diaminopurine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A I; Beburov, M Iu; Zhdanov, V G

    1975-01-01

    3 groups of Eremothecium ashbyii mutants resistant to 5-10(-3) M 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) ahve been obtained. The mutants of the 1st group (Dap-r) are selected from the initial susceptible strain by the ability to grow in the presence of 5-10(-3) M DAP. The mutants of the 2nd group (Azg-Dap-r) are selected in the selective background of two analogues of 5-10(-3) M DAP and 10(-4) M 8-azaguanine (AG). The mutants of the 3rd group (Azg-r - DAP-r) are isolated from the mutant Azg-r 34 resistant to 10(-4) M AG. The results of studying cross-resistance of mutants to DAP, AG and 8-azaadenine (AA) show that Dap-r and Azg-Dap-r mutants in contrast to Azg-r - Dap-r, have common phenotypic properties and can grow only on the analogues of adenine. DAP, but not AA, eliminates the inhibitory effect of AG on the growth of these mutants. This effect is probably due to deaminating DAP to guanine. Mutants Azg-r - Dap-r retain the initial resistance to 10(-4) M AG, but are susceptible to higher concentrations of AG and in this case DAP does not eliminate the inhibitory effect of AG. In all mutants obtained the effectiveness of the incorporation of 14C-adenine (but not 14C-guanine) is sharply reduced, thus indicating the absence of adenosine-monophosphate pyrophosphorylase activity. The mutants do not excrete purine-like compounds into the medium. In the course of the continuous growth of mutants in the presence of DAP but not of guanine the red intracellular pigment is formed which seems to be a complex of riboflavin with DAP. A disturbance in the synthesis of adenosine monophosphate pyrophosphorylase does not influence practically the level of the synthesis of riboflavin in E. ashbyii.

  12. Preliminary study on a gravity-insensitive rice mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金静; 朱诚; 张红心; 孙宗修

    2004-01-01

    A gravity-insensitive mutant was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Zhonghua 11) transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The mutant's shoot growth (prostrate growth) was insensitive to gravity; whereas root growth displayed a normal positive gravitropism.Histological observation of root caps and leaf sheaths indicated that there was no significant difference in the number and size of amyloplasts in cells of the mutant and cells of the wild type

  13. Preliminary study on a gravity-insensitive rice mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金静; 朱诚; 张红心; 孙宗修

    2004-01-01

    A gravity-insensitive mutant was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Zhonghua 11) transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The mutant's shoot growth (prostrate growth) was insensitive to gravity; whereas root growth displayed a normal positive gravitropism. Histological observation of root caps and leaf sheaths indicated that there was no significant difference in the number and size of amyloplasts in cells of the mutant and cells of the wild type.

  14. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  15. Induced mutants from dihaploid potatoes after pollen mother cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźny, T; Schieder, O; Wenzel, G

    1980-05-01

    Microspore mother cells of dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants were mutagenically treated during the stage of meiosis. Mutagenesis was performed either by irradiation with x- or γ-rays or by the application of nitrosomethylurethane or methylnitronitrosoguanidine. Then, by use of the anther culture technique, 913 functional plants and 442 untreated control plants were regenerated. From the exposed plants seven distinct mutants could be isolated, predominantly chlorophyll deficient lines, while from the controls no clear-cut mutants arose. One mutant turned out to be photomorphogenetic in addition to having a chlorophyll defect. In addition to the production of mutants the treatments significantly increased the frequency of multicellular structure formation from microspores.

  16. plenty, a novel hypernodulation mutant in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chie; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation in nodules that contain symbiotic rhizobial bacteria enables legumes to thrive in nitrogen-poor soils. However, this symbiosis is energy consuming. Therefore, legumes strictly control nodulation at both local and systemic levels. Mutants deficient in such controls exhibit a range of phenotypes from non-nodulation to hypernodulation. Here, we isolated a novel hypernodulation mutant from the M(2) progeny derived from Lotus japonicus MG-20 seeds mutagenized by irradiation with a carbon ion beam. We named the mutant 'plenty' because it formed more nodules than the wild-type MG-20. The nodulation zone in the plenty mutant was wider than that in the wild type, but not as enhanced as those in other previously reported hypernodulation mutants such as har1, klv or tml of L. japonicus. Unlike these hypernodulation mutants, the plenty mutant developed nodules of the same size as MG-20. Overall, the plenty mutant exhibited a unique phenotype of moderate hypernodulation. However, a biomass assay indicated that this unique pattern of hypernodulation was a hindrance to host plant growth. The plenty mutant displayed some tolerance to external nitrates and a normal triple response to ethylene. Grafting experiments demonstrated that the root of plenty was responsible for its hypernodulation phenotype. Genetic mapping indicated that the PLENTY gene was located on chromosome 2.

  17. Characterization of host-range mutants of cyanophage N-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, T A; Kaur, B

    1997-10-01

    Fifteen host-range (h) mutants of cyanophage N-1 were characterized with reference to their efficiency of plating, time of appearance, morphology and size of plaques on Nostoc muscorum and its three phage-resistant (Nm 1/N-1, Nm 2/N-1 and Nm 8/N-1) mutants. While phage N-1 did not adsorb to the three phage-resistant mutants, the h mutants differed one from the other in having lower or higher adsorption rate constants on N. muscorum or the phage-resistant mutants. The inability of majority of h mutants isolated on Nm 1/N-1 to grow in Nm 8/N-1 was shown to be due to a failure of adsorption. The h mutants also differed one from the other in their reversion (back mutation) frequencies. The lethal doses (LD37) required to kill 37% of free phage particles after UV-irradiation, heating and ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) treatment greatly varied. Most of the h mutants were found to be considerably more sensitive to UV and thermic inactivation than N-1 while they were resistant to EDTA. The h mutants except five of them were unable to multiply at 40 degrees C. The significance of these features is discussed.

  18. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  19. MicroRNA networks regulate development of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Mirko; Lodish, Harvey

    2013-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity; in both humans and mice increased amounts of BAT are associated with a lean phenotype and resistance to development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Here we summarize recent research showing that several BAT-expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating differentiation and metabolism of brown and beige adipocytes; we discuss the key mRNA targets downregulated by these miRNAs and show how these miRNAs affect directly or indirectly transcription factors important for BAT development. We suggest that these miRNAs could be part of novel therapeutics to increase BAT in humans.

  20. A search for rocky planets transiting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Selsis, Franck; Winn, Joshua N; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Artigau, Etienne; Laughlin, Gregory P; Seager, Sara; Helling, Christiane; Mayor, Michel; Albert, Loic; Anderson, Richard I; Bolmont, Emeline; Doyon, Rene; Forveille, Thierry; Hagelberg, Janis; Leconte, Jeremy; Lendl, Monika; Littlefair, Stuart; Raymond, Sean; Sahlmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanetary science has reached a historic moment. The James Webb Space Telescope will be capable of probing the atmospheres of rocky planets, and perhaps even search for biologically produced gases. However this is contingent on identifying suitable targets before the end of the mission. A race therefore, is on, to find transiting planets with the most favorable properties, in time for the launch. Here, we describe a realistic opportunity to discover extremely favorable targets - rocky planets transiting nearby brown dwarfs - using the Spitzer Space Telescope as a survey instrument. Harnessing the continuous time coverage and the exquisite precision of Spitzer in a 5,400 hour campaign monitoring nearby brown dwarfs, we will detect a handful of planetary systems with planets as small as Mars. The survey we envision is a logical extension of the immense progress that has been realized in the field of exoplanets and a natural outcome of the exploration of the solar neighborhood to map where the nearest habitab...

  1. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew; Allers, Katelyn; Geballe, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline; Bjoraker, Gordon; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to directly study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs---near infrared spectroscopy---is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 $\\mu$m spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  2. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-10-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through nonshivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent observations indicate the importance of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in thermoregulation. We have found that the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the DMH has distinct actions in modulating adiposity and BAT thermogenesis. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH elevates the thermogenic activity of classic BAT and promotes the development of brown adipocytes in WAT, leading to increased thermogenesis. These findings identify a novel potential target for combating obesity.

  3. Biotechnological applications of brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Henrique da Silva, Paulo; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Paludo, Kátia Sabrina; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Gremski, Waldemiro; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2008-01-01

    Loxoscelism (the term used to define accidents by the bite of brown spiders) has been reported worldwide. Clinical manifestations following brown spider bites are frequently associated with skin degeneration, a massive inflammatory response at the injured region, intravascular hemolysis, platelet aggregation causing thrombocytopenia and renal disturbances. The mechanisms by which the venom exerts its noxious effects are currently under investigation. The whole venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched with low molecular mass proteins in the range of 5-40 kDa. Toxins including alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronidase, metalloproteases (astacin-like proteases), low molecular mass (5.6-7.9 kDa) insecticidal peptides and phospholipases-D (dermonecrotic toxins) have been identified in the venom. The purpose of the present review is to describe biotechnological applications of whole venom or some toxins, with especial emphasis upon molecular biology findings obtained in the last years.

  4. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  5. Multiple brown tumors of the jaws in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentisity, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Brown tumor is usually diagnosed at the terminal stage of hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this tumor is confirmed by endocrinologic investigations along with clinical and radiographic examination. Radiographical differential diagnosis of this tumor includes central giant cell granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and Paget disease. This report presents a rare case of multiple brown tumors occurring at the maxilla and mandible, which was initially misdiagnosed as central giant cell granuloma. Plain radiographs demonstrated multiple well-defined multilocular radiolucency. CT images showed soft tissue mass with low attenuated lesions, perforation of the lingual cortical plate, and a heterogeneous mass at the right thyroid lobe. These findings were consistent with parathyroid adenoma. The patient had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. No recurrence was observed during a 28-month follow-up.

  6. Primary hyperparathyroidism having multiple Brown tumors mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease characterized by excessive secretion of parathormone. During the course of this disease, bone loss occurs, particularly depending on resorption of the skeletal system. One of the complications of primary hyperparathyroidism is fibrotic, cystic bony changes which is called Brown tumor. Skeletal manifestations in the form of Brown tumors are rare and according to literature occur in less than 2% of patients suffering from any form of hyperparathyroidism. Such rare and multiple benign lesions may simulate a malignant neoplasm and pose a real challenge for the clinician in its differential diagnosis. We present a case of a 23-year-old Indian woman who was evaluated for multiple lytic expansile lesions with a strong suspicion of malignancy and fibrous dysplasia but turned out to be a case of primary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. Síndrome de Brown inflamatória: relato de caso Inflammatory Brown syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guedes Candido Marculino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Brown enquadra-se no grupo de estrabismos restritivos e é causada pela limitação de movimento do tendão do oblíquo superior através da tróclea. Caracteriza-se por ortotropia ou hipotropia na primária do olhar, limitação ou ausência de elevação em adução, frequente depressão do olho em adução com anisotropia em V e dução passiva positiva na elevação em adução. Denomina-se síndrome de Brown inflamatória, o distúrbio secundário, que tem como principais causas inflamações locais na órbita e doenças inflamatórias como artrite reumatóide e tenossinovite. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente de 44 anos, do sexo masculino, com queixa de diplopia binocular vertical à dextroversão recorrente. Diagnosticado como síndrome de Brown inflamatória sem etiologia definida, confirmada por ressonância nuclear magnética e com resolução espontânea.Brown syndrome fits the group of restrictive strabismus and is caused by a movement limitation of the superior oblique tendon through the trochlea. It is characterized by parallelism in the primary gaze position, limitation or absence of elevation in adduction, frequent depression of the eye in adduction with anisotropy in V-pattern and positive passive duction in the elevation in adduction. It is called inflammatory Brown syndrome, a secondary disorder, which main causes are local inflammation in the orbit and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and tenosynovitis. A case of a 44 year-old patient, male, complaining of binocular vertical diplopia due to recurring dextroversion is reported. It was diagnosed as inflammatory Brown syndrome of uncertain etiology, confirmed by magnetic nuclear resonance, and with spontaneous resolution.

  8. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse environmental control system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.; Stovall, T.K.; Hicks, N.G.; Pile, R.S.; Burns, E.R.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee Valley Authority and the Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona cooperated on the design of an experimental greenhouse located at TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Generating Station. Two greenhouse zones are heated by waste heat from the plant's condenser effluent. For comparison, a third greenhouse zone is heated conventionally (fossil-fueled burners) as a control. Design specifics for each of the three zones and a qualitative operating evaluation are presented.

  9. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  10. TSH effects on thermogenesis in rat brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-deMena, Raquel; Anedda, Andrea; Cadenas, Susana; Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2015-03-15

    TSH receptor (TSHR) is present in the thyroid and other tissues, as adipose tissue. In brown adipose tissue (BAT) TSH increases UCP1 expression and lipolysis. We have studied the regulation of Tshr mRNA expression and the effect of TSH on Ucp1 and Dio2 mRNA, on D2 activity and O2 consumption in rat brown adipocytes and the TSH signaling pathways. Tshr increased during brown adipocyte differentiation, was up-regulated by insulin and low TSH concentrations and down-regulated by high TSH concentrations, T3 and/or NE. TSH increased basal Ucp1 mRNA in a dose-dependent way acting synergistically with T3, while had no effect when NE was present. High TSH concentrations increased basal Dio2 mRNA (12-fold) and were synergistic with T3 (100-fold), but decreased Dio2 mRNA in T3+NE-treated cells. TSH increased D2 activities in T3-treated cells and inhibition of ERK pathway decreased the TSH effect by 55%. In T3+NE treated-cells TSH decreased D2 activity by 50%, in a dose-dependent manner. TSH activated Akt and Erk phosphorylation, while inhibition of PKA promoted Akt phosphorylation. TSH inhibited leptin mRNA. TSH increased O2 consumption by 20% and T3 enhanced its effect. Tshr is expressed in brown adipocytes and is regulated by insulin, TSH, T3 and NE. TSH increases basal and T3-stimulated Ucp1 and Dio2 expression and D2 activity only when T3 is present, but decreases Dio2 mRNA and D2 activity stimulated by NE+T3. TSH increases O2 consumption, confirming the role of TSH in the maintenance of thermogenesis.

  11. Eclipse Observations of a Temperate Transiting Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Curtis, Jason; Montet, Benjamin; Vanderberg, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We wish to use 15.7 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6 um and 4.5 um of a newly discovered transiting brown dwarf, which we refer to as R147-BD. R147-BD is a 36 MJ object on a 5.3 day orbit about a K=10.666, 5800K solar analog. Uniquely, R147-BD and its host star are both members of the 3.0 Gyr old open cluster Ruprecht 147. R147-BD is thus one of the only transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models. These models predict that a field object with the mass and age of R147-BD should have an effective temperature of about 800K due to internal heat. The zero-albedo blackbody equilibrium temperature for R147-BD, based only on its host star's insolation, is 1125K. This makes R147-BD the first observationally accessible sub-stellar object for which the internal and external energy fluxes are approximately equal, and it can serve as a unique laboratory to test the effect of stellar irradiation on the vertical pressure-temperature structure and clouds of giant planets. Specifically, we wish to investigate three different questions with these observations. First, how does the measured mass, radius, age and emission of R147-BD compare to brown dwarf evolution models, and how have these been altered by stellar irradiation? Second, does R147-BD's dayside atmosphere resemble its isolated field equivalent, or is it closer to hot Jupiters at similar temperatures? Third, can we constrain the cloud properties of R147-BD's dayside? Besides these particular science questions, observations of R147-BD allow us to scout-out future JWST observations of temperate giant planets, which also will have roughly equal amounts of stellar irradiation and internal heat.

  12. Brown tumor of the maxilla in patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Brown tumor or parathyroid osteopathy is a kind of bony lesion caused by hyperparathyroidism. It appears as an expansive osteolytic lesion mostly in mandible, ribs, pelvis and femur, but rarely in the upper jaw. Bone resorption is the result of osteoclastic activity due to an increased activity of parathyroid hormone. A 25-years-old male patient was operated on due to clinicaly and radiographicaly obvious maxillary tumor and increased values of parathyroid hormon (PTH - 1 050 ng/l). The level...

  13. Resistance of alloplasmic wheats to brown leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of alloplasmic and euplasmic lines of wheat on brown leaf rust was studied in the condition of field infectious nursery in 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007. The influence of cytoplasmic genome on resistance of the investigated lines varied for years and probably was mainly specific to race. However the positive effect of alloplasm from Aegilops squarrosa var. typica on resistance to pathogene was stable and universal.

  14. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Graça Silva; Pereira, Renato B.; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Carla Sousa

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic ac...

  15. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Classify Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Sievers, J L; Young, E T; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present a new system of narrow band filters in the near infrared that can be used to classify stars and brown dwarfs. This set of four filters, spanning the H band, can be used to identify molecular features unique to brown dwarfs, such as H2O and CH4. The four filters are centered at 1.495 um (H2O), 1.595 um (continuum), 1.66 um (CH4), and 1.75 um (H2O). Using two H2O filters allows us to solve for individual objects' reddenings. This can be accomplished by constructing a color-color-color cube and rotating it until the reddening vector disappears. We created a model of predicted color-color-color values for different spectral types by integrating filter bandpass data with spectra of known stars and brown dwarfs. We validated this model by making photometric measurements of seven known L and T dwarfs, ranging from L1 - T7.5. The photometric measurements agree with the model to within +/-0.1 mag, allowing us to create spectral indices for different spectral types. We can classify A through early M stars to...

  16. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E.; Castro, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile, Cerro Calan, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shaw, John D. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J.; Harris, Hugh C. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17 D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr{sup -1} and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.{sup 0}2). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J - K{sub s} 2.55 {+-} 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (K{sub s} = 13.05 {+-} 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  17. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  18. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Young Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, P; Ray, T P; Peterson, D E; Rodgers-Lee, D; Geers, V

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up is a pre-requisite for studies of the formation and early evolution of brown dwarfs. Here we present IRTF/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy of 30 candidate members of the young Upper Scorpius association, selected from our previous survey work. All 24 high confidence members are confirmed as young very low mass objects with spectral types from M5 to L1, 15-20 of them are likely brown dwarfs. This high yield confirms that brown dwarfs in Upper Scorpius can be identified from photometry and proper motions alone, with negligible contamination from field objects (<4%). Out of the 6 candidates with lower confidence, 5 might still be young very low mass members of Upper Scorpius, according to our spectroscopy. We demonstrate that some very low mass class II objects exhibit radically different near infrared (0.6 - 2.5micron) spectra from class III objects, with strong excess emission increasing towards longer wavelengths and partially filled in features at wavelengths shorter than 1.25micron...

  19. A homogeneous analysis of disks around brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y; Bayo, A; Nielbock, M; Wang, H

    2015-01-01

    We re-analyzed the Herschel/PACS data of a sample of 55 brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars with spectral types ranging from M5.5 to L0. We investigated the dependence of disk structure on the mass of the central object in the substellar regime based on a homogeneous analysis of Herschel data from flux density measurements to spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. A systematic comparison between the derived disk properties and those of sun-like stars shows that the disk flaring of BDs and very low mass stars is generally smaller than that of their higher mass counterparts, the disk mass is orders of magnitude lower than the typical value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both sun-like stars and BDs. We further divided our sample into an early-type brown dwarf (ETBD) group and a late-type brown dwarf (LTBD) group by using spectral type (=M8) as the border criterion. We systematically compared the modeling results from Bayesian analysis between these two groups, a...

  20. A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G

    2016-01-01

    The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098$^{+10.878}_{-0.098}$% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in pa...

  1. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  2. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chakrabarty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observation of large-scale production of spherical, carbonaceous particles – "tar balls" – from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements indicate that brown carbon is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional organic carbon (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths and brown carbon suggest that accounting for UV absorption by brown carbon leads to a significant increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased atmospheric warming. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  3. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chakrabarty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles – "tar balls" – from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index – optically defined as "brown carbon" – is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  4. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmüller, H.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Lewis, K.; Arnott, W. P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Dubey, M. K.; Wold, C. E.; Hao, W. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-07-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Ångström coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent imaginary part of its refractive index - optically defined as "brown carbon" - is an important component of tar balls. The spectrum of the imaginary parts of their complex refractive indices can be described with a Lorentzian-like model with an effective resonance wavelength in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Sensitivity calculations for aerosols containing traditional OC (no absorption at visible and UV wavelengths) and brown carbon suggest that accounting for near-UV absorption by brown carbon leads to an increase in aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and increased light absorption. Since particles from smoldering combustion account for nearly three-fourths of the total carbonaceous aerosol mass emitted globally, inclusion of the optical properties of tar balls into radiative forcing models has significance for the Earth's radiation budget, optical remote sensing, and understanding of anomalous UV absorption in the troposphere.

  5. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  6. CLOUDS search for variability in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Marley, M S; Artigau, É; Baliyan, K S; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Chanover, N; Connelley, M; Doyon, R; Forveille, T; Ganesh, S; Gelino, C R; Hammel, H B; Holtzman, J; Joshi, S; Joshi, U C; Leggett, S K; Liu, M C; Martín, E L; Mohan, V; Nadeau, D; Sagar, R; Stephens, D

    2008-01-01

    Context: L-type ultra-cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs have cloudy atmospheres that could host weather-like phenomena. The detection of photometric or spectral variability would provide insight into unresolved atmospheric heterogeneities, such as holes in a global cloud deck. Aims: It has been proposed that growth of heterogeneities in the global cloud deck may account for the L- to T-type transition as brown dwarf photospheres evolve from cloudy to clear conditions. Such a mechanism is compatible with variability. We searched for variability in the spectra of five L6 to T6 brown dwarfs in order to test this hypothesis. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic time series using VLT/ISAAC, over 0.99-1.13um, and IRTF/SpeX for two of our targets, in J, H and K bands. We search for statistically variable lines and correlation between those. Results: High spectral-frequency variations are seen in some objects, but these detections are marginal and need to be confirmed. We find no evidence for large amplitude variations in s...

  7. Exploring Substellar Evolution with the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Trent J.

    2017-01-01

    The coldest brown dwarfs are our best analogs to extrasolar gas-giant planets, representing the lowest mass products of star formation. Our view of such objects has been transformed over the last few years as new observations have revealed that the solar neighborhood is populated by much colder objects than previously recognized. At the center of efforts to discover and characterize these coldest substellar objects have been observations from NASA missions (WISE, Spitzer, HST) and the Keck Telescopes. I will review the tremendous progress made in this field over just the last few years thanks to major community efforts to overcome observational challenges in obtaining spectroscopy, photometry, and astrometry of these infrared-faint, optically invisible objects. Spectra from HST and Keck were key in establishing the much anticipated "Y" spectral type, extending the classic stellar classification scheme to atmospheres as cool as 300-400 K. Parallaxes and photometry from Spitzer and Keck have provided absolute fluxes, enabling robust temperature determinations and critical tests of model atmopheres. High-resolution imaging with Keck laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) has been the most prolific resource for revealing tight companions among the coldest brown dwarfs. In fact, with continued orbit monitoring with Keck LGS AO and HST, these binary systems will ultimately provide dynamical masses that will allow the strongest tests of models and reveal if the coldest brown dwarfs are indeed "planetary mass" (less than about 13 Jupiter masses) as is currently thought.

  8. Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Huizhi; Li, Bo; Meng, Xiangjian; Wang, Jiqiu; Zhang, Yifei; Yao, Shuangshuang; Ma, Qinyun; Jin, Lina; Yang, Jian; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-11-25

    Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Promoting brown adipose tissue formation and function increases energy expenditure and hence may counteract obesity. Berberine (BBR) is a compound derived from the Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis. Here we show that BBR increases energy expenditure, limits weight gain, improves cold tolerance and enhances brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in obese db/db mice. BBR markedly induces the development of brown-like adipocytes in inguinal, but not epididymal adipose depots. BBR also increases expression of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes in white and BAT and primary adipocytes via a mechanism involving AMPK and PGC-1α. BBR treatment also inhibits AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, but genetic activation of AMPK in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus does not prevent BBR-induced weight loss and activation of the thermogenic programme. Our findings establish a role for BBR in regulating organismal energy balance, which may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of obesity.

  9. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Spanjer Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  10. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae.

  11. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular cl...

  12. Formation of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, P.

    2012-11-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds.

  13. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  14. Bilateral Brown's syndrome in a mother and her son: case report Síndrome de Brown bilateral em mãe e filho: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Simões Antunes-Foschini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes clinical data from mother and son with bilateral Brown's syndrome and highlights possible genetically determined predispositions.Este relato de caso descreve achados clínicos de mãe e filho com síndrome de Brown bilateral e discute a possibilidade de predisposição genética.

  15. Interactions between brown-dwarf binaries and Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, M; Whitworth, A P

    2012-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs, but there is as yet no consensus as to which -- if any -- are operative in nature. Any theory of brown dwarf formation must explain the observed statistics of brown dwarfs. These statistics are limited by selection effects, but they are becoming increasingly discriminating. In particular, it appears (a) that brown dwarfs that are secondaries to Sun-like stars tend to be on wide orbits, $a\\ga 100\\,{\\rm AU}$ (the Brown Dwarf Desert), and (b) that these brown dwarfs have a significantly higher chance of being in a close ($a\\la 10\\,{\\rm AU}$) binary system with another brown dwarf than do brown dwarfs in the field. This then raises the issue of whether these brown dwarfs have formed {\\it in situ}, i.e. by fragmentation of a circumstellar disc; or have formed elsewhere and subsequently been captured. We present numerical simulations of the purely gravitational interaction between a close brown-dwarf binary and a Sun-like star. These simulatio...

  16. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells.

  17. How Dry is the Brown Dwarf Desert?: Quantifying the Relative Number of Planets, Brown Dwarfs and Stellar Companions around Nearby Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, D; Grether, Daniel; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Sun-like stars have stellar, brown dwarf and planetary companions. To help constrain their formation and migration scenarios, we analyse the close companions (orbital period 2 M_Solar respectively. However, we find no evidence that companion mass scales with host mass in general. Approximately 16% of Sun-like stars have close (P < 5 years) companions more massive than Jupiter: 11% are stellar, 1% are brown dwarf and 4% are giant planets. The companion mass function in the brown dwarf and stellar mass range, has a different shape than the initial mass function of individual stars and free-floating brown dwarfs. This suggests either a different spectrum of gravitational fragmentation in the formation environment or post-formation migratory processes disinclined to leave brown dwarfs in close orbits.

  18. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2013-04-10

    Sources and chemical composition of the brown carbon are poorly understood, and even less is known about the mechanisms of its atmospheric transformations. This work presents molecular level investigation of the reactive compound ketolimononaldehyde (KLA, C9H14O3), a second generation ozonolysis product of limonene (C10H16), as a potent brown carbon precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through its reactions with reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonium ion (NH4+), ammonia, and amino acids. The reactions of synthesized and purified KLA with NH4+ and glycine resulted in the formation of chromophores nearly identical in spectral properties and formation rates to those found in similarly-aged limonene/O3 SOA. Similar chemical reaction processes of limononaldehyde (LA, C10H16O2) and pinonaldehyde (PA, C10H16O2), the first-generation ozonolysis products in the oxidation of limonene and α-pinene, respectively, were also studied, but the resulting products did not exhibit light absorption properties of brown carbon, suggesting that the unique molecular structure of KLA produces visible-light-absorbing compounds. The KLA/NH4+ and KLA/GLY reactions produce water-soluble, hydrolysis-resilient chromophores with high mass absorption coefficients (MAC = 2000-4000 cm2 g-1) at λ ~ 500 nm, precisely at the maximum of the solar emission spectrum. Liquid chromatography was used to isolate the light-absorbing fraction, and UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques were used to investigate the structures and chemical properties of the light-absorbing compounds. The KLA browning reaction generates a diverse mixture of light-absorbing compounds, with the majority of the observable products containing 1-4 units of KLA and 0-2 nitrogen atoms. Based on the HR-MS product distribution, conjugated aldol condensates, secondary imines (Schiff bases), and N-heterocycles like pyrroles may contribute in varying degree to the light-absorbing properties

  19. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  20. Algal endosymbiosis in brown hydra: host/symbiont specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, M; Reich, V

    1986-12-01

    Host/symbiont specificity has been investigated in non-symbiotic and aposymbiotic brown and green hydra infected with various free-living and symbiotic species and strains of Chlorella and Chlorococcum. Morphology and ultrastructure of the symbioses obtained have been compared. Aposymbiotic Swiss Hydra viridis and Japanese H. magnipapillata served as controls. In two strains of H. attenuata stable hereditary symbioses were obtained with Chlorococcum isolated from H. magnipapillata. In one strain of H. vulgaris, in H. oligactis and in aposymbiotic H. viridis chlorococci persisted for more than a week. Eight species of free-living Chlorococcum, 10 symbiotic and 10 free-living strains of Chlorella disappeared from the brown hydra within 1-2 days. In H. magnipapillata there was a graded distribution of chlorococci along the polyps. In hypostomal cells there were greater than 30 algae/cell while in endodermal cells of the mid-section or peduncle less than 10 algae/cell were found. In H. attenuata the algal distribution was irregular, there were up to five chlorocci/cell, and up to 20 cells/hydra hosted algae. In the dark most cells of Chlorococcum disappeared from H. magnipapillata and aposymbiotic hydra were obtained. Chlorococcum is thus an obligate phototroph, and host-dependent heterotrophy is not required for the preservation of a symbiosis. The few chlorococci that survived in the dark seem to belong to a less-demanding physiological strain. In variance with known Chlorella/H. viridis endosymbioses the chlorococci in H. magnipapillata and H. attenuata were tightly enveloped in the vacuolar membrane of the hosting cells with no visible perialgal space. Chlorococcum reproduced in these vacuoles and up to eight daughter cells were found within the same vacuole. We suggest that the graded or scant distribution of chlorococci in the various brown hydra, their inability to live in H. viridis and the inability of the various chlorellae to live in brown hydra are the

  1. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  2. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  3. Chemotyping of yeast mutants using robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, K J; El-Alama, M; Stein, G; Bradshaw, C; Slonimski, P P; Maundrell, K

    1999-07-01

    By now, the EUROFAN programme for the functional analysis of genes from the yeast genome has attained its cruising speed. Indeed, several hundreds of yeast mutants with no phenotype as tested by growth on standard media and no significant sequence similarity to proteins of known function are available through the efforts of various laboratories. Based on the methodology initiated during the pilot project on yeast chromosome III (Yeast 13, 1547-1562, 1997) we adapted it to High Throughput Screening (HTS), using robotics. The first 100 different gene deletions from EUROSCARF, constructed in an FY1679 strain background, were run against a collection of about 300 inhibitors. Many of these inhibitors have not been reported until now to interfere in vivo with growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present paper we provide a list of novel growth conditions and a compilation of 49 yeast deletants (from chromosomes II, IV, VII, X, XIV, XV) corresponding to 58% of the analysed genes, with at least one clear and stringent phenotype. The majority of these deletants are sensitive to one or two compounds (monotropic phenotype) while a distinct subclass of deletants displays a hyper-pleiotropic phenotype with sensitivities to a dozen or more compounds. Therefore, chemotyping of unknown genes with a large spectrum of drugs opens new vistas for a more in-depth functional analysis and a more precise definition of molecular targets.

  4. Pharmacological correctors of mutant CFTR mistrafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta ePedemonte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of phenylalanine 508 (∆F508 mutation in the CFTR Cl- channel represents the most frequent cause of cystic fibrosis (CF, a genetic disease affecting multiple organs such lung, pancreas, and liver. ∆F508 causes instability and misfolding of CFTR protein leading to early degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum and accelerated removal from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological correctors of mutant CFTR protein have been identified by high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries, by in silico docking of virtual compounds on CFTR structure models, or by using compounds that affect the whole proteome (e.g. histone deacetylase inhibitors or a single CFTR-interacting protein. The presence of multiple defects caused at the CFTR protein level by ∆F508 mutation and the redundancy of quality control mechanisms detecting ∆F508-CFTR as a defective protein impose a ceiling to the maximal effect that a single compound (corrector may obtain. Therefore, treatment of patients with the most frequent CF mutation may require the optimized combination of two drugs having additive or synergic effects.

  5. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  6. A Mutant Hunt Using the C-Fern (Ceratopteris Richardii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calie, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    A modification of the popular C-Fern system, the tropical fern Ceratopteris richardii is developed in which students plate out a genetically mixed set of fern spores and then select for specific mutants. This exercise can provide students with an experience in plant mutant selection and can be used as a platform to expose students to a diverse…

  7. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  8. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, D

    1976-11-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency.

  9. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  10. Molecular pathways regulating the formation of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huiqin; Mao, Yushan; Wang, Anshi; Wang, Xin; Zou, Zuquan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The unique thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane. On the basis of recent findings that adult humans have functionally active brown adipose tissue, it is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in white adipose tissue upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in white adipose tissue.

  11. Silica nanoparticles inhibit brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of p38 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Kwak, Minjeong; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Chang, Won Seok; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Sang Chul; Song, Nam Woong; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their wide variety of biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, they affect cellular differentiation and/or intracellular signaling when applied and exposed to target organisms or cells. The brown adipocyte is a cell type important in energy homeostasis and thus closely related to obesity. In this study, we assessed the effects of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) on brown adipocyte differentiation. The results clearly showed that brown adipocyte differentiation was significantly repressed by exposure to SNPs. The brown adipocyte-specific genes as well as mitochondrial content were also markedly reduced. Additionally, SNPs led to suppressed p38 phosphorylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. These effects depend on the size of SNPs. Taken together, these results lead us to suggest that SNP has anti-brown adipogenic effect in a size-dependent manner via regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  12. Short communication: Reducing agents attenuate methylglyoxal-based browning in Parmesan cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divine, R D; Rankin, S A

    2013-10-01

    The microbial production of methylglyoxal in cheese has been linked to the formation of brown pigmentation and distinctive volatiles. This study investigated methods for preventing methylglyoxal-induced browning in Parmesan cheese through the addition of reducing agents. Cheeses were treated with the reducing agents sodium bisulfite, glutathione, and erythorbate at 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios with added methylglyoxal, and then incubated at 10 °C. Colorimetric methods were used to determine degree of browning at 0, 3, and 6 d. Sodium bisulfite and glutathione inhibited the browning reactions of methylglyoxal compared with the control. Erythorbate was much less effective than the other compounds at inhibiting browning, yet was significantly less browned than the control. These reducing agents are thought to act as strong nucleophiles that can form thiohemiketals and thioketals at the carbonyl carbons of methylglyoxal.

  13. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  14. Construction of a mutant library of horseradish peroxidase gene by directed evolution and development of an in situ screening method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Mendive

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A process of directed evolution applied to obtain a library of mutants of horseradish peroxidase (HRP enzyme is described. We have introduced slight variations into the original DNA shuffling protocol. A DNA template was prepared by PCR amplification and digested with Dnase I during 1 hour. Dnase I products were concentrated by precipitation with isopropanol. Gel electrophoresis showed fragments of the desired size range (20-600 pb without a full-length template remaining in the reaction mixture. A high concentration of fragments was crucial for performing PCR without primers. In this case, a template concentration of 32.5 ng/mu l was appropriate. Amplification of recombinant genes in a standard PCR reaction (template dilution 1:100 produced a smear with a low yield for the full-length sequence. A single product of the correct size was obtained by PCR with nested primers separated from the previously used primers by 40 pb. In our laboratory, native HRP has been functionally expressed in a baculovirus expression vector system. The purpose is to develop the screening of the first generation of random mutants in this system. To facilitate detection of those clones that have high peroxidase activity, we developed a rapid method: after five days postinfection agarose plates with six wells were covered with DAB (3,3´-diaminobenzidine and H2O2. The appearance of brown-black stain allows visualization of up to 100 active clones/well in only 1 min.

  15. Phenotypic Characterization of a Female Sterile Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A female sterile mutant, derived from a spontaneous mutation, wasfirst discovered in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp.indica) restorer line 202R. With normal flowering, the mutant exhibits an extremely Iow seed-setting rate. When the mutant is crossed as a pollen donor, the seeds set normally; whereas when it is used as a pollen receiver,no seeds are obtained even with mixed pollen grains of different varieties sprinkled over the stigmas. The floret of the mutant, consisting of six stamens and one pistil, looks the same as that of the wild type in the malefemale organs, except that less than 10% of the mutant florets have three stigmas on the ovary. Although the mutant has a low seed-setting rate, Its pollen fertility is approximately 87.1%, which is equal to that of the wild type. In addition, more than 90% of the mature embryo sacs of the mutant have complete inner structures. At every stage after pollination, the sperm, embryo, and endosperm are not found in the mutant embryo sac,whereas the disintegration of the egg cell that does not accomplish fertilization is visible. Through observations with a fluorescence microscope, we have found that the pollen grains germinate normally, whereas the pollen tube abnormally elongates in the style-transmitting tissue. The mutant pollen tubes display various defects in the style, such as slower elongation, conversed elongation, distorted elongation, swollen tips, or branched tips. As a result, the growth of the pollen tubes ceases in the style, and, therefore, the pollen tubes cannot reach the embryo sac and the process of double fertilization is blocked. Based on these observations,we conclude that this mutant, designated as fs-202R, is a novel type of female sterile mutation in rice, which causes the arrest of the elongation of the pollen tube.

  16. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  17. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  18. Mapping pathological phenotypes in Reelin mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eMichetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication and behavioural perseveration deficits. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we investigated the behavioural, neurochemical and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development in reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous reeler mice did not show social behaviour and communication deficits during male-female social interactions. Wildtype and heterozygous mice also showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection only heterozygous mice showed an over response to stress. At the end of the behavioural studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in heterozygous mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD

  19. Brown tumor of the mandible as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanromán, Jacinto; Antón-Badiola, Iosu María; Costas-López, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Brown tumor is one of the lesions that develop in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Any of the skeletal bones can be affected including the cranio-maxillofacial ones. Most of the times the brown tumor appears after a final diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is made. However brown tumor can be the first clinical sign of the disease. A clinical case in which a brown tumor located in the anterior part of the mandible appears as the first sign of primary hyperparathyroidism is presented. The possible differential clinical diagnosis and the recommended treatments are revised.

  20. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  1. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sin Gon; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients. PMID:26354493

  2. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hee Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients.

  3. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 μg/kg and 0.52–2.62 μg/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 μg/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 μg/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 μg/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 μg/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 μg/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 μg/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  4. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  5. Can Brown Fat Win the Battle Against White Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Sawsan; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2015-10-01

    A rapid growth in the overweight and obese population in the last few decades suggest that the current diet, exercise, awareness or drug strategies are still not effectively restraining the obesity epidemic. Obesity results from increased energy intake, and the body's energy balance shifts towards energy abundance. Therefore, current research is focused on developing new strategies aimed at increasing energy expenditure. As a result, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is receiving tremendous attention since the major function of BAT is to dissipate energy as heat. For example, mouse models that have increased BAT activity or increased numbers of brown-like adipocytes within the white adipose tissue (WAT) are lean and protected from obesity. Alternatively, mouse models that lack BAT activity are more susceptible to age and diet-induced obesity. However, a significant loss of BAT mass during the natural growth process in humans has created enormous challenges in effectively utilizing this tissue to increase energy expenditure. New strategies are primarily focused on expanding the BAT mass and/or activating the existing BAT. In this regard, recent finding that expression of early B cell factor-2 (Ebf2) reprograms the white pre-adipocytes into brown adipocytes is a significant break-through in developing BAT-mediated strategies to treat obesity. Here we review the major biological functions of WAT and BAT, which play critical but opposing roles in the energy spectrum, energy storage versus energy expenditure, and we evaluate whether activation and/or expansion of BAT is practically achievable to treat obesity in humans.

  6. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: tools for biological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Olga Meiri; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Wille, Ana Carolina M; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2011-03-01

    Venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. These venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. In general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom is enriched in low molecular mass proteins (5-40 kDa). Although their venom is produced in minute volumes (a few microliters), and contain only tens of micrograms of protein, the use of techniques based on molecular biology and proteomic analysis has afforded rational projects in the area and permitted the discovery and identification of a great number of novel toxins. The brown spider phospholipase-D family is undoubtedly the most investigated and characterized, although other important toxins, such as low molecular mass insecticidal peptides, metalloproteases and hyaluronidases have also been identified and featured in literature. The molecular pathways of the action of these toxins have been reported and brought new insights in the field of biotechnology. Herein, we shall see how recent reports describing discoveries in the area of brown spider venom have expanded biotechnological uses of molecules identified in these venoms, with special emphasis on the construction of a cDNA library for venom glands, transcriptome analysis, proteomic projects, recombinant expression of different proteic toxins, and finally structural descriptions based on crystallography of toxins.

  7. Brown Spider (Loxosceles genus Venom Toxins: Tools for Biological Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Senff-Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. These venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. In general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus venom is enriched in low molecular mass proteins (5–40 kDa. Although their venom is produced in minute volumes (a few microliters, and contain only tens of micrograms of protein, the use of techniques based on molecular biology and proteomic analysis has afforded rational projects in the area and permitted the discovery and identification of a great number of novel toxins. The brown spider phospholipase-D family is undoubtedly the most investigated and characterized, although other important toxins, such as low molecular mass insecticidal peptides, metalloproteases and hyaluronidases have also been identified and featured in literature. The molecular pathways of the action of these toxins have been reported and brought new insights in the field of biotechnology. Herein, we shall see how recent reports describing discoveries in the area of brown spider venom have expanded biotechnological uses of molecules identified in these venoms, with special emphasis on the construction of a cDNA library for venom glands, transcriptome analysis, proteomic projects, recombinant expression of different proteic toxins, and finally structural descriptions based on crystallography of toxins.

  8. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  9. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance.

  10. Effect of different immunosuppressive drugs on calcineurin and its mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several mutants in Loop7 region and near Loop7 region of calcineurin A (CN A) subunit have been constructed and purified using site-directed mutagenesis.Their phosphatase activity and the corresponding solution conformation were examined.Their phosphatase activities between wild-type CN and mutants were compared to identify the interaction of different immunosuppressive drugs with CN.The results showed that the phosphatase activities of the mutants at Loop7 were much higher than the one of wild-type CN.Furthermore,circular dichroism spectra of the mutants revealed that their solution conformations gave rise in changes in native structure of the protein.Cyclophilin-CyclosporinA (CyP-CsA) significantly inhibited the phosphatase activity of wild-type CN,and had no effects on the phosphatase activity of mutants in Loop7 region,which indicates that the site-directed mutagenesis at Loop7 region made a significant change in the interaction between CyP-CsA and CN.Examination of the activities of these mutants resulted in the presence of immunosuppressive component from traditional Chinese drugs.The component of Chinese drug,ZIP1,could directly inhibit both CN and CN mutants without drug binding protein.These results suggest that the Loop7 region is an important structural area involved in the inhibition by CyP-CsA.It is valuable to further study the inhibition by ZIP1.

  11. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  12. Sir Walter Langdon-Brown (1870-1946).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynes, Milo

    2008-02-01

    Sir Walter Langdon-Brown, born of robust Puritan stock, was a distinguished physician, teacher, medical historian and humanist at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, before becoming Regius Professor of Physics at Cambridge. His contributions to clinical medicine were wide in relating symptoms and signs of disease to physiology, putting therapeutics on a scientific basis, showing the close linkage of the sympathetic nervous system to the ductless glands, and being regarded as a founder of clinical endocrinology. He was the first English physician to relate the work of Freud, Jung and Adler to clinical medicine and a pioneer in psychosomatic medicine and the study of neurotic behaviour.

  13. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress.

  14. James Brown, Sample Culture and the Permanent Distance of Glory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The James Brown song ‘I’m Real’ (1988) features lyrics regaled from James Brown’s back catalogue, alongside vocal samples extracted from his earlier hits. As one of the most sampled artists of the hip-hop era, James employed sampling in order to reclaim his position as the “Godfather of Soul” and express his disatisfaction at having his work overtly plundered. The central questions I pose here focus on what the choice to sample himself reveals about Brown’s status as a Soul legend, and whethe...

  15. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  16. The First Detailed Look at a Brown Dwarf Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Pascucci, I; Henning, T; Dullemond, C P; Henning, Th.

    2003-01-01

    The combination of mid-infrared and recent submm/mm measurements allows us to set up the first comprehensive spectral energy distribution (SED) of the circumstellar material around a young Brown Dwarf. Simple arguments suggest that the dust is distributed in the form of a disk. We compare basic models to explore the disk parameters. The modeling shows that a flat disk geometry fits well the observations. A flared disk explains the SED only if it has a puffed-up inner rim and an inner gap much larger than the dust sublimation radius. Similarities and differences with disks around T Tauri stars are discussed.

  17. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass f...

  18. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  19. Epigenetic Suppression of T-DNA Insertion Mutants in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangbin Gao; Yunde Zhao

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA insertion mutants have been widely used to define gene functions in Arabidopsis and in other plants.Here,we report an unexpected phenomenon of epigenetic suppression of T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis.When the two T-DNA insertion mutants,yucl-1 and ag-TD,were crossed together,the defects in all of the ag-TD plants in the F2 population were partially suppressed regardless of the presence of yucl-1.Conversion of ag-TD to the suppressed ag-TD (named as ag-TD*) did not follow the laws of Mendelian genetics.The ag-TD* could be stably transmitted for many generations without reverting to ag-TD,and ag-TD* had the capacity to convert ag-TD to ag-TD*.We show that epigenetic suppression of T-DNA mutants is not a rare event,but certain structural features in the T-DNA mutants are needed in order for the suppression to take place.The suppressed T-DNA mutants we observed were all intronic T-DNA mutants and the T-DNA fragments in both the trigger T-DNA as well as in the suppressed T-DNA shared stretches of identical sequences.We demonstrate that the suppression of intronic T-DNA mutants is mediated by trans-interactions between two ToDNA insertions.This work shows that caution is needed when intronic T-DNA mutants are used.

  20. Youngest Brown Dwarf Yet in a Multiple Stellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    ... and the Sharpest Optical Image (0.18 arcsec) from the VLT so far...! Astronomers are eager to better understand the formation of stars and planets - with an eye on the complex processes that lead to the emergence of our own solar system some 4600 million years ago. Brown Dwarfs (BDs) play a special role in this context. Within the cosmic zoo, they represent a class of "intermediate" objects. While they are smaller than normal stars, they shine by their own energy for a limited time, in contrast to planets. Recent observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) of a "young" Brown Dwarf in a multiple stellar system are taking on a particular importance in this connection. An evaluation of the new data by an international team of astronomers [1] shows that it is by far the youngest of only four such objects found in a stellar system so far. The results are now providing new insights into the stellar formation process. This small object is known as TWA-5 B and with a mass of only 15 - 40 times that of Jupiter, it is near the borderline between planets and Brown Dwarfs, cf. the explanatory Appendix to this Press Release. However, visible and infrared VLT spectra unambiguously classify it in the latter category. Accurate positional measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the VLT hint that it is orbiting the central, much heavier and brighter star in this system, TWA-5 A (itself a close double star of which each component presumably has a mass of 0.75 solar masses), with a period that may be as long as 900 years. And, by the way, an (I-band) image of the TWA-5 system is the sharpest delivered by the VLT so far, with an image size of only 0.18 arcsec [2]! Brown Dwarfs: a cool subject In current astronomical terminology, Brown Dwarfs (BDs) are objects whose masses are below those of normal stars - the borderline is believed to be about 8% of the mass of our Sun - but larger than those of planets, cf. [3]. Unlike normal stars, Brown Dwarfs are unable

  1. Sensorimotor learning in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2011-04-15

    Homozygous Dab1(scm) mouse mutants with cell ectopias in cerebellar cortex and neocortex were compared with non-ataxic controls on two tests of motor coordination: rotorod and grid climbing. Even at the minimal speed of 4 rpm and unlike controls, none of the Dab1(scm) mutants reached criterion on the constant speed rotorod. In contrast, Dab1(scm) mutants improved their performances on the vertical grid over the course of the same number of trials. Thus, despite massive cerebellar degeneration, sensorimotor learning for equilibrium is still possible, indicating the potential usefulness of the grid-climbing test in determining residual functions in mice with massive cerebellar damage.

  2. X-ray emission from the young brown dwarfs of the Taurus molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N.; Briggs, K. R.; Güdel, M.; Guieu, S.; Franciosini, E.; Palla, F.; Dougados, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Ménard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Audard, M.; Telleschi, A.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We report the X-ray properties of young (~3 Myr) bona fide brown dwarfs of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC). Methods: The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the TMC (XEST) is a large program designed to systematically investigate the X-ray properties of young stellar/substellar objects in the TMC. In particular, the area surveyed by 15 XMM-Newton pointings (of which three are archival observations), supplemented with one archival Chandra observation, allows us to study 17 brown dwarfs with M spectral types. Results: Half of this sample (9 out of 17 brown dwarfs) is detected; 7 brown dwarfs are detected here for the first time in X-rays. We observed a flare from one brown dwarf. We confirm several previous findings on brown dwarf X-ray activity: a log-log relation between X-ray and bolometric luminosity for stars (with L* ≤ 10 L_⊙) and brown dwarfs detected in X-rays, which is consistent with a mean X-ray fractional luminosity =-3.5 ± 0.4; for the XEST brown dwarfs, the median of log(L_X/L_*) (including upper limits) is -4.0; a shallow log-log relation between X-ray fractional luminosity and mass; a log-log relation between X-ray fractional luminosity and effective temperature; a log-log relation between X-ray surface flux and effective temperature. We find no significant log-log correlation between the X-ray fractional luminosity and EW(Hα). Accreting and nonaccreting brown dwarfs have a similar X-ray fractional luminosity. The median X-ray fractional luminosity of nonaccreting brown dwarfs is about 4 times lower than the mean saturation value for rapidly rotating low-mass field stars. Our TMC brown dwarfs have higher X-ray fractional luminosity than brown dwarfs in the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. Conclusions: The X-ray fractional luminosity declines from low-mass stars to M-type brown dwarfs, and as a sample, the brown dwarfs are less efficient X-ray emitters than low-mass stars. We thus conclude that while the brown dwarf atmospheres observed here are

  3. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  4. Mutant γPKC that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 upregulates Hsp70, which protects cells from the mutant's cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kota; Seki, Takahiro; Onji, Tomoya; Adachi, Naoko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Saito, Naoaki; Sakai, Norio

    2013-10-11

    Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC) gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated that the mutant γPKC found in SCA14 is misfolded, susceptible to aggregation and cytotoxic. Molecular chaperones assist the refolding and degradation of misfolded proteins and prevention of the proteins' aggregation. In the present study, we found that the expression of mutant γPKC-GFP increased the levels of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in SH-SY5Y cells. To elucidate the role of this elevation, we investigated the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of Hsp70 on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of mutant γPKC. Knockdown of Hsp70 exacerbated the aggregation and cytotoxicity of mutant γPKC-GFP by inhibiting this mutant's degradation. These findings suggest that mutant γPKC increases the level of Hsp70, which protects cells from the mutant's cytotoxicity by enhancing its degradation.

  5. MOA-2007-BLG-197: Exploring the brown dwarf desert

    CERN Document Server

    Ranc, C; Albrow, M D; Kubas, D; Bond, I A; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Dong, Subo; Fouqué, P; Gould, A; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Menzies, J; Sumi, T; Bachelet, E; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Gaudi, B S; Han, C; Hundertmark, M; Horne, K; Kane, S R; Lee, C -U; Marquette, J -B; Park, B -G; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Street, R; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Zub, M; Abe, F; Fukui, A; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of MOA-2007-BLG-197Lb, the first brown dwarf companion to a Sun-like star detected through gravitational microlensing. The event was alerted and followed-up photometrically by a network of telescopes from the PLANET, MOA, and uFUN collaborations, and observed at high angular resolution using the NaCo instrument at the VLT. From the modelling of the microlensing light curve, we derived the binary lens separation in Einstein radius units (s~1.13) and a mass ratio of (4.732+/-0.020)x10^{-2}. Annual parallax, lens orbital motion and finite source effects were included in the models. To recover the lens system's physical parameters, we combined the resulting light curve best-fit parameters with (J,H,Ks) magnitudes obtained with VLT NaCo and calibrated using IRSF and 2MASS data. We derived a lens total mass of 0.86+/-0.04 Msun and a lens distance of 4.2+/-0.3 kpc. We find that the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L is a brown dwarf of 41+/-2 Mjup observed at a projected separation of 4.3+/-0.1 A...

  6. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider SAMEE; Zhen-xing LI; Hong LIN; Jamil KHALID; Yong-chao GUO

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities.They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan,and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG),Sargassum thunbergii (STH),and Laminariajaponica (LJ) from China.The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin,an inhibitor against hyaluronidase.Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG),0.74% (STH),0.97% (LJ),3.30% (SC),and 5.06% (ST).The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 μg/ml,respectively,lower than those of Chinese SG,STH,and LJ (134,269,and 148 μg/ml,respectively).An antiallergic drug,disodium cromoglycate (DSCG),had an IC50=39 μg/ml,and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase,catechin,had an IC50=20 μg/ml.The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 μg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 μg/ml).This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase,indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods.

  7. Efficient Isolation of Cardiac Stem Cells from Brown Adipose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac stem cells represent a logical cell type to exploit in cardiac regeneration. The efficient harvest of cardiac stem cells from a suitable source would turn promising in cardiac stem cell therapy. Brown adipose was recently found to be a new source of cardiac stem cells, instrumental to myocardial regeneration. Unfortunately, an efficient method for the cell isolation is unavailable so far. In our study we have developed a new method for the efficient isolation of cardiac stem cells from brown adipose by combining different enzymes. Results showed that the total cell yield dramatically increased (more than 10 times, P<.01 compared with that by previous method. The content of CD133-positive cells (reported to differentiate into cardiomyocytes with a high frequency was much higher than that in the previous report (22.43% versus 3.5%. Moreover, the isolated cells could be the efficiently differentiated into functional cardiomyocytes in optimized conditions. Thus, the new method we established would be of great use in further exploring cardiac stem cell therapy.

  8. Chemically reacting fluid flow in exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordwell, Baylee; Brown, Benjamin P.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.

    2016-11-01

    In the past few decades, spectral observations of planets and brown dwarfs have demonstrated significant deviations from predictions in certain chemical abundances. Starting with Jupiter, these deviations were successfully explained to be the effect of fast dynamics on comparatively slow chemical reactions. These dynamical effects are treated using mixing length theory in what is known as the "quench" approximation. In these objects, however, both radiative and convective zones are present, and it is not clear that this approximation applies. To resolve this issue, we solve the fully compressible equations of fluid dynamics in a matched polytropic atmosphere using the state-of-the-art pseudospectral simulation framework Dedalus. Through the inclusion of passive tracers, we explore the transport properties of convective and radiative zones, and verify the classical eddy diffusion parameterization. With the addition of active tracers, we examine the interactions between dynamical and chemical processes using abstract chemical reactions. By locating the quench point (the point at which the dynamical and chemical timescales are the same) in different dynamical regimes, we test the quench approximation, and generate prescriptions for the exoplanet and brown dwarf communities.

  9. Brown tumor of the maxilla in patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor or parathyroid osteopathy is a kind of bony lesion caused by hyperparathyroidism. It appears as an expansive osteolytic lesion mostly in mandible, ribs, pelvis and femur, but rarely in the upper jaw. Bone resorption is the result of osteoclastic activity due to an increased activity of parathyroid hormone. A 25-years-old male patient was operated on due to clinicaly and radiographicaly obvious maxillary tumor and increased values of parathyroid hormon (PTH - 1 050 ng/l. The level of calcium in blood was normal (Ca 2.34 mEq/L. The patient was dialyzed for years because of the chronic renal failure. Histopathologic analysis confirmed brown tumor, that appeared as bony lesion of secondary hyperparathyroidism due to the chronic renal failure. The operation of the upper jaw had been performed before parathyroidectomy, due to an excessive growth of tumor followed by heavy epistaxes. The subsequent parathyroidectomy was followed by the regression of remaining bony lesions.

  10. CONFIRMATION OF ONE OF THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L.; Bochanski, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Burgasser, A. J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Labbe, I.; Monson, A. J.; Persson, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Saumon, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Marley, M. S., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Using two epochs of 4.5 {mu}m images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 {mu}m with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] - [4.5] = 2.77 {+-} 0.16 and J - [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N < 3). Based on these colors and its absolute magnitudes, WD 0806-661 B is the coldest companion directly imaged outside of the solar system and is a contender for the coldest known brown dwarf with the Y dwarf WISEP J1828+2650. It is unclear which of these two objects is colder given the available data. A comparison of its absolute magnitude at 4.5 {mu}m to the predictions of theoretical spectra and evolutionary models suggests that WD 0806-661 B has T{sub eff} = 300-345 K.

  11. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  12. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    CERN Document Server

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Duchene, Gaspard; Di Francesco, James; Scholz, Aleks; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 micron and 850 micron taken with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerke Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3 sigma detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 +/- 1.1) x 10^{-4} Msolar (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 x 10^{-4} Msolar and <2.7 x 10^{-4} Msolar, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio fo...

  13. Analytic Models of Brown Dwarfs and The Substellar Mass Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Auddy, Sayantan; Valluri, S R

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main sequence stars. In the spirit of a simplified analytic theory we also introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for non-zero values of the degeneracy parameter ($\\psi = \\frac{kT}{\\mu_{F}}$, where $\\mu_{F}$ is the Fermi energy). We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially-ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range $0.064M_\\odot...

  14. Enteric coccidiosis in the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Pomroy, W E; Castro, I; Howe, L

    2012-10-01

    Enteric coccidiosis may cause significant morbidity and mortality in juvenile brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Morphology of sporulated oocysts indicates that at least two Eimeria species are able to infect the brown kiwi. A histological study of the endogenous stages of coccidia was undertaken in the intestinal tracts of ten naturally infected young kiwi. Sequential sectioning of the entire intestinal tract allowed identification and recording of the distribution of the various coccidial life stages. Macromeronts measuring 268 × 162 μm when mature were found mainly within the lamina propria of the proximal one third of the small intestine. A smaller form of lamina propria meront was also identified (8.7 × 6.4 μm) with a similar distribution to the macromeronts. Small meronts (4.4 × 3.8 μm) were also identified in mucosal epithelial cells, with the overall peak in distribution within the intestinal tract being distal to the lamina propria meronts. Three morphologically distinctive gametocytes were identified. Type A gametocytes contained within epithelial cells shared the same distribution as the epithelial meronts. Polyps containing large numbers of type B gametocytes within the distal intestinal tract were found in two cases, and type C gametocytes were identified throughout the entire intestinal tract in one case only. The observational nature of this study precludes complete knowledge of the parasite life cycles using histology alone. However, it is likely that each of the three morphologically distinct gametocytes represents a separate species of enteric coccidia.

  15. SULFOGLYCOLIPID FROM THE MARINE BROWN ALGA SARGASSUM HEMIPHYLLUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG CUI; YU-SHAN LI; HONG-BING LIU; DAN YUAN; BAO-REN LU

    2001-01-01

    One kinds of glycolipid (SBI) have been isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turn.) Ag. The structures of SBI have been determined as the sodium salt of 1-0-acyl-3-0-(6′-sulfo-c-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol (acyl: tetradecanoyl, pentadecanoyl, 11-hexadecenoyl, hexadecanoyl, 10,13-octadecadienoyl, 9-octade cenoyl, 15-metylheptadecanoyl and 11-eicosenoyl 17:1.5:19:153:1: 19:1:2) on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Four constituents of the SBI were new compounds [the sodium salt of 1-0-(ll″-hexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol, the sodium salt of 1-0-(10",13"-octadecadienoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol,and the sodium salt of 1-0-(15"-metylhexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-c-D-quinovopyrannosyl)glycerol, and the sodium salt of 1-0-(ll"-eicosenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl)glycerol]. All compounds were isolated from marine brown alga for the first time.

  16. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  17. Model Atmospheres From Very Low Mass Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, F; Freytag, B

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of brown dwarfs in 1994, and the discovery of dust cloud formation in the latest Very Low Mass Stars (VLMs) and Brown Dwarfs (BDs) in 1996, the most important challenge in modeling their atmospheres as become the understanding of cloud formation and advective mixing. For this purpose, we have developed radiation hydrodynamic 2D model atmosphere simulations to study the formation of forsterite dust in presence of advection, condensation, and sedimentation across the M-L-T VLMs to BDs sequence (Teff = 2800 K to 900 K, Freytag et al. 2010). We discovered the formation of gravity waves as a driving mechanism for the formation of clouds in these atmospheres, and derived a rule for the velocity field versus atmospheric depth and Teff , which is relatively insensitive to gravity. This rule has been used in the construction of the new model atmosphere grid, BT-Settl, to determine the microturbulence velocity, the diffusion coefficient, and the advective mixing of molecules as a function of depth. ...

  18. NEOWISE-R observation of the coolest known brown dwarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Edward L. [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Mainzer, Amy; Bauer, James; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Masci, Frank; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Beichman, Charles A.; Cutri, Roc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for near-Earth objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83–071442.5 has now been re-observed by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman, who found a very low effective temperature (≈250 K), a very high proper motion (8.''1 ± 0.''1 yr{sup –1}), and a large parallax (454 ± 45 mas). The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1 – W2 >3.9 mag. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 ± 33 mas and a proper motion of 8.''08 ± 0.''05 yr{sup –1}. These are all consistent with values from Luhman.

  19. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2016-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (~250 K) and the fourth closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N~3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449+/-0.008" (2.23+/-0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. (2012) and Morley et al. (2012, 2014) that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and non-e...

  20. Indications of Water Clouds in the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Skemer, Andrew; Monson, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We present a deep near-infrared image of the newly discovered brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (W0855) using the FourStar imager at Las Campanas Observatory. Our detection of J3=24.8+0.33 -0.53 (J_MKO=25.0+0.33-0.53) at 2.6sigma -- or equivalently an upper limit of J3 > 23.8 (J_MKO > 24.0) at 5sigma makes W0855 the reddest brown dwarf ever categorized (J_MKO - W2 = 10.984+0.33 - 0.53 at 2.6sigma -- or equivalently an upper limit of J_MKO - W2 > 9.984 at 5sigma) and refines its position on color magnitude diagrams. Comparing the new photometry with chemical equilibrium model atmosphere predictions, we demonstrate that W0855 is 4.5sigma from models using a cloudless atmosphere and well reproduced by partly cloudy models (50%) containing sulfide and water ice clouds. Non-equilibrium chemistry or non-solar metallicity may change predictions, however using currently available model approaches, this is the first candidate outside our own solar system to have direct evidence for water clouds.