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Sample records for brown midrib mutants

  1. Genetic background impacts soluble and cell wall-bound aromatics in brown midrib mutants of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effects that genetic background has on two sorghum brown midrib (bmr) mutants, plant phenolics, lignin biosynthetic enzymes and stem anatomy were evaluated in wild-type (WT), bmr-6, bmr-12 and double-mutants (bmr-6 and bmr-12) in near isogenic , RTx430 and Wheatland backgrounds. The...

  2. Alteration in Lignin Biosynthesis Restricts Growth of Fusarium Species in Brown Midrib Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for bioenergy and forage uses, brown midrib6 (bmr) and 12 near-isogenic genotypes were developed in different sorghum backgrounds. bmr6 and bmr12 grain had significantly reduced colonization by members of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex as compared with wild-type. Fusariu...

  3. Anatomical traits of seven corn-inbred lines including two with gene brown midrib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cebrat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical investigations of the stem in seven Zea mays L. Inbred lines were performed on specimens bred in the Experimental Institute of Breeding and Plant Acclimatization in Smolice. Two of the lines (bm1 and bm2 including the gene brown midrib were characterized by a higher digestability. The remaining five lines (S215, S335, 5336, S336A and S339 were selective inbred lines used as components in hybrid breeding at the Institute in Smolice. The investigated lines were compared in respect to 50 anatomical traits of the stem. The comparisons were performed by means of the Wrocław dendrite method. The lines formed three distinct groups according to the degree of similarity. The first group consisted of two lines with the gene brown midrib (bm1 and bm2, the second of four lines (5215, S336, S336A and S339, and the third of line S335. The inclusion of both the lines with gene bm into one group was based on similarity regarding the set of traits of parenchyma, particularly of the peripheral part of the stem, as well as metaxylem and metaphloem traits. However, these lines differed considerably in respect to epidermis traits. It was peculiar that the stomata of the Amaryllis type occurred in one of the lines (S339. Each line made a specific mosaic of traits. The sets of traits characterizing the particular lines were specific in such a degree that they could be used, like a fingerprint, for their identification.

  4. Physiological Impacts and Lactational Performance of Dairy Cow Fed Brown Midrib Corn Silage During Dry Period Through Early to Midlactation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Alexandra Windley

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to the metabolic stress experienced by cows during the transition period is very important because it can negatively influence lactational performance. The objectives were to: 1) compare physiological changes through body weight (BW) and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and 2) evaluate feed intake, milk production, and energy balance (EB) of cows fed brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS)-based diets when compared with convent...

  5. Nutrient Composition and Degradability in highland Dual Purpose Brown Mid-Rib Sorghum Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate livestock feeds in Semi-arid highland limit livestock production. Drought and cold tolerant sorghum can be alleviate this constraint. The objective of the research work at Beef Research Centre-Lanet is to develop dual-purpose sorghum with high grain production, nutrient concentration and digestibility. Four brown mid-rid sorghum genotypes coded Lan-5, Lan-6, Lan-10, and Lan-12 in their six generations were tested using proximate analyses and rumen degradability procedures. Two dual purpose white mid-rid genotypes coded E1291 and Ikinyaruka acted as controls. Friesian and Sahiwal fistulated steers were used to incubate sorghum genotypes. The relationship between period of rumen incubation and degradability was linear. The change in degradation over time was significant (P < 0.05). there were significant (P < 0.05 ) difference in the degradability of sorghum genotypes, an indication of differing digestibility of the cell walls of various genotypes. dry matter content was high while crude proteins were low for all the genotypes

  6. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinant Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3 mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225, and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying and ear (younger lignifying internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the

  7. Methane emission, digestive characteristics and faecal archaeol in heifers fed diets based on silage from brown midrib maize as compared to conventional maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Schweigel-Röntgen, Monika; Kreuzer, Michael; Ortmann, Sylvia; Gill, Fiona; Kuhla, Björn; Meyer, Ulrich; Lohölter, Malte; Derno, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to compare silage prepared from maize having a brown midrib (BMR) mutation with control (CTR) maize to identify their effects on enteric methane emission, digesta mean retention time (MRT), ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In addition, the utility of archaeol present in faecal samples was validated as a proxy for methane production. Seven German Holstein heifers were fed total mixed rations with a maize-silage proportion (either BMR or CTR) of 920 g/kg dry matter (DM) in a change-over design. Heifers were fed boluses with markers to measure MRT; faeces were collected for 7 days and rumen fluid was collected on the penultimate day. Methane emission was measured in respiration chambers on one day. Data were analysed by t-test and regression analysis. DM intake did not differ between the two diets. The apparent digestibility of DM and most nutrients was unaffected by diet type, but apparent digestibility of neutral and acid detergent-fibre was higher in those heifers fed BMR than in those fed CTR. Comparisons between diets revealed no difference in particle or solute MRT in the gastro-intestinal tract and the reticulorumen. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acid and ammonia in rumen fluid and its pH were not affected by silage type. Independent of the mode of expression [l/d, l/kg DM intake, l/kg digested organic matter], methane emissions were not affected by maize-silage type, but with BMR, there was a trend towards lower methane production per unit of digested neutral detergent fibre than there was with CTR silage. Results of the present study show that feeding heifers BMR silage does not increase methane emissions despite a higher fibre digestibility as compared to CTR silage. Therefore, it is assumed that improvements in animal productivity achieved by feeding BMR silage, as some studies have reported, can be obtained without extra environmental cost per unit of milk or meat. Neither faecal archaeol content [µg

  8. Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Bao-hua; YANG Yang; SHI Yong-feng; LIN Lu; CHEN Jie; WEI Yan-lin; Hei LEUNG

    2013-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)induced IR64 mutant bank.The mutant,designated as Ibsl1 (light brown spotted-leaf 1),displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions.Agronomic traits including plant height,growth duration,number of filled grains per panicle,seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected.Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene,tentatively named Ibsl1(t),which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6.By developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers,the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588.The Ibsl1(t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identified near the chromosomal region.The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.

  9. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...

  10. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage. PMID:23912113

  11. Characterization of Cichopeptins, New Phytotoxic Cyclic Lipodepsipeptides Produced by Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 and Their Role in Bacterial Midrib Rot Disease of Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Jui; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; Leclère, Valerie; Jacques, Philippe; Bleyaert, Peter; Höfte, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The lettuce midrib rot pathogen Pseudomonas cichorii SF1-54 produces seven bioactive compounds with biosurfactant properties. Two compounds exhibited necrosis-inducing activity on chicory leaves. The structure of the two phytotoxic compounds, named cichopeptin A and B, was tentatively characterized. They are related cyclic lipopeptides composed of an unsaturated C12-fatty acid chain linked to the N-terminus of a 22-amino acid peptide moiety. Cichopeptin B differs from cichopeptin A only in the last C-terminal amino acid residue, which is probably Val instead of Leu/Ile. Based on peptide sequence similarity, cichopeptins are new cyclic lipopeptides related to corpeptin, produced by the tomato pathogen Pseudomonas corrugata. Production of cichopeptin is stimulated by glycine betaine but not by choline, an upstream precursor of glycine betaine. Furthermore, a gene cluster encoding cichopeptin synthethases, cipABCDEF, is responsible for cichopeptin biosynthesis. A cipA-deletion mutant exhibited significantly less virulence and rotten midribs than the parental strain upon spray inoculation on lettuce. However, the parental and mutant strains multiplied in lettuce leaves at a similar rate. These results demonstrate that cichopeptins contribute to virulence of P. cichorii SF1-54 on lettuce. PMID:25961750

  12. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and ha...

  13. Mechanical properties of untreated and alkaline treated fibers from zalacca midrib wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Wahyu Purwo; Soenoko, Rudy; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Choiron, Mochammad Agus; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    The environmental concern has been raised due to the abundance of waste from synthetic materials which cannot be biodegraded after their life-time. It provides opportunity to exploit natural resources which are neglected. For example, midrib wastes from zalacca plants after cutting are able to utilize as composite reinforcement. The aim of this research was to characterize the mechanical properties of zalacca midrib fibers. As other ones, zalacca midrib fibers consisted of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which their compositions were 42.54, 34.35 and 28.01 % respectively. To raise their cellulose content, the zalacca fibers were alkaline treated by immersion in the sodium hydroxide for 2 hours and rinsing in the distilled water. The concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied 1 and 5%. To investigate the influence of alkaline treatment, the mechanical testing and morphological analysis was performed. The tensile testing was done to obtain ultimate strength, elastic modulus and strain to fracture. The surface morphology of fibers was observed by SEM. The average ultimate tensile strength of zalacca fibers ranged from 182.12 MPa (untreated) to 417.94 MPa (5%NaOH treated). The diameter measurement showed that the alkaline treatment reduce the average fiber diameters due to the decline of the hemicellulose and lignin content as fiber matrix. This caused the increase of the tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the reduction of diameters as divider meanwhile the cellulose content as structural supporter of the fibers was relatively constant. From the SEM analysis, it was shown that the alkaline treatment reduced the fiber matrix so that its surface morphology became rougher due to the microfibrils appearance.

  14. 水稻淡褐斑叶突变体lbsll的遗传分析与基因定位%Genetic Analysis and Gene Mapping of a Light Brown Spotted Leaf Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉保华; 杨杨; 施勇烽; 林璐; 陈洁; 黄奇娜; 魏彦林; Hei LEUNG; 吴建利

    2012-01-01

    A light brown spotted-leaf mutant of rice was isolated from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. The mutant, designated as lbs.ll (light brown spotted-leaf 1), displayed light brown spot in the whole growth period from the first leaf to the flag leaf under natural summer field conditions. Agronomic traits including plant height, growth duration, seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were significantly affected. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively termed lbsll (t), which was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6. With developed SSR markers, the gene was finally delimited to an interval of 130 kb between markers RM586 and RM588. The Ibsll (t) gene is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been i-dentified near the chromosomal region. The genetic data and recombination populations provided will facilitate further fine-mapping and cloning of the gene.%通过EMS诱变籼稻品种IR64获得一个稳定遗传的淡褐色斑点叶突变体lbsll(light broun spotted leaf1).在自然条件下,突变体播种后10~14 d,叶片上出现淡褐色斑点,随后逐渐扩散至全叶,第1叶至剑叶上均有淡褐色斑,为全生育期性状.斑点性状的表达对株高、生育期、结实率和千粒重等农艺性状具有显著的影响.遗传分析结果表明,该淡褐色斑点叶性状受一个隐性核基因控制.将突变体lbsll与正常叶色水稻Morobereken杂交构建F2定化群体,利用SSR标记,最终将该淡褐叶基因lbsll(t)定位在第6染色体短臂上一个约130 kb的区段上.定位的结果和发展的群体为该基因的进一步精细定位和克隆奠定了基础.

  15. Effect of alkaline treatment on the characterization of zalacca midrib wastes fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Wahyu Purwo; Soenoko, Rudy; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Choiron, Mochammad Agus; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the need for new materials is urgent due to the scarcity of conventional materials and energy resources. The environmental issue requires materials which are biodegradable. There are many composites, arranged from synthetic fibers and matrix, which cannot be recyclable after their lifetime. In this research, the utilization potency of zalacca midrib wastes for their fibers as composite reinforcement were investigated, especially after the alkaline treatment to improve their characteristics. The influence of alkaline treatment on the density, functional groups of the fiber surface, thermal stability and crystallinity were measured and/or analyzed by linear-density-and-diameter-calculation, FTIR, TGA-DTA and XRD, respectively. The result showed that the zalacca midrib fibers had lower density than synthetic fibers and several natural fibers. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that the alkaline treatment of NaOH slightly raised their density because it removed several functional groups which attributed to the hemicellulose and lignin. TGA-DTA analysis indicated that zalacca fibers had good thermal stability until temperature of 220°C and it was improved by alkaline treatment. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of zalacca fibers was higher than several natural fibers like rice straw, sorghum stem and wheat straw fibers. Their crystallinity index was higher than wheat straw fiber. The alkaline treatment increases the crystallinity and crystallinity index rather than untreated fibers.

  16. Evaluation of Three Protein-Extraction Methods for Proteome Analysis of Maize Leaf Midrib, a Compound Tissue Rich in Sclerenchyma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Xiaolin; Ku, Lixia; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Leaf morphology is closely related to the growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) plants and final kernel production. As an important part of the maize leaf, the midrib holds leaf blades in the aerial position for maximum sunlight capture. Leaf midribs of adult plants contain substantial sclerenchyma cells with heavily thickened and lignified secondary walls and have a high amount of phenolics, making protein extraction and proteome analysis difficult in leaf midrib tissue. In the present study, three protein-extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics, i.e., phenol extraction, TCA/acetone extraction, and TCA/acetone/phenol extraction, were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated based on 2DE maps and MS/MS analysis using the midribs of the 10th newly expanded leaves of maize plants. Microscopy revealed the existence of substantial amounts of sclerenchyma underneath maize midrib epidermises (particularly abaxial epidermises). The spot-number order obtained via 2DE mapping was as follows: phenol extraction (655) > TCA/acetone extraction (589) > TCA/acetone/phenol extraction (545). MS/MS analysis identified a total of 17 spots that exhibited 2-fold changes in abundance among the three methods (using phenol extraction as a control). Sixteen of the proteins identified were hydrophilic, with GRAVY values ranging from -0.026 to -0.487. For all three methods, we were able to obtain high-quality protein samples and good 2DE maps for the maize leaf midrib. However, phenol extraction produced a better 2DE map with greater resolution between spots, and TCA/acetone extraction produced higher protein yields. Thus, this paper includes a discussion regarding the possible reasons for differential protein extraction among the three methods. This study provides useful information that can be used to select suitable protein extraction methods for the proteome analysis of recalcitrant plant tissues that are rich in sclerenchyma cells. PMID:27379139

  17. Convenient detection of the citrus greening (huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by direct PCR from the midrib extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujikawa

    Full Text Available A phloem-limited bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing, one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing.

  18. Genetic study of necrotic leaf pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by necrotic leaves were isolated following mutagenesis. The mutants were shown to have single-gene recessive inheritance, characterized morphologically and for seed production. New mutants 1/704, 1/711M, XV/915 and 2/352 had similar phenotypes, respectively, to previously named mutants dgl (degenerating leaves), nec (necrosis), bls (brown leaf spots) and bls (brown leaf), but no allelism tests were made between the new and the previously reported mutants. Mutants 1/704 and 1/711M were shown to be non-allelic. The mutation in line 2/352 may be useful as a genetic marker

  19. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii.Methods:and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree.Conclusions:Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii.

  20. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii

  1. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  2. Development of a Novel Rice Germplasm in Resistant Brown Planthopper from Space-induced Rice Mutants and Analysis of Its Genetic Traits and Biological Characteristics%航天诱变水稻抗褐飞虱新种质的培育、遗传分析与生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 彭选明; 彭伟正; 庞伯良; 马明勇; 符伟; 刘录祥

    2012-01-01

    利用“实践八号”育种卫星搭载“玉香油占”干种子,在褐飞虱爆发条件下,从M2代中首次获得农艺综合性状优良的抗褐飞虱水稻突变体PR955.遗传分析表明,PR955的抗褐飞虱性状受1对显性基因控制.米质检测分析表明,PR955的出糙率、精米率、整精米率均达国家一等优质米标准,综合评定为二等优质米.%The dry seeds of rice variety Yuxiangyouzhan were carried by recoverable satellite shijian-8. Under the eruption of rice brown planthopper in Changsha in 2008, resistance-brown planthopper mutant PR955 was selected from M2 population on ground. PR955 had elite comprehensive agronomic traits. Genetic analysis and chi-square test showed that resistance character controlled by an dominance major gene. Indicated after the grain quality detection and analysis result that, PR955 reaches national high quality rice level of standards in brown rice rate, milled rice rate, as well as head milled rice rate. Its rice qualifies the second grade high-quality rice according to the high-quality rice standards of the Department of agriculture.

  3. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  4. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  5. Browning Characteristics of Dioscorea batatas Decne%铁棍山药褐变特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喜亭; 王会珍; 赵月丽; 宋萍萍; 李明军

    2009-01-01

    Browning characteristic of Dioscorea batatas Decne was studied, including the relationship between the distribution of phenols and browning, between the degree of browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase(PPO),peroxidase(POD),and phenylalanine ammonialyase(PAL),and the effect of pH and tempreture on non-enzymatic browning.The phenols distribution mainly locates near periderm area and midribs in yam tuber, where the most serious browning is present.The relationship between the activities of PPO,POD,PAL and the browning degree shows positive correlation, and the correlation degree ranks:PPO>POD>PAL.Acidic condition is propitious to inhibiting non-enzymatic browning. Under the lower or higher temperature than 40℃,non-enzymatic browning all decreases.%研究了铁棍山药的褐变特性,包括酚类物质的分布与褐变的关系,多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)的活性变化与褐变度的关系及pH和温度对其非酶褐变的影响.结果表明:酚类物质的分布情况与褐变发生部位相一致;PPO、POD和PAL的活性与褐变度呈正相关,其相关性依次为PPO>POD>PAL;酸性条件有利于抑制非酶褐变,低于或高于40℃,非酶褐变均有降低的趋势.

  6. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  7. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  8. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  9. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  10. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  11. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  12. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  13. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  14. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  15. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  16. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  20. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  1. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  2. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  3. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  4. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  5. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  6. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  7. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  8. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  9. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  10. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  11. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  12. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  13. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  14. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  15. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  16. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  17. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  18. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  19. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  20. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  1. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  14. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  15. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge : Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Master plan for Browns Park NWR that discusses the history, wildlife goals, recreation goals, habitat goals, recreational and operational facilities, and estimated...

  16. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  1. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  2. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  3. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129...

  4. Ras signalling regulates differentiation and UCP1 expression in models of brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Hansen, Jacob B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been recognised as an important signalling module in adipogenesis and adipocyte function, but whether it promotes or inhibits the formation of fat cells has not been reconciled. METHODS: Here we investigate the significance of Ras signalling intensity...... on two unrelated models of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation. RESULTS: A constitutively active H-Ras mutant (Ras V12) caused a complete block of adipose conversion, as manifested by a lack of both lipid accumulation and induction of adipocyte gene expression. The Ras V12-mediated impediment...

  5. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  6. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  7. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  8. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  9. Yeast mutants auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, K D; Jensen, B.; Kolat, A I; Storm, E M; Henry, S. A.; Fogel, S

    1980-01-01

    Three mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which require exogenous ethanolamine or choline were isolated. The mutants map to a single locus (cho1) on chromosome V. The lipid composition suggests that cho1 mutants do not synthesize phosphatidylserine under any growth conditions. If phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine, which are usually derived from phosphatidylserine, were synthesized from exogenous ethanolamine or choline, the mutants grew and divided relatively normally....

  10. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M2 to M4 generation. In the M4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  11. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  12. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  13. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  14. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  15. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  16. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  17. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F.; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M.; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders. PMID:27438137

  19. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  1. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  2. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  3. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  4. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  5. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  6. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  7. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  8. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  9. Map-based cloning and expression analysis of BMR-6 in sorghum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jieqin Li; Lihua Wang; Qiuwen Zhan; Yanlong Liu

    2015-09-01

    Brown midrib mutants in sorghum are associated with reduced lignin content and increased cell wall digestibility. In this study, we characterized a bmr-6 sorghum mutant, which shows reddish pigment in the midrib and stem after the fifth-leaf stage. Compared to wild type, Kalson lignin content of bmr-6 is decreased significantly. We used histological analysis to determine that the mutant exhibited a modified pattern of lignin staining and found an increased polysaccharide content. We cloned BMR-6 gene, a gene encoded a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), using a map-based cloning approach. Genetic complementation confirmed that CAD is responsible for the BMR-6 phenotype. BMR-6 gene was expressed in all tested sorghum tissues, with the highest being in midrib and stem. Transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated cytomplasmic localization of BMR-6. We found that the expression level of bmr-6 was significantly decreased in the mutant but expression of SbCAD3 and SbCAD5 were significantly increased. Our results indicate that BMR-6 not only affects the distribution of lignin but also the biosynthesis of lignin in sorghum.

  10. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M1V1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  11. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio, E-mail: yyoneda@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  12. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5Rgsc451 mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway

  13. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  14. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be e...

  15. Allele Specific p53 Mutant Reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xin; Vazquez, Alexei; Levine, Arnold J.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2012-01-01

    Rescuing the function of mutant p53 protein is an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy. Using the NCI anticancer drug screen data, we identified two compounds from the thiosemicarbazone family that manifest increased growth inhibitory activity in mutant p53 cells, particularly for the p53R175 mutant. Mechanistic studies reveal that NSC319726 restores WT structure and function to the p53R175 mutant. This compound kills p53R172H knock-in mice with extensive apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tu...

  16. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  17. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  18. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  19. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  20. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  1. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  2. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  3. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, T E

    2000-06-01

    Alternative models using fish species have been tested in liver toxicity and carcinogenesis bioassays. Similar models have not been developed for skin. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) has shown potential as a model for skin carcinogenesis studies due to its sensitivity to environmental chemical pollutants. The present study is an initial morphologic and biochemical characterization of the normal and neoplastic brown bullhead skin to assess its suitability as a model of skin carcinogenesis. Brown bullhead were removed from Back River in the Chesapeake Bay region, an area historically polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Histology, histochemistry, and electron microscopy were used to stage the morphologic development and progression of neoplasia in skin. The distribution of keratin, a family of structural proteins with altered expression in mammalian tumorigenesis, was analyzed with one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose blots of extracts from normal skin. Keratin expression in skin and other organs was also assessed with immunohistochemistry using AE1, AE3, and PCK 26 antibodies, and the proliferation index in skin and neoplasms with PCNA antibody. Skin lesions appeared to progress from hyperplasia through carcinoma, and the proliferation index was increased in papilloma. Also in papilloma, intercellular interdigitations appeared increased and desmosomes decreased which may in future studies correlate with changes in expression of other molecular markers of neoplastic progression. Both Type I and Type II keratin subfamilies were detected in skin using gel electrophoresis with the complimentary keratin blot-binding assay. For further development of the brown bullhead model, future studies can compare and relate these baseline data to alterations in expression of keratin and other markers in fish neoplasms and to molecular events which occur in man. PMID:10930121

  4. Rescue of white egg 1 mutant by introduction of the wild-type Bombyx kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO-XING QUAN; ISAO KOBAYASHI; KATSURA KOJIMA; KEIRO UCHINO; TOSHIO KANDA; HIDEKI SEZUTSU; TORU SHIMADA; TOSHIKI TAMURA

    2007-01-01

    In silkworms, the white egg 1 (w-1) mutant, which is characterized by white eyes and white eggs, is deficient in Bombyx kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) activity. To investigate whether the w-1 mutant phenotype is rescued by introducing the wild-type KMO gene, we constructed transgenic silkworms with the wild-type Bombyx KMO gene under the control of either the cytoplasmic actin gene promoter (A3KMO) or the native KMO gene promoter (KKMO). We created two transgenic lines with A3KMO and one line with KKMO constructs. The eyes of adults in these lines were brown, and the eggs laid by the transgenic females were also brown. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) analysis showed that the A3KMO silkworm lines expressed the transcript in the mid-gut, fat bodies, and Malpighian tubules. The KKMO line expressed the transcript only in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules. The intensity of eye and egg color in the transgenic lines was proportional to the KMO expression level. Interestingly, transgenic larvae with the A3KMO construct had a light brown larval cuticle, but the KKMO line did not. These results indicate that the wild-type KMO gene can be used as a marker gene for visually screening transgenic silkworms.

  5. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  6. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  7. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  8. Radiation-sensitive mutants of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomenclature for various radiosensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is briefly discussed. Tables are presented to show results of allelism tests of most of the radiosensitive mutants isolated by various investigators together with a standardized rad locus designation and map positions of a number of rad loci in yeast

  9. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.

  10. Study on culturing Trichodema mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ai; WANG Wei-ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichodema mutants strains T5, T0803, T1010, T1003were cultured in different conditions and media, also in the presence of fungicides at 40 mg/kg (CK or procymidone + chlorothalonil, or maneb or phosethyl-Al) . The pH values of media were 5, 6, 7 and 8 and hyphae were grown at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ℃. After being cultured for 3, 4, 5, or 6 days, the strains were transferred at a lower temperature to sporulate (20℃) Obtained data were analyzed statistically, with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) differing dependes on the treatments (R = 40.0,42.4, 48.0, 62.8,107.0). The results indicated that the most important factor was the nature of the strain (R =107.0), while the change in temperature and time of cultivation produced the lowest effect (R =40.0). Each factor variance was significant and A3B4C2D1E3 was the optimum combined condition, in which strain T1010 grew more quickly and sporulated most.

  11. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  12. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  13. A generalized three-dimensional Hoek-Brown strength criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Hoek-Brown strength criterion has been widely used in rock mechanics and rock engineering, it does not take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. Much evidence, however, has been accumulating to indicate that the intermediate principal stress does influence the rock strength in many instances. Therefore, researchers have developed three-dimensional (3D) versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. In this paper, three existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are reviewed and evaluated. The evaluation shows that all of the three 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion have limitations. To address the limitations, a generalized 3D Hoek-Brown criterion is proposed by modifying the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. The proposed 3D criterion not only inherits the advantages of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion but can take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. At a 2D stress state (triaxial or biaxial), the proposed 3D criterion will simply reduce to the form of the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. To validate the proposed 3D strength criterion, polyaxial or true triaxial compression test data of intact rocks and jointed rock masses has been collected from the published literature. Predictions of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion are in good agreement with the test data for a range of different rock types. The difference of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion from and its advantages over the existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are also discussed. It should be noted that the proposed 3D criterion is empirical in nature because it is an extension of the 2D Hoek-Brown strength criterion, which is empirical. Because of the non-convexity of the yield surface for a biaxial stress state, the proposed 3D criterion may have problems with some stress paths.

  14. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  15. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  16. Temperature-sensitive rubisco mutant of Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant 68-4PP is a temperature-sensitive mutant that lacks photosynthetic ability at 350C, but is able to grow photosynthetically at 250C. Genetic analysis indicated that 68-4PP is a chloroplast mutant that is allelic with known Rubisco large-subunit structural-gene mutants, implying that 68-4PP also resulted from a mutation in the large-subunit gene. The 68-4PP mutant has about 35% of the wild-type level of Rubisco holoenzyme and carboxylase activity when grown at 250C, but it has less than 10% of normal holoenzyme and carboxylase activity when grown at 350C. However, [35S]-sulfate pulse labeling showed that Rubisco subunits were synthesized at normal rates at both temperatures. More significantly, the ratio of carboxylase activity in the absence and presence of oxygen at a limiting CO2 concentration (6.6 μM) was about 2.2 for the mutant enzyme, as compared to about 3.0 for the wild-type enzyme. The decreased ratio of the mutant enzyme is maternally inherited, indicating that this reduced oxygen sensitivity results from a mutation in chloroplast DNA. The authors have recently cloned the 68-4PP Rubisco large-subunit gene, and DNA sequencing is in progress

  17. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Productive potentials of short stemmed wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air dry F2 seeds of the cross Skorospelka-35xMexipak were gamma irradiated (5 krad). It was established that the new short-stemmed wheat mutants can olay an important role both in hybrid combination breeding and as direct cultivars. Some of these mutants (No. 65, 67-I, 67-II, etc.), proved very promising because of their high productivity combined with other valuable biological and economic characters. The results obtained show also the great potentials and the perspectives of the method of combining hybrid and induced mutant variability. (author)

  19. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very low mass pre-stellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which André et al. have identified as a pre-stellar core with mass between ˜0.020 M⊙ and ˜0.030 M⊙. We re-analyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit at ˜0.075 M⊙, is between 0.66 and 0.86 . We conclude that, if Oph-B11 is destined to collapse, it probably will form a brown dwarf. However, the flows required to trigger this appear to be so contrived that it is difficult to envisage this being the only way, or even a major way, of forming isolated brown dwarfs. Moreover, Oph-B11 could easily be a transient, bouncing, prolate core, seen end-on; there could, indeed should, be many such objects masquerading as very low mass pre-stellar cores.

  20. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  1. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  2. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg...

  3. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  4. Chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors suppresses brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jiyoung; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds promise to combat obesity through energy-spending, non-shivering thermogenesis. Understanding of regulation of BAT development can lead to novel strategies to increase BAT mass and function for obesity treatment and prevention. Here, we report the effects of chronic activation of PRR on brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized brown pre-adipocytes from the classical interscapular BAT of mice. Activation of NOD1, TLR4, or TLR2 by their respective synthetic ligand suppressed brown marker gene expression and lipid accumulation during differentiation of brown-like adipocytes of C3H10T1/2. Activation of the PRR only during the commitment was sufficient to suppress the differentiation. PRR activation suppressed PGC-1α mRNA, but induced PRDM16 mRNA at the commitment. Consistently, PRR activation suppressed the differentiation of immortalized brown pre-adipocytes. Activation of PRR induced NF-κB activation in both cells, which correlated with their abilities to suppress PPARγ transactivation, a critical event for brown adipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chronic PRR activation suppressed brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes, possibly through suppression of PPARγ transactivation. The results suggest that anti- inflammatory therapies targeting PRRs may be beneficial for the BAT development.

  5. Regulation of brown fat adipogenesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Matsuo

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation.To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO mice. In addition, we reconstituted KO cells with wild type, substrate-trapping (D/A and sumoylation-resistant (K/R PTP1B mutants, then characterized differentiation and signaling in these cells. KO, D/A- and WT-reconstituted cells fully differentiated into mature adipocytes with KO and D/A cells exhibiting a trend for enhanced differentiation. In contrast, K/R cells exhibited marked attenuation in differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with WT cells. Expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PGC1α mirrored the differentiation pattern. In addition, the differentiation deficit in K/R cells could be reversed completely by the PPARγ activator troglitazone. PTP1B deficiency enhanced insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 tyrosyl phosphorylation, while K/R cells exhibited attenuated insulin-induced IR and IRS1 phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with WT cells. In addition, substrate-trapping studies revealed that IRS1 is a substrate for PTP1B in brown adipocytes. Moreover, KO, D/A and K/R cells exhibited elevated AMPK and ACC phosphorylation compared with WT cells.These data indicate that PTP1B is a modulator of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that adipocyte differentiation requires regulated expression of PTP1B.

  6. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  10. Induced mutants for rice functional genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutations have been playing important roles in both crop germplasm enhancement and new variety development. With the completion of the rice genome sequence, the study on functional genomics in rice has become a major task. Construction of rice mutant library is an essential approach for rice functional genomics study. This paper briefly reviewed several common techniques for generation of rice mutant library and its application in rice functional research, taking examples of developing rice chloroplast development related mutant library to provide the basic materials for functional genes cloning. A rice Chlorophyll (Chl) deficient mutant, yellow-green leaf1 (ygl1), was isolated, which showed yellow-green leaves in young plants with decreased Chl synthesis, increased level of tetrapyrrole intermediates, and delayed chloroplast development. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the phenotype of ygl1 was caused by a recessive mutation in a nuclear gene. The ygl1 locus was mapped to chromosome 5. A missense mutation was found in a highly conserved residue of YGL1 in the ygl1 mutant, resulting in reduction of the enzymatic activity. Another green-revertible albino leaf (gral) mutant involved in chloroplast development was screened from a M2 population induced by 300Gy 60Co gamma rays irradiation to the seeds of rice male sterile line PA64S with the collaboration of Zhejiang University. The mutant seedling leaves exhibit albino firstly but turn to normal green after the sixth leaf extended thoroughly. Systematical research including photosynthetic pigment, chloroplast microscopic observation and gene cloning was carried out on the gral mutant. (author)

  11. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  12. Investigating the magnetism of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmychov, O; Harrington, D; Kuhn, J

    2013-01-01

    We model the spectra of two brown dwarfs observed with the low resolution spectropolarimeter LRIS (Keck observatory) during several rotational phases in order to infer their magnetic properties. The spectra modeled include the intensity signal (Stokes I/Ic) as well as the polarimetric signals (Stokes Q/Ic, U/Ic, and V/Ic), all coming from the 0-0 vibrational band of the CrH molecule at approx. 8610 A. In order to model the Stokes profiles, we solve a set of the radiative transfer equations for the CrH transitions in the presence of an external magnetic field. We present the upper limits for the magnetic field strengths for the objects observed, based on the modeling of the intensity signal I/Ic and the signal-to-noise information only. The proper modeling of the polarimetric signals, that requires more careful data reduction, is underway. Nevertheless, our preliminary results show a hint for kG magnetic fields for both brown dwarfs, that is in a good agreement with the result obtained from the simultaneous ra...

  13. Chandra Captures Flare From Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The first flare ever seen from a brown dwarf, or failed star, was detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bright X-ray flare has implications for understanding the explosive activity and origin of magnetic fields of extremely low mass stars. Chandra detected no X-rays at all from LP 944-20 for the first nine hours of a twelve hour observation, then the source flared dramatically before it faded away over the next two hours. "We were shocked," said Dr. Robert Rutledge of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the lead author on the discovery paper to appear in the July 20 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We didn't expect to see flaring from such a lightweight object. This is really the 'mouse that roared.'" Chandra LP 944-20 X-ray Image Press Image and Caption The energy emitted in the brown dwarf flare was comparable to a small solar flare, and was a billion times greater than observed X-ray flares from Jupiter. The flaring energy is believed to come from a twisted magnetic field. "This is the strongest evidence yet that brown dwarfs and possibly young giant planets have magnetic fields, and that a large amount of energy can be released in a flare," said Dr. Eduardo Martin, also of Caltech and a member of the team. Professor Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, the principal investigator for this observation, speculated that the flare "could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the surface of the brown dwarf. A sub-surface flare could heat the atmosphere, allowing currents to flow and give rise to the X-ray flare -- like a stroke of lightning." LP 944-20 is about 500 million years old and has a mass that is about 60 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent that of the Sun. Its diameter is about one-tenth that of the Sun and it has a rotation period of less than five hours. Located in the constellation Fornax in the southern skies, LP 944-20 is one of the best studied brown dwarfs because it is

  14. Barley mutant line with high protein yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding was initiated in 1969 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia, aiming at developing high yielding barley lines having also high protein or lysine content. The final results were reported at the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting at Nicosia in 1980. At that time some lines were superior to their mother line in grain yield, protein content or protein yield. However, high yield is essential for feed-barley as there is no premium price for protein content or quality. In the experiments reported earlier, the mean grain yield of mutant M-Att-73-337-1 was 3202 kg/ha, 9.9% higher than the mother variety 'Attiki'. The Kjeldahl protein content was 12.7% for the mutant line and 13.4% for the mother variety. The mutant line was further evaluated in field trials (11 m2 plots and 6 replications) during 1983-88, along with other promising material from the breeding programme. The mutant line outyielded its mother variety by 9.7% in grain yield and 16% in straw yield. These increases are apparently the result of increased 1000-grain weight and a higher number of culms per m2. Protein content of the mutant line was slightly lower, but its protein yield was 5.5% higher. The yield of the mutant line over 16 trials during 1983-88 was also 4% higher than the yield of the main commercially grown variety Athenais

  15. The role of lipids in nonenzymatic browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, Rosario

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in nonenzymatic browning is studied by reviewing oxidized lipid/protein reactions in comparison with other reactions where the production of browning is known: the Maillard reaction, the ascorbic acid browning, and the quinone/amine reactions. The mechanisms proposed in these reactions for production of color and fluorescence, as well as the formation of melanoidins, lipofuscins, and low molecular weight colored products are discussed comparatively, concluding that the role of lipids in these reactions does not seem to be very different to the role of carbohydrates in the Maillard reaction or the phenols in the enzymatic browning. These carbonyl-amine reactions seem to be a group of gradual, partially reversible, universal, and inevitable side reactions in both food and biological systems. However, most of these results were obtained in model systems and additional studies should be carried out in systems closer to real foods or living beings, which should provide a more complete understanding of nonenzymatic browning, and, therefore, to afford a much more comprehensive knowledge of food and human biochemistry.En este trabajo se hace una revisión del papel de los lípidos en el pardeamiento no enzimático de alimentos mediante el estudio de las reacciones proteína/lípido oxidado en comparación con otras reacciones donde ocurre también este oscurecimiento: la reacción de Maillard, el pardeamiento producido por el ácido ascórbico, y las reacciones de las quinonas con los grupos amino. Los mecanismos propuestos para estas reacciones de producción de color y fluorescencia, así como la formación de melanoidinas, lipofuscinas y productos coloreados de bajo peso molecular son discutidos de forma comparada, concluyendo que el papel de los lípidos en estas reacciones no parece ser muy diferente del papel de los carbohidratos en el Maillard o de los fenoles en el pardeamiento enzimático. Estas reacciones carbonil

  16. Explaining millimeter-sized particles in brown dwarf disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pinilla; T. Birnstiel; M. Benisty; L. Ricci; A. Natta; C.P. Dullemond; C. Dominik; L. Testi

    2013-01-01

    Context. Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emis

  17. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  18. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  19. Integrated Circuitry: Catharine Brown across Gender, Race, and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joshua B.

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about a Cherokee woman named Catharine Brown who was converted to Christianity by missionaries, as well as historical and theoretical contexts regarding the Cherokee. The author presents views from critics, such as Theda Perdue, Carolyn Ross Johnston, and Arnold Krupat, on Catharine Brown's experiences across spheres such as…

  20. Differential gene expression in white and brown preadipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeuf, S.; Klaus, S.; Klingenspor, M.; Schneider, T.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Keijer, J.

    2001-01-01

    White (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue are tissues of energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that brown and white preadipocytes are differentially determined, but so far not much is known about the genetic control of this determination process. The ai

  1. Danmark og Browns britiske værdier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Om Gordon Browns kampagne for britiske værdier sat i relation til dansk værdidebat. Udgivelsesdato: 15/10......Om Gordon Browns kampagne for britiske værdier sat i relation til dansk værdidebat. Udgivelsesdato: 15/10...

  2. Innovations in the field of brown coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Brandt, H.; Weidlich, G. (Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-03-01

    Summarizes technological research achievements of the GDR brown coal industry over the past decade. In the field of brown coal combustion, improved swirl burners and swirl ignition burner types were put into operation in coal power plants. Furthermore, a fluidized bed coal predrying chamber at a low-grade fuel combusting power plant was tested, for increasing the calorific value of coal feed in by-pass operation, thus stabilizing steam generator combustion if coal quality reaches low limits. In the field of brown coal gasification, the GSP pulverized brown coal gasification process is commercially employed in a generator with 30 t/h coal throughput and 50,000 m{sup 3}/h gas production. Furthermore, a process for producing high quality brown coal coke for blast furnaces has been developed that requires brown coal dust and HSC-ROSE pitch (waste product of petroleum processing) as binder. Other achievements include production of activated carbon at low cost from the processing of brown coal coke and development of computer-based monitoring and operation control equipment for brown coal gasification. 12 refs.

  3. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  4. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.

  5. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  6. Environmental protection in brown coal mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses environmental policy of Poland with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine, the largest in Poland. The following problems are evaluated: collecting detailed information on water conditions in the Belchatow mine and environmental pollution prior to mine construction, construction of a pipeline system for water supply prior to mine draining, effects of mine draining on formation of a large drawdown cone, effects of lowering the ground water table on vegetation, forests, agriculture in the area, water conditions, river flow, water pollution from the Belchatow mine, water treatment plants, dust emission from Belchatow cuts and spoil banks, land reclamation after surface mining (plant growth, grass, afforestation), standardized methods for land reclamation, economic aspects of environmental protection, organizational models of environmental protection in a large brown coal surface mine.

  7. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  8. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  9. Radiation-thermal desulphurization of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaev, I.; Mahmudov, O.; Gulieva, N. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Sector of Radiation Research

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents results of an investigation of radiation-thermal hydrodesulphurization of brown coal in the presence of methane under accelerated electrons with a dose rate P = 350 Gy/s in the intervals of temperature T = 200-500{degree}C, absorbed dose up to 60 kGy. It has been established that at the more favourable conditions (T = 400-450{degree}C, D{gt} 60 kGy) about 80% of sulphur is removed from the coal and in the solid product sulphur decreased up to 1.0-1.1%. In these conditions the selectivity of desulphurization processes is s = 2.6-3.8 and energy consumption towards removal of sulphur is E = 0.5-0.6 kW.h/kg. The mechanism of selective activation by irradiation for the desulphurization process is discussed.

  10. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyngararasan M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  11. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal. PMID:760400

  13. Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2007-01-01

    Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for cor...

  14. What John Browne actually said at Stanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1997, the Chief Executive of BP, John Browne, delivered a speech on global climate change at Stanford University, California. A shortened version of the speech is presented. BP have accepted the possibility of a link between greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and are basing their policies on that acceptance. The company is committed to a step-by-step process, involving both action to develop solutions and continuing research to improve knowledge, that will balance the requirements of economic development and environmental protection. Five specific steps are outlined. These are: the monitoring and controlling of carbon dioxide emissions in all aspects of the company's operations increasing the level of support given to continuing scientific work on climate change; technology transfer and joint implementation with other parties to limit and reduce net emission levels; the development of alternative energy sources, in particular, solar power; contributing to the public policy debate in search of wider global answers to the problem. (Author)

  15. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  16. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  17. Chemical Decontamination at Browns Ferry Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 2002, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Board of Directors approved the recovery and restart of Unit 1 at Browns Ferry Nuclear Station. As an initial step in the site characterization and restart feasibility review, a majority of the primary reactor circuit was chemically decontaminated. Close cooperation between TVA and vendor personnel resulted in project completion ahead of schedule with outstanding results. The final average decontamination factors were excellent, and the final dose rates were very low, with contact readings on most points between one and three mRem/hr. In addition to allowing TVA to do a complete and thorough job of determining the feasibility of the Unit 1 restart, the decontamination effort will greatly reduce personnel exposure during plant recovery, both whole body exposure to gamma radiation and airborne exposure during pipe replacement efforts. The implementation of lessons learned from previous decontamination work performed at Browns Ferry, as well as decontamination efforts at other plants aided greatly in the success. Specific items of note are: (1) The initial leak check of the temporary decontamination system should include ancillary systems such as the spent resin system, as well as the main circulation loop. This could save time and dose exposure if leaks are discovered before the use of such systems is required. (2) Due to the quick turnaround time from the award of contract, a vendor representative was onsite early in the project to help with engineering efforts and procedures. This aided greatly in completing preparations for the decontamination. (3) The work was performed under a single maintenance activity. This resulted in great craft and plant support. (4) The constant coverage by the site's decontamination flush directors provided timely plant support and interface. (5) The FPC system isolation and back flushing to prevent residual chemicals from being left in the FPC system should have been addressed in more

  18. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393].

  19. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  20. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  1. Amphid defective mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riso, L; Ristoratore, F; Sebastiano, M; Bazzicalupo, P

    1994-01-01

    Studies are reported on a chemoreception mutant which arose in a mutator strain. The mutant sensory neurons do not stain with fluoresceine isothiocyanate (Dyf phenotype), hence the name, dyf-1, given to the gene it identifies. The gene maps on LGI, 0.4 map units from dpy-5 on the unc-11 side. The response of mutant worms to various repellents has been studied and shown to be partially altered. Other chemoreception based behaviors are less affected. The cilia of the sensory neurons of the amphid are shorter than normal and the primary defect may be in the capacity of the sheath cells to secrete the matrix material that fills the space between cilia in the amphid channel. Progress toward the molecular cloning of the gene is also reported. Relevant results from other laboratories are briefly reviewed. PMID:7896139

  2. Seasonal movement of brown trout in a southern appalachian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K.H.; Isely, J.J.; Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Van Lear, D. H.; Dolloff, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the seasonal movement, activity level, and home range size of adult brown trout Salmo trutta in the Chattooga River watershed, one of the southernmost coldwater stream systems in the United States. In all, 27 adult brown trout (262-452 mm total length) were successfully monitored from 16 November 1995 to 15 December 1996. During the day, adult brown trout were consistently found in small, well-established home ranges of less than 270 m in stream length. However, 8 of a possible 18 study fish made spawning migrations during a 2-week period in November 1996. The daytime locations of individual fish were restricted to a single pool or riffle-pool combination, and fish were routinely found in the same location over multiple sampling periods. Maximum upstream movement during spawning was 7.65 km, indicating that brown trout in the Chattooga River have the ability to move long distances. Spawning brown trout returned to their prespawning locations within a few days after spawning. Brown trout maintained larger home ranges in winter than in other seasons. When spawning-related movement was deleted from the analysis, brown trout moved more on a weekly basis in fall than in summer. Brown trout were more active in fall and winter than in spring and summer. Apart from spawning migrations, displacement from established home ranges was not observed for any fish in the study. Although summer water temperatures reached and exceeded reported upper thermal-preference levels, brown trout did not move to thermal refuge areas in nearby tributaries during the stressful summer periods.

  3. Aging Kit mutant mice develop cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    Full Text Available Both bone marrow (BM and myocardium contain progenitor cells expressing the c-Kit tyrosine kinase. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of c-Kit mutations on: i. myocardial c-Kit(+ cells counts and ii. the stability of left ventricular (LV contractile function and structure during aging. LV structure and contractile function were evaluated (echocardiography in two groups of Kit mutant (W/Wv and W41/W42 and in wild type (WT mice at 4 and 12 months of age and the effects of the mutations on LV mass, vascular density and the numbers of proliferating cells were also determined. In 4 month old Kit mutant and WT mice, LV ejection fractions (EF and LV fractional shortening rates (FS were comparable. At 12 months of age EF and FS were significantly decreased and LV mass was significantly increased only in W41/W42 mice. Myocardial vascular densities and c-Kit(+ cell numbers were significantly reduced in both mutant groups when compared to WT hearts. Replacement of mutant BM with WT BM at 4 months of age did not prevent these abnormalities in either mutant group although they were somewhat attenuated in the W/Wv group. Notably BM transplantation did not prevent the development of cardiomyopathy in 12 month W41/W42 mice. The data suggest that decreased numbers and functional capacities of c-Kit(+ cardiac resident progenitor cells may be the basis of the cardiomyopathy in W41/W42 mice and although defects in mutant BM progenitor cells may prove to be contributory, they are not causal.

  4. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as well as heteroallelic offspring of these two strains ('xCT/sut') and their associated genetic backgrounds. Homozygous sut mutant males showed reduced spontaneous alternation in spontaneous alternation tasks as well as reduced movement in an open field maze, but xCT and xCT/sut strains did not show significant changes in these tasks compared to appropriate controls. Neither xCT nor sut mutants showed differences from controls in rotarod tests. Female behavioral phenotypes were independent of estrus cycle stage. To ensure that homozygous xCT, sut, and xCT/sut strains all represent protein null alleles, we measured whole brain xCT protein levels using immunoblots. xCT, sut and xCT/sut strains showed no detectable xCT protein expression, confirming them as null alleles. Previously published microdialysis experiments showed reduced striatal glutamate in xCT mutants. Using the same methods, we measured reduced interstitial glutamate levels in the striatum but not cerebellum of sut mutants. However, we detected no glutamate change in the striatum or cerebellum of sut/xCT mice. We detected no changes in whole brain EAAT-1, -2, or -3 expression. We conclude that the behavioral and chemical differences exist between slc7a11 mutant strains, but we were unable to definitively attribute any of these differences to loss of system xc-.

  5. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  6. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  7. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  8. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  9. Straight Mutants of Spirillum volutans Can Swim

    OpenAIRE

    Padgett, P. J.; Friedman, M. W.; Krieg, N R

    1983-01-01

    Nonhelical mutant cells of Spirillum volutans ATCC 19554 can swim as fast as the helical cells. Consequently, a helical cell shape is not required for motility of this species, and the function of the polar flagellar fascicles is not merely to cause rotation, and therefore translocation, of the corkscrew-shaped cell.

  10. A dominant semi dwarf mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the winter of 1997, a semi dwarf mutant was found in the F6 population of M9056/ R8018 xuan in Hainan Province. In the spring of 1998, the seeds were sown in Hefei, Anhui Province and the plant height of the population was measured at maturity.

  11. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  12. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  13. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  14. Narrative report : Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  15. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  16. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  17. Reanimating Storywork: Indigenous Elders’ Reflections on Leadership by Lee Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Cherokee Elder Dr. Lee Brown explores leadership by discussing the suppression of Aboriginal emotions through colonialism, the importance of cultural values and ceremony, and the need for education reform.

  18. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  1. The Jurisprudence of "Brown" and the Dilemmas of Liberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Morton J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines several dilemmas of liberal jurisprudence stemming from "Brown," and concludes that they stem, ultimately, from our uncertain commitment to equality. Available from William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1285 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14209. (IRT)

  2. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population. The human...

  3. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  4. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  5. Integrated Pest Management Plan Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Browns Park National...

  6. Kimberly S. Brown named director of academic advising

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Kimberly S. Brown, who had been serving as interim associate vice provost for academic support services at Virginia Tech, has been named the university's director of academic advising in the Division of Undergraduate Education.

  7. Narrative report: Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  8. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  9. Evaluation of high yielding mungbean mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mungbean is the second major (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) pulse crop in Pakistan, after chickpea, and is the main pulse crop grown during the spring season in the province of Sindh. Its yield is very low (450 kg/ha) which is mainly due to the non-availability of pure seed of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of induced mutations in all field crops and particularly in the evolution of mungbean cultivars, an induced mutation programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1985. Since then a large number of mutants have been developed and are at various stages of evaluation. Among them two mungbean mutants (AEM 6/20 and AEM 32/20) isolated from the treated population of a local cultivar '6601' with 200 Gy gamma-ray treatment gave very encouraging performance in station as well as zonal trials. On the basis of these results they were promoted in the National Trials, where they remained under evaluation for four years during spring as well as summer seasons. The pool data of four consecutive years of both seasons indicated that mutant lines AEM 32/20 and AEM 6/20 produced 1298 and 1246 kg/ha grain yield respectively as compared to the check variety 'NM 121-25' (1055 kg/ha) evolved at NIAB, Faisalabad through induced mutations. The seed yield increase over the check variety ranged from 18-23%. These two mungbean mutants have short stature combined with short duration and synchrony in maturity. Keeping in view the outstanding performance of these mutant lines, variety release proposals are being submitted to the Technical Sub-Committee for approval of varieties and techniques

  10. Norman O. Brown, Herbert Marcuse and the romantic tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Greenham, David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the work of Norman O. Brown and Herbert Marcuse as responses to romantic problematic obtained first and foremost from the legacy of Immanuel Kant’s critical philosophy, and, secondly, from the first significant American realisation of this inheritance in the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. The importance of this romantic reading is that it escapes the usual interpretations of Marcuse and Brown in terms of Marxism and Psychoanalysis, instead tracing the significance of ...

  11. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, C.; TAGAND, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In additio...

  12. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  13. Apple phenolics and their contribution to enzymatic browning reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and C1 were isolated from apple skin. These compounds as well as quercetine and phloretine glycosides isolated from apples were studied individually and as mixtures for their participation in the enzymatic browning reactions. The importance of quercetine glycosides and the synergistic effect of phloridzin and phloretine xyloglucoside with chlorogenic acid and flavans in the browning reaction are reported.

  14. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  15. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tilleman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m (61-in) Kaj Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 September through 2006 June over periods from 2.0 to 5.3 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from late M through mid-T. None of them are known binaries. Distance estimates place six of these objects within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood, and preliminary parallaxes place another three between 25 and 35 pc. These substellar objects are located north of -15° Dec. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J00325937+1410371, 2MASS J01514155+1244300 (BF Ari) 2MASS J02074284+0000564, 2MASS J03095345-0753156, SDSS J083717.21-000018.0, 2MASS J11101001+0116130, 2MASS J13262981-0038314 (2MUCD 11143), 2MASS J17502385+4222373, 2MASS J23391025+1352284, and 2MASS J23565477-1553111. Analyses of another 30 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  16. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tillman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 October through 2006 June over periods from 1.3 to 5.4 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from early L through mid-T. None are known binaries. Distance estimates place all but two within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood; one outlier has a distance of approximately 62 pc based on its preliminary parallax. These substellar objects are located north of -25° Dec. and lie between 13h and 23h in R.A. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J13464634-0031501, SDSS J144600.60+002452.0, 2MASS J16241436+0029158, 2MASS J17580545+4633099, 2MASS J19010601+4718136, 2MASS J21241387+0059599, 2MASS J22425317+2542573, 2MASS J22443167+2043433, 2MASS J22541892+3123498, and 2MASS J22552907-0034336. Analyses of another 20 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  17. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    OpenAIRE

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contai...

  18. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Achyut Aryal; David Raubenheimer; Sambandam Sathyakumar; Buddi Sagar Poudel; Weihong Ji; Kamal Jung Kunwar; Jose Kok; Shiro Kohshima; Dianne Brunton

    2012-01-01

    The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear ...

  19. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  20. Seasonal movement of brown trout in the Clinch River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, J.M.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the seasonal movements of trophy-size brown trout Salmo trutta in the Clinch River below Norris Dam, Tennessee, to determine whether establishing a special-regulation reach to reduce fishing mortality was a viable management option. Fifteen brown trout (size range, 430-573 mm total length) collected from the river were implanted with radio transmitters between November 1997 and May 1998. Forty-seven percent of these fish died or expelled their transmitters within 50 d postsurgery. The range of movement for surviving brown trout was significantly larger in fall (geometric mean range = 5,111 m) than in any other season. Four brown trout that were monitored for more than 1 year exhibited a limited range of movement (5 km) during the fall season, presumably to spawn. Brown trout also moved more during the fall than in any other season. Harvest restrictions applied to a specific reach of the Clinch River would reduce the exploitation of brown trout in that reach for most of the year but not during the fall, when many fish undertake extensive spawning migrations.

  1. Diel movement of brown trout in a southern Appalachian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Isely, J.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Van Lear, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to monitor the diel movement of 22 brown trout Salmo trutta (268-446 mm in total length, TL) in the Chattooga River watershed. Forty-seven diel tracks, locating individuals once per hour for 24 consecutive hours, were collected for four consecutive seasons. High variability in movement both within and among individual brown trout resulted in similar seasonal means in total distance moved, diel range, and displacement. The majority of fish moved a total distance of less than 80 m within a diel range of less than 80 m and had a displacement of less than 10 m. Brown trout were more likely to occur in pool habitat independent of season or period of the day. Hourly movement patterns differed among seasons. During the winter and fall, trout moved only around sunrise; during the spring, they moved around sunrise, sunset, and intermittently throughout the night. Large brown trout (>375 mm, TL) were found to move greater total distances and establish wider diel ranges than small brown trout. Overall, most brown trout exhibited restricted diel movement within a single riffle-pool or run-pool sequence.

  2. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  3. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  4. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  5. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Multiple brown tumours from parathyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagang, Daryl Jade Tardo; Gutierrez, Jerico Baliton; Sandoval, Mark Anthony Santiago; Lantion-Ang, Frances Lina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who suffered from severe bilateral inguinal pain and left mandibular mass. CT scan showed innumerable expansile osteolytic bone masses on the iliac wings, femur, ribs and vertebral bodies, diffuse skeletal osteopaenia, calyceal lithiasis on the right kidney and a left thyroid mass. Ionised calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were elevated. Parathyroid sestamibi scan showed a hyperfunctioning left inferior parathyroid gland. Biopsy of the left mandibular mass was consistent with brown tumour. The patient underwent parathyroidectomy of the enlarged parathyroid gland. Final histopathology, however, revealed parathyroid carcinoma, 4.7 cm in widest dimension, with capsular and vascular space invasion. The patient underwent repeat surgery, specifically, left thyroid lobectomy, isthmectomy and central node dissection. Intact PTH decreased from 681.3 to 74 pg/mL (normal range: 10-65) 24 hours postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 months showed normal serum calcium levels, size reduction of bone lesions and improvement of quality of life. PMID:27358103

  7. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  8. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  9. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  10. Brown Swiss in vergelijking met Braunvieh en enkele kruisingen (literatuuroverzicht) = Comparison of Brown Swiss with Braunvieh and some crossbreds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooy, de J.

    1982-01-01

    De samengevatte literatuur betreft twee onderwerpen: vergelijkingen in de Verenigde Staten tussen de melkveerassen Brown Swiss en Braunvieh wat betreft melkgift en vruchtbaarheid en kruisingsproeven tussen deze rassen in Oostenrijk, Duitsland, Zwitserland en Denemarken

  11. Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning Agents: Irisin and FGF21 in the Development of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrżak, B; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the pediatric population, especially in early infancy, the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the highest. Further in life BAT is more active in individuals with a lower body mass index and one can expect that BAT is protective against childhood obesity. The development of BAT throughout the whole life can be regulated by genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified: white, brown, and beige adipocytes. The process by which BAT can become beige is still unclear and is an area of intensive research. The "browning agents" increase energy expenditure through the production of heat. Numerous factors known as "browning agents" have currently been described. In humans, recent studies justify a notion of a role of novel myokines: irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the metabolism and development of obesity. This review describes a possible role of irisin and FGF21 in the pathogenesis of obesity in children.

  12. Factors influencing the distribution of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a mountain stream: Implications for brown trout invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Christy

    2012-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta), one of the world’s most successful introduced species, negatively impacts native aquatic communities through predation, competition, and ecosystemlevel effects. Thus, there is a need to understand factors controlling the distribution of exotic brown trout in river systems, in order to prioritize and develop conservation and management strategies. Within the context of invasion success, I investigated how the physical template of the Logan River influences the distr...

  13. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  14. Deletion of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in leptin-deficient mice improves brown adipose tissue function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Becerril

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin and nitric oxide (NO on their own participate in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the functional interplay between both factors in this process has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of the absence of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS gene in the regulation of energy balance in ob/ob mice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Double knockout (DBKO mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes were generated, and the expression of molecules involved in the control of brown fat cell function was analyzed by real-time PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry. Twelve week-old DBKO mice exhibited reduced body weight (p<0.05, decreased amounts of total fat pads (p<0.05, lower food efficiency rates (p<0.05 and higher rectal temperature (p<0.05 than ob/ob mice. Ablation of iNOS also improved the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice. DBKO showed a marked reduction in the size of brown adipocytes compared to ob/ob mutants. In this sense, in comparison to ob/ob mice, DBKO rodents showed an increase in the expression of PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, a transcriptional regulator of brown adipogenesis. Moreover, iNOS deletion enhanced the expression of mitochondria-related proteins, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (Pgc-1alpha, sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1 and sirtuin-3 (Sirt-3. Accordingly, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 (Ucp-1 and Ucp-3 were upregulated in brown adipose tissue (BAT of DBKO mice as compared to ob/ob rodents. CONCLUSION: Ablation of iNOS improved the energy balance of ob/ob mice by decreasing food efficiency through an increase in thermogenesis. These effects may be mediated, in part, through the recovery of the BAT phenotype and brown fat cell function improvement.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Dictyostelium Slug Phototaxis Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Darcy, P. K.; Wilczynska, Z.; Fisher, P R

    1994-01-01

    Mapping and complementation analysis with 17 phototaxis mutations has established 11 complementation groups phoA-phoK distributed over six linkage groups. Statistical calculations from the complementation data yielded 17 as the maximum likelihood estimate of the number of pho genes assuming all loci are equally mutable. Most of the phototaxis mutants were found to exhibit bimodal phototaxis and all were found to be impaired in positive thermotaxis supporting convergence of the photosensory an...

  16. Characterization of a Legionella micdadei mip mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, W A; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Cianciotto, N P

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Legionella micdadei is dependent upon its ability to infect alveolar phagocytes. To better understand the basis of intracellular infection by this organism, we examined the importance of its Mip surface protein. In Legionella pneumophila, Mip promotes infection of both human m...... into the phagocyte. Similarly, the mutant was less able to parasitize Hartmannella amoebae. Taken together, these data argue that Mip specifically potentiates intracellular growth by L. micdadei....

  17. Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described.

  18. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  19. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  20. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  1. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathasivam Sivakumar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding, limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases, gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases

  2. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  3. Selection of Bacillus subtilis mutants impaired in ammonia assimilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, D R; Aronson, A I

    1980-01-01

    The selection of Bacillus subtilis mutants capable of using D-histidine to fulfill a requirement for L-histidine resulted in mutants with either no glutamate synthase activity or increased amounts of an altered glutamine synthetase.

  4. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R4M18) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co60 gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L25 and L32 produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  5. Molecular characterization of phycobilisome regulatory mutants of Fremyella diplosiphon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, B U; Briggs, W R; Grossman, A R

    1989-01-01

    Three classes of pigment mutants were generated in Fremyella diplosiphon in the course of electroporation experiments. The red mutant class had high levels of phycoerythrin in both red and green light and no inducible phycocyanin in red light. Thus, this mutant behaved as if it were always in green light, regardless of light conditions. Blue mutants exhibited normal phycoerythrin photoregulation, whereas the inducible phycocyanin was present at high levels in both red- and green-light-grown c...

  6. A Mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis Defective in Dipeptide Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Achal; Green, Renee; Coles, Roswell; Condon, Michael; Connell, Nancy D.

    1998-01-01

    A mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis unable to use the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) as a sole carbon or nitrogen source was isolated. Carnosinase activity and the ability to grow on β-Ala and/or l-His were similar in the mutant and the wild type. However, the mutant showed significant impairment in the uptake of carnosine. This study is the first description of a peptide utilization mutant of a mycobacterium.

  7. Induced Dwarf Mutant in Catharanthus roseus with Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, A.K.; Singh, R R

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of an ethyl methane sulphonate-induced dwarf mutant of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don revealed that the mutant exhibited marked variation in morphometric parameters. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of the mutant and control plants was investigated against medically important bacteria. The mutant leaf extracts showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis.

  8. Induced dwarf mutant in Catharanthus roseus with enhanced antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of an ethyl methane sulphonate-induced dwarf mutant of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don revealed that the mutant exhibited marked variation in morphometric parameters. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of the mutant and control plants was investigated against medically important bacteria. The mutant leaf extracts showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis.

  9. Induced Dwarf Mutant in Catharanthus roseus with Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of an ethyl methane sulphonate-induced dwarf mutant of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don revealed that the mutant exhibited marked variation in morphometric parameters. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of the mutant and control plants was investigated against medically important bacteria. The mutant leaf extracts showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis. PMID:21695004

  10. Identiifcation and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Rice Spotted-Leaf Mutant with Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hai-chao; SHI Yong-feng; FENG Bao-hua; WANG Hui-mei; XU Xia; HUANG Qi-na; LÜ Xiang-guang; WU Jian-li

    2014-01-01

    A spotted-leaf mutant of rice HM143 was isolated from an EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. Brown lesions randomly distributed on leaf blades were observed about 3 wk after sowing. The symptom lasted for the whole plant growth duration. Histochemical analysis indicated that cell death occurred in and around the site of necrotic lesions accompanied with accumulation of hydrogen hyperoxide. Agronomic traits were largely similar to the wild type IR64 except seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight which were signiifcantly decreased in the mutant. Disease resistance of the mutant to multiple races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was signiifcantly enhanced. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene, tentatively termed splHM143. In addition, using molecular markers and 1 023 mutant type individuals from an F2 segregating population derived from the cross HM143/R9308, the spotted-leaf gene was ifnally delimited to an interval of 149 kb between markers XX25 and ID40 on the long arm of chromosome 4. splHM143 is likely a novel rice spotted-leaf gene since no other similar genes have been identiifed near the chromosomal region.

  11. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  12. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in ρ Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Ábrahám, P.; Marton, G.; Pinte, C.; Kiss, Cs.; Kun, M.; Kóspál, Á.; André, P.; Könyves, V.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Young brown dwarfs are known to possess circumstellar disks, a characteristic that is fundamental to the understanding of their formation process, and raises the possibility that these objects harbour planets. Aims: We want to characterise the far-IR emission of disks around the young brown dwarf population of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster in LDN 1688. Methods: Recent observations of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 μm, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. Results: We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of ρ Ophiuchi. We did not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index between 1.05 and 1.2. Furthermore, we can exclude values of the disk scale-height lower than 10 AU (measured at a fiducial radius of 100 AU). We combined the Herschel data with recent ALMA observations of the brown dwarf GY92 204 (ISO-Oph 102), and by comparing its SED to the same grid of disk models, we derived an inner disk radius of 0.035 AU, a scale height of 15 AU with a flaring index of β ~ 1.15, an exponent for dust settling of -1.5, and a disk mass of 0.001 M⊙. This corresponds to a disk-to-central object mass ratio of ~1%. Conclusions: The structural parameters constrained by the

  13. Radiation studies in Cajanus cajan: meiotic behaviour in some M/sub 2/ mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.S.N.; Akhaury, S.B. (Ranchi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative study of the mutants produced in M/sub 2/ generation has been made. The mutants were classified as: (1) chlorophyll mutant, (2) morphological mutant, (3) pollen mutant, (4) semi-sterile and (5) sterile mutant. Cytological investigations of pollen mutants, sterile and semi-sterile mutants have revealed that these mutants generally arise at higher dose levels (20 Kr and 25 Kr).

  14. Pref-1 in brown adipose tissue: specific involvement in brown adipocyte differentiation and regulatory role of C/EBPδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Jordi; Villena, Josep A; Hondares, Elayne; Carmona, María C; Sul, Hei Sook; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1) is known to play a central role in regulating white adipocyte differentiation, but the role of Pref-1 in BAT (brown adipose tissue) has not been analysed. In the present study we found that Pref-1 expression is high in fetal BAT and declines progressively after birth. However, Pref-1-null mice showed unaltered fetal development of BAT, but exhibited signs of over-activation of BAT thermogenesis in the post-natal period. In C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) α-null mice, a rodent model of impaired fetal BAT differentiation, Pref-1 was dramatically overexpressed, in association with reduced expression of the Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1) gene, a BAT-specific marker of thermogenic differentiation. In brown adipocyte cell culture models, Pref-1 was mostly expressed in pre-adipocytes and declined with brown adipocyte differentiation. The transcription factor C/EBPδ activated the Pref-1 gene transcription in brown adipocytes, through binding to the proximal promoter region. Accordingly, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced C/EBPδ knockdown led to reduced Pref-1 gene expression. This effect is consistent with the observed overexpression of C/EBPδ in C/EBPα-null BAT and high expression of C/EBPδ in brown pre-adipocytes. Dexamethasone treatment of brown pre-adipocytes suppressed Pref-1 down-regulation occurring throughout the brown adipocyte differentiation process, increased the expression of C/EBPδ and strongly impaired expression of the thermogenic markers UCP1 and PGC-1α [PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) co-activator-α]. However, it did not alter normal fat accumulation or expression of non-BAT-specific genes. Collectively, these results specifically implicate Pref-1 in controlling the thermogenic gene expression program in BAT, and identify C/EBPδ as a novel transcriptional regulator of Pref-1 gene expression that may be related to the specific role of glucocorticoids in BAT differentiation.

  15. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in Rho Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, C Alves; Marton, G; Pinte, C; Kiss, Cs; Kun, M; Kóspál, Á; André, Ph; Könyves, V

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 micron, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of Rho Ophiuchi. We do not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index ...

  16. Between brown and white: novel aspects of adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Saverio

    2011-03-01

    In all mammals including humans, most white and brown adipocytes are found together in visceral and subcutaneous depots (adipose organ) despite the well known difference in their function, respectively of storing energy and producing heat. A growing body of evidence suggests that the reason for such anatomical arrangement is their plasticity, which under appropriate stimulation allows direct conversion of one cell type into the other. In conditions of chronic cold exposure white-to-brown conversion meets the need for thermogenesis, whereas an obesogenic diet induces brown-to-white conversion to meet the need for storing energy. White-to-brown transdifferentiation is of medical interest, because the brown phenotype of the adipose organ is associated to obesity resistance, and drugs inducing this phenotype curb murine obesity and related disorders. Type 2 diabetes is the most common disorder associated to visceral obesity. Macrophages infiltrating the adipose organ are responsible for the low-grade chronic inflammation related to the removal of dead adipocytes, which leads to insulin resistance and T2 diabetes. Adipocyte death is closely related to their growth up to the critical death size. The critical death size of visceral adipocytes is smaller than that of subcutaneous adipocytes, likely accounting for the greater morbidity related to visceral fat. PMID:21254898

  17. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  18. Two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    During the last years the existence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has been widely accepted by the research community. Its unique ability to dissipate chemical energy stored in triglycerides as heat makes it an attractive target for new drugs against obesity and its related diseases. Hence the tissue is now subject to intense research, the hypothesis being that an expansion and/or activation of the tissue is associated with a healthy metabolic phenotype. Animal studies provide evidence for the existence of at least two types of brown adipocytes. Apart from the classical brown adipocyte that is found primarily in the interscapular region where it constitutes a thermogenic organ, a second type of brown adipocyte, the so-called beige adipocyte, can appear within white adipose tissue depots. The fact that the two cell types develop from different precursors suggests that they might be recruited and stimulated by different cues and therefore represent two distinct targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this commentary is to discuss recent work addressing the question whether also humans possess two types of brown adipocytes and to highlight some issues when looking for molecular markers for such cells.

  19. In Vitro Prevention of Browning in Plantain Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent C. Onuoha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The in vitro propagation of plantain (Musa paradisiaca is still faced with lots of challenges such as blackening or browning of tissues prior to culture due to the oxidation of phenolic compound by polyphenolic oxidase enzyme present in the tissue when excised. Approach: Understanding browning processes in plantain and possible ways of minimizing it during excision of explants with particular emphasis on the use of antioxidants was purposed. Tissues were surfaced sterilized with 0.1% (w/v HgCL2 for 1-6 min to get a pure culture and then treated for 2 h with different concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mg mL- of potassium citrate and citrate (K-C: C as an antioxidant to check browning while sterile distilled water was used as control. Results and Conclusion: The result showed that contamination free culture (100% was achieved in the explants treated with HgCL2 for 6 min. Also the various concentration of K-C: C prevented browning within 2 h before culturing the tissues inferring that browning in young plantain excised tissue can be greatly reduced by presoaking or pretreatment with antioxidant solution of potassium citrate-citrate before culturing them.

  20. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  1. Surprisingly Weak Magnetism on Young Accreting Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, Ansgar; Christensen, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the surface magnetic flux on four accreting young brown dwarfs and one non-accreting young very low-mass star utilizing high resolution spectra of absorption lines of the FeH molecule. A magnetic field of 1-2 kG had been proposed for one of the brown dwarfs, 2MASS J1207334$-$393254, because of its similarities to higher mass T Tauri stars as manifested in accretion and the presence of a jet. We do not find clear evidence for a kilo-Gauss field in any of our young brown dwarfs but do find a 2 kG field on the young VLM star. Our 3-$\\sigma$ upper limit for the magnetic flux in 2MASS J1207334$-$393254 just reaches 1 kG. We estimate the magnetic field required for accretion in young brown dwarfs given the observed rotations, and find that fields of only a few hundred Gauss are sufficient for magnetospheric accretion. This predicted value is less than our observed upper limit. We conclude that magnetic fields in young brown dwarfs are a factor of five or more lower than in young stars of about one ...

  2. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  3. Selective isolation of UV-sensitive Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of penicillin selection method after UV irradiation (λ=254 nm) increases by an order efficiency of mutant selection sensible to ulraviolet radiation (uvs mutants), phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides induced with nitrosomethylurea (NMM). Over 30% of uvs mutants produced by means of this method possessed increased sensitivity not only to short-wave (sUV, λ=254 nm) but also to long-wave (lUV, λ>280 nm) UV radiations. No correlation in the degree of sensitivity of uvs mutants to sUV and lUV irradiations is discovered. Mutants, which are high-sensitive to lethal effect of lUV, are separated

  4. A resolved outflow of matter from a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Natta, A; Testi, L; Randich, S; Whelan, Emma T.; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs amongst newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  5. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  6. A global cloud map of the nearest known brown dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, I J M; Schlieder, J E; Deacon, N R; Bonnefoy, M; Homeier, D; Allard, F; Buenzli, E; Henning, Th; Brandner, W; Goldman, B; Kopytova, T

    2014-01-01

    Brown dwarfs -- substellar bodies more massive than planets but not massive enough to initiate the sustained hydrogen fusion that powers self-luminous stars -- are born hot and slowly cool as they age. As they cool below about 2,300 K, liquid or crystalline particles composed of calcium aluminates, silicates and iron condense into atmospheric 'dust', which disappears at still cooler temperatures (around 1,300 K). Models to explain this dust dispersal include both an abrupt sinking of the entire cloud deck into the deep, unob- servable atmosphere and breakup of the cloud into scattered patches (as seen on Jupiter and Saturn). Thus far, observations of brown dwarfs have been limited to globally integrated measurements, which can reveal surface inhomogeneities but cannot unambiguously resolve surface features. Here we report a two-dimensional map of a brown dwarf's surface that allows identification of large-scale bright and dark features, indicative of patchy clouds.

  7. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  8. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, & Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Fu...

  9. Halo dark clusters of brown dwarfs and molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Roncadelli, M; 10.1086/305692

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) in microlensing experiments makes it compelling to understand their physical nature, as well as their formation mechanism. Within the present uncertainties, brown dwarfs are a viable candidate for MACHOs, and the present paper deals with this option. According to a recently proposed scenario, brown dwarfs are clumped along with cold molecular clouds into dark clusters -- in several respects similar to globular clusters -- which form in the outer part of the galactic halo. Here, we analyze the dynamics of these dark clusters and we address the possibility that a sizable fraction of MACHOs can be binary brown dwarfs. Moreover, we point out that Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption systems naturally fit within the present picture.

  10. MicroRNAs are required for the feature maintenance and differentiation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J; Nguyen, Long N; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L; Lodish, Harvey; Sun, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes.

  11. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  12. MicroRNAs Are Required for the Feature Maintenance and Differentiation of Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J.; Nguyen, Long N.; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X.; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L.; Lodish, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue–specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes. PMID:25008181

  13. Using of AFLP to evaluate gamma-irradiated amaranth mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labajová Mária

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of several gamma-irradiated mutants of amaranth Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid are most genetically similar to their non-irradiated control genotypes, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP based analysis. A total of 40 selective primer combinations were used in reported analyses. First analyses of gamma-irradiated amaranth mutant lines were done used the AFLP. In the study, primers with the differentiation ability for all analysed mutant lines are reported. The very specific changes in the mutant lines´ non-coding regions based on AFLP length polymorphism were analysed. Mutant lines of the Ficha cultivar (C15, C26, C27, C82, C236 shared a genetic dissimilarity of 0,11 and their ISSR profiles are more similar to the Ficha than those of K-433 hybrid mutant lines. The K-433 mutant lines (D54, D279, D282 shared genetic dissimilarity of 0,534 but are more distinct to their control plant as a whole, as those of the Ficha mutant lines. Different AFLP fingerprints patters of the mutant lines when compared to the Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid AFLP profiles may be a consequence of the complex response of the intergenic space of mutant lines to the gamma-radiance. Although a genetic polymorphism was detected within accessions, the AFLP markers successfully identified all the accessions. The AFLP results are discussed by a combination of biochemical characteristics of mutant lines and their control genotypes.

  14. Refined exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155 taking into account additional information on its use in foods as consumed. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown HT and concluded that dietary exposure in both adults and 1-10 year old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brown HT of 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brown HT in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for six out of 37 food categories in which Brown HT is authorised. A limited number of analytical results were also reported to EFSA, all below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three different scenarios were considered, including i exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, ii a combination of MPLs and reported maximum use levels and iii reported maximum use levels only. Considering the first two scenarios, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for all age groups, with exception for the elderly. In comparison to the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, while the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high level exposure estimates of Brown HT are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the reported use levels only.

  15. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  16. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  17. A photorespiratory mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, designated 18-7F, has been isolated and characterized. 18-7F requires a high CO2 concentration for photoautrophic growth in spite of the apparent induction of a functional CO2 concentrating mechanism in air-adapted cells. In 2% O2 the photosynthetic characteristics of 18-7F and wild type are similar. In 21% O2, photosynthetic O2 evolution is severely inhibited in the mutant by preillumination in limiting CO2, although the apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon is similar in preilluminated cells and in cells incubated in the dark prior to O2 evolution measurements. Net CO2 uptake is also inhibited when the cells are exposed to air (21% O2, 0.035% CO2, balance N2) for longer than a few minutes. [14C]Phosphoglycolate accumulates within 5 minutes of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in cells of 18-7F. Phosphoglycolate does not accumulate in wild type. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity in extracts from air-adapted cells of 18-7F is 10 to 20% of that in wild-type Chlamydomonas. The activity of phosphoglycolate phosphatase in heterozygous diploids is intermediate between that of homozygous mutant and wild-type diploids. It was concluded that the high-CO2 requiring phenotype in 18-7F results from a phosphoglycolate phosphatase deficiency. Genetic analyses indicate that this deficiency results from a single-gene, nuclear mutation. We have named the locus pgp-1

  18. [Hibernoma: brown fat retroperitoneal tumor. Report of a pediatric case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Laura; Sierre, Sergio; Bosalec, Andrea; Lipsich, José

    2011-12-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, composed of brown fat. This tissue is predominant in hibernating animals and hence its name. Because of its rarity in Pediatrics and difficult diagnosis, we report a 3 month-old patient with a diagnosis consistent with an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound and computed tomography exams showed an infiltrative retroperitoneal tumor, with hypervascular and lipomatous features. After tumor excision, histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of hibernoma or brown fat tumor. This presentation describes the characteristics of this type of tumor, rare in children, and reviews the fatty tumors, according to their frequency in pediatric patients.

  19. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  20. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  1. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  2. Hanbury Brown and Twiss anticorrelation in disordered photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kondakci, H Esat; Keil, Robert; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of coherent light transmitted through disordered one-dimensional photonic lattices. Although such a lattice exhibits transverse Anderson localization when a single input site is excited, uniform excitation precludes its observation. By examining the Hanbury Brown--Twiss correlation for a uniformly excited disordered lattice, we observe intensity anticorrelations associated with photon antibunching--a signature of non-Gaussian statistics. Although the measured average intensity distribution is uniform, transverse Anderson localization nevertheless underlies the observed anticorrelation.

  3. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  4. A new era in brown adipose tissue biology: molecular control of brown fat development and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Shingo; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat as a defense against cold and excessive feeding. Interest in the field of BAT biology has exploded in the past few years because of the therapeutic potential of BAT to counteract obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance. Much progress has been made, particularly in the areas of BAT physiology in adult humans, developmental lineages of brown adipose cell fate, and hormonal control of BAT thermogenesis. As we enter into a new era of brown fat biology, the next challenge will be to develop strategies for activating BAT thermogenesis in adult humans to increase whole-body energy expenditure. This article reviews the recent major advances in this field and discusses emerging questions. PMID:24188710

  5. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEAD FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The single cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected...

  6. The role of brown adipose tissue in temperature regulation. [of hibernating and hypothermic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The thermogenetic capacities of brown adipose tissue were studied on marmots, rats and monkeys in response to cold exposure. All experiments indicated that the brown fat produced heat and slowed the cooling of tissues.

  7. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  8. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  9. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  10. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  11. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  12. nitrate non-utilizing (nit mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aiuchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotal and Vertalec are mass-produced fungal strains for insect control. Strain B-2, which was isolated in Japan, has high epiphytic ability on cucumber leaves. Protoplast fusion was performed using these strains of Verticillium lecanii to obtain new strains possessing useful characteristics as biological control agents (BCAs. We used nit mutants for visually selecting the protoplasts. Hybrid strains were subjected to molecular analysis using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs and arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR in order to determine protoplast fusion and/or genetic recombination. We detected 126, 44, and 4 hybrid strains from the combinations of Vertalec × Mycotal, B-2 × Mycotal, and B-2 × Vertalec, respectively. Morphological characteristics of hybrid strains differed from those of their parental nit mutants. Protoplast fusion of hybrid strains was confifi rmed in genomic DNA, but not in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. A uniform biased tendency of the DNA banding pattern was observed depending on the combination of parental strains. The molecular analysis also revealed genetic recombination. These results showed a novel method for producing hybrid strains of the entomopathogenic fungus V. lecanii.

  13. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, S.G.; Rayle, D.L. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA)); Cleland, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  14. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Petkova, Anelia P.; Konkar, Anish A.; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated how cold stress induces the appearance of brown adipocytes (BAs) in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs) of adult mice. In interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), cold exposure increased proliferation of endothelial cells and interstitial cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor, α polypeptide (PDGFRα) by 3- to 4-fold. Surprisingly, brown adipogenesis and angiogenesis were largely restricted to the dorsal edge of iBAT. Although cold stress did not i...

  15. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, J.; Stirling, I.; Kistler, L.; Salamzade, R.; Ersmark, E.; Fulton, T.; Stiller, M.; Green, R.; Shapiro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear...

  16. Mutant radiation-resistance alleles from the Escherichia coli Gamr444 mutant: Cloning and preliminary characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutant alleles Gamr, which are able to increase the resistance to radiation of Escherichia coli wild-type cells, were cloned from the hyperradioresistant mutant Gamr444 on plasmid mini-Mu-vector MudII4042. The influence of recombinant plasmids on the sensitivity of wild-type and mutant (recA and htpR) cells to γ-irradiation was studied. It was shown that the enhanced resistance of the Gamr444 strain to radiation was caused by mutations of two different classes, dominant and recessive. The cloned recessive mutation gamr12 increases resistance to radiation only after homogenotization, that is, radiation-induced transfer from the plasmid to the chromosome, and it imposes constitutive expression of the heat-shock promoter htpG. Dominant mutant gamr alleles are active in the trans-position. A mutation-insertion into a chromosomal gene impaired by one of the dominant mutations, gamr18, was constructed. The insertion causes drastic cell radiosensitization on the recBC sbcB background and probably disturbs the RecF pathway of recombination and repair. Dominant plasmids of the second type lead to the RecA-independent inhibition of DNA postirradiation degradation. The radioprotective action of recessive and dominant gamr mutations is additive

  17. Inferring PDZ domain multi-mutant binding preferences from single-mutant data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zaslavsky

    Full Text Available Many important cellular protein interactions are mediated by peptide recognition domains. The ability to predict a domain's binding specificity directly from its primary sequence is essential to understanding the complexity of protein-protein interaction networks. One such recognition domain is the PDZ domain, functioning in scaffold proteins that facilitate formation of signaling networks. Predicting the PDZ domain's binding specificity was a part of the DREAM4 Peptide Recognition Domain challenge, the goal of which was to describe, as position weight matrices, the specificity profiles of five multi-mutant ERBB2IP-1 domains. We developed a method that derives multi-mutant binding preferences by generalizing the effects of single point mutations on the wild type domain's binding specificities. Our approach, trained on publicly available ERBB2IP-1 single-mutant phage display data, combined linear regression-based prediction for ligand positions whose specificity is determined by few PDZ positions, and single-mutant position weight matrix averaging for all other ligand columns. The success of our method as the winning entry of the DREAM4 competition, as well as its superior performance over a general PDZ-ligand binding model, demonstrates the advantages of training a model on a well-selected domain-specific data set.

  18. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  19. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  20. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: DNS.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: DNS.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. Distribution of Brown Blotch Bacteria in Wild and Cultivated Species of Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Alan E.

    1984-01-01

    Wild and cultivated Basidiomycetes species were cultured to determine the distribution of bacteria causing brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus. Colonies from each basidiocarp were screened for brown blotch organisms by the white line and host pathogenicity tests. Isolates causing brown blotch were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasi and an Arthrobacter species.

  7. Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Chlorogenic Acid by Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Verloop, J.W.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectra

  8. After Brown U.'s Report on Slavery, Silence (So Far)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article, discusses Brown University's slavery report, a 106-page narrative examination of the early connections between Brown University and slavery, that has been greeted--so far--with silence. The report, done at the behest of Ruth J. Simmons, Brown's president and herself a descendant of slaves, is an unsparing look at a shameful side of…

  9. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X800019,SRX185797,SRX478163,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X185879,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX978688,SRX800015,SRX800014,SRX800018,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX978689,SRX800015,SRX800014,SRX800018,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX1...85879,SRX143805,SRX478163 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X800018,SRX800019,SRX185797,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X978688,SRX800019,SRX478163,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  13. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  14. Public School Administration and "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews educational initiatives of state and federal government that were designed to remedy the effects of racial segregation on Black public school students in the United States after the famous "Brown v. Board of Education" decisions. Several policy and legal initiatives are reviewed, including school desegregation, compensatory…

  15. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  16. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  17. A Stock Pricing Model Based on Arithmetic Brown Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yong-xin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new stock pricing model based on arithmetic Brown motion. The model overcomes the shortcomings of Gordon model completely. With the model investors can estimate the stock value of surplus companies, deficit companies, zero increase companies and bankrupt companies in long term investment or in short term investment.

  18. A Vignette of an American Sporting Sculptor: Joseph D. Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, David A.

    In this lecture, about sixty of the more important small and large sports sculptures and medals of Professor Joseph D. Brown are discussed and illustrated through the use of 35mm color slides. A brief description of the sculptor's life, interests, and philosophy of sport is also given. (MB)

  19. Fighting Back Like a Man: The Morality of "Murphy Brown."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Mickey

    A study used Carol Gilligan's work on the legitimization of the female voice to examine the degree to which care and justice perspectives are expressed in the voice of television character "Murphy Brown" in the situation comedy of the same name. Two episodes of the show were analyzed to examine how Murphy resolved moral dilemmas. Although the…

  20. Using Clustering Algorithms to Identify Brown Dwarf Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choban, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    Brown dwarfs are stars that are not massive enough to sustain core hydrogen fusion, and thus fade and cool over time. The molecular composition of brown dwarf atmospheres can be determined by observing absorption features in their infrared spectrum, which can be quantified using spectral indices. Comparing these indices to one another, we can determine what kind of brown dwarf it is, and if it is young or metal-poor. We explored a new method for identifying these subgroups through the expectation-maximization machine learning clustering algorithm, which provides a quantitative and statistical way of identifying index pairs which separate rare populations. We specifically quantified two statistics, completeness and concentration, to identify the best index pairs. Starting with a training set, we defined selection regions for young, metal-poor and binary brown dwarfs, and tested these on a large sample of L dwarfs. We present the results of this analysis, and demonstrate that new objects in these classes can be found through these methods.

  1. Some Direct Gillnet Selectivity Tests for Brown Trout Populations

    OpenAIRE

    O Grady, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Direct gillnet selectivity tests for introduced brown trout populations in three Irish lakes are outlined. The net gangs and netting procedure utilised are described. Data indicates that the gear used was capable of capturing a random cross section of a trout stock in the length frequency range 19.8 to 47.7 centimetres.

  2. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  3. Ms.Brown is introducing their exhibition to Miss Jiang.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Miss Jiang:I want to know more about the International HouseholdUtensil Exhibition.Ms.Brown:It is an exhibition with a 32-year history,catering to clientsfrom South Africa and Mexico.Over the past 32 years,the exhibition hasbeen well known for its high efficiency in signing contracts.

  4. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  5. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  6. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable s...

  7. Brown adipocyte differentiation is regulated by hedgehog signaling during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    During development, brown fat tissue arises from mesenchymal precursor cells under the control of signaling networks that are not yet well understood. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways that regulate mesenchymal cell fate. However, whether the Hh pathway contr...

  8. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  9. Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Frank P.

    Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

  10. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  11. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...

  12. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  13. Sex recognition in brown skuas: do acoustic signals matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicke, T.; Ritz, M.S.; Hahn, S.M.; Peter, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    Bird vocalisations are often essential for sex recognition, especially in species that show little morphological sex dimorphism. Brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi), which exhibit uniform plumage across both sexes, emit three main calls: the long call, the alarm call and the contact call.

  14. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  15. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…

  16. Primary hyperparathyroidism with rare presentation as multiple brown tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Doshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism with an uncommon presentation as multiple brown tumours, which may easily be mistaken for a primary bone neoplasm. A brief literature review and its clinical and surgical management are also discussed here.

  17. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catecholase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and oth...

  18. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  19. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.)

  20. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  1. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Colony mutants of compatible nocardiae displaying variations in recombining capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, G H; Walsh, R S

    1972-03-01

    Colonial morphology mutants of Nocardia erythropolis were isolated following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The alleles rou-1/smo-1 were located by recombinant analysis and found to be linked to previously mapped characters. On the basis of recombinant class type patterns obtained from various selective characters it was postulated that the rou-1 allele may span a region of unique nucleotides in the Mat-Ce genome. Recombination frequencies of rou-1 and smo-2 bearing mutants of the Mat-Ce mating type were found to differ by over 1000 fold. Attempts to demonstrate that low recombination frequencies produced by the Smo mutants were due to Rec(-) genes were unsuccessful. No increased sensitivity to either UV or X irradiation was observed by the Smo mutants. Acriflavine treatment of either Rou or Smo colony mutants failed to accelerate reversion or to alter the recombining potentials of the mutants.

  3. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  4. Mutant p53 in cell adhesion and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeudall, W Andrew; Wrighton, Katharine H; Deb, Sumitra

    2013-01-01

    Pro-oncogenic properties of mutant p53 were investigated with the aid of migration assays, adhesion assays, and soft agar growth assays using cells stably expressing gain-of-function p53 mutants. To determine cell migration, "wound-healing" (scratch) assays and haptotactic (chamber) assays were used. H1299 cells expressing mutant p53 were found to migrate more rapidly than cells transfected with empty vector alone. Results from both types of migration assay were broadly similar. Migratory ability differed for different p53 mutants, suggesting allele-specific effects. Cells expressing p53 mutants also showed enhanced adhesion to extracellular matrix compare to controls. Furthermore, stable transfection of mutant p53-H179L into NIH3T3 fibroblasts was sufficient to allow anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. PMID:23150443

  5. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii Altered in Cercosporin Synthesis and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, R G; Walker, D C; Rollins, J A; Ehrenshaft, M; Daub, M E

    1991-10-01

    We have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus.

  6. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus.

  7. Google: a narrativa de uma marca mutante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete de Azevedo Kreutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As marcas mutantes já fazem parte de nossa realidade, embora ainda não totalmente percebidas e/ou aceitas como tal. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a relevância dessas novas estratégias de comunicação e branding, identificando suas principais características. Para isso, utilizamos o método de estudo de caso, o Google, ancorado nos métodos de pesquisa bibliográfica e de internet. A escolha foi intencional, posto que a organização é referência em sua categoria, mecanismo de busca, e reflete essa estratégia comunicacional contemporânea. Como resultado, as informações obtidas nos possibilitam compreender essa tendência de comportamento de marca que busca a interação com seus públicos.

  8. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri; Daniela Castilho Orsi

    2014-01-01

    Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, cit...

  9. Some mutants in maize obtained by irradiation with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was carried out at the Bucharest Institute of Atomic Physics and the National Laboratory Brookhaven, USA. A description is given of 22 genic mutants affecting leaf color, plant size, and branching capacity. Characteristics related to pollen fertility and the vegetative period were affected in all the mutants. Improvement of pollen fertility was attempted over four generations without success. The maize mutants obtained by irradiation may be considered as being without practical significance. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab. 11 ref

  10. Mutants of rabies viruses in skunks: immune response and pathogenicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Tolson, N D; Charlton, K M; Stewart, R B; Casey, G A; Webster, W A; Mackenzie, K.; Campbell, J. B.; Lawson, K. F.

    1990-01-01

    In studies to develop an oral rabies vaccine for wildlife, the immune response to and pathogenicity of two types of mutants of rabies viruses were examined. Forty-five small plaque mutants were selected from cultures of ERA rabies virus treated with 8-azaguanine or 5-fluorouracil and tested for pathogenicity in mice. Two of these mutants AZA 1 and AZA 2 (low pathogenicity in mice) were given to skunks by oral (bait), intestinal (endoscope) and intramuscular routes. Additionally, challenge vir...

  11. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed.

  12. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  13. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  14. Induced mutants from dihaploid potatoes after pollen mother cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźny, T; Schieder, O; Wenzel, G

    1980-05-01

    Microspore mother cells of dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants were mutagenically treated during the stage of meiosis. Mutagenesis was performed either by irradiation with x- or γ-rays or by the application of nitrosomethylurethane or methylnitronitrosoguanidine. Then, by use of the anther culture technique, 913 functional plants and 442 untreated control plants were regenerated. From the exposed plants seven distinct mutants could be isolated, predominantly chlorophyll deficient lines, while from the controls no clear-cut mutants arose. One mutant turned out to be photomorphogenetic in addition to having a chlorophyll defect. In addition to the production of mutants the treatments significantly increased the frequency of multicellular structure formation from microspores.

  15. [Pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of pea chlorophyll mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea chlorophyll mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 have been studied. The mutants differ from the initial form (pea cultivar Torsdag) in stem and leaf color (light green in the mutant 2004 and yellow-green in the mutant 2014), relative chlorophyll content (approximately 80 and 50%, respectively), and the composition of carotenoids: the mutant 2004 contains a significantly smaller amount of carotene but accumulates more lutein and violaxanthine; in the mutant 2014, the contents of all carotenoids are decreased proportionally to the decrease in chlorophyll content. It is shown that the rates of CO2 assimilation and oxygen production in the mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 plants are reduced. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants is 29-30% lower than in the control plants; in their hybrids, however, it is 1.5-2 higher. It is proposed that both the greater role of dark respiration in gas exchange and the reduced photosynthetic activity in chlorotica mutants are responsible for the decreased phytomass increment in these plants. On the basis of these results, the conclusion is drawn that the mutations chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affect the genes controlling the formation and functioning of various components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:12942751

  16. plenty, a novel hypernodulation mutant in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chie; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation in nodules that contain symbiotic rhizobial bacteria enables legumes to thrive in nitrogen-poor soils. However, this symbiosis is energy consuming. Therefore, legumes strictly control nodulation at both local and systemic levels. Mutants deficient in such controls exhibit a range of phenotypes from non-nodulation to hypernodulation. Here, we isolated a novel hypernodulation mutant from the M(2) progeny derived from Lotus japonicus MG-20 seeds mutagenized by irradiation with a carbon ion beam. We named the mutant 'plenty' because it formed more nodules than the wild-type MG-20. The nodulation zone in the plenty mutant was wider than that in the wild type, but not as enhanced as those in other previously reported hypernodulation mutants such as har1, klv or tml of L. japonicus. Unlike these hypernodulation mutants, the plenty mutant developed nodules of the same size as MG-20. Overall, the plenty mutant exhibited a unique phenotype of moderate hypernodulation. However, a biomass assay indicated that this unique pattern of hypernodulation was a hindrance to host plant growth. The plenty mutant displayed some tolerance to external nitrates and a normal triple response to ethylene. Grafting experiments demonstrated that the root of plenty was responsible for its hypernodulation phenotype. Genetic mapping indicated that the PLENTY gene was located on chromosome 2.

  17. Analysis of canthaxanthin and related pigments from Gordonia jacobaea mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Sieiro, C; Poza, M; Villa, T G

    2001-03-01

    A collection of 43 mutant strains of the bacterium Gordonia jacobaea was obtained by means of ethyl methanesulfonate treatment, and the strains were selected for their different pigmentation with respect to the wild-type strain. None of the mutants showed auxotrophy. They all showed good genetic stability and a growth rate similar to that of the parental strain. Canthaxanthin and other carotenoids from these mutants were extracted with acetone and ethanol and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These HPLC analyses, together with spectrophotometric detection at 480 nm, revealed variations in the pigment contents of the different mutant strains. PMID:11312835

  18. Myostatin inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of Smad3-mediated β-catenin stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Kon; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Sung Goo; Ko, Yong; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul

    2012-02-01

    Brown adipocytes play an important role in regulating energy balance, and there is a good correlation between obesity and the amount of brown adipose tissue. Although the molecular mechanism of white adipocyte differentiation has been well characterized, brown adipogenesis has not been studied extensively. Moreover, extracellular factors that regulate brown adipogenic differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the mechanism of the regulatory action of myostatin in brown adipogenic differentiation using primary brown preadipocytes. Our results clearly showed that differentiation of brown adipocytes was significantly inhibited by myostatin treatment. In addition, myostatin-induced suppression of brown adipogenesis was observed during the early phase of differentiation. Myostatin induced the phosphorylation of Smad3, which led to increased β-catenin stabilization. These effects were blocked by treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor. Expression of brown adipocyte-related genes, such as PPAR-γ, UCP-1, PGC-1α, and PRDM16, were dramatically down-regulated by treatment with myostatin, and further down-regulated by co-treatment with a β-catenin activator. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that myostatin is a potent negative regulator of brown adipogenic differentiation by modulation of Smad3-induced β-catenin stabilization. Our findings suggest that myostatin could be used as an extracellular factor in the control of brown adipocyte differentiation.

  19. Ascertainment of the effect of differential growth rates of mutants on observed mutant frequencies in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is not known to what extent differential growth rates of induced mutants lead to over- and under-representation of mutants in treated populations and thereby affect the determination of mutant frequencies, the mutation induction in X-irradiated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells was determined via two methods. The first method involves the standard protocol which may suffer from the effect of differential growth rates, while the second method is based upon the fluctuation test in which the differential growth rates can be actually measured. It appeared that the standard protocol led to a mutant frequency that was similar to the mutant frequency determined in the fluctuation test. Therefore, the standard protocol appears to lead to only a minor under-estimation if any. Substantial heterogeneity in growth rates of induced mutants was observed, but the mutants with a selective advantage appear largely to compensate for the mutants that are lost because of selective disadvantage. It was calculated that the chance for isolating the same mutant twice from a treated population had been increased 2.2-fold because of the observed differential growth rates. (orig./AJ)

  20. Suppression of Id2, a member of the inhibitor of differentiation family and a target of mutant p53, is required for mutant p53 gain of function

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wensheng; Liu, Gang; Scoumanne, Ariane; Chen, Xinbin

    2008-01-01

    Over-expression of mutant p53 is a common theme in human tumors, suggesting a tumor-promoting gain of function for mutant p53. To elucidate whether and how mutant p53 acquires its gain of function, mutant p53 is inducibly knocked down in SW480 colon cancer cell line, which contains mutant p53(R273H/P309S), and MIA-PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line, which contains mutant p53(R248W). We found that knockdown of mutant p53 markedly inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, knockdown of mutant p5...

  1. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  2. Assessment and utilization of spontaneous sport mutant of grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous sport mutant of Fujiminori was discovered in grape garden of Xiaying county at Ningbo city in 1993. The biological, botanical characteristics and fruit quality trait (such as total soluble solid, titratable acid, total water soluble sugar, reducing sugar, free Vc, organic acid and aroma etc.) of the mutant were continuously investigated from 1994 to 1999. The results showed that the sport mutant grew more vigorously, having multiple-bearing capacity in the year cycle. Fruit quality determination demonstrated that total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, soluble solids content and aroma contents of the mutant were higher than those of maternal plant in different degree, while titratable acid content of mutant was deceased. Meanwhile, it was also found that the berries of mutant are firmer and have longer storage life. The RAPD analysis of the genomic DNAs extracted from the young leaves of the spontaneous sport mutant indicated that there were some differential bands in the PCR amplified products using the arbitrary primers, which indicated the genotype diversity happened in the spontaneous mutation of grape.The mutant had been successfully developed the new grape variety named as 'Yongyou No. 1' via selection breeding method. The variety was approved by Ningbo Science and Technology Bureau in 1999 and was rapidly planted at other regions, such as Fenghua County, Yuyao County, Cixi County, Ninghai County, Shaoxing City, Jiaxing City and Hangzhou City, etc. Due to its high quality and productivity, it exhibits the extensive application potential in the future. (author)

  3. Development of Database Software with Plant Mutant Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, mutants induced by nuclear radiation are developed information computerised system. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in Korea are introduced. And it was produced home page, manual, test record, construction of system

  4. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  5. Iron-molybdenum cofactor synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii Nif- mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Imperial, J; Shah, V K; Ugalde, R A; Ludden, P W; Brill, W J

    1987-01-01

    Nif- mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii defective in dinitrogenase activity synthesized iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) and accumulated it in two protein-bound forms: inactive dinitrogenase and a possible intermediate involved in the FeMo-co biosynthetic pathway. FeMo-co from both these proteins could activate apo-dinitrogenase from FeMo-co-deficient mutants.

  6. Isolation of peroxisome-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdmann, Ralf; Veenhuis, Marten; Mertens, Daphne; Kunau, Wolf-H.

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affected in peroxisomal assembly (pas mutants) have been isolated and characterized. Each strain contains a single mutation that results in (i) the inability to grow on oleic acid, (ii) accumulation of peroxisomal matrix enzymes in the cytosol, and (iii) absen

  7. Characterization of peroxisome-deficient mutants of Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Xuqiu; Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Klei, Ida J. van der; Sulter, Grietje J.; Haima, Peter; Waterham, Hans R.; Evers, Melchior; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten; Cregg, James M.

    1995-01-01

    In the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, approximately 25% of all methanol-utilization-defective (Mut(-)) mutants are affected in genes required for peroxisome biogenesis (PER genes). Previously, we reported that one group of pel mutants, termed Pim(-), are characterized by the presence of

  8. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  9. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  10. Temperature Fluctuations as a Source of Brown Dwarf Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D

    2014-01-01

    A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be variable with observed amplitudes as large as 10-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed variability, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric temperature fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal variability might play we present a case study of brown dwarf variability using a newly-developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in ...

  11. Multiple brown tumors of the jaws in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentisity, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Brown tumor is usually diagnosed at the terminal stage of hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this tumor is confirmed by endocrinologic investigations along with clinical and radiographic examination. Radiographical differential diagnosis of this tumor includes central giant cell granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and Paget disease. This report presents a rare case of multiple brown tumors occurring at the maxilla and mandible, which was initially misdiagnosed as central giant cell granuloma. Plain radiographs demonstrated multiple well-defined multilocular radiolucency. CT images showed soft tissue mass with low attenuated lesions, perforation of the lingual cortical plate, and a heterogeneous mass at the right thyroid lobe. These findings were consistent with parathyroid adenoma. The patient had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. No recurrence was observed during a 28-month follow-up.

  12. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew; Allers, Katelyn; Geballe, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline; Bjoraker, Gordon; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to directly study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs---near infrared spectroscopy---is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 $\\mu$m spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  13. An analysis of the Brown-Biefeld effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, Reuven; Mudrik, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    When a voltage higher than 20 kv is applied on an asymmetric capacitor, the capacitor experiences a net force acting toward its thinner electrode. This effect is called Brown-Biefeld (BB) effect, in honor of its discoverers Thomas Townsend Brown and Paul Alfred Biefeld. A lot of theories have been proposed to explain the BB effect, and many speculations can be found on the net suggesting the BB effect to be an antigravitation effect that works in vacuum too. Other sources say the BB effect warps the space. However, in the recent years, more an more researchers attribute the BB effect to a unicharge ion wind . This work calculates the levitation force due to the ion wind and also presents experimental results which confirm the theoretical results. Our calculations make use of Deutsch assumption, and have a very low computing cost. Also, a deep insight into the Deutsch assumption is presented.

  14. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-08-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents the first opportunity to directly study an object outside the solar system that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However, the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs—near-infrared spectroscopy—is not currently feasible, as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5–5.2 μm spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter’s deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter’s. The spectrum quality is high enough to allow for the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter’s atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  15. Cervical disc herniation manifesting as a Brown-Sequard syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yokoyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Sequard syndrome is commonly seen in the setting of spinal trauma or an extramedullary spinal neoplasm. The clinical picture reflects hemisection of the spinal cord. We report a rare case of Brown-Sequard syndrome caused by a large cervical herniated disc. A 63-year-old man presented with progressive right hemiparesis and disruption of pain and temperature sensation on the left side of the body. Magnetic resonance imaging showed large C3-C4 disc herniation compressing the spinal cord at that level, with severe canal stenosis from C4 through C7. Decompressive cervical laminoplasty was performed. After surgery, complete sensory function was restored and a marked improvement in motor power was obtained.

  16. Excitation Energy-Transfer Dynamics of Brown Algal Photosynthetic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, D; Kita, M; Fujii, R; Sugisaki, M; Oka, N; Takaesu, Y; Taira, T; Iha, M; Hashimoto, H

    2012-09-20

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-a/c protein (FCP) complexes from brown algae Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese) contain the only species of carbonyl carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which exhibits spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) property that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. Here, we investigated the role of the ICT property of fucoxanthin in ultrafast energy transfer to chlorophyll-a/c in brown algal photosynthesis using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The observed excited-state dynamics show that the ICT character of fucoxanthin in FCP extends its absorption band to longer wavelengths and enhances its electronic interaction with chlorophyll-a molecules, leading to efficient energy transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll-a. PMID:26295888

  17. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-10-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through nonshivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent observations indicate the importance of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in thermoregulation. We have found that the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the DMH has distinct actions in modulating adiposity and BAT thermogenesis. Knockdown of NPY in the DMH elevates the thermogenic activity of classic BAT and promotes the development of brown adipocytes in WAT, leading to increased thermogenesis. These findings identify a novel potential target for combating obesity.

  18. A search for rocky planets transiting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Selsis, Franck; Winn, Joshua N; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Artigau, Etienne; Laughlin, Gregory P; Seager, Sara; Helling, Christiane; Mayor, Michel; Albert, Loic; Anderson, Richard I; Bolmont, Emeline; Doyon, Rene; Forveille, Thierry; Hagelberg, Janis; Leconte, Jeremy; Lendl, Monika; Littlefair, Stuart; Raymond, Sean; Sahlmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanetary science has reached a historic moment. The James Webb Space Telescope will be capable of probing the atmospheres of rocky planets, and perhaps even search for biologically produced gases. However this is contingent on identifying suitable targets before the end of the mission. A race therefore, is on, to find transiting planets with the most favorable properties, in time for the launch. Here, we describe a realistic opportunity to discover extremely favorable targets - rocky planets transiting nearby brown dwarfs - using the Spitzer Space Telescope as a survey instrument. Harnessing the continuous time coverage and the exquisite precision of Spitzer in a 5,400 hour campaign monitoring nearby brown dwarfs, we will detect a handful of planetary systems with planets as small as Mars. The survey we envision is a logical extension of the immense progress that has been realized in the field of exoplanets and a natural outcome of the exploration of the solar neighborhood to map where the nearest habitab...

  19. Biotechnological applications of brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Henrique da Silva, Paulo; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Paludo, Kátia Sabrina; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Gremski, Waldemiro; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2008-01-01

    Loxoscelism (the term used to define accidents by the bite of brown spiders) has been reported worldwide. Clinical manifestations following brown spider bites are frequently associated with skin degeneration, a massive inflammatory response at the injured region, intravascular hemolysis, platelet aggregation causing thrombocytopenia and renal disturbances. The mechanisms by which the venom exerts its noxious effects are currently under investigation. The whole venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched with low molecular mass proteins in the range of 5-40 kDa. Toxins including alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronidase, metalloproteases (astacin-like proteases), low molecular mass (5.6-7.9 kDa) insecticidal peptides and phospholipases-D (dermonecrotic toxins) have been identified in the venom. The purpose of the present review is to describe biotechnological applications of whole venom or some toxins, with especial emphasis upon molecular biology findings obtained in the last years.

  20. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  1. Fixation of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of clay minerals and organic matter on the sorption and desorption of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil is investigated. A highly selective adsorption of radiocaesium is often reported in the surface horizons of acid forest soils. For this reason, soil humus is often considered as a key parameter in modelling the behaviour of Cs in these soils. The Ca2+-clay fractions, extracted from the surface hemi-organic horizon and the deeper mineral horizons of an acid brown soil, exhibit similarly high Cs+ sorption properties. Desorption yields are much lower in the surface layers, resulting in higher net retention of radiocaesium. Organic matter dynamics in the soil containing Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculite minerals has an indirect effect on radiocaesium retention properties through Al complexation by organic acids. Acidocomplexolysis of Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculitic clays results in the formation of degraded vermiculite in the topsoil layers, inducing a larger amount of high charged interlayer sites for Cs+ specific adsorption

  2. MicroRNA networks regulate development of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Mirko; Lodish, Harvey

    2013-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity; in both humans and mice increased amounts of BAT are associated with a lean phenotype and resistance to development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Here we summarize recent research showing that several BAT-expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating differentiation and metabolism of brown and beige adipocytes; we discuss the key mRNA targets downregulated by these miRNAs and show how these miRNAs affect directly or indirectly transcription factors important for BAT development. We suggest that these miRNAs could be part of novel therapeutics to increase BAT in humans.

  3. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja;

    Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass compos...... concentration of antioxidant in sugar kelp and in 100 times higher range than e.g. microalgae. However, the large variations should be taken into account when aiming for industrial use.......Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled...

  4. Pharmacological correctors of mutant CFTR mistrafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta ePedemonte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of phenylalanine 508 (∆F508 mutation in the CFTR Cl- channel represents the most frequent cause of cystic fibrosis (CF, a genetic disease affecting multiple organs such lung, pancreas, and liver. ∆F508 causes instability and misfolding of CFTR protein leading to early degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum and accelerated removal from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological correctors of mutant CFTR protein have been identified by high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries, by in silico docking of virtual compounds on CFTR structure models, or by using compounds that affect the whole proteome (e.g. histone deacetylase inhibitors or a single CFTR-interacting protein. The presence of multiple defects caused at the CFTR protein level by ∆F508 mutation and the redundancy of quality control mechanisms detecting ∆F508-CFTR as a defective protein impose a ceiling to the maximal effect that a single compound (corrector may obtain. Therefore, treatment of patients with the most frequent CF mutation may require the optimized combination of two drugs having additive or synergic effects.

  5. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting as Brown Lichenoid Patches

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk; Lee, Jang Hyun; Kim, Sung Keun; Park, Young Lip; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Moon Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is related diseases characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cell with involvement of bone, skin, lung and other organs. LCH usually occurs in childhood and are presented as multiple small papules or eczematoid lesion mostly. We report a 50-year-old man with 3 brown lichenoid patches on left dorsal foot. He was diagnosed pulmonary LCH 5 years ago. Typical LC cells on skin lesion and CD1 complex positive staining confirm the diagnosis of LCH. We consider...

  6. Recent advance in brown adipose physiology and its therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Jung, Young-Suk; Choi, Dalwoong

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermoregulatory organ that has a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Specifically, energy expenditure can be enhanced by the activation of BAT function and the induction of a BAT-like catabolic phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT). Since the recent recognition of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, BAT has been extensively studied as one of the most promising targets identified for treating obesity and its related disorde...

  7. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Otto eMuzik; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake....

  8. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Bartness, TJ; Vaughan, CH; Song, CK

    2010-01-01

    The innervation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is incontrovertible and, with its activation, functions as the principal, if not exclusive, stimulator of BAT thermogenesis. The parasympathetic innervation of BAT only appears in two minor BAT depots, but not in the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. BAT thermogenesis is triggered by the release of norepinephrine from its sympathetic nerve terminals, stimulating β3-adrenoceptors that turns on a cascade o...

  9. Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.; Townsend, Kristy L.; An, Ding; Nygaard, Eva B.; Hitchcox, Kristen M.; Markan, Kathleen R.; Nakano, Kazuhiro; Hirshman, Michael F.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, and also has the capacity to modulate energy balance. To test the hypothesis that BAT is fundamental to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, we transplanted BAT from male donor mice into the visceral cavity of age- and sex-matched recipient mice. By 8–12 weeks following transplantation, recipient mice had improved glucose tolerance, increased insulin sensitivity, lowe...

  10. Does Brown Fat Protect Against Diseases of Aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark P Mattson

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can `burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers o...

  11. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet ...

  12. Assessment of Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Fat Using PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muzik, Otto; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans, suggesting that most humans have some functional BAT. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults d...

  13. Removal of humic substances from water by brown coal sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.V. Veprikova; A.V. Rudkovskii; M.L. Shchipko [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch

    2007-12-15

    Brown coal sorption materials with high activity toward humic substances were prepared using a larger scale laboratory unit with a spouted-bed system. The effect of thermal treatment conditions on the sorption properties of these materials was studied. It was found that the sorption activity of the resulting samples toward humates was closely related to the limiting sorption volume of the materials with respect to benzene.

  14. Role of energy metabolism in the brown fat gene program

    OpenAIRE

    Minwoo eNam; Marcus eCooper

    2015-01-01

    In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the action of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria ex...

  15. Fluorescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in Living Mice†

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Douglas R.; White, Alexander G.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure and heat generation and is a promising target for diagnosing and treating obesity, diabetes and related metabolism disorders. While several nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging methods are established for detecting human BAT, there are no convenient protocols for high throughput imaging of BAT in small animal models. Here we disclose a simple but effective method for non-invasive optical imaging of interscapular BAT in mice u...

  16. Resistance of alloplasmic wheats to brown leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of alloplasmic and euplasmic lines of wheat on brown leaf rust was studied in the condition of field infectious nursery in 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007. The influence of cytoplasmic genome on resistance of the investigated lines varied for years and probably was mainly specific to race. However the positive effect of alloplasm from Aegilops squarrosa var. typica on resistance to pathogene was stable and universal.

  17. Planetesimals to brown dwarfs: What is a planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Gibor; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought about a revolution in our understanding of our Solar System and other planetary systems. During this time, discoveries include the first Kuiper Belt Objects, the first brown dwarfs, and the first extra-solar planets. Although discoveries continue apace, they have called into question our previous perspectives on planets, both here and elsewhere. The result has been a debate about the meaning of the word ''planet'' itself. It became clear that scientists do not h...

  18. Eclipse Observations of a Temperate Transiting Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Curtis, Jason; Montet, Benjamin; Vanderberg, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We wish to use 15.7 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6 um and 4.5 um of a newly discovered transiting brown dwarf, which we refer to as R147-BD. R147-BD is a 36 MJ object on a 5.3 day orbit about a K=10.666, 5800K solar analog. Uniquely, R147-BD and its host star are both members of the 3.0 Gyr old open cluster Ruprecht 147. R147-BD is thus one of the only transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models. These models predict that a field object with the mass and age of R147-BD should have an effective temperature of about 800K due to internal heat. The zero-albedo blackbody equilibrium temperature for R147-BD, based only on its host star's insolation, is 1125K. This makes R147-BD the first observationally accessible sub-stellar object for which the internal and external energy fluxes are approximately equal, and it can serve as a unique laboratory to test the effect of stellar irradiation on the vertical pressure-temperature structure and clouds of giant planets. Specifically, we wish to investigate three different questions with these observations. First, how does the measured mass, radius, age and emission of R147-BD compare to brown dwarf evolution models, and how have these been altered by stellar irradiation? Second, does R147-BD's dayside atmosphere resemble its isolated field equivalent, or is it closer to hot Jupiters at similar temperatures? Third, can we constrain the cloud properties of R147-BD's dayside? Besides these particular science questions, observations of R147-BD allow us to scout-out future JWST observations of temperate giant planets, which also will have roughly equal amounts of stellar irradiation and internal heat.

  19. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  20. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  1. Three mimic mutants for reclining foliage in common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new mutants for the reclining foliage (RF) character were induced by treating seed of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines B-351 and 182-1 with 20 krad of .gamma.-radiation. These two mutants were shown to be monogenic and recessive. Allelism tests between the common RF gene rf and the two new mimic mutants for RF indicated that each of the three mutants has an independent locus. The symbols rf2 and rf3 were given to the new mutants. F2 data from the allelism tests showed that the rf2 stock carries a recessive epistatic gene in that does not affect rf2 but suppresses expression of rf and rf3. The rf locus was shown to be independent of the Sur locus for RF in linkage group VII

  2. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  3. Bilateral Brown's syndrome in a mother and her son: case report Síndrome de Brown bilateral em mãe e filho: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Simões Antunes-Foschini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes clinical data from mother and son with bilateral Brown's syndrome and highlights possible genetically determined predispositions.Este relato de caso descreve achados clínicos de mãe e filho com síndrome de Brown bilateral e discute a possibilidade de predisposição genética.

  4. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  5. A homogeneous analysis of disks around brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y; Bayo, A; Nielbock, M; Wang, H

    2015-01-01

    We re-analyzed the Herschel/PACS data of a sample of 55 brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars with spectral types ranging from M5.5 to L0. We investigated the dependence of disk structure on the mass of the central object in the substellar regime based on a homogeneous analysis of Herschel data from flux density measurements to spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. A systematic comparison between the derived disk properties and those of sun-like stars shows that the disk flaring of BDs and very low mass stars is generally smaller than that of their higher mass counterparts, the disk mass is orders of magnitude lower than the typical value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both sun-like stars and BDs. We further divided our sample into an early-type brown dwarf (ETBD) group and a late-type brown dwarf (LTBD) group by using spectral type (=M8) as the border criterion. We systematically compared the modeling results from Bayesian analysis between these two groups, a...

  6. A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G

    2016-01-01

    The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098$^{+10.878}_{-0.098}$% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in pa...

  7. Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silveira Baggio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. , is one of the most important peach (Prunuspersica (L. Batsch diseases and the main cause of postharvest losses. Currently, alternative methods for postharvest disease control, such as the use of volatiles, are under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hexanal on the in vitro development of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa and on monocyclic components of brown rot on peaches. To evaluate the effect on pathogen development in vitro, a single dose of 215 µL of liquid hexanal was placed on glass jars in closed plastic containers (4.3 L at the moment of fungi transfer, 24 or 48 h after transferring to Petri dishes. After hexanal application, the Petri dishes were kept inside the containers that were closed for 24 h at 20 ºC. Mycelial growth was measured seven days after hexanal removal. For in vivo assays, inoculated fruits were kept in closed plastic containers, and hexanal was applied at the moment of fruit inoculation or 24 hours thereafter. The monocyclic components infection frequency, expressed as brown rot incidence, lesion diameter and lesion sporulation, were assessed daily for seven days. Overall, hexanal was more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth when applied at the moment of pathogen transfer. Hexanal did not prevent pathogen infection, but reduced lesion diameter and completely inhibited spore production on the fruit for both treatments. Hexanal provides a promising alternative for chemical control and can be used in postharvest handling systems.

  8. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  9. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Young Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, P; Ray, T P; Peterson, D E; Rodgers-Lee, D; Geers, V

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up is a pre-requisite for studies of the formation and early evolution of brown dwarfs. Here we present IRTF/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy of 30 candidate members of the young Upper Scorpius association, selected from our previous survey work. All 24 high confidence members are confirmed as young very low mass objects with spectral types from M5 to L1, 15-20 of them are likely brown dwarfs. This high yield confirms that brown dwarfs in Upper Scorpius can be identified from photometry and proper motions alone, with negligible contamination from field objects (<4%). Out of the 6 candidates with lower confidence, 5 might still be young very low mass members of Upper Scorpius, according to our spectroscopy. We demonstrate that some very low mass class II objects exhibit radically different near infrared (0.6 - 2.5micron) spectra from class III objects, with strong excess emission increasing towards longer wavelengths and partially filled in features at wavelengths shorter than 1.25micron...

  10. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E.; Castro, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile, Cerro Calan, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shaw, John D. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J.; Harris, Hugh C. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17 D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr{sup -1} and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.{sup 0}2). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J - K{sub s} 2.55 {+-} 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (K{sub s} = 13.05 {+-} 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  11. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  12. CLOUDS search for variability in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Marley, M S; Artigau, É; Baliyan, K S; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Chanover, N; Connelley, M; Doyon, R; Forveille, T; Ganesh, S; Gelino, C R; Hammel, H B; Holtzman, J; Joshi, S; Joshi, U C; Leggett, S K; Liu, M C; Martín, E L; Mohan, V; Nadeau, D; Sagar, R; Stephens, D

    2008-01-01

    Context: L-type ultra-cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs have cloudy atmospheres that could host weather-like phenomena. The detection of photometric or spectral variability would provide insight into unresolved atmospheric heterogeneities, such as holes in a global cloud deck. Aims: It has been proposed that growth of heterogeneities in the global cloud deck may account for the L- to T-type transition as brown dwarf photospheres evolve from cloudy to clear conditions. Such a mechanism is compatible with variability. We searched for variability in the spectra of five L6 to T6 brown dwarfs in order to test this hypothesis. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic time series using VLT/ISAAC, over 0.99-1.13um, and IRTF/SpeX for two of our targets, in J, H and K bands. We search for statistically variable lines and correlation between those. Results: High spectral-frequency variations are seen in some objects, but these detections are marginal and need to be confirmed. We find no evidence for large amplitude variations in s...

  13. Congenital myopathy in Braunvieh x Brown Swiss calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, A; Dahme, E; Obermaier, G; Schmidt, P; Doll, K; Schmahl, W

    1996-07-01

    A hitherto unknown skeletal muscle disorder is described in six Braunvieh x Brown Swiss calves. The animals showed rapidly progressing muscular weakness and became recumbent within 2 weeks of birth. Histological examination of skeletal muscle revealed a marked variation in muscle fibre size, internally placed nuclei, segmental loss of cross-striation with disorganization of myofibrils, and accumulation of nemaline rods. The most distinctive histological finding was intracytoplasmic, homogeneous, mostly crescent-shaped areas at the periphery of numerous muscle fibres. Electron microscopically, accumulations of tightly packed, parallel filamentous structures, about 20 nm in diameter, were detected in these areas. Enzyme histochemistry showed that all muscle fibre types were affected. Vimentin and dystrophin immunohistochemistry revealed normal antigen distribution within connective tissue components and at the periphery of each muscle fibre, respectively. The lesions could be readily distinguished from other neurological and neuromuscular disorders previously described in Braunvieh x Brown Swiss or American Brown Swiss Cattle. The disease appears to be a novel congenital myopathy in this breed, and a hereditary aetiology is suspected.

  14. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  15. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  16. Formation of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, P.

    2012-11-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds.

  17. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  18. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Spanjer Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  19. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Classify Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Sievers, J L; Young, E T; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present a new system of narrow band filters in the near infrared that can be used to classify stars and brown dwarfs. This set of four filters, spanning the H band, can be used to identify molecular features unique to brown dwarfs, such as H2O and CH4. The four filters are centered at 1.495 um (H2O), 1.595 um (continuum), 1.66 um (CH4), and 1.75 um (H2O). Using two H2O filters allows us to solve for individual objects' reddenings. This can be accomplished by constructing a color-color-color cube and rotating it until the reddening vector disappears. We created a model of predicted color-color-color values for different spectral types by integrating filter bandpass data with spectra of known stars and brown dwarfs. We validated this model by making photometric measurements of seven known L and T dwarfs, ranging from L1 - T7.5. The photometric measurements agree with the model to within +/-0.1 mag, allowing us to create spectral indices for different spectral types. We can classify A through early M stars to...

  20. Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry with twisted light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Cross, Robert M; Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    The rich physics exhibited by random optical wave fields permitted Hanbury Brown and Twiss to unveil fundamental aspects of light. Furthermore, it has been recognized that optical vortices are ubiquitous in random light and that the phase distribution around these optical singularities imprints a spectrum of orbital angular momentum onto a light field. We demonstrate that random fluctuations of intensity give rise to the formation of correlations in the orbital angular momentum components and angular positions of pseudothermal light. The presence of these correlations is manifested through distinct interference structures in the orbital angular momentum-mode distribution of random light. These novel forms of interference correspond to the azimuthal analog of the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect. This family of effects can be of fundamental importance in applications where entanglement is not required and where correlations in angular position and orbital angular momentum suffice. We also suggest that the azimuthal Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be useful in the exploration of novel phenomena in other branches of physics and astrophysics. PMID:27152334

  1. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda; Di Francesco, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Duchêne, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Chrysostomou, Antonio [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North Aóhoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-07-10

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 μm and 850 μm taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3σ detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 ± 1.1) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} and <2.7 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio for KPNO Tau 3 is congruent with the scenario that at least some brown dwarfs form via the same mechanism as low-mass stars.

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of a Female Sterile Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A female sterile mutant, derived from a spontaneous mutation, wasfirst discovered in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp.indica) restorer line 202R. With normal flowering, the mutant exhibits an extremely Iow seed-setting rate. When the mutant is crossed as a pollen donor, the seeds set normally; whereas when it is used as a pollen receiver,no seeds are obtained even with mixed pollen grains of different varieties sprinkled over the stigmas. The floret of the mutant, consisting of six stamens and one pistil, looks the same as that of the wild type in the malefemale organs, except that less than 10% of the mutant florets have three stigmas on the ovary. Although the mutant has a low seed-setting rate, Its pollen fertility is approximately 87.1%, which is equal to that of the wild type. In addition, more than 90% of the mature embryo sacs of the mutant have complete inner structures. At every stage after pollination, the sperm, embryo, and endosperm are not found in the mutant embryo sac,whereas the disintegration of the egg cell that does not accomplish fertilization is visible. Through observations with a fluorescence microscope, we have found that the pollen grains germinate normally, whereas the pollen tube abnormally elongates in the style-transmitting tissue. The mutant pollen tubes display various defects in the style, such as slower elongation, conversed elongation, distorted elongation, swollen tips, or branched tips. As a result, the growth of the pollen tubes ceases in the style, and, therefore, the pollen tubes cannot reach the embryo sac and the process of double fertilization is blocked. Based on these observations,we conclude that this mutant, designated as fs-202R, is a novel type of female sterile mutation in rice, which causes the arrest of the elongation of the pollen tube.

  3. Construction of a mutant library of horseradish peroxidase gene by directed evolution and development of an in situ screening method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Mendive

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A process of directed evolution applied to obtain a library of mutants of horseradish peroxidase (HRP enzyme is described. We have introduced slight variations into the original DNA shuffling protocol. A DNA template was prepared by PCR amplification and digested with Dnase I during 1 hour. Dnase I products were concentrated by precipitation with isopropanol. Gel electrophoresis showed fragments of the desired size range (20-600 pb without a full-length template remaining in the reaction mixture. A high concentration of fragments was crucial for performing PCR without primers. In this case, a template concentration of 32.5 ng/mu l was appropriate. Amplification of recombinant genes in a standard PCR reaction (template dilution 1:100 produced a smear with a low yield for the full-length sequence. A single product of the correct size was obtained by PCR with nested primers separated from the previously used primers by 40 pb. In our laboratory, native HRP has been functionally expressed in a baculovirus expression vector system. The purpose is to develop the screening of the first generation of random mutants in this system. To facilitate detection of those clones that have high peroxidase activity, we developed a rapid method: after five days postinfection agarose plates with six wells were covered with DAB (3,3´-diaminobenzidine and H2O2. The appearance of brown-black stain allows visualization of up to 100 active clones/well in only 1 min.

  4. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells.

  5. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  6. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells. PMID:27386153

  7. How Dry is the Brown Dwarf Desert?: Quantifying the Relative Number of Planets, Brown Dwarfs and Stellar Companions around Nearby Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, D; Grether, Daniel; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Sun-like stars have stellar, brown dwarf and planetary companions. To help constrain their formation and migration scenarios, we analyse the close companions (orbital period 2 M_Solar respectively. However, we find no evidence that companion mass scales with host mass in general. Approximately 16% of Sun-like stars have close (P < 5 years) companions more massive than Jupiter: 11% are stellar, 1% are brown dwarf and 4% are giant planets. The companion mass function in the brown dwarf and stellar mass range, has a different shape than the initial mass function of individual stars and free-floating brown dwarfs. This suggests either a different spectrum of gravitational fragmentation in the formation environment or post-formation migratory processes disinclined to leave brown dwarfs in close orbits.

  8. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had...... enhanced expression of the thermogenic genes and of genes expressed selectively in brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and in both interscapular BAT and WAT. ß3-adrenoceptor suppression blunted their expression only in WAT. Furthermore, cold acclimatization induced an increased WAT expression of the gene coding...... a mixed mitochondrioma with classic "brown" and "white" mitochondria, suggesting intermediate steps in the process of direct transformation of white into brown adipocytes (transdifferentiation). Quantitative electron microscopy disclosed that cold exposure (6°C for 10 days) did not induce an increase...

  9. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  10. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  11. A KECK LGS AO SEARCH FOR BROWN DWARF AND PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We searched for binary companions to 20 young brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius association (145 pc, 5 Myr, nearest OB association) with the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system and the facility infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck II telescope. We discovered a 0.''14 companion (20.9 ± 0.4 AU) to the sun object SCH J16091837-20073523. From spectral deconvolution of integrated-light near-IR spectroscopy of SCH1609 using the SpeX spectrograph (Rayner et al. 2003), we estimate primary and secondary spectral types of M6 ± 0.5 and M7 ± 1.0, corresponding to masses of 79 ± 17 MJup and 55 ± 25 MJup at an age of 5 Myr and masses of 84 ± 15 MJup and 60 ± 25 MJup at an age of 10 Myr. For our survey objects with spectral types later than M8, we find an upper limit on the binary fraction of Jup) brown dwarfs in Upper Sco is similar to that for T dwarfs in the field; for higher mass brown dwarfs and very low mass stars, there is an excess of medium-separation (10-50 AU projected separation) young binaries with respect to the field. These medium-separation binaries will likely survive to late ages.

  12. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  13. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  14. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  15. Potential of sweet potato mutant lines for bio ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoots of sweet potato Sari variety were irradiated at the doses of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy. Irradiated shoots were planted and selected to obtain better mutant lines than that of the parent plant. Ten mutant lines were from the fourth generation which better morphology and productivity than that of the parent plant. The best productivity was found at mutant line number 40-2 which was 717.50 g/plant compared to parent plant with 622.50 g/plant. The highest glucose and starch content obtained were at the dose of 20 Gy which were 8.85 and 28.56 % respectively. The mutant line of Sari sweet potato has a potential to produce bio ethanol. The bio-ethanol production from those of mutant lines at a range of 15.02 to 19.46 % compared to 13.67 % in the parent plant. The mutant line number 20 was the best line to produce bio-ethanol. The aim of this experiment was to find mutant lines having potential to produce bio-ethanol. (author)

  16. Effect of different immunosuppressive drugs on calcineurin and its mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several mutants in Loop7 region and near Loop7 region of calcineurin A (CN A) subunit have been constructed and purified using site-directed mutagenesis.Their phosphatase activity and the corresponding solution conformation were examined.Their phosphatase activities between wild-type CN and mutants were compared to identify the interaction of different immunosuppressive drugs with CN.The results showed that the phosphatase activities of the mutants at Loop7 were much higher than the one of wild-type CN.Furthermore,circular dichroism spectra of the mutants revealed that their solution conformations gave rise in changes in native structure of the protein.Cyclophilin-CyclosporinA (CyP-CsA) significantly inhibited the phosphatase activity of wild-type CN,and had no effects on the phosphatase activity of mutants in Loop7 region,which indicates that the site-directed mutagenesis at Loop7 region made a significant change in the interaction between CyP-CsA and CN.Examination of the activities of these mutants resulted in the presence of immunosuppressive component from traditional Chinese drugs.The component of Chinese drug,ZIP1,could directly inhibit both CN and CN mutants without drug binding protein.These results suggest that the Loop7 region is an important structural area involved in the inhibition by CyP-CsA.It is valuable to further study the inhibition by ZIP1.

  17. Epigenetic Suppression of T-DNA Insertion Mutants in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangbin Gao; Yunde Zhao

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA insertion mutants have been widely used to define gene functions in Arabidopsis and in other plants.Here,we report an unexpected phenomenon of epigenetic suppression of T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis.When the two T-DNA insertion mutants,yucl-1 and ag-TD,were crossed together,the defects in all of the ag-TD plants in the F2 population were partially suppressed regardless of the presence of yucl-1.Conversion of ag-TD to the suppressed ag-TD (named as ag-TD*) did not follow the laws of Mendelian genetics.The ag-TD* could be stably transmitted for many generations without reverting to ag-TD,and ag-TD* had the capacity to convert ag-TD to ag-TD*.We show that epigenetic suppression of T-DNA mutants is not a rare event,but certain structural features in the T-DNA mutants are needed in order for the suppression to take place.The suppressed T-DNA mutants we observed were all intronic T-DNA mutants and the T-DNA fragments in both the trigger T-DNA as well as in the suppressed T-DNA shared stretches of identical sequences.We demonstrate that the suppression of intronic T-DNA mutants is mediated by trans-interactions between two ToDNA insertions.This work shows that caution is needed when intronic T-DNA mutants are used.

  18. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  19. Silica nanoparticles inhibit brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of p38 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Kwak, Minjeong; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Chang, Won Seok; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Sang Chul; Song, Nam Woong; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their wide variety of biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, they affect cellular differentiation and/or intracellular signaling when applied and exposed to target organisms or cells. The brown adipocyte is a cell type important in energy homeostasis and thus closely related to obesity. In this study, we assessed the effects of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) on brown adipocyte differentiation. The results clearly showed that brown adipocyte differentiation was significantly repressed by exposure to SNPs. The brown adipocyte-specific genes as well as mitochondrial content were also markedly reduced. Additionally, SNPs led to suppressed p38 phosphorylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. These effects depend on the size of SNPs. Taken together, these results lead us to suggest that SNP has anti-brown adipogenic effect in a size-dependent manner via regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  20. Molecular pathways regulating the formation of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huiqin; Mao, Yushan; Wang, Anshi; Wang, Xin; Zou, Zuquan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The unique thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane. On the basis of recent findings that adult humans have functionally active brown adipose tissue, it is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in white adipose tissue upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in white adipose tissue.

  1. Characterization of xylitol-utilizing mutants of Erwinia uredovora.

    OpenAIRE

    Doten, R C; Mortlock, R P

    1985-01-01

    Of the four pentitols ribitol, xylitol, D-arabitol, and L-arabitol, Erwinia uredovora was able to utilize only D-arabitol as a carbon and energy source. Although attempts to isolate ribitol- or L-arabitol-utilizing mutants were unsuccessful, mutants able to grow on xylitol were isolated at a frequency of 9 X 10(-8). Xylitol-positive mutants constitutively synthesized both a novel NAD-dependent xylitol-4-dehydrogenase, which oxidized xylitol to L-xylulose, and an L-xylulokinase. The xylitol de...

  2. Biochemical characterization of a fructokinase mutant of Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiol, A; Arias, A.; Cerveñansky, C; Gaggero, C; Martínez-Drets, G

    1980-01-01

    A double mutant strain (UR3) of Rhizobium meliloti L5-30 was isolated from a phosphoglucose isomerase mutant (UR1) on the basis of its resistance to fructose inhibition when grown on fructose-rich medium. UR3 lacked both phosphoglucose isomerase and fructokinase activity. A mutant strain (UR4) lacking only the fructokinase activity was derived from UR3; it grew on the same carbon sources as the parent strain, but not on fructose, mannitol, or sorbitol. A spontaneous revertant (UR5) of normal ...

  3. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov S. I.; Vernigorova N. A.; Kuzina A. A.; Laptinova A. S.; Kazeev K. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil....

  4. Functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity. The results of researches of functional composition of brown and weathered coals and their activity as a growth-promoting factor for agricultural crops were considered. The composition of coals was studied. It was found that application of humates of brown coal is a very important factor for complex rehabilitation of soils and for application in agriculture.

  5. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj Aleš; Simonović Predrag; Sušnik Simona; Marić Saša

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one ...

  6. Control and Physiological Determinants of Sympathetically Mediated Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    DenisRichard; ÉricTurcotte

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a remarkable heat-producing tissue. The thermogenic potential of BAT is conferred by uncoupling protein 1, a protein found uniquely in the brown adipocytes. The physiological control of BAT activity and capacity is ensured by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which densely innervates brown fat depots. SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis is essentially governed by hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. BAT is not only controlled by the brain thermoregulatory c...

  7. Osteomyelitis of the Mandibular Symphysis Caused by Brown Recluse Spider Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Deepak K.; Ghurani, Rami; Salas, R. Emerick; Mannari, Rudolph J.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Brown recluse spider bites cause significant trauma via their tissue toxic venom. Diagnosis of these injuries and envenomation is difficult and many times presumptive. Treatment is varied and dependent upon presentation and course of injury. Materials and Methods: We present a case of a previously unreported incidence of osteomyelitis of the mandible as a result of a brown recluse spider bite. A review of the literature and discussion of diagnosis and treatment of brown recluse sp...

  8. The taxonomic status of the Yucatan brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin, R.A.; Gardner, A.L.; Aranda, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucatan brown brocket deer, described as Mazama pandora, is now treated as a subspecies of either the common brown brocket, Mazama gouazoubira, or of the red brocket, M. americana. Analysis of brocket deer from Mexico and Central and South America, reveals that the Yucatan brown brocket is sympatric with the red brocket in Mexico and, while similar to M. gouazoubira, warrents recognition as a separate species.

  9. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  10. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos)

    OpenAIRE

    Esteruelas, Núria Fandos; Malmsten, Jonas; Bröjer, Caroline; Grandi, Giulio; Lindström, Anders; Brown, Paul; Swenson, Jon E; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-01-01

    In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and prese...

  11. Brown tumor of the mandible as first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanromán, Jacinto; Antón-Badiola, Iosu María; Costas-López, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Brown tumor is one of the lesions that develop in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Any of the skeletal bones can be affected including the cranio-maxillofacial ones. Most of the times the brown tumor appears after a final diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is made. However brown tumor can be the first clinical sign of the disease. A clinical case in which a brown tumor located in the anterior part of the mandible appears as the first sign of primary hyperparathyroidism is presented. The possible differential clinical diagnosis and the recommended treatments are revised.

  12. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  13. Statistical Properties of Brown Dwarf Companions: Implications for Different Formation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The mass domain where massive extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs overlap is still poorly understood due to the paucity of brown dwarfs orbiting close to solar-type stars, the so-called brown dwarf desert. In this paper we collect all of available data about close brown dwarfs around solar type stars and their host stars from literature and study the demographics of the brown dwarf desert. The data clearly show a short period and a medium mass gap in the brown dwarf period-mass distribution diagram ($ 35brown dwarf desert. Observation biases are highly unlikely to cause this gap due to its short period and medium mass, of which brown dwarfs can be easily detected by previous RV surveys. Brown dwarfs above and below this gap have significantly different eccentricity distribution, which not only confirms that this gap is real, but also implies that they may have different origins. Our further statistical study indicates t...

  14. Regulation of an unexploited brown trout population in Spruce Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the annual variations in the density of an unexploited population of lotic brown trout Salmo trutta that has been censused annually for 19 years and to explore the importance of density-independent and density-dependent processes in regulating population size. Brown trout density and indices of stream discharge and water temperature were related to annual variations in natural mortality, recruitment, and growth. Annual mortality of age-1 and older (age-1+) brown trout ranged from 0.30 to 0.75 and was best explained by discharge during spring and by brown trout density. Recruitment to age 1 varied fivefold. Density of age-1 brown trout was inversely related to spawner density and positively related to discharge during the fall spawning period. The median length of age-1 brown trout was positively related to discharge during summer and fall. Relative weight was inversely related to the density of age-2+ brown trout. The interactive effects of discharge and brown trout density accounted for most of the annual variation in mortality, recruitment, and growth during the first year of life. Annual trends in the abundance of age-1+ brown trout were largely dictated by natural mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  15. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R., III; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  16. ADD1/SREBP1c activates the PGC1-alpha promoter in brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2010-01-01

    regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) in brown and inguinal white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. Using in vitro models of white and brown adipocytes we demonstrate that beta......Cold adaptation elicits a paradoxical simultaneous induction of fatty acid synthesis and beta-oxidation in brown adipose tissue. We show here that cold exposure coordinately induced liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha), adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol...... as a regulator of PGC1alpha expression in brown adipose tissue....

  17. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  18. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli, Identification of a mutant enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Nygaard, Per

    1982-01-01

    , stimulated the mutant enzyme. The activity of PRib-PP synthetase in crude extract was higher in the mutant than in the parent. When starved for purines an accumulation of PRib-PP was observed in the parent strain, while the pool decreased in the mutant. During pyrimidine starvation derepression of PRib....... Kinetic analysis of the mutant PRib-PP synthetase revealed an apparent Km for ATP and ribose 5-phosphate of 1.0 mM and 240 μM respectively, compared to 60 μM and 45 μM respectively for the wild-type enzyme. ADP, which inhibits the wild-type enzyme at a concentration of 0.5 mM ribose 5-phosphate...

  19. Status and Perspectives on the Researches of Rice Glutelin Mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Tian-qing; SHEN Wen-biao; ZHU Su-song; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2003-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L. ) is one of the model plants for genomics research. As the raising offunctional rice breeding for special usage, glutelin mutants play a more and more important role in the func-tional rice breeding as well as eukaryotic gene expression and regulation research materials. For example, therice cultivar special for the patients suffering from kidney disease and diabetes could be developed from the riceglutelin mutants. In this paper, current researches on characterization, mutation mechanism and breeding us-age of various rice glutelin mutants, especially the low glutelin content cultivars, were all discussed with per-spectives on the trends of the glutelin mutant researches in the era of post-genomics.

  20. Improved production of rhamno lipids by a pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant derived by random mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, producing high level of the rhamno lipid bio surfactants was selected on Sigmund Wagner plates. The mutant designated P. aeruginosa Persian Type Culture Collection 1637 produces rhamno lipids at concentration 10 times more than present strain. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis and surface tension measurement showed that the bio surfactants produced by the mutant were identical to those produced by the wild type strain. The bio surfactants exhibited a low surface tension of 28.0 mn m-1 and a low critical micelle concentration of 9 mg l-1. Similar to the wild type strain, the mutant produced bio surfactants at the stationary phase