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Sample records for brown coal liquefaction process

  1. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  2. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  4. 德国IGOR煤液化工艺及云南先锋褐煤液化%IGOR PROCESS OF DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION AND XIANFENG BROWN COAL LIQUEFACTION IN IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克健; 史士东; 李文博

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, IGOR process of direct coal liquefaction in Germany and experimental results of Xianfeng brown coal in 200 kg/d PDU of IGOR process in Germany are introduced. Compared with other direct coal liquefaction processes, IGOR process is characterized with higher throughout of coal hydrogenation reactor, higher integration degree and higher quality of oils. The results of Xianfeng coal tested in 200 kg/d PDU of IGOR process in Germany showed IGOR process marched Xianfeng brown coal well with 53% of oil yield, 2 mg/kg and 17 mg/kg of N and S contents. Qualified 0# diesel oil can be produced from Xianfeng coal oil with simple distillation and qualified 90# lead free gasoline can be produced from it with reforming step.%介绍了德国IGOR煤直接液化工艺和云南先锋褐煤在IGOR工艺200 kg/d的PDU装置的试验结果. 与其它煤直接液化工艺相比, IGOR工艺具有煤直接液化反应器的空速高、系统集成度高和油品质量好的特点. 云南先锋褐煤在IGOR工艺200 kg/d的PDU装置上的试验结果表明, 先锋褐煤是适宜IGOR煤液化的煤种, 得到的油收率为53%, 油品中氮和硫的含量分别为2 mg/kg和17 mg/kg.煤液化油经过简单蒸馏可得到合格的0#柴油,经过重整可得到合格的90#无铅汽油.

  5. Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V.; Thomas, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  9. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  10. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  11. Study on the mechanism of coal liquefaction reaction and a new process concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-dong; LI Wen-bo; WANG Yong; GUO Zhi; LI Ke-jian

    2008-01-01

    The coal hydrogenation reaction process is simply considered as three steps. In the first step, the smaller molecules associated with coal structure units are released as some gases and water in the condition of solvent and heating. In this step, some weaker bonds of the coal structure units are ruptured to form free radicals. The radicals are stabi-lized by hydrogen atoms from donor solvent and/or H2. In the second step, chain reaction occurs quickly. In the process of chain reaction, the covalent bonds of coal structure units are attacked by the radicals to form some asphaltenes. In the third step, asphaltenes are hydrogenated form more liquids and some gases. In coal liquefaction, the second step of coal hydrogenation reaction should be controlled to avoid integration of radicals, and the third step of coal hydrogenation should be accelerated to increase the coal conversion and the oil yield. A new concept of coal liquefaction process named as China direct coal lique-faction (CDCL) process is presented based on the mechanism study of coal liquefaction.

  12. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  13. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  14. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  16. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  17. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and products from coal liquefaction and pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are given for analysis of coal, coal liquefaction products, and coal pyrolysis products. Proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) using the Fisher Coal Analyzer Model 490, and ultimate analysis (determination of C, H, N, S, O, and occasionally Cl) using the Perkin-Elmer Elemental Analyzer are described. Determination of calorific value of coal using the oxygen bomb calorimeter is also detailed, as well as procedures for trace element analysis and for removal of halogenated solvents from gravity separation fractions of coal. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  18. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

    1998-03-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

  19. Trace component analysis of process hydrogen streams at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes subcontracted work done by the Radian Corporation to analyze trace components in process hydrogen streams at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The data will be used to help define whether the gas streams to be treated in the hydrogen processing unit in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant will require further treatment to remove trace contaminants that could be explosive under certain conditions. 2 references.

  20. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, through March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Accomplishments for this quarter are described.

  1. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  2. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  3. Energy and Entropy Fluxes in Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes

    OpenAIRE

    H. Voigt

    1980-01-01

    In the long-term studies on energy systems performed at IIASA, scenarios that provide for substitutes for fossil oil and gas are considered. In the future coal is expected to contribute to energy supplies to a greatly increasing extent only if it is converted to liquid or gaseous fuels or electricity. Coal conversion systems are rather complex, not only internally but also with respect to their exchanges with the environment; some use auxiliary energy, others yield byproducts. Therefore, the ...

  4. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  6. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  7. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  9. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  10. Chemical analysis and mutational assay of distilled oils from the H-coal direct liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from the H-Coal process, a catalytic, single-stage, coal liquefaction technology, were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. For these investigations, a blend of light and heavy H-Coal process oils was fractionally distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling point cuts. The chemical analyses and biological testing results presented in this status report deal primarily with the blended material and the distillate fractions boiling above 650/sup 0/F. Results from the microbial mutagenicity assays indicated that onset of biological activity in the crude materials occurred above 700/sup 0/F. Similar trends have been observed for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) I, SRC II, Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) and Exxon EDS process materials. After chemical class fractionation, the primary source of microbial mutagenicity of the crude boiling point cuts was the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) fractions. Amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino-PAH) were present at sufficient concentration levels in the N-PAC fractions to account for the observed mutagenic responses. In general, the chemical composition of the H-Coal materials studied was similar to that of other single-stage liquefaction materials. The degree of alkylation in these materials was determined to be greater than in the SRC and less than in the EDS process distillate cuts. 13 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  11. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    Progress on seventeen projects related to coal liquefaction or the upgrading of coal liquids and supported by US DOE is reported with emphasis on funding, brief process description history and current progress. (LTN)

  12. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  13. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Status assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils and an updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams is presented in this document. Analytical methodologies included here are either those which are different than those previously surveyed or are improvements on, or significantly different applications of methods previously surveyed. The literature cited spans the time period from 1991 to the present. The literature was examined from the 1960s through the present. When possible, for each model described, the methodology for deriving the model and the relative quality of the kinetic parameters derived is discussed. Proposed reaction schemes used for constructing coal-conversion models, in many cases, include the conversion of a resid intermediate to light products. These models are, therefore, also of interest, and are included here. Analytical techniques were identified that were shown to be useful for providing physico-chemical information of coal-liquefaction resids. These techniques are nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (especially the technique of field ionization mass spectrometry), electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled to thermogravimetric analysis, and a suite of petroleum inspection tests. It is recommended that these techniques be used in the present contract. 76 refs.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Topical report: Analytical methods for application to coal-derived resids, A literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1993-06-01

    This literature survey was conducted to address an important question: What are the methods available in the realm of analytical chemistry that may have potential usefulness to the development of coal liquefaction technology? In an attempt to answer to that question, the emphasis of this survey was directed at analytical techniques which would be applicable to the high molecular weight, non-distillable residue of coal-derived liquids. It is this material which is most problematic to the analytical investigator and the developer of direct coal liquefaction processes. A number of comprehensive analytical reviews of literature dealing with coal and other fossil fuels are available. This literature survey will (1) be limited to articles published between 1980--1991, with some exceptions; (2) be limited to the use of analytical methods for high molecular weight, primarily nondistillable, fossil fuel-derived materials, except where the application of an analytical method to coals or distillates may show promise for application to non-distillable coal-derived materials; and (3) demonstrate the potential usefulness of an analytical method by showing how the method has been applied to high molecular weight, non-distillable materials, if not specifically to coal liquids. The text is divided by type of methodology, i.e. spectroscopy, microscopy, etc. Each section will be essentially free-standing. An historical background is provided.

  15. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Current ERDA work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly. (LTN)

  16. Reconfigured, close-coupled reconfigured, and Wyodak coal integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville facility: Chemical and toxicological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document reports the results of the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of process materials sampled during the operation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, AL) in the reconfigured, integrated (RITSL run No. 247), the close-coupled, reconfigured, integrated (CCRITSL run No. 249), and the Wyodak coal integrated (ITSL run No. 246) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Chemical methods of analysis included proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, adsorption column chromatography, high resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. Toxicological evaluation of the process materials included a histidine reversion assay for microbial mutagenicity, an initiation/promotion assay for tumorigenicity in mouse skin, and an aquatic toxicity assay using Daphnia magna. The results of these analyses and tests are compared to the previously reported results derived from the Illinois No. 6 coal ITSL and nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process materials from the Wilsonville facility. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  19. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  1. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  2. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  4. Valves - current operating experience of slurry valves (block and letdown) in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent letdown and block valve experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. Also included is a brief description of the research and development activities on valves which are conducted in supporting laboratories. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on critical component problems common to all liquefaction plants, to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the valve problems. The main source of information used in this paper is the Minutes of the Critical Component and Materials Meeting which is sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing, Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. Other sources of information such as the technical progress reports are also included based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this paper. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning valves becomes available. In the subsequent sections of this paper a brief outline of past valve studies is given as background material followed by a summary of the most recent valve operating experience at the liquefaction plants.

  5. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  7. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  8. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  9. Coal liquefaction process solvent characterization and evaluation: Technical progress report, July 1, 1986 through September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1987-03-01

    Conoco Coal Research Division is characterizing samples of direct coal liquefaction process oils based on a variety of analytical techniques to provide a detailed description of the chemical composition of the oils, to more fully understand the interrelationship of process oil composition and process operations, to aid in plant operation, and to lead to process improvements. The approach taken is to obtain analyses of a large number of well-defined process oils taken during periods of known operating conditions and known process performance. Close cooperation is maintained with the process developers and with DOE in order to maximize the benefits of the work. Analytical methods used are based on their ability to provide quantitatively valid measures of process oil composition. Particular use is made of methods which provide chemical/molecular information of proven relevance to process performance. In addition, all samples are treated using conventional methods of analysis and preparation so that unit performance parameters, such as conversions and yields, can be independently determined to assure sample validity and correlation of analytical results among various plant operations. 10 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  11. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal liquefaction pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects discussed are: coking and gasification of liquefaction plant residues, filtration of coal liquids and refining of coal liquids by hydrogenation. (LTN)

  12. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    Using a reactor in which the coal is physically separated from the solid catalyst by a porous wall permeable to the hydrogen donor solvent, it was shown that direct contact between the catalyst and the coal is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. This occurs however only when there is a hydrogen atmosphere, as liquefaction with catalyst participation does not occur in a nitrogen atmosphere. Liquefaction by hydrogen transfer from the donor solvent itself does occur. This suggests that there is transfer of hydrogen from the catalyst to the coal via the solvent. The character of the solvent makes a significant difference, the better solvents being good hydrogen donors. These results indicate that the role of the catalyst may be to regenerate the spent hydrogen donor solvent during the liquefaction process. The peak temperature for volatiles evolution has been shown to be a reproducible measure of the coal rank. This was shown by an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.998) between peak volatiles temperatures (by TGA) and vitrinite reflectance. Using TG/MS, the volatiles contents of coals of a wide range of ranks was determined. The low rank coals emit largely phenols and some other oxygen compounds and olefins. The higher rank coals emit largely aromatic hydrocarbons and some olefins.

  13. Coal liquefaction technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technologies and processes for converting coal to liquid chemicals and fuels. Topics include materials characterization of liquefaction processes, catalysis, pyrolysis, depolymerization, coprocessing, and integrated liquefaction. Also discussed are liquid fuel use in automobiles and power generation, low-temperature carbonization technology, multi-stage liquefaction, cost benefit analysis, and commercialization of liquefaction technology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting a research and development program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal to synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels and for improved direct combustion of coal. These fuels must be storable and suitable for power generation, transportation, and residential and industrial uses. ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of ERDA's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly

  15. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  16. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Hydrotreating of distillates from Spanish coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.M.; Martinez, M.T.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Miranda, J.L. (Inst. de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-02-01

    Distillates obtained from a first-stage Spanish coal liquefaction process have been catalytically hydrotreated in microreactor in two steps. A commercially available Harshaw HT-400 E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) catalyst, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and two temperatures (400 and 425deg C) have been used. The results have been evaluated for heteroatoms removal, oils yield, boiling point distribution and aromaticity by several techniques (GC, FT-i.r., [sup 1]H n.m.r., ultrasonic extraction and liquid chromatography). At the first step of hydrotreating, preasphaltenes rather than asphaltenes have been hydrocracked to produce smaller-size polar compounds in the oil fraction but aromaticity has not varied significatively. In the second step, heteroatoms content have been considerably reduced and the product meets refinery specifications for nitrogen but does not meet sulphur refinery specifications for feedstocks. (orig.).

  18. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    DOE's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of DOE's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and ERDA. The Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, had started work in the 1930's. Current work is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, especially boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, and gasoline, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Each of these processes are described briefly.

  19. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  20. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Study for Development of the Coal Liquefaction Process by 150t/d Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant 3. Properties of coal liquefaction products and their toxicological assessment; 150t/d sekitan ekika pairottorpuranto ni yoru kaihatu kenkyu 3. PP sekitan ekika seiseibutu no seijo oyobi anzensei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Toshihiro.; Oi, Shoichi.; Hayashi, Takashi.; Yoshimura, Yasuji.; Oneyama, Minoru.; Kouzu, Masato.; Koyama, Kazuhide.; Sato, Eizo.; Ueda, Shigeru.; Kobayashi, Masatoshi. [Nippon Coal Oil Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshida, Haruhiko.; Yamagiwa, Hisashi. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-20

    150t/d Coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) was successfully operated without any serious trouble throughout five runs operated till 1998. The most important object in this project is to develop Demonstration Plant or Commerical Plant, or to take a varieties of engineering data including performance test of each equipment. Additionally, it is very important tto establish commercial acceptability of coal liquefaction products by means of clearing their chemical component and toxicological properties. The works reported here are those which relate to characteristic properties of coal liquefaction products and their toxicological properties. Also we are going to mention our planning concerning the toxicological assessment to be done. (author)

  3. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Iodine-catalyzed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.T.; Duffield, J.E.; Davidson, M.G. (Amoco Oil Company, Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.)

    Coals of two different ranks were liquefied in high yields using catalytic quantities of elemental iodine or iodine compounds. Iodine monochloride was found to be especially effective for enhancing both coal conversion and product quality. It appears that enhancement in coal conversion is due to the unique ability of iodine to catalyze radical-induced bond scission and hydrogen addition to the coal macromolecule or coal-derived free radicals. The starting iodine can be fully accounted for in the reaction products as both organic-bound and water-soluble forms. Unconverted coal and the heavy product fractions contain the majority of the organic-bound iodine. The results of iodine-catalyzed coal reactions emphasize the need for efficient hydrogen atom transfer along with bond scission to achieve high conversion and product quality. 22 refs., 12 tabs.

  5. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Responsibility for the design, construction, and operation of these facilities is given and progress in the quarter is summarized. Several supporting or complementary projects are described similarly. (LTN)

  6. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Effect of microwave pretreatment on liquefaction of low-rank Mukah Balingian Malaysian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Abdullah; Nur Nasulhah Kasim [University Technology MARA, Perlis (Malaysia). Fuel Combustion Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    The effect of microwave pretreatment on low-rank Malaysian coal towards coal conversion and oil+gas yield during direct liquefaction was investigated. The pretreatment on coal was carried out prior to liquefaction using a conventional variable power microwave oven at 150, 300 and 600 W for a period of 1 to 15 min. Liquefaction processes were carried out in a 1-liter high-pressure high-temperature batch-wise reactor with tetralin as a hydrogen-donor solvent, at temperature of 420{sup o}C and at 4 MPa nitrogen pressure. The DTG results of the pyrolysed microwave-treated samples via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increased in coal reactivity in comparison to the untreated sample. The coal conversion and oil+gas yield obtained from the liquefaction of the pretreated coal under various pretreatment conditions showed an increase of up to 3 - 7 and 9 - 22 %, respectively. The significant increased of oil+gas yield at less severe liquefaction temperature on the microwave-irradiated samples might be due to the cracks and fissures formed as shown by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and the weaken coal structure (C-C bonds) that probably occurred during the microwave pretreatment to facilitate the diffusion of solvent into the coal structure. Thus, this new and effective pretreatment on coal could be a promising approach in enhancing coal conversion and oil+gas yield that utilises a less severe temperature for coal liquefaction. 22 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  9. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

  11. Development of computer simulator for coal liquefaction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohi, S.; Itho, H.; Hiraide, M. [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The computer simulator for a coal liquefaction reactor is a useful engineering tool to analyse the data of such reactors. The authors applied this technique to a reactor in the NEDOL process to predict the performance of the reactor, and to assist in the design of a reactor for demonstration plant. The development program of the simulator and its utilization plan are discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  13. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  14. Innovations in the field of brown coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Brandt, H.; Weidlich, G. (Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-03-01

    Summarizes technological research achievements of the GDR brown coal industry over the past decade. In the field of brown coal combustion, improved swirl burners and swirl ignition burner types were put into operation in coal power plants. Furthermore, a fluidized bed coal predrying chamber at a low-grade fuel combusting power plant was tested, for increasing the calorific value of coal feed in by-pass operation, thus stabilizing steam generator combustion if coal quality reaches low limits. In the field of brown coal gasification, the GSP pulverized brown coal gasification process is commercially employed in a generator with 30 t/h coal throughput and 50,000 m{sup 3}/h gas production. Furthermore, a process for producing high quality brown coal coke for blast furnaces has been developed that requires brown coal dust and HSC-ROSE pitch (waste product of petroleum processing) as binder. Other achievements include production of activated carbon at low cost from the processing of brown coal coke and development of computer-based monitoring and operation control equipment for brown coal gasification. 12 refs.

  15. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  16. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  17. Marine impact on liquefaction processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M.M.E. van; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Oldenburg, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the interest for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing. A tendency is to produce and transport LNG on large floating vessels. One important choice in designing such a vessel is the liquefaction process. Several processes have been developed in recent years, ranging from mixed ref

  18. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    DOE's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of DOE's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, especially boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, and gasoline, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. DOE, together with the Electric Power Research Institue, has contracted with fourteen projects are described brieflly: funding, description, status, history, and progress in the current quarter. (LTN)

  1. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  3. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  4. 3rd international conference on coal gasification and liquefaction, University of Pittsburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    The third annual international conference on ''Coal Gasification and Liquefaction: What Needs to be Done Now'' was held at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA on August 3-5, 1976. The majority of the papers dealt with coal gasification and liquefaction (often on the basis of process pilot plant experience) and on flue gas desulfurization by a variety of processes; fewer papers involved fluidized bed combustion, combined cycle power plants, coal desulfurization, government policy on environmental effects and on synthetic fuels, etc. Twenty-eight papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1978. [Brief summary of 15 pilot plant projects supported by US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes currently in the pilot plant stage. Fifteen coal liquefaction projects supported by US DOE are described briefly, with flowsheets, funding, history and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  6. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  7. SURFACE-MODIFIED COALS FOR ENHANCED CATALYST DISPERSION AND LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of the Department of Energy Sponsored project DE-FGF22-95PC95229 entitled, surface modified coals for enhanced catalyst dispersion and liquefaction. The aims of the study were to enhance catalyst loading and dispersion in coal for improved liquefaction by preadsorption of surfactants and catalysts on the coal and to train and educate minority scientists in catalysts and separation science. Illinois No. 6 Coal (DEC-24) was selected for the study. The surfactants investigated included dodecyl dimethyl ethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, and Triton x-100, a neutral surfactant. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate was used as the molybdenum catalyst precursor. Zeta potential, BET, FTIR, AFM, UV-Vis and luminescence intensity measurements were undertaken to assess the surface properties and the liquefaction activities of the coal. The parent coal had a net negative surface charge over the pH range 2-12. However, in the presence of DDAB the negativity of the surface charge decreased. At higher concentrations of DDAB, a positive surface charge resulted. In contrast to the effect of DDAB, the zeta potential of the coal became more negative than the parent coal in the presence of SDS. Adsorption of Triton reduced the net negative charge density of the coal samples. The measured surface area of the coal surface was about 30 m{sup 2}/g compared to 77m{sup 2}/g after being washed with deionized water. Addition of the surfactants decreased the surface area of the samples. Adsorption of the molybdenum catalyst increased the surface area of the coal sample. The adsorption of molybdenum on the coal was significantly promoted by preadsorption of DDAB and SDS. Molybdenum adsorption showed that, over a wide range of concentrations and pH values, the DDAB treated coal adsorbed a higher amount of molybdenum than the samples treated with SDS. The infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the atomic force

  8. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Tarrer, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses a kinetic investigation of the Fe-S-H/sub 2/ system conducted as an outgrowth of current research in the SRC-I (solvent refined coal) process to better understand the effects of naturally occurring iron sulfides in coal hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization. A total of twelve closed system reactions were carried out in which 48 to 60 mesh pyrite, in the presence of hydrogen gas, underwent transformation to 1C hexagonal pyrrhotite. Reaction temperatures were 350/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C with four sample runs at temperature. Initial pressure of hydrogen gas was 1250 psig (8617 KPa). A comparison of the results for each reaction series was evaluated with time and temperature as variables. The transformation rate of pyrite to pyrrhotite was found to increase over the range of reaction temperatures with the 400/sup 0/C samples showing the greatest amount of transformation per unit time. For the 375/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C runs pyrrhotite formation decreased after approximately 15 minutes of reaction time due to (1) reduced availability of pyrite, and (2) resistance to diffusion in the topochemical product layer.

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  10. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  11. Simulation of coal liquefaction process by developing user models on Aspen Plus platform%Aspen Plus用户模型技术的煤直接液化全流程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单贤根; 常小瑞; 任琼; 江洪波; 翁惠新

    2014-01-01

    Based on six lumped kinetic model, this paper used the BFGS optimization algorithm to obtain kinetic constant of heating-up and isothermal stage of direct coal liquefaction process, and through regression of experimental data to get specific product composition for separation unit of direct coal liquefaction. Then the Aspen Plus user model of direct coal liquefaction was developed and integrated with the Aspen Plus software to achieve an entire process simulation of direct coal liquefaction process in Aspen Plus platform which can make the best use of its powerful databases and simulation calculation ability of separation processes. The calculation value of gas liquid equilibrium in high temperature and low temperature separators for reaction products agreed well with the experiment data. The entire process simulation in Aspen Plus platform can provide technical support for the optimization of direct coal liquefaction reaction and separation conditions.%基于六集总动力学模型,采用BFGS优化算法获得煤直接液化升温阶段和恒温阶段的反应动力学常数,同时通过试验数据回归得到用于煤直接液化分离单元的具体产品组成,并以此为基础开发了煤直接液化反应的Aspen Plus用户模型。在此基础上,将上述煤直接液化用户模型与Aspen Plus流程模拟软件集成在一起,充分利用Aspen Plus软件强大的性质数据库和分离过程模拟计算能力,最终实现了基于Aspen Plus平台的煤直接液化全流程模拟,模拟计算得到的煤直接液化反应产物在高温和低温分离器的气液相平衡数据与实验值较吻合。基于Aspen Plus的全流程模拟可以为煤直接液化反应和分离条件的优化选择提供技术参考。

  12. Biological testing and chemical analysis of process materials from an integrated two stage coal liquefaction: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Buhl, P.; Moroni, E.C.

    1983-07-01

    Samples for chemical characterization and biological testing were obtained from ITSL runs 3LCF7, 3LCF8 and 3LCF9. Chemical analysis of these materials showed that SCT products were composed of fewer compounds than analogous materials from Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) processes. Major components in the SCT materials were three-, four-, five- and six-ring neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Methyl(C/sub 1/) and C/sub 2/ homologs of these compounds were present in relatively low concentrations, compared to their non-alkylated homologs. Organic nitrogen was primarily in the form of tertiary polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles and carbazoles. Little or no amino PAH (APAH) or cyano PAH were detected in samples taken during normal PDU operations, however, mutagenic APAH were produced during off-normal operation. Microbial mutagenicity appeared to be due mainly to the presence of APAH which were probably formed in the LC finer due to failure of the catalyst to promote deamination following carbon-nitrogen bond scission of nitrogen-containing hydroaromatics. This failure was observed for the off-normal runs where it was likely that the catalyst had been deactivated. Carcinogenic activity of ITSL materials as assessed by (tumors per animal) in the initiation/promotion mouse skin painting assay was slightly reduced for materials produced with good catalyst under normal operation compared to those collected during recycle of the LC Finer feed. Initiation activity of the latter samples did not appear to be significantly different from that of other coal derived materials with comparable boiling ranges. The observed initiation activity was not unexpected, considering analytical data which showed the presence of four-, five- and six-ring PAH in ITSL materials.

  13. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Low Severity Coal Liquefaction Promoted by Cyclic Olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine W. Curtis

    1998-04-09

    The development of the donor solvent technology for coal liquefaction has drawn a good deal of attention over the last three decades. The search for better hydrogen donors led investigators to a class of compounds known as cyclic olefins. Cyclic olefins are analogues of the conventional hydroaromatic donor species but do not contain aromatic rings. The cyclic olefins are highly reactive compounds which readily release their hydrogen at temperatures of 200 C or higher. Considerable effort has been o expended toward understanding the process of hydrogen donation. Most of this work was conducted in bomb reactors, with product analysis being carried out after the reaction was complete. Efforts directed towards fundamental studies of these reactions in situ are rare. The current work employs a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell to monitor in situ the concentrations of reactants and products during hydrogen release from hydrogen donor compounds.

  15. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  16. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  17. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  18. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  19. REVIEW OF NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High pressure pipelines are the most common way of natural gas transport from a gas field to a processing plant and further to consumers. In case when the distance between natural gas production and consumption regions is more than 4000 kilometers, and due to necessity of natural gas supply diversification, gas liquefaction and its transport by ships is being applied. The final choice of liquefaction process depends on the project variables, the development level of new or upgrading of already existing processes and available equipment. Current natural gas liquefaction processes and their usage in practice are shown in this paper (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Effect of in-situ solvent soaking and heating pre-treatment on coal conversion and oil yield during liquefaction of demineralized low-rank Malaysian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.M. Ishak; M.F. Abdullah; K. Ismail; M.O.A. Kadir; A.R. Mohamed [University Technology MARA, Perlis (Malaysia). Fuel Combustion Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences

    2005-07-01

    The effect of in-situ solvent soaking and heating (SSH) pre-treatment on demineralized low-rank Malaysian coal towards coal conversion and oil yield during direct liquefaction was investigated. Demineralization of coal was carried out by leaching with strong protic acids such as HCl, HF and HNO{sub 3} whereby more than 95 % of mineral content in the coal was reduced. Apparently, the mineral matter that was removed by the HCl treatment (i.e. cationics) exhibits more catalytic effect during the liquefaction process. The reduction in the mineral content increased the coal porosity that enabled the solvent to penetrate into the coal macropores during the SSH pre-treatment process. The results of liquefaction on the pre-treated SSH demineralized coal at 420{sup o}C and at 4 MPa, however show comparable amount of coal conversion with slightly lower amount of oil yield being obtained with comparison to the raw and SSH-raw coals. Thus, besides the in-situ solvent soaking and heating pre-treatment, the presence of mineral matters in coal prove to be beneficial during coal liquefaction process.

  1. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  2. Radiation-thermal desulphurization of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaev, I.; Mahmudov, O.; Gulieva, N. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan). Sector of Radiation Research

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents results of an investigation of radiation-thermal hydrodesulphurization of brown coal in the presence of methane under accelerated electrons with a dose rate P = 350 Gy/s in the intervals of temperature T = 200-500{degree}C, absorbed dose up to 60 kGy. It has been established that at the more favourable conditions (T = 400-450{degree}C, D{gt} 60 kGy) about 80% of sulphur is removed from the coal and in the solid product sulphur decreased up to 1.0-1.1%. In these conditions the selectivity of desulphurization processes is s = 2.6-3.8 and energy consumption towards removal of sulphur is E = 0.5-0.6 kW.h/kg. The mechanism of selective activation by irradiation for the desulphurization process is discussed.

  3. Biosorption of Fe, Al and Mn of acid drainage from coal mine using brown seaweed sargassum sp. in continuous process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) are leaches as result of a coal mining running, it have low ph and high concentrations of heavy metals that convert them in strong polluter; with the purpose of reduce its concentration, a continuous biosorption system was designed by removing heavy metals from drainages using a cheap biosorbent material. The brown seaweed was pre-treatment with solutions 0,1 N of NaOH, Ca(OH)2 NaCl, CaCl2, NaSO4 y H2SO4 for to study the effect on biosorption process; the removal percentage were determined, which are better than 80% with the exception of pre-treatment with H2SO4 who cancel the algae sorption capacity. The seaweed was packed in plastic mesh and polyester tulle in the shape of a rectangular prism; there isn't effect on the biosorption process by using this packet. The continuous biosorption process was studied in two units of operation: a packed-bed flow-through sorption column and an horizontal vessel like a canal with baffles, which treated adequately 3,5 and 4,71 of AMD respectively, using in each one of them 100 g of algae. The burning of algae was studied like an alternative for the problem of handling of residual algae. The ashes kept the metals removed from AMD, furthermore keep stable too by the attack of solutions of different pH

  4. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  5. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  6. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  8. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  9. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  10. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 20, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1981-09-01

    Six tasks are reported: selective synthesis of gasoline range components from synthesis gas; electron microscopic studies of coal during hydrogenation; catalyzed low-temperature hydrogenation of coal; selective hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and alkylation of coal and coal liquids by organometallic systems; chemistry of coal solubilization and liquefaction; and coal conversion catalyst deactivation. (DLC)

  11. Coal liquefaction policy in China: Explaining the policy reversal since 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has emerged as a leader in coal liquefaction. While the country's abundant coal resources and acute concerns about oil security help explain China's interest in liquefaction, the driving forces for this industry are complicated and policy has been inconsistent. Since 2006 Beijing has tried to slow down the development of liquefaction; even as China has become more dependent on imported oil, the central government has been wary about the large impact of liquefaction technologies on scarce resources such as water. However, local government officials in coal rich areas have strong incentives to pour investment into the technology, which helps explain the uneven development and policy. The future of coal liquefaction will depend on how these forces unfold along with major Beijing-led reforms in the Chinese coal industry, which is closing smaller mines and favoring the emergence of larger coal producing firms. Those reforms will have mixed effects on liquefaction. They temporarily contribute to higher prices for coal while over the longer term creating coal companies that have much greater financial and technical skills needed to deploy technologies such as coal liquefaction at a scale needed if this energy pathway is to be competitive with conventional sources of liquid fuel. - Highlights: ► We explain swings in Chinese policy on coal liquefaction, a possible substitute for imported oil. ► Since 2006 Beijing's support has waned due to fears about environmental impacts and cost of liquefaction. ► Local governments in some coal rich regions remain strongly supportive. ► Volatile oil prices and rising coal prices make this industry more risky than previously thought. ► Consolidation of the coal industry will have mixed effects on viability of liquefaction projects.

  12. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  13. The Dual Role of Oxygen Functions in Coal Pretreatment and Liquefaction: Crosslinking and Cleavage Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Serio; Erik Kroo; Sylvie Charpenay; Peter Solomon

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to elucidate and model the dual role of oxygen functions in thermal pretreatment and liquefaction of low rank coals through the application of analytical techniques and theoretical models. The project was an integrated study of model polymers representative of coal structures, raw coals of primarily low rank, and selectively modified coals in order to provide specific information relevant to the reactions of real coals. The investigations included liquefaction experiments in microautoclave reactors, along with extensive analysis of intermediate solid, liquid and gaseous products. Attempts were made to incorporate the results of experiments on the different systems into a liquefaction model.

  14. Recovery of metal values from spent CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ petroleum hydrodesulfurization and coal liquefaction catalysts: laboratory-scale process and preliminary economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebenik, R.F.; Ference, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Recovery of metal values from spent CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from petroleum hydrodesulfurization (HDS) processes containing appreciable amounts of V, Ni, S, coke, and heavy hydrocarbons is described. The recovery process involves accepted chemical techniques. A slightly modified process was used for coal liquefaction catalysts which are not poisoned by Ni and V, as are the HDS catalysts, but which contain Ca, Fe, and Ti as the major contaminants. Preliminary estimates (+-30%) of capital and operating costs for the process based on recovery of the latter type of catalyst only are tabulated. Flow diagrams for both processes are included. Results to determine the effects of Ca, Fe, Si, and Ti impurities on the Mo recovery are not yet complete. It is emphasized that the recovery process has been tested only on a laboratory scale and has not been applied to pilot plant recovery as yet. (BLM)

  15. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  16. Co-liquefaction of Enriched Coal Maceral Constituents and Sawdust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炀; 李庭琛; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷

    2002-01-01

    Co-liquefaction of coal and sawdust was studied in the presence of hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. Coal samples were prepared through floatation of the Xinwen coal, followed by enrichment of maceral constituents. Sample I was rich in vitrinite and Sample II fusinite. Effects of reaction temperature, time and initial cold H2 pressure were studied on conversion, yield, especially oil yield, through comparison between these two samples. Because it is more difficult to be liquefied, Sample II, is greatly affected by changes in temperature and time. However, it is almost independent of change in initial cold H2 pressure, owing to the role of tetralin as hydrogen vehicle. Certain product(s) formed from thermolysis of sawdust can help hydrogenation of the intermediate (asphaltene and preasphaltene) in further forming oil products.

  17. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  18. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  19. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  20. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by [sup 13]C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  1. Non-catalytic transfer hydrogenation in supercritical CO2 for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussien, Hussien

    This thesis presents the results of the investigation on developing and evaluating a low temperature (products of coal dissolution were non-polar and polar while the supercritical CO2, which enhanced the rates of hydrogenation and dissolution of the non-polar molecules and removal from the reaction site, was non-polar. The polar modifier (PM) for CO2 was added to the freed to aid in the dissolution and removal of the polar components. The addition of a phase transfer agent (PTA) allowed a seamless transport of the ions and by-product between the aqueous and organic phases. DDAB, used as the PTA, is an effective phase transfer catalyst and showed enhancement to the coal dissolution process. COAL + DH- +H 2O → COAL.H2 + DHO-- This process has a great feature due to the fact that the chemicals were obtained without requir-ing to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The experiments were conducted in a unique reactor set up that can be connected through two lines. one line to feed the reactor with supercritical CO 2 and the other connected to gas chromatograph. The use of the supercritical CO2 enhanced the solvent option due to the chemical extraction, in addition to the low environmental impact and energy cost. In this thesis the experiment were conducted at five different temperatures from atmos-pheric to 140°C, 3000 - 6000 psi with five component of feed mixture, namely water, HTA, PTA, coal, and PM in semi batch vessels reactor system with a volume of 100 mL. The results show that the chemicals were obtained without requiring to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The results show that the conversion was found to be 91.8% at opti-mum feed mixtures values of 3, 1.0 and 5.4 for water: PM, HTA: coal, water: coal respectively. With the oil price increase and growing in energy demand, the coal liquefaction remain affordable and available energy alternative.

  2. Studies of the effect of selected nondonor solvents on coal liquefaction yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R. L.; Rodgers, B. R.; Benjamin, B. M.; Poutsma, M. L.; Douglas, E. C.; McWhirter, D. A.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of this research program was to evaluate the effectiveness of selected nondonor solvents (i.e., solvents that are not generally considered to have hydrogen available for hydrogenolysis reactions) for the solubilization of coals. Principal criteria for selection of candidate solvents were that the compound should be representative of a major chemical class, should be present in reasonable concentration in coal liquid products, and should have the potential to participate in hydrogen redistribution reactions. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, carbazole, phenanthridine, quinoline, 1-naphthol, and diphenyl ether were evaluated to determine their effect on coal liquefaction yields and were compared with phenol and two high-quality process solvents, Wilsonville SRC-I recycle solvent and Lummus ITSL heavy oil solvent. The high conversion efficacy of 1-naphthol may be attributed to its condensation to binaphthol and the consequent availability of hydrogen. The effectiveness of both the nitrogen heterocycles and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds may be due to their polycyclic aromatic nature (i.e., possible hydrogen shuttling or transfer agents) and their physical solvent properties. The relative effectiveness for coal conversion of the Lummus ITSL heavy oil solvent as compared with the Wilsonville SRC-I process solvent may be attributed to the much higher concentration of 3-, 4-, and 5-ring PAH and hydroaromatic constituents in Lummus solvent. The chemistry of coal liquefaction and the development of recycle, hydrogen donor, and nondonor solvents are reviewed. The experimental methodology for tubing-bomb tests is outlined, and experimental problem areas are discussed.

  3. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  4. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  5. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  6. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  7. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    OpenAIRE

    Shansong Gao; Dexiang Zhang; Kejian Li

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China). Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) from 1.5 to 1.0 h −1 and increasing reacti...

  8. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  9. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.

  10. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  11. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All first-stage experimental tests were completed for Task 4 (and the Contract). The first-stage one-liter autoclave tests that were made were duplicates of Run 41-LA. The conditions used were chosen last quarter to reduce the cost of the first-stage of the process from those used at the conclusion of Task 3. Filtration and second-stage tests were made using the products of the first-stage tests. Post-second-stage filtration, tested as an alternative to interstage (pre-second- stage) filtration, resulted in low filtration rates. Different catalyst loadings and type and residence time for second-stage hydrotreating were explored. Longer residence times did not result in significantly more resid conversion. Higher catalyst loadings were more effective in converting the resid at the same residence time. The material and elemental balances for the first-stage were completed. The material and elemental balances for the second-stage were initiated

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  13. THE ISSUE OF BROWN COAL QUALITY ON THE BASIS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Škvarekova, Erika; Kozakova, L'ubica

    2011-01-01

    Coal is expected to remain the dominant fuel for electricity generation in the Slovak republic for a considerable time in the future. Mining of lignite and brown coal is necessary for security and stabilizes the electricity systems of this republic through the heat power Nováky (ENO). Coal combustion processes represent a significant potential for contamination of environmental components. The elemental composition of coal from the mine Cígeľ showed that coal contains variable amount of arsen...

  14. Suitability of UK bituminous and Spanish lignitious coals and their blends of two stage liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatman-Fairs, D.P.; Harrison, G. [Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). School of Sciences

    1999-11-01

    Liquefaction experiments were carried out in spinning/falling basket autoclaves using samples of Kellingly (UK) and Samca (Spain) coals, and a process derived recycle solvent (PDRS). Hydrocracking experiments were carried out in a bomb type autoclave using sulphided NiMo catalyst. For the dissolution, experiments with the individual coals, the influence of temperature 380, 400 and 420{degree}C, and time 1 or 2 h was considered. For hydrocracking, preliminary experiments were carried out with a Kellingly coal liquid to establish appropriate reaction conditions for the hydrocracking of Kellingly and Samca coal liquid blends. There was some evidence of synergistic activity for conversion to dichloromethane (DCM) soluble material and antagonistic behaviour for conversion to tetrahydrofuran soluble/DCM insoluble material for dissolution of the coal blends, but hydrocracking of the coal liquid blends resulted in additive behaviour. For each of the coals, the extent of dissolution correlated with the extent of desulphurisation. The sulphur contents of the solid residues from dissolution tended to increase with the temperature of dissolution, but their H:C ratios decreased and their calorific values were independent. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-79ET14806, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., subcontracted Auburn University Coal Conversion Laboratory to perform exploratory studies on the use of minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Under this program Auburn University conducted an extensive screening program on numerous materials from which the more active or interesting ones were further investigated in the continuous process development units (PDU) at Air Products. In Volume 1 of the final report a number of the results from those tests are summarized for comparison with the PDU results. Because of the very extensive and detailed work performed at Auburn University, a portion of that work is not included in Volume 1. Therefore, in order to fulfill the requirements of the contract with DOE, a compilation of the work performed by Auburn University is submitted in Volume 2. The information from the Auburn University work was compiled from a sequence of monthly reports submitted to air Products and Chemicals, Inc., during the course of the program. Because of the very large numbers of screening runs conducted at Auburn, the overlap between these reports is minimal. This work presents in some detail the various stages of development of screening procedures and analytical methods that were developed. The reader should also find them extremely informative as to the generation of ideas that developed during this program. The work reported in this volume went beyond simple screening runs. Extensive exploratory studies as well as basic studies on the behavior of reactants and catalysts were performed. These results from the basic and exploratory studies impacted on the overall direction of this program.

  17. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  18. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins. Quarterly report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.

    1993-07-01

    The combination of some of these methods could further improve low severity conversion. It seems logical that a combination of a proven pretreatment technique with a good dissolution catalyst or a good hydrogen donor would increase reactivity. The importance of surface chemistry with yield and nature of reactions shown in early research indicates the physical importance of pretreatment. Swelling of the coal with an organic solvent improves the contact. This good contact is also important to slowing retrogressive reactions. The best conversions come when the initial products of liquefaction are preserved. In addition to the physical importance of pretreatment, there is a chemical advantage. Shams saw not only the effect of minimization of organic oxygen coupling reactions, but with his process there also seemed to be a demineralization. The minerals removed the catalysts for retrogressive reactions. The chemistry of liquefaction is still not well understood. Stansberry`s attempt to determine whether catalysts liberate species or just further decomposition was largely inconclusive. There was improvement in conversion so the catalysts seemingly assisted in bond breakage. These good catalytic effects were also seen in the work involving coprocessing. The most compelling factor in each of these procedures, is the ability of the coal to receive the hydrogen that it needs to be liquefied. Bedell and Curtis (1991) found that cyclic olefins gave their hydrogen up much more readily than did hydroaromatics. The coal conversion was a significantly improved. The combination of retrogressive reaction suppression and good hydrogen donability should provide for good coal conversion. It was this reasoning that influenced the decision to investigate a combination of the HCl/methanol pretreatment and the usage of cyclic olefins as hydrogen donors. The increased reactivity of the pretreated coal should enhance the effect of the hydrogen donability of the cyclic olefins.

  19. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, Elodie; Lorant, François; Hatcher, Patrick G; Marquaire, Paul-Marie; 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.01.004

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature and analytical characterization of our samples by modern 1-and 2-D NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis. Then, artificial maturation of the Morwell coal is performed at low conversions in order to obtain, quantitative and qualitative, detailed evidences of structural evolution of the kerogen upon maturation. The observed chemical changes are a defunctionalization of the carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxy functional groups coupling with an increase of cross linking in the residual mature kerogen. Gaseous and liquids hydrocarbons, essentially CH4, C4H8 and C14+ liquid hydrocarbons, are generated in low amount, merely by clea...

  20. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  1. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April 1, 1984-June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1984-06-01

    This report involves the effects of catalysts in the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from synthesis gas, in the hydrogenation of model coal compounds (quinoline), in the carbon-water reaction and in the chemistry of coal dissolution and liquefaction. (LTN)

  2. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1995-07-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types were the subject of the contract. The first was a Ni-No catalyst support on alumina (Shell 324), the catalyst used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The second material was an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the Mo content of this particular sample was too low for the current studies and the studies at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center have been discontinued. The object of the contract was to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans , but also other Thiobacillus spp. and possibly Sulfolobus and other potential microorganisms, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which could be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  5. Coal Liquefaction characteristics and chemical structure of product oil; Sekitan ekika hanno tokusei to seiseibutsu no kagaku kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.; Sato, M.; Chiba, T.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Sasaki, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Through the hydrogenolysis of Wandoan coal and Tanito Harum coal which are used for the NEDOL process, differences of liquefaction characteristics between them were found. The purpose of this study is to grasp these differences as differences of chemical structures of oil fractions. The compound type analysis was conducted for oil fractions obtained at varied reaction temperature for varied reaction time. Coal liquefaction characteristics of these coals were discussed by relating oil yields and chemical structures. For Tanito Harum coal, yields of gas and oil were considered to be lower than those for Wandoan coal, which reflected that the contents of partially hydrogenated hydroaromatics in oil fraction from the former were lower than those from the latter, and that the remarkable change of composition did not occur with the progress of the reaction. For both the coals, the remarkable changes in the average molecular weight of oil fraction were not observed with the progress of the reaction. While, the content of methane gradually increased with the progress of the reaction, which suggested that oil was gradually dealkylated. 5 figs.

  6. Environmental protection in brown coal mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses environmental policy of Poland with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine, the largest in Poland. The following problems are evaluated: collecting detailed information on water conditions in the Belchatow mine and environmental pollution prior to mine construction, construction of a pipeline system for water supply prior to mine draining, effects of mine draining on formation of a large drawdown cone, effects of lowering the ground water table on vegetation, forests, agriculture in the area, water conditions, river flow, water pollution from the Belchatow mine, water treatment plants, dust emission from Belchatow cuts and spoil banks, land reclamation after surface mining (plant growth, grass, afforestation), standardized methods for land reclamation, economic aspects of environmental protection, organizational models of environmental protection in a large brown coal surface mine.

  7. Characteristics and Thermal Behaviour of Low Rank Malaysian Coals towards Liquefaction Performance via Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, M. A. M.; Ismail, K.; Nawawi, W. I.; Jawad, A. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Kasim, M. N.; Ani, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, thermal behaviour of two low-rank Malaysian coals namely Mukah Balingian (MB) and Batu Arang (BA) were obtained under pyrolysis conditions via Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at a heating rate of 20°C min-1. The thermal characteristics of the coals were investigated prior to direct liquefaction in order to determine the liquefaction performance, i.e. coal conversion and oil yield. The differential weight loss (DTG) results for both coals showed that there are three main stages evolved which consists of moisture, volatile matter and heavier hydrocarbons that correspond to temperature range of 150, 200-500 and 550-800°C, respectively. Apparently, the DTG curves of BA coal reveals a similar pattern of thermal evolution profile in comparison to that of the MB coal. However, the calculated mean reactivity of BA coal is higher than that of MB, which implied that BA would probably enhance coal conversion and oil yield in comparison to MB coal. Interestingly, results showed that under the same liquefaction conditions (i.e. at 4MPa pressure and 420°C), conversion and oil yield of both coals were well correlated with their reactivity and petrofactor value obtained.

  8. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  9. Improving performance of direct coal liquefaction through swelling with solvent under the radiation of ultrasonic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xian-zhi; LI Ke-jian; WANG Li

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of lower rank bituminous coals from Yanzhou mine and Tengxian mine from Shandong Province were treated and hydrogenated in the study. The test results show that the performance of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is improved markedly. Under the test condition of H2 initial pressure 8.2 MPa, addition of the oil yield of pretreated YZ1 coal is 69.76% compared with 62.53% of oil yield of untreated YZ1. Seminally the oil yield of pretreated YZ2 coal is 55.43% compared with20.88% of untreated YZ2 coal. The results of tests also prove that the improving degree of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is related with radiation duration when the radiation frequency and radiation power of ultrasonic wave are fixed.

  10. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianliYang; JishengZhun; 等

    2001-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct cola liquefaction(DCL)[1],Due to relatively high activity,low cost and environmentally benign for disposal,iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL.To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalyst usage,ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred.The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles.

  11. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  12. Coal liquefaction technology. 1979-March, 1980 (citations from the American Petroleum Institute data base). Report for 1979-Mar 80. [318 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    Techniques and processes for the conversion of coal to liquid chemicals and fuels are cited in this bibliography covering world-wide literature. Included are studies covering in-situ combustion, process equipment, design, and performance. Coal desulfurization, cleaning, or preparation which does not directly involve the liquefaction process are not covered. (This updated bibliography contains 318 abstracts, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. Coal liquefaction technology. 1978-1979 (citations from the American Petroleum Institute data base). Report for 1978-79. [188 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    Techniques and processes for the conversion of coal to liquid chemicals and fuels are cited in this bibliography covering world-wide literature. Included are studies covering in-situ combustion, process equipment, design, and performance. Coal desulfurization, cleaning, or preparation which does not directly involve the liquefaction process are not covered. (This updated bibliography contains 188 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  15. Co-pyrolysis of a Ukrainian low-grade coal (brown) with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.N. Shevkoplyas [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    An effective pathway of the wastes plastics utilization can be its co-pyrolysis with a low-grade (brown) coal. The Dneprovsky deposit brown coal (Ukraine) and waste plastics as a polyethyleneterephthalate in this investigation were taken. The brown coal-plastics mixed used: 19:1; 9:1 and 4:1 ratio that was as 5, 10 and 20 % plastics additive to the brown coal. The co-pyrolysis mix prepared in the temperature region 450-800{sup o}C in a fixed bed reactor has been carried out. The process time was 0, 60 and 120 min., heating rate - 25{sup o}C/min. The influence plastics additive on the co-pyrolysis yield has been estimated. The influence of the co-pyrolysis isothermal time on the yield and properties of the tars produced has been studied. The mass balances of co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics have been calculated. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics is a way to utilize organic pollutants. 3 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  16. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis. Quarterly report, January--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  17. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Effects of pretreatment in steam on the pyrolysis behavior of Loy Yang brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Zeng; George Favas; Hongwei Wu; Alan L. Chaffee; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-01

    Dewatering/drying of Victorian brown coal will be an integral part of future brown coal utilization processes aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims to investigate the effects of the thermal pretreatment of brown coal in the presence of steam/water on its subsequent pyrolysis behavior. A Victorian (Loy Yang) brown coal was thermally pretreated in pressurized steam and inert atmospheres. The pyrolysis behavior of these pretreated coal samples was investigated in a wire-mesh reactor. While the pretreatment in steam at temperatures higher than 250{sup o}C increased the char yield of the steam-treated coal, it did not affect the overall pyrolysis char yield at 1000{sup o} C s{sup -1} if the weight loss during the pretreatment in steam was also considered. However, the tar yield decreased significantly after the pretreatment in the presence of steam. The UV-fluorescence spectroscopy of tars revealed that the release of large aromatic systems from the steam-treated coal was only affected by the pretreatment in steam if the treatment temperature was very high (e.g. 350{sup o}C). The loss of NaCl and the use of high pressure during the pretreatment of brown coal in steam were not the main reasons for the changes in the observed tar yield. The hydrolysis of O-containing structures such as ethers, esters, and carboxylates during the pretreatment in the presence of steam plays an important role in the fates of these O-containing structures during pretreatment and subsequent pyrolysis, leading to changes in the pyrolysis behavior of the brown coal. 36 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Characterization of selected Ohio coals to predict their conversion behavior relative to 104 North American Coals. [Factors correlating with liquefaction behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitacre, T. P.; Hunt, T. J.; Kneller, W. A.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-six coal samples from Ohio were collected as washed and seam samples, and lithobodies within the seams. Characterization of these samples included determination of % maceral, % anti R/sub max/, LTA, chlorine content and proximate/ultimate and qualitative mineral analyses. These data were compared to data from a similar project by Yarzab, R.F., et al., 1980 completed at Pennsylvania State University using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The characteristics of these coals were correlated with liquefaction conversion and other data accrued on 104 North American coals by statistical analyses. Utilizing percent carbon, sulfur, volatile matter, reflectance, vitrinite and total reactive macerals, Q-mode cluster analysis demonstrated that Ohio coals are more similar to the coals of the Interior province than to those of the Appalachian province. Linear multiple regression analysis for the 104 North American coals provided a prediction equation for conversion (R = .96). The predicted conversion values for the samples range from 58.8 to 79.6%, with the Lower Kittanning (No. 5) and the Middle Kittanning (No. 6) coal seams showing the highest predicted percent conversion (respectively, 73.4 and 72.2%). The moderately low FSI values for the No. 5 and No. 6 coals (respectively, 2.5 and 3) and their moderately high alkaline earth content (respectively, 0.69 and 0.74%) suggest that these coals possess the best overall properties for conversion. Stepwise regression has indicated that the most important coal characteristics affecting conversion are, in decreasing order of importance: % volatile matter, % vitrinite and % total sulfur. Conversion processes can be expected to produce higher yields with Ohio coals due to the presence of such mineral catalysts as pyrite and kaolinite. It is believed that the presence of these disposable catalysts increases the marketability of Ohio coals.

  2. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  3. Studies on characteristics of fluid dynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor; Sekitan ekika hanno tonai no ryudo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakawaki, K.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tachikawa, N.; Moki, T.; Ishikawa, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To design the coal liquefaction reactor of large scale plant in future, it is important to understand characteristics of fluid dynamics within the coal liquefaction reactor. In this study, to measure the fluid dynamics of liquid phase within the coal liquefaction reactor operated under high temperature and high pressure coal liquefaction condition, neutron attenuating tracer (NAT) technique, one of the tracer test methods, was applied using 1 t/d coal treating PSU. The residence time of liquid phase within the reactor can be measured by utilizing property of neutron of being absorbed by materials. The tracer was injected at the inlets of first and third reactors, and the neutron was counted at each outlet. The concentration of tracer was derived from the discrete value, to determine the residence time distribution of liquid phase. The mean residence time of liquid phase in the single first reactor and in the total three reactors were prolonged under the severe operation conditions of liquefaction. The more severe the liquefaction operation condition was, the more active the mixing of liquid phase was in the first reactor. It was found that the progress of reaction was accelerated. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Final technical report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    Research in this project centered upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage, close-coupled catalytic process. The major results are summarized here and they are described in more detail under each Task. In tasks for coal pretreatment and beneficiation, it was shown for coal handling that drying of both lignite or subbituminous coals using warm air, vacuum oven or exposing to air for long time was detrimental to subsequent liquefaction. Both laboratory and bench-scale beneficiations indicated that in order to achieve increased liquefaction yield for Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, size separation with in sink-float technique should be used. For subbituminous coal, the best beneficiation was aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment, which reduced mineral matter. In the case of lignite, the fines should be rejected prior to aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment and sink-float gravity separation. In liquefying coals with supported catalysts in both first and second stages, coal conversion was highest (93%) with Illinois No. 6 coal, which also had the highest total liquid yield of 80%, however, the product contained unacceptably high level of resid (30%). Both low rank coals gave lower conversion (85--87%) and liquid yields (57--59%), but lighter products (no resid). The analysis of spent first stage catalysts indicated significant sodium and calcium deposits causing severe deactivation. The second stage catalysts were in better condition showing high surface areas and low coke and metal deposits. The use of dispersed catalyst in the first stage would combat the severe deactivation.

  5. Primary energy resource brown coal - difficulties, problems, solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, W.; Effenberger, H.; Retschke, W.; Weidlich, H.-G. (Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-06-01

    Outlines general aspects of burning low calorific brown coal in power plants of the GDR, which produce 83% of the country's electric energy supply. Combustion of declining coal qualities led to lower plant efficiency, higher fuel consumption, emissions, equipment wear and other negative effects. Technological variants for adapting steam generators, coal pulverizers and burner systems to low and fluctuating fuel quality are discussed. Variants include optimization of burner design, slag and ash removal from combustion chamber surfaces; measures to reduce steam generator wear as well as increase equipment service life are noted. 7 refs.

  6. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.)

  7. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  8. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  9. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Final technical report, October 1990--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Vittal, M. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report described the synthesis of Molybdenum Sulfides in microemulsions by acidification of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Molybdenum Sulfides have been shown to be potential coal liquefaction catalysts. The importance of particle size, temperature effects, and coal surface chemistry to impregnation are discussed.

  10. Functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity. The results of researches of functional composition of brown and weathered coals and their activity as a growth-promoting factor for agricultural crops were considered. The composition of coals was studied. It was found that application of humates of brown coal is a very important factor for complex rehabilitation of soils and for application in agriculture.

  11. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  12. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  13. Analysis of the relationship between the coal properties and their liquefaction characteristics by using the coal data base; Tanshu data base ni yoru tanshitsu to ekika tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbayashi, Y.; Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The relationship between coal properties and liquefaction or gasification characteristics was analyzed by using the analysis and test results and liquefaction characteristics in the coal data base. On liquefaction reaction, the close relation between an oil yield and coal constituent composition or a coal rank is well-known. Various multivariable regression analyses were conducted by using 6 factors as variables such as calorific value, volatile component, O/C and H/C atomic ratios, exinite+vitrinite content and vitrinite reflectance, and liquefaction characteristics as variate. On liquefaction characteristics, the oil yield of dehydrated and deashed coals, asphaltene yield, hydrogen consumption, produced water and gas quantities, and oil+asphaltene yield were predicted. The theoretical gasification efficiency of each specimen was calculated to evaluate the liquefaction reaction obtained. As a result, the oil yield increased with H/C atomic ratio, while the theoretical gasification efficiency increased with O/C atomic ratio. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hydrochemical and geochemical processes in superficial dump sediments in Zwenkau open brown coal mine; Hydro- und geochemische Prozesse in oberflaechennahen Kippensedimenten des Braunkohlentagebaus Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.

    2002-07-01

    The present study was performed as part of a project titled ''Ground and air-based spectrometric studies for the differentiation of reactively altered brown coal open mining areas in Central Germany'' (Project 02 WB 9667/5) which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. It was carried out as a cooperation between GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ, Potsdam GeoResearch Centre), Deutsches Zentrum for Lust- und Raumfahrt (DLR, German Aerospace Centre), Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF, Society for Applied Remote Sensing) and Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ, Leipzig/Halle Environmental Research Centre). The idea of the project was to calibrate aerial data obtained by means of spectrometric remote sensing methods using conventional petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis. This would provide the mining industry with a powerful method with low time and staff requirement for reliably classifying the vast dump areas produced by open pit mining, accurately assigning findings to location data and thus identifying suitable uses for different sites. The focus of the present study was on characterising hydrochemical and geochemical alterations in dump sediments of the Zwenkau brown coal open mining area south of Leipzig in Central Germany. The collection of these data plays a decisive role in plans for cultivating and assessing the potential hazard to the open mining landscape. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde im Rahmen des BMBF-gefoerderten Projektes 'Luft- und bodengestuetzte spektrometrische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung reaktiv veraenderter Braunkohlentagebaugebiete in Mitteldeutschland' (Vorhaben 02 WB 9667/5) als Kooperation zwischen dem GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), dem Deutschen Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), der Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Fernerkundung (GAF) und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig/Halle GmbH (UFZ) angefertigt. Idee des Projektes war

  15. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Removal of humic substances from water by brown coal sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.V. Veprikova; A.V. Rudkovskii; M.L. Shchipko [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch

    2007-12-15

    Brown coal sorption materials with high activity toward humic substances were prepared using a larger scale laboratory unit with a spouted-bed system. The effect of thermal treatment conditions on the sorption properties of these materials was studied. It was found that the sorption activity of the resulting samples toward humates was closely related to the limiting sorption volume of the materials with respect to benzene.

  17. Highly Dispersed Pseudo-Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts Synthesized via Inverse Micelle Solutions for the Liquefaction of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampden-Smith, M.; Kawola, J.S.; Martino, A.; Sault, A.G.; Yamanaka, S.A.

    1999-01-05

    The mission of this project was to use inverse micelle solutions to synthesize nanometer sized metal particles and test the particles as catalysts in the liquefaction of coal and other related reactions. The initial focus of the project was the synthesis of iron based materials in pseudo-homogeneous form. The frost three chapters discuss the synthesis, characterization, and catalyst testing in coal liquefaction and model coal liquefaction reactions of iron based pseudo-homogeneous materials. Later, we became interested in highly dispersed catalysts for coprocessing of coal and plastic waste. Bifunctional catalysts . to hydrogenate the coal and depolymerize the plastic waste are ideal. We began studying, based on our previously devised synthesis strategies, the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts with a bifunctional nature. In chapter 4, we discuss the fundamental principles in heterogeneous catalysis synthesis with inverse micelle solutions. In chapter 5, we extend the synthesis of chapter 4 to practical systems and use the materials in catalyst testing. Finally in chapter 6, we return to iron and coal liquefaction now studied with the heterogeneous catalysts.

  18. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of residue from China Shenhua industrial direct coal liquefaction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis behavior of direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) and its four fractions were investigated. • The inorganic components in DCLR have catalytic effects on both pyrolysis and gasification. • The pyrolysis activation energy of DCLR obtained from DAEM is in the range of 68.4–142.9 kJ/mol. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to comprehensively investigate the pyrolysis characteristics of the direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) from China Shenhua industrial direct coal liquefaction plant. The pyrolysis experiments were conducted with TGA under four kinds of atmospheres (N2, 10% H2, CO2, and air) and a fixed bed reactor in N2. Two obvious mass loss peaks at 470 °C and 770 °C, are mainly attributed to decomposition of the organic matrix and inorganic compounds in DCLR, respectively. The four fractions extracted from DCLR (hexane soluble fraction (HS), asphaltene fraction (A), preasphaltene (PA), and tetrahydrofuran insoluble (THFIS)) were studied separately by TG-FTIR, and the results show that the interaction among the fractions is unfavorable for the evolution of volatile matter. In addition, the inorganic compounds in DCLR exhibit catalysis behaviors on both pyrolysis under N2 and gasification under CO2. Moreover, the properties of DCLR pyrolysis products obtained from the fixed bed reactor were analyzed by GC–MS, SEM, and FTIR. Finally, a kinetic analysis of DCLR pyrolysis was performed using the distributed activation energy model (DAEM). The activation energy distribution of DCLR follows an approximate Gaussian distribution with a mean activation energy of 87.6 kJ/mol

  19. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008; La liquefaction du charbon: ou en est-on aujourd'hui? - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel.

  20. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  1. Direct measurement of oxygen in brown coals and carbochemical products by means of fast neutron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of elemental oxygen by means of fast neutron activation permit high-accuracy measurements of oxygen concentrations in East German brown coal; this applies to run-of-mine brown coal as well as to demineralized brown coal. The relative error was 4% in the first case and 2% in the latter case. Pre-washing with 1n ammonium acetate solution permits direct analyses of the oxygen bonded to the coal minerals. The method is applicable to other carbonaceous materials, e.g. coal ashes, solid hydrogenation residues, cokes, coal extracts, asphaltenes, oils, etc., at oxygen concentrations of 1-50%. (orig.)

  2. Coal liquefaction studies using phosphoric acid at moderate temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, J.B.; Vermeulen, T.

    1977-12-01

    Concentrated phosphoric acid solutions (65-100% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) were studied as a potential homogenous catalytic medium for coal liquefaction at temperatures of up 250/sup 0/C and hydrogen pressures up to 600 psig. Possible catalytic additives, both organic and inorganic, were investigated. Sulfuric acid and molten phosphate and sulfate salt systems were also briefly studied. Sodium pyrophosphate was found to be a beneficial additive to phosphoric acid, in that it reduces the tendency toward foaming upon contacting coal with hot acid, and was used in all subsequent experiments. The materials were relatively ineffective in liquefying coals, except with certain organic additives. Approximately 30% of the sulfur in coal is removed by phosphoric acid treatment, while no effect on nitrogen content is evidenced. Some deashing occurs, with AlCa components most affected. Phosphorus is chemically incorporated into the product coal at levels of 2% or less with most of the incorporated P ending up in the pyridine extract. B.E.T. surface area and scanning electron microscope studies indicate that increased extraction yields of product coals are due more to chemical effects than simply to exposure of more surface area to the extraction solvent used.

  3. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1981-12-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following six tasks: (1) selective synthesis of gasoline range components from synthesis gas; (2) electron microscopy studies of coal during hydrogenation; (3) catalysed low temperature hydrogenation of coal; (4) selctive hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis and alkylation of coal and coal liquids by organo-metallic systems; (5) chemistry of coal solubilization and liquefaction; (6) coal conversion catalysts-deactivation studies. Highlights are as follows: (1) In the presence of hydrogen and the absence of base, using the catalyst RuCl/sub 2/ (CO)/sub 2/ (phi/sub 3/ P)/sub 2/ excellent yields of reduced polynuclear heteroaromatic nitrogen compound were produced with 100% selectivity for the N-containing ring. (2) A careful gas chromatographic analysis of Fischer-Tropsch products has shown that major peaks, previously thought to be single compounds are composites of two or more compounds. Resolution of these peaks will enable one to establish a rational grouping of n/i and paraffin/olefin ratios. (3) Addition of iron or rhodium to potassium impregnated graphite did not result in the production of heavier hydrocarbons than methane from the graphite-steam reaction at low temperature. However, small amounts of iron enhanced the methane production. (ATT)

  4. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

  5. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Investigations on the fouling behaviour of Rhenish brown coals in lignite-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In lignite-fired power plants high fouling in heat exchangers can be observed while firing Rhenish brown coals rich in sodium and poor in silicon content. These sulphatic and oxidic deposits reduce the heat transfer and can cause plant damage. It is assumed that fouling is caused by ash softening and partial melting of alkaline phases. The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of the fouling processes in lignite-fired boilers through experimental analysis using the ashes of different Rhenish brown coals and synthetic ash mixtures. In order to estimate the agglomeration potential of the brown coal ashes and synthetic ash mixtures, measurements of shear properties and impedance spectroscopy were performed. Furthermore, exposure tests in air and flue gas were conducted in the temperature range between 600 to 1,200 C to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the crystalline phase compounds and microstructures of the brown coal ashes and synthetic ash mixtures. The exposed samples were compared among each other and with corresponding ash deposits produced in a micro combustion chamber. Another aim of this dissertation is to verify the occurrence of NaOH melt in fouling processes. For this purpose impedance spectroscopy with a special probe was performed in the pilot power plant Niederaussem while firing sodium enriched fouling coal. This research indicates the importance of non-silicate bonded sodium and calcium in fouling processes. The higher their contents are, the higher is the fouling potential of the brown coal. Although the occurrence of NaOH in the boiler can not be directly proven by impedance spectroscopy, the experimental results indicate that it plays an important role in fouling. However, this research shows that silicates reduce the fouling potential of the ashes. Shear property measurements, impedance spectroscopy and the calculation of Na/Si and Ca/Si ratios of 450 C-ashes are applicable methods to predict the

  7. Structural effects of sample ageing in hydrocracked coal liquefaction extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begon, V.; Suelves, I.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    2000-10-01

    A sample of Point of Ayr coal extract has been hydrocracked in a microbomb reactor with NiMo on alumina catalyst in tetralin as solvent and hydrogen donor and under hydrogen pressure. The product was separated from solvent and catalyst and then split into equal parts and stored either under nitrogen atmosphere in a freezer or in air at room temperature. Samples of the products were examined at 2 h frequencies for a day, then daily for a week, then at less frequent intervals for a year. Methods used for examination were size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and UV fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-F), both using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as solvent. Aging was assessed in terms of shifts to shorter elution times in SEC and parallel changes in UV-F spectra. Both stored products showed significant structural evidence of aging over the first week of storage. After that time, changes observed were within the range of variability of the chromatography method based on polystyrene standards. The aging was attributed to the presence of low-reactivity free radicals species, which underwent recombination reactions during storage. These changes are likely to affect the viscosity and combustion characteristics of the hydrocracked product. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of fractal surface on rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of modified brown coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Gao; Shuquan Zhu; Mingdong Zheng; Zhaojin Wu; Huihong Lu; Weiming Liu

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of surface fractal structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of raw brown coal and three modified coal water slurries (CWSs). The results show that the fractal structures and physicochemical properties of samples are dependent on various modification processes. The apparent viscosities of the coal water slurries increase with increasing surface fractal dimensions (D), especially with decreasing shear rates. Fur-thermore, it has been proved that the ignition temperatures and apparent activation energies of modified CWSs are lower than that of raw coal water slurry. Compared with the traditional qualitative analysis of the effect of pore structures on CWSs properties, D can more efficiently indicate the quantificational effect of pore structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of CWSs.

  9. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Each of these processes is described briefly and information given as to contractor, contract, funding, site and current progress. Several support projects are treated similarly. (LTN)

  10. Brown coal mining and environment in the Rhineland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, H.J.

    1985-02-01

    Between the cities of Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle, a brown coal deposit containing approx. 55 x 10/sup 9/ tonnes is extracted by means of open cast mining methods. The deposit is covered by aquiferous loose rock, which is to be drained before actual mining can start. The entire region is densely populated. In planning and mining, particular importance should be attached to the impact on the environment. Before coal mining starts, the surface has to be cleared. This means transfer of villages, relocation of streets, rivers and the like. As provided for by statute, the local authorities and the population to be transferred are consulted and asked for their ideas about mine planning and its subsequent implementation. With regard to the technical side, it is necessary to minimize dust and noise pollution. Refilling of the exhausted mines followed by proper reclamation schemes, in particular recultivation of agricultural land, is to make up for the land lost to mining.

  11. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Environmental protection at the Belchatow brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.; Ozog, J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses environmental effects of brown coal surface mining in Belchatow. Mine construction started in 1975. In 1985 coal output had increased to 18.0 Mt/a, coal calorific value was 1,860 kcal/kg. A system of 345 wells was used for mine draining. Drawdown cone radius ranged from 34.0 to 13.4 km, drawdown area was 445.5 km/sup 2/. Sedimentation tanks with a total capacity of 290,337 m/sup 3/ were used for waste water treatment. In the initial phase of mine development air pollution was relatively low. Air pollution will increase after a coal-fired power plant is constructed. Damage caused by surface mining in the mine area is associated with drawdown and earth tremors (caused by overburden removal and its disposal in new areas). Two land reclamation trends in Belchatow are comparatively evaluated: reforestation and agriculture. The average land reclamaton cost was 4.2 million zlotys/ha. Organizations which coordinate environmental control and land reclamation in Belchatow are listed.

  13. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  14. Basic properties of Japanese and foreign coals selected for liquefaction. 1. A consideration of the method for proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.

    1984-10-01

    The use of thermogravimetry for the proximate analysis of coals is compared with the Japanese Standard method (JIS M8812). The thermogravimetric method was found to be applicable to a wide range of brown coals, lignites and bituminous coals providing a rapid and simple method requiring only a small sample and giving a direct determination of fixed carbon.

  15. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriyanto, Heri [Chemical Engineering of University Sultan AgengTirtayasa, Indonesia Email: herfais@yahoo.com (Indonesia); Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  16. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%

  17. Investigations concerning the mechanism of action of brown-coal coke particles in aerobic biological waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the start of this work experience with the use of brown coal coke in the activated sludge process was lacking entirely. It therefore was necessary to carry through preliminary experiments in order to practically test the effect of Grown-coal coke. In two technical-scale experiments and a pilot test, very good results were obtained with the application of brown-coal coke to activated sludge. These, and previously published results, permitted to evolve moodel concepts of the mechanism of action of coal, especially brown coal coke, in activated sludge. According to these concepts the coal particles act as buffers and a temporary adsorbent of oxygen and waste water constituents. This in turn stimulates the colonization of the surface with microorganisms. In order to corroborate these model concepts, the - adsorption and desorption of solved oxygen to coal in a watery medium and - the effect of coal over a longer period of time were investigated. The results in essence confirm the model concepts. (UWa)

  18. Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

  19. Brown Coal Dewatering Using Poly (Acrylamide-Co-Potassium Acrylic Based Super Absorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devasahayam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising cost of energy and fuel oils, clean coal technologies will continue to play an important role during the transition to a clean energy future. Victorian brown coals have high oxygen and moisture contents and hence low calorific value. This paper presents an alternative non evaporative drying technology for high moisture brown coals based on osmotic dewatering. This involves contacting and mixing brown coal with anionic super absorbent polymers (SAP which are highly crossed linked synthetic co-polymers based on a cross-linked copolymer of acryl amide and potassium acrylate. The paper focuses on evaluating the water absorption potential of SAP in contact with 61% moisture Loy Yang brown coal, under varying SAP dosages for different contact times and conditions. The amount of water present in Loy Yang coal was reduced by approximately 57% during four hours of SAP contact. The extent of SAP brown coal drying is directly proportional to the SAP/coal weight ratio. It is observed that moisture content of fine brown coal can readily be reduced from about 59% to 38% in four hours at a 20% SAP/coal ratio.

  20. Coal conversion processes and their materials requirements. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B.; Voorde, M. van de; Betteridge, W.

    1984-01-01

    The coal conversion processes combustion, gasification and liquefaction are discussed with respect to current industrial developments and material problems in industrial plants due to fouling, corrosion and erosion. The available materials are discussed by means of high temperature corrosion, erosion, ductibility, creep, fatigue and physical properties. Ceramics and refractories which are particularly used as thermal insulation are also discussed by means of corrosion and erosion and mechanical properties.

  1. Preparation of mesoporous activated carbons from coal liquefaction residue for methane decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Zhang; Lijun Jin; Shengwei Zhu; Haoquan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons were prepared from direct coal liquefaction residue (CLR) by KOH activation method,and the experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of KOH/CLR ratio,solvent for mixing the CLR and KOH,and carbonization procedure on the resultant carbon texture and catalytic activity for catalytic methane decomposition (CMD).The results showed that optimal KOH/CLR ratio of 2 ∶ 1;solvent with higher solubility to KOH or the CLR,and an appropriate carbonization procedure are conductive to improving the carbon pore structure and catalytic activity for CMD.The resultant mesoporous carbons show higher and more stable activity than microporous carbons.Additionally,the relationship between the carbon textural properties and the catalytic activity for CMD was also discussed.

  2. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1980-09-01

    The present annual report summarizes quarterly reports and includes work performed during the last quarter of fiscal 1980. The first year of this project has just been completed and much of the time and effort has been concentrated on equipment building, assembling, testing, and on staffing. This, of course, has been more true in the areas of work with spectroscopic and high pressure equipment than in organic chemical reactions. More experimental results are therefore reported in the areas of hydrogen transfer mechanisms and catalysis and organo-metallic chemistry. A few of the significant results in these and other areas are the evidence for catalysis in hydrogen transfer from tetralin; a novel and possibly very important new synthesis of alkyl aromatics from benzene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen; the study of coals in the transmission electron microscope identifying coal macerals, minerals and metals, and leading to the possibility of observing location of and catalytic influences on pyrolysis and hydrogenation at elevated temperatures; the finding that scales formed on deactivated cobalt-molybdena-alumina-hydrogenation catalysts contain not only metals from the liquid feedstocks, but also molybdenum sulfide which must derive from migration from the catalyst interior to and beyond the surface. Insights gained in mechanisms of pyrolysis, hydrogenation, hydrogen transfer, and indirect liquefaction of coal promise to lead to improving technology by defining problem areas and showing routes to by-pass problems.

  3. Relationships of coal characteristics to coal reactivity for direct hydrogenation liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Voorhees, K.J.; Durfee, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two suites of coals from the US have been liquefied in a batch stirred autoclave reactor under a set of standard conditions. Data from the reactor have permitted both the rate and extent of conversion to be measured. Rate of reaction and extent of conversion of coal have then been used as dependent variables for development of correlations for reactivity with basic coal chemical, geochemical, and structural properties. In general, use of a kinetic definition for reactivity has been shown to be superior in ranking relative reactivities among closely related coals, and for developing correlations with compositional parameters such as volatile matter, reactive macerals, and vitrinite reflectance. Carbon aromaticity as determined by /sup 13/C-NMR and structural parameters as determined by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry have also been found to be useful in providing insight into the relationship between coal structure and coal reactivity. 17 references.

  4. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  5. Collembola and Oribatei of brown coal dumps in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebaeva, S.K.; Andrievsky, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novobirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Nature and rates of forming Collembola and Oribatei groups in catena of technogenic ecosystems on brown coal dumps in Siberia were studied. With increasing age of dumps, the taxonomic diversity and abundance of microarthropod groups increase, the dominance structure is transformed. Colonization of technogenic landscapes by Collembola proceeds faster than that by Oribatei, especially at initial and middle stages of forming the groups resulting in the sharp increase of species abundance and diversity. At the late successional stage the rates of colonizing dumps by Collembola and Oribatei become identical due to increasing the rate of forming the Oribatei group. The dominance structure in microarthropod groups is transformed during succession and becomes similar to the structure, characteristic of the groups from undisturbed meadow ecosystems. In Oribatei this is displayed more distinctly, but in both groups the indicator species for technogenic ecosystems are distinguished.

  6. Data and facts on brown and hard coal. Status quo and perspectives. Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reports on the contribution of brown and hard-coal power plants to gross electricity production, quoting a total of 45.2% for 2013. CO2 emissions from hard coal rose continuously from 2011 to 2013, largely due to a growing electricity export surplus. By contrast, CO2 emissions from brown coal power plants decreased slightly, in spite of more electricity being produced from brown coal. This can be explained by the replacement of a number of old power plants with new, more efficient ones in the course of 2012 and 2013. From an environmental viewpoint brown and hard coal carry a heavy burden as energy resources. Their specific characteristics and special features are thus covered in a separate part of the report, giving due consideration to aspects of energy economy, general economy and environmental issues.

  7. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1984-March 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1984-04-01

    In task 1, selective synthesis of gasoline-range components from synthesis gas, rate expressions were developed for four different iron catalysts (promoted and unpromoted). Data for all four catalysts can be correlated by a semi-empirical expression. In task 2 catalyzed low temperature reactions of carbon and water, the catalytic activity for the production of hydrocarbons from graphite and water over KOH plus a co-catalyst was investigated for several first row transition metals. NiO showed the greatest activity. Several samples of /sup 13/CO, /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O adsorbed on graphite and on catalyst-graphite systems after reaction with steam were prepared for NMR investigation. In task 3 chemistry of coal solubilization and liquefaction, rate studies of quinoline reduction to tetrahydroquinoline in the presence of the homogeneous catalysts (phi/sub 3/P)/sub 3/RhCl have provided definitive evidence that benzothiophene, indole, pyrrole, carbazole, thiophene, p-cresol and dibenzothiophene enhance the initial rate of hydrogenation of quinoline by a factor greater than 1.5. P-cresol was found to enhance the initial rate of hydrogenation of quinoline (1.6 to 2 fold) in a model coal liquid with polymer-supported (2% cross-linked) (phi/sub 3/P)/sub 3/ RhCl. 2 references, 6 figures.

  8. A SWOT ANALYSIS OF NEW INVESTMENTS IN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Ziętera, Anna, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present factors determining the effectiveness of new investments in brown coal deposits. It discusses the weak and strong points of brown coal mining in Poland, as well as opportunities and risks in its development. The strong point is that Poland has abundant resources of lignite and the opportunity lies in the rising demand for energy. The weak point is that brown coal emits large amounts of CO2 and risk is perceived in that the EU tightens up its policy on...

  9. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  10. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Monitoring the formation of asphaltene and pre-asphaltene through solvent soaking during liquefaction of Mukah Malingian Malaysian coal via semi-continuous solvent flow high-pressure reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khudzir Ismail; Nur Nasulhah Kasim; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Mohd Fauzi Abdullah [University Technology MARA Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia). Fuel Combustion Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    One of the problems that could affect the production of high percentage of oil + gas yield during liquefaction of low-rank coal is the production of high amount of asphaltene, pre-asphaltene and coke through de-polymerisation and re-polymerisation of the radical species within the coal carbon matrix at high temperature regime. Hence, one solution is to suppress the re-polymerisation reaction by supplying sufficient amount of fresh donor solvent at the appropriate liquefaction temperature to instantaneously cap the reactive radical species. In this work, the effect of solvent flow rates and solvent soaking time at selective isothermal temperatures on the formation of asphaltene and preasphaltene during liquefaction of Mukah Balingian low-rank Malaysian coal via semi-continuous solvent flow high-pressure reactor system were studied. The liquefaction processes were carried out at 4 MPa with three different solvent flow rates i.e. at 2, 7, and 10 ml/min, and at temperature ranging from 300 to 450{sup o}C by using tetralin as hydrogen donor solvent. Initial findings showed that asphaltene and pre-asphaltene begin to form at liquefaction temperature range of 300-350{sup o}C, with the percent yields tend to increase with increasing in the solvent flow rate and solvent soaking time. At above 400{sup o}C, the percent of asphaltene and pre-asphaltene seem to decrease slightly probably due to conversion of these components to oil + gas. The slight reduction in the percentage of asphaltene and pre-asphaltene suggest that sufficient amount of hydrogen donors were present during the soaking condition to cap the small radical species, thus preventing the re-polymerisation reaction and promoting the formation of oil+gas. Apparently, the percentages of coal conversion and oil + gas yield were almost similar regardless whether the solvent soaking was applied at 400 or 420{sup o}C. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Liquefaction studies of low-rank Malaysian coal using high-pressure high-temperature batch-wise reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Abdullah; Mohd Omar Abdul Kadir; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Wan Hasiah Abdullah [University Technology MARA, Perlis (Malaysia). Fuel Combustion Research Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Sciences

    2005-12-01

    Direct liquefaction of low-rank Malaysian coal from the Mukah Balingian (MB) area was successfully carried out in a 1000 ml high-temperature (360-450{sup o}C) high-pressure (4-13 MPa) batch-wise reactor system using tetralin as hydrogen donor solvent. The results indicated that the percent coal conversion obtained were in the range of 31-90%. At optimum conditions of 450{sup o}C and 4 MPa, the oil + gas, asphaltene and preasphaltene of the coal extract were 80%, 7%, and 2%, respectively. It was observed that heat plays an important role in comparison to pressure in contributing to high coal conversion, oil yield, and organic properties of the residues. The high coal conversion and oil yield correlate well with the high content of reactive macerals, i.e., vitrinite and exinite, in the coal. Other parameters that were also investigated include the effect of reaction time (0-120 min) and coal-to-solvent ratio. A high yield of asphaltene and preasphaltene was obtained at the longest reaction time (i.e., 120 min). Coal conversion and oil yield increase with increasing in coal-to-solvent ratio, with the optimal ratio being 1:5.

  14. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  15. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  16. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  17. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  18. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  19. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  20. Utilization of heat pumps in the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlau, R.

    1981-09-01

    This paper points out fields for possible energy recovery by heat pumps in the area of brown coal surface mines. It is stated that surface mine ground water from a depth of 80 m has a constant temperature of 10 to 11 C. The theoretical heat content of cooling 170,000 m/SUP/3/h of drainage water of all GDR surface mines from 10 C to 5 C is calculated to amount to 9 million MWh. Research is therefore being conducted on recovering heat from mine drainage and mine surface waters for use as space heating in buildings and installations of surface mines, which are at present electrically heated. Further sources of heat which are being examined for possible heat pump employment are heat generating plants and large surface mine machinery. Studies have been carried out by TAKRAF on determining feasibility and economic benefit of using waste heat from engine and transmission mechanisms of heavy surface mining equipment. Results of a further study on utilizing waste heat from a large transformer station show that a direct heat recovery system is definitely more efficient than employing a heat pump system, but only in the case of a transformer average load higher than 60%. (2 refs.)

  1. Application of principal-component analysis to the interpretation of brown coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, S.; Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Institute for Analytical Chemistry

    1995-07-01

    The characterization of coal properties using principal-component analysis is described. The aim is to obtain correlations between a large number of chemical and technological parameters as well as FT-i.r. spectroscopic data. A database on 44 brown coals from different deposits was interpreted. After computation of the principal components, scatterplots and component-weight plots are presented for the first two or three principal components. The overlap of the component-weights plot and the scatterplot (biplot) shows how it is possible to classify brown coals by means of selected characteristics. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Quantitative relation between the macromolecular characteristics of brown coal and its reactivity in conversion with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.; Gruber, R.; Brodzki, D. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    The reactivity of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in thermochemical conversion with tetralin is a linear function of the network flexibility, which is primarily controlled by ionic cross-linking with carboxylate bridges via polyvalent cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Selective chemical pretreatments were used to modify specific oxygen functionalities. This allowed better defined correlations with coal characteristics to be evaluated and the principal structural units responsible for coal behaviour to be identified. 24 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. New approach to brown coal pricing using internal rate of return methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We showed that brown coal is the substitute for black coal only at the time of the investment decision. • We compiled the model used in a calculation of the economically justified price for the productive and extractive component. • The resulting economically justified price is on a par with the current black coal price. • The proposed methodological approach is applicable to solve similar tasks not only in the energy sector. - Abstract: Brown coal is one of the dominant local strategic raw materials in Europe, used, to a large extent, in the power-generating industry. The current situation, where the price of gas and electricity precludes the efficient use of gas sources, leads to the extraction of older sources, chiefly brown coal ones. In tandem with a turning away from nuclear power, brown coal is experiencing a renaissance and the issue of brown coal price setting is, and will be, relevant. This paper deals with a proposal of a new method for determining the base price, consisting of defining the reference fuel chain for electricity and heat production based on brown coal. It builds on the notion that the degree of risk of the involved parties should be reflected in the modified amount of revenue per capital invested. The resulting price is then an economically justified price which encourages a respect for the specific features of the market in question and set the base price of the commodity in a way that is acceptable for both the extractive and the productive components of the fuel chain

  5. The issues of the self-fill aquifer in the north Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halir, J.; Zizka, L. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The brown coal basin in the Czech Republic is located in the northwestern region of the country. Mining activities in the region have led to the flooding of various underground areas. This paper described the dewatering activities conducted as a safety procedure in a mine located in the brown coal basin. Pumping stations were established in various parts of the basin to collect inflows. Average annual pumping for the stations is approximately 990,000 m{sup 3} of mine water. The deepest pumping station in the basin is 90 meters under sea level. The activities are being conducted to ensure that a self-fill system is established to create a large self-filling water horizon after mining activities have stopped. Depressions in the mine will be successively flooded to create reservoirs of self-filling water. A computerized model of the water fluctuation rates in the mine is being prepare to accurately characterize the filling process. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  7. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  8. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    in this work, and they were suggested by Brazilian operators for fields processing natural gas with moderate to high content of carbon dioxide. The performance of the combined systems is analysed by conducting energy and exergy analyses. The integration of gas liquefaction results in greater power consumption...... and exergy destruction than in the baseline cases with compression and injection. Gas liquefaction systems with expansion-based processes are the least performant: the exergy destruction reaches up to 50 MW, and may represent up to 120% of the exergy destruction in the processing plant....

  9. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  10. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 煤制油化工基地式一体化建设模式思考%On the Base-integration Construction Mode of Coal Liquefaction Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国杰

    2011-01-01

    Considering the industrial properties of coal liquefaction chemical industry, referring to the other country's exploration of the construction model on coal liquefaction chemical industry, together with the successful experience of domestic constructing demonstration projects on coal liquefaction chemical industry and national reality of diverse energy resources, various techniques and products are synthetically integrated from the systemic view, focus on the coal liquefaction chemical industry to build a circulating eco-industrial park of the base-integration with step conversion of coal to various of products and step utilization of the energy, in the end, to achieve the optimum of integrated ener- gy system. Through the overall planning of the coal mine, processing of coal, coal gasification (including paralysis), syngas processing, IGCC, coal chemical industry, fuels production from coal, byproducts processing and products deep processing, system of public works, system of public logistics and public service systems, with the form of co-production as well as mutual supply on variety of products, taking the advan- tage of the base-integration, while producing dimensions beneficial result, diversify and fine the products are pursued, and economic benefit, products competition, environmental benefit, social benefit are organically combined with the country's industrial policies. An integrated coal liquefaction chemical industry base is to be built with the highest energy efficiency, the best system benefits, refining division, the professional management, large-scale operation, harmonious relationship between local government and coal mining enterprise, and the environment friendly nature.%鉴于煤制油化工的产业特点,借鉴国际上对煤制油化工建设模式的探索,结合我国煤制油化工示范工程建设的成功经验和我国能源结构及分布的国情,从系统的角度综合集成各种技术和产品组合,围绕煤制

  12. EPR- study of paramagnetic features of brown coal from Kiyakty coal deposit after mechanic activation and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is known that prospected coal resources exceed, at least by order of magnitude, petroleum reserves decreasing steeply at last time as a result of world oil consumption rise. In this connection the manufacture of different liquid products from coal, especially brown coal, is issue of the day. Liquid fuel yield depends on physical-chemical characteristics and their changes owing to preliminary chemical, mechanical and radiation treatment. In this paper some results of paramagnetic characteristic study of Kiyakty deposit coal as initial one as after its mechanical treatment and electron irradiation are presented. It is discovered that in Kiyakty coal there are, at least, two fractions differed in EPR line width and concentration of free radical states they contained. First fraction has EPR line width ΔH1=4-5 Oe and mean free radical states concentration N1= 2.4·1017 sp/g. For samples of second fraction the EPR line width ΔH2= 6.6-7.2 Oe and N2= 1.8·1018 sp/g are typical. Thus, in the second fraction the EPR line width and free radical states concentration are greater than in the first case. Besides free radical states in coal EPR signals were found from trivalent iron ions with g-factor approximated 2 and with g=4.3. It the signals with g=4.3, are practically identical for both fractions, their concentrations are neighbour and line width is ΔH1= 250 Oe, then for the lines near g=2.0 situation is markedly different. For the first fraction ΔH1= 800 Oe whereas for the second case two signals in this g-factor range are observed. The first signal has line width ΔH1= 550 Oe and g=l .97, the second is more wide with ΔH1= 1000 Oe and g=2.02. We cannot discover significant dependence of free radical states concentration on mechanic activation time. Obviously, life times of complementary free radical states generated in process of coal activation are very low. As Fe3+ ions, for both fractions it is observed intensity growth of their signals with mechanic

  13. Effect of utlrasonics on reduction-oxidation properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandelaki, G.I.; Aleksandrov, I.V.; Kamneva, A.I.

    1988-09-01

    Carries out complex assessment of reduction-oxidation properties of humic acids obtained from brown coal, and establishes effect of ultrasonic treatment on changes in redox characteristics during storage. The investigations into redox properties of potassium humate solutions included the study of chemical activity of preparations separated from Kansk-Achinsk brown coal with various oxidation characteristics. Discusses tests carried out into the dynamics of reduction-oxidation potential changes during storage. States that reduction-oxidation systems in potassium humates separated from ultrasonically treated coal differ in chemical activity to those in humates separated from coal without ultrasonic treatment and indicates that oxidizing potential parameters chacterize redox properties of humic substances. Shows that spontaneous increase in reduction-oxidation potential of humate solutions occurs regardless of humate separation methods. 11 refs.

  14. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  15. Metallization of oxide-ore-containing wastes with the use of brown coal semicoke from Berezovsky deposit of the Kansk- Achinsk Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    The research of the metallization process of the roll scale and sludge after gas treatment in the BOF production with the use of brown coal semicoke mined in Berezovsky field of the Kansk-Achinsk Basin was carried out. A flow diagram of “cold” briquetting using a water-soluble binder was offered. The reduction of iron from its oxide Fe2O3 with brown coal semicoke in the laboratory electric-tube furnace in the argon atmosphere was studied. The mathematical models of dependence of the metallization degree on variable factors were developed. The optimal values of technological factors and essential characteristics of the obtained metallized products were revealed.

  16. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. 4. Radical formation and structural change with thermal decomposition of coal; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Netsubunkai ni tomonau radical seisei kyodo to kozo henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction reaction, the effect of the coexistence of transferable hydrogen (TH) from process solvent on reduction of radical concentration and the effect of pre-heat treatment on average structure of coals were studied. In experiment, change in radical concentration with temperature rise was measured using the system composed of Yallourn coal and process solvent. The results are as follows. Process solvent with a wide boiling point range of 180-420{degree}C is effective in suppressing an increase in radical concentration even at higher temperature. The effect of hydrogen-donating solvent increases with TH. It was also suggested that high-boiling point constituents in solvent stabilize radicals even over 400{degree}C by vapor phase hydrogenation. The experimental results of pre-heat treatment are as follows. Although the conversion improvement effect of TH is equivalent to that of the model solvent, TH tends to produce soluble products with smaller ring numbers. It was thus suggested that pre-heat treatment in process solvent is effective to inhibit retrogressive reactions. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  18. Do stable carbon isotopes of brown coal woods record changes in Lower Miocene palaeoecology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Dolezych, M.; Kool, J.; Burgh, J. van der; Bergen, P.F. van

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of fossil wood from the Miocene brown coal deposits in former East Germany are compared with palaeobotanical and sedimentological data to test the use of stable isotopes in determining palaeoenvironment. Significant differences in the chemical composition of samples from

  19. Application of overburden stripping complexes at brown coal surface mines in the GDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstadt, K.

    1987-12-01

    In the GDR, brown coal provides 70% of primary energy and 20% of chemical feedstocks. Annual brown coal consumption in power plants is 120 Mt. The present annual output of 310 Mt will be increased to 330-335 Mt in 1990. In order to extract 1 t of brown coal it was necessary to drain 5.2 m/sup 3/ water and to remove 4.2 m/sup 3/ overburden in 1985. In 2000 these numbers will increase to 9-10 m/sup 3/ and 6.3 m/sup 3/ respectively. About 50% of brown coal fields have resources under 100 Mt which does not justify application of overburden conveyor bridges. Mobile, console type stripping complexes present essential advantages, e.g. mobility, selective excavation, capability of overcoming slopes, reliability and efficiency. Stripping complexes used in the USSR and those manufactured by TAKRAF are reviewed. A complex with a capacity of 14,000 m/sup 3//h consisting of an SRs bucket wheel excavator and ARs spreader will be put into operation at the Bitterfeld mine in the near future. The LFG-1 laser type equipment for monitoring position of the bucket wheel is described.

  20. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate with brown coal and effect on monomer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Orinak; L. Halas; I. Amar; J.T. Andersson; M. Adamova [University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia). Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography has been applied to the study of the co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with Slovakian brown coal with the aim of finding pyrolysis conditions yielding a maximum amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Effects of pyrolysis temperature and PMMA-coal weight ratios were investigated. Capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detector (cGC-MS) was used for MMA identification. The highest yield of MMA in the pyrolysate was obtained at 750{sup o}C. The optimal PMMA-coal weight ratio for maximum MMA production lies in the interval 0.5 mg PMMA and 0.6-0.8 mg brown coal with an MMA yield of 64%. Coal addition to the sample affects species recombination in gaseous phase, augments MMA production at higher temperatures and eliminates degradation products of PMMA and coal pyrolysis. Different conversion diagrams are characteristic for thermal degradation of single PMMA and in the mixture with coal. Detailed mechanism of synergetic effects arisen during co-pyrolysis are not yet known. It was also found that lower pyrolysis temperatures are more suitable to study degradation mechanism and kinetics while higher temperatures are more applicable for identification purposes. MMA decomposes completely at 900{sup o}C. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Variability of production in the Tito brown coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, S. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1987-05-01

    Examines daily production fluctuations in the Banovici coal basin from 1978-1985, where 2,800-4,100 workers produced 2-2.3x10{sup 6} t/a from underground and surface mines. The underground mine used mechanized longwall mining, surface mines employed shovel excavators, draglines, dumpers and belt conveyors. Statistical data showed large variations (+/- 2.5%, from 4,630 to 7,792 t/day) in daily coal production; evaluation showed close correlations for surface and underground mines. Highest production was achieved on Saturdays and Sundays, lowest on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. It is suggested that these variations may be due to maintenance work in the coal preparation plant, which was usually carried out on Mondays and Fridays. A stereogram of coal and overburden output for both types of mine and detailed statistical computations are included. 7 refs.

  3. Occurrence and transformation of phyllocladanes in brown coals from Nograd Basin, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G.; Hazai, I.; Grimalt, J.; Albaiges, J.

    1987-08-01

    Phyllocladanes are the major components of the lipid extracts of two series of brown coals from the Nograd Basin (Northern Hungary). In this basin coalification was induced by thermal stress of volcanic origin which determined the isomeric composition of these compounds. Depending on the degree of maturation the 16..cap alpha..(H)-isomer decreases in abundance relative to the more geochemically stable 16..beta..(H)-isomer, the presumed equilibrium ratio being 0.3. Laboratory thermal degradation experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this transformation, showing that phyllocladene and isophyllocladene are intermediate products of the process. Variable amounts of retene and simonellite are also found, but no evidence is obtained of abietane-type precursors. Nevertheless, a close relationship of the retene-phyllocladane ratio with maturity, represented by the H/C ratio, is observed. As an explanation, it is suggested the thermally induced formation of retene from phyllocladanes, simonellite being an intermediate of the proposed reaction. Further evidence for this hypothesis has been obtained from laboratory simulation experiments. Finally, the presumed isomerization and aromatization rates of these diterpenoids have been compared for the series of samples, pointing to a promising tool for assessing the geochemical history of coal basins. 57 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Occurrence and transformation of phyllocladanes in brown coals from Nograd Basin, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gabor; Hazai, Istvan; Grimalt, Joan; Albaigés, Joan

    1987-08-01

    Phyllodactanes are the major components of the lipid extracts of two series of brown coals from the Nograd Basin (Northern Hungary). In this basin coalification was induced by thermal stress of volcanic origin which determined the isomeric composition of these compounds. Depending on the degree of maturation the 16α(H)-isomer decreases in abundance relative to the more geochemically stable 16β(H)-isomer, the presumed equilibrium ratio being 0.3. Laboratory thermal degradation experiments have confirmed the feasibility of this transformation, showing that phyllocladene and isophyllocladene are intermediate products of the process. Variable amounts of retene and simonellite are also found, but no evidence is obtained of abietane-type precursors. Nevertheless, a close relationship of the retene-phyllocladane ratio with maturity, represented by the H/C ratio, is observed. As an explanation, it is suggested the thermally induced formation of retene from phyllocladanes, simonellite being an intermediate of the proposed reaction. Further evidence for this hypothesis has been obtained from laboratory simulation experiments. Finally, the presumed isomerization and aromatization rates of these diterpenoids have been compared for the series of samples, pointing to a promising tool for assessing the geochemical history of coal basins.

  5. Application of the SELECS methodology to evaluate socioeconomic and environmental impacts of commercial-scale coal liquefaction plants at six potential sites in Kentucky. Final report from the study on development of environmental guidelines for the selection of sites for fossil energy conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, G. M.; D' Ambra, C. A.

    1980-11-01

    Environmental and socioeconomic impacts likely to occur during the operational phase of two coal liquefaction processes have been evaluated with SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) for each of six potential sites in Kentucky for commercial scale facilities capable of processing about 26,000 tons of coal per stream day. The processes considered in this evaluation are SRC-I, a direct liquefaction route with solid boiler fuel as the principal product, and Coal-to-Methanol-to-Gasoline, an indirect liquefaction route with transportation fuel as the primary product. For comparative purposes, the impacts of a 2-gigawatt coal-fired steam-electric power plant (with coal requirements comparable to the liquefaction facilities) and an automobile parts manufacturing plant (with employment requirements of 849, comparable to the liquefaction facilities) have also been evaluated at each site. At each site, impacts have been evaluated for one or two nearby cities or towns and four to six counties where significant impacts might be expected. The SELECS methodology affords a well-organized and efficient approach to collecting and assessing a large volume of data needed to comprehensively determine the potential socioeconomic and environmental impacts resulting from the implementation of commercial scale synfuel and other energy conversion facilities. This study has also shown that SELECS is equally applicable to determine the impacts of other facilities, such as automobile parts manufacturing. In brief, the SELECS methodology serves the purpose of objectively screening sites in order to choose one at which adverse impacts will be least, and/or to determine what aspect of a proposed facility might be modified to lessen impacts at a specific site.

  6. Impact of Calcium on Pyrolysis and Gasification Characteristics of Brown Coal%钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 余江龙; 尹丰魁; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    综述了钙元素对褐煤热解和气化特性的影响,讨论了钙元素对热解产物中挥发分、焦油产率和气体产物分布的影响,以及对褐煤半焦气化的催化作用.结果表明,与酸洗煤相比,热解过程中,钙元素降低焦油产率,提高半焦产率;气化过程中,钙元素的植入提高褐煤半焦的反应活性,缩短了反应时间.高温时钙元素主要以氧化态的形式存在,低温时则不断与半焦基体键合而参与交联反应,少部分挥发.%This paper provides an overview on the impact of calcium on the pyrolysis and gasification characteristics of brown coal. The impact of calcium on the total volatile matter yield, the tar yield and the distribution of gaseous products during pyrolysis as well as its influences on the catalysis of the gasification of brown coal and chars are discussed. It is shown that the tar yield of the Ca-enriched coal is lower than that of the acid-washed coal and the char yield is higher than that of the acid-washed coal in the pyrolysis process. The reactivity of brown coal is increased and the reaction time is shortened in the gasification process because of the calcium implantation into the brown coal. Calcium oxide is the main form existing in the coal at high temperatures, but it is strongly bonded to the char structure and attends cross linking reactions and a small proportion of volatilizes.

  7. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  8. Co-liquefaction of the Elbistan Lignite and Poplar Sawdust. Part I: The Effect of the Liquefaction Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, H.; Acar, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Keklik, I. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, and the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust in an inert atmosphere and in non-catalytic conditions have been examined. Also, the effects of solvent/coal ratio and stirring speed on the total conversion derived as the result of the liquefaction process was attempted to be determined. Based on the results, although the effects of the solvent/coal ratio and the stirring speed on total conversion are similar for both the Elbistan lignite and the poplar sawdust, it was also noted that, under similar conditions, the conversion for the poplar sawdust was higher, as compared to the conversion of the Elbistan lignite. As the result of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, the total conversion was increased partially, depending on both solvent/coal ratio and the speed of stirring. However, it was also noted that the total conversion did not change to a significant extent in high solvent/coal ratios and in stirring speed. As the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust under inert atmospheric conditions, total conversion was increased, based on the solvent/coal ratio. However, as in the case of the liquefaction of Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust, it was noted that the high solvent/coal ratios (i.e., solvent/coal ratios of higher than 2/1) did not have a significant effect on the total conversion that was derived as the result of the co-liquefaction of the Elbistan lignite and poplar sawdust.

  9. TAKRAF surface mining equipment in the Greek Ptolomais brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    This paper enumerates heavy surface mining equipment and its technical specifications, delivered by TAKRAF in the German Democratic Republic to four brown coal surface mines at Kozani, in northern Greece. Machinery includes: an A/SUB/2 Rs-B boom spreader with a capacity of 4,500 m/sup 3//h, three coal storage yards (capacity 1 Mt) Ks-S 5,600 stackers and reclaimers (5,600 m/sup 3//h) for the Kardia power plant (4 x 300 MW); two SRs 2000 bucket wheel excavators (3,000 m/sup 3//h overburden, 1,700 m/sup 3//h coal) and four A/SUB/2Rs-B6700 boom spreaders (6,700 m/sup 3//h each) for the Ptolomais South surface mine, and a further five SRs 240 bucket wheel excavators (850 m/sup 3//h) for coal seam cleaning. Since 1982 three more Ks-S 5,600 stacker and reclaimers for a second coal storage yard (1.5 Mt) at the Aghios Dimitros power plant (2 x 300 Mw) are being assembled. For the fourth and latest brown coal surface mine, Amyntaion, two newly designed SRs 4000 bucket wheel excavators (7,600 m/sup 3//h) were ordered, which are being assembled and will enter operation by 1985.

  10. A new method for the co-liquefaction of coal and waste tyre rubber into useful products using microwave metal interaction pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of waste rubber of tyre and Makarwal coal of Pakistan was converted into oil using microwave metal interaction pyrolysis. The reactions were carried out in reactor containing copper coil which supported in high temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis. The high temperature is generated by the interaction of microwaves with copper coil, coal and the bake clay reactor. Copper is used as antenna for the microwaves and it is believed that this antenna may also catalyze the pyrolysis process and affect the nature of products. This faster method of liquefaction gives 12% aqueous liquid, 58% oily liquid, 3% benzene soluble tar, 2 % gases and 25% residues. The liquid products were collected using cold traps and the amount of gas was obtained by taking difference. The mixture of tarry and oily liquid product was analyzed using GC/MS and found that it contains aliphatic and aromatic compounds. It was investigated by the chemical tests that the gases contain hydrogen sulfide and acetylene in addition to other fuel gases. The range of products and product formation is also discussed in this communication. (author)

  11. 煤炭间接液化制油能源效率和环境可行性分析%Analysis on Energy Efficiency and Environment Feasibility of Coal Indirect Liquefaction to Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊诚; 康有贵; 金嘉璐; 刘万洲

    2012-01-01

    Based on a coal indirect liquefaction(coal to oil) plant with four million ton of coal per year as a model,taking the coal-fired power generation of the most wide applied coal utilization accesses as the references,from the coal comprehensive energy efficiency,solid waste treatment and recovery utilization,water consumption,waste water treatment and drainage,SO2 treatment and emission,CO2 collection and sealing,and others,the energy efficiency and environment feasibility of the coal indirect liquefaction were analyzed.The analysis showed that the coal indirect liquefaction would be a new access with higher energy efficiency and more clean coal utilization and could provide the references to the CO2 collection,sealing and utilization in the future.

  12. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  13. Lifecycle Assessment of Microalgae to Biofuel: Thermochemical Processing through Hydrothermal Liquefaction or Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennion, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have many desirable attributes as a renewable energy recourse. These include use of poor quality land, high yields, and it is not a food recourse. This research focusses on the energetic and environmental impact of processing microalgae into a renewable diesel. Two thermochemical bio-oil recovery processes are analyzed, pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). System boundaries include microalgae growth, dewatering, thermochemical bio-oil recovery, bio-oil stabilization, conv...

  14. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  15. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  16. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  17. Rehabilitation of residual pits in post-mining area: a goal of Czech brown coal opencast mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure of surface brown coal mines is a complex process with many specific considerations. In the Czech Republic a special project was proposed to analyze the types of environmental disturbance generated by surface mining operations and suggest procedures for the affected areas. It also aims to propose rehabilitation techniques for residual pits, considering their future use for recreational or development purposes. A Chabarovice mine case study demonstrates how to solve the problem of water flooding and utilization of the future residual lake. 2 figs

  18. A new approach to precious metals recovery from brown coals: Correlation of recovery efficacy with the mechanism of metal-humic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratskaya, Svetlana Yu.; Volk, Alexandra S.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Ustinov, Alexander Yu.; Barinov, Nikolay N.; Avramenko, Valentin A.

    2009-06-01

    The presence of gold and platinum group elements (PGE) in low-rank brown coals around the world has promoted interest in the industrial exploitation of this alternative source of precious metals. However, due to low efficacy of the methods traditionally used for the processing of mineral ores, there exists a high demand for new strategies of precious metal recovery from refractory carbonaceous materials that could significantly increase the economic potential of gold- and PGE-bearing organic resources. Here we discuss the possibility of gold and PGE recovery from alkaline extracts of brown coals using the difference in colloidal stability of bulk organic matter and its fractions enriched with precious metals. This approach enables one to avoid complete oxidation or combustion of brown coals prior to gold recovery, to minimize organic content in gold concentrate, and to obtain a valuable by-product - humic extracts. Using gold-bearing brown coals from several deposits located in the South Far East of Russia, we show that up to 95% of gold can be transferred to alkaline extracts of humic acids (HA) and up to 85% of this gold can be recovered by centrifugation at pH 4.0-6.0, when only 5-15% of HA precipitated simultaneously. We have shown that the high efficacy of gold recovery can be attributed to the occurrence of fine-dispersed elemental gold particles stabilized by HA, which differ significantly in colloidal stability from the bulk organic matter and, thus, can be separated by centrifugation.

  19. Properties of the solid thermolysis products of brown coal impregnated with an alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu.V. Tamarkina; L.A. Bovan; V.A. Kucherenko [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Litvinenko Institute of Physicoorganic and Coal Chemistry

    2008-08-15

    The mechanism of formation of a porous active carbon framework is considered, and the properties of the solid thermolysis products of brown coal (Aleksandriisk deposit, Ukraine) with potassium hydroxide are studied. The yields of the solid thermolysis products and potassium humates, the rate of the interaction of the solid thermolysis products with KOH at 700-900{sup o}C, the specific surface areas, the adsorption capacities for methylene blue and iodine, and the specific activities of surface areas are determined under variation of the KOH/coal ratio KOH < 18 mol/kg and temperature (110-900{sup o}C).

  20. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Annual report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments are reported on the hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis and alkylation of coal and coal liquids, usually with catalysts such as transition metals and alkali metal compounds. One experiment involved electron microscopy as graphite was reacted with water vapor of hydrogen or mixtures of these. Other experiments involved Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with iron catalysts on different supports and the product distribution. Finally, the deactivation of coal conversion catalysts, such as vanadyl naphthenate was studied. (LTN)

  1. The competitive strength of German brown coal; Deutsche Braunkohle im Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, D.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of a celebration on 4 December 1996, Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning, Chairman of the Board of Rheinbraun-AG, outlined the changes in the energy-political boundary conditions in Germany and Europe, strategies for maintaining the competitive strength of brown coal, and the importance of this feld of industry, and especially of the Garzweiler II oopen-cast mine, for the structural development of the Rhenish brown coal district. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gemeinsame Barbara-Feier am 4. Dezember 1996 in der Erfthalle Kerpen-Tuernich war dem Vorstandsvorsitzenden der Rheinbraun AG, Bergwerksdirektor Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning Anlass genug, von den Fuehrungskraeften des Rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbaus und den Bergingenieuren vom Bezirksverein Rheinische Braunkohle, die Veraenderungen der energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in Deutschland und Europa, die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Braunkohle und die Bedeutung dieses Industriezweiges und vor allem von Garzweiler II fuer die strukturelle Entwicklung des rheinischen Reviers, darzulegen. (orig.)

  2. The trace fossil Asthenopodichnium lithuanicum isp nov from Late Neogene brown-coal deposits, Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchman, A.; Gaigalas, A.; Melesyte, M.; Kazakauskas, V. [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Geological Science

    2007-07-01

    A new freshwater ichnospecies of Asthenopodichnium Thenius, A. lithitanicton, is distinguished by its pouch-like shape with a J-shaped limb that is distinctly wider than the remaining part of the pouch. It was produced in a stiffground at the top of a mineral-rich brown-coal layer of Neogene age by a suspension feeder forming pouch-like domichnial cavities. Mayfly larvae may perhaps be considered as candidates for its tracemaker. Other arthropods (amphipods, isopods) are also possibilities. The brown-coal layer was exposed during the Neogene by river erosion, was colonized by the tracemaker (locally two colonization events took place) and in the Pliocene covered by distal crevasse and river channel sands.

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Schobert, H.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) spectroscopic and chemical reaction studies on the effects of drying and mild oxidation of a Wyodak subbituminous coal on its structure and pretreatment/liquefaction at 350{degrees}C; and (2) effects of dispersed catalyst and solvent on conversion and structural changes of a North Dakota lignite. Drying and oxidation of Wyodak subbituminous coal at 100-150{degrees}C have been shown to have significant effects on its structure and on its catalytic and non-catalytic low-severity liquefaction at 350{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2}. Spectroscopic analyses using solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, Pyrolysis-GC-MS, and FT-IR revealed that oxidative drying at 100-150{degrees}C causes the transformation of phenolics and catechol into other related structures (presumably via condensation) and high-severity air drying at 150{degrees}C for 20 h leads to disappearance of catechol-like structure. Increasing air drying time or temperature increases oxidation to form more oxygen functional groups at the expense of aliphatic carbons. Such a clearly negative impact of severe oxidation is considered to arise from significantly increased oxygen functionality which enhances the cross-link formation in the early stage of coal liquefaction. Physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical aspects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed. A North Dakota lignite (DECS-1) coal was studied for its behaviors in non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 250 and 450{degrees}C. Regardless the reaction solvents and the catalyst being used, the optimum temperature was found to be 400{degrees}C. The donor solvent has a significant effect over the conversion especially at temperatures higher than 350{degrees}C.

  4. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  5. Mechanochemical activation of iron ore-based catalysts for the hydrogenation of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Chumakov, V.G.; Moiseeva, G.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2000-10-01

    Genesis of pyrrhotite catalysts from different iron ore concentrates and pure iron oxides was investigated using the method of mechanochemical treatment in a planetary mill. The dispersion and fine crystalline structure of oxide and pyrrhotite particles were studied as the function of mechanical load, sulfiding temperature and mode of preparation. Methods for the preparation of high performance iron ore-based catalysts for brown coal hydrogenation have been developed. (orig.)

  6. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  7. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian; H. Bruun, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles, which can be subdivided into: the cascade, mixed refrigerant and expansion-based processes. They differ by their design configurations, components and working fluids, and thus have various operating conditions and equipment inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually...

  8. Combustion of Lausitz brown coal under oxyfuel. Process conditions in a 0,5 MW{sub th} combustion plant; Verbrennung von Lausitzer Braunkohle unter Oxyfuel. Prozessbedingungen in einer 0,5 MW{sub th}-Feuerungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Helge; Jentsch, Norbert; Burboeck, Martin; Panzenboeck, Helmut; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2008-07-01

    For climate policy reasons, future coal-fired power stations are to be built on the basis of the CCS technology (CCS = Carbon Capture and Storage). Thereby, the oxyfuel process combines the advantages of a simple process design at the combustion with the highest separation potential of carbon dioxide. In order to test the oxyfuel process, in the year 2005 an existing 0.5 MW{sub th} test facility of the Centre for Power Technology (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) was selected and extended by substantial components of the oxyfuel process such as for example oxygen supply, flue gas condenser. Subsequently, the oxyfuel process was examined within a test period of two years. The most important cognitions of this test period are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  10. Direct coal liquefaction using iron-titanium hydride as a hydrogen distribution and catalytic material. Yearly report No. 1, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.E. Jr.

    1985-09-29

    During this year the experimental apparatus was completed after substantial delays by the manufacturer and eight direct coal liquefaction experiments were accomplished. These experiments have produced conversion and selectivity data on samples of Utah coal slurried in tetralin and catalyzed using iron-titanium hydride. Hydrogen loading of the alloy, catalyst particle size, catalyst concentration, coal particle size, operating temperatures for alloy addition and liquefaction without the catalysts present, have all been studied during these experiments. Conversions as high as 61% DAF in 30 min have been recorded at 500/sup 0/F and 500 psia. Product selectivities favor the oil fraction during the initial phase of the reaction, but as the reaction proceeds the heavier fractions are observed to increase at the expense of the oil fraction. We are currently working on a kinetic model in an effort to predict these results. Additionally, proton NMR, fractional distillation, and chromatographic analyses are currently being performed on the recovered product. We have completed the study of Utah coal and are moving on to samples of Kentucky and Alabama coals after a minor modification of the experimental apparatus is completed. Equipment manufacture, delivery, and installation delays, totaling over 6 months, greatly reduced the time available for research, making a 6 month no cost extension necessary. The extended time will permit completion of the proposed research tasks. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Pyrolysis-mass spectrometric prediction of liquefaction reactivity and structural analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1985-10-01

    Forty-seven PSOC coals were pyrolyzed with eight replicates each in a Curie point pyrolysis mass spectrometer. This large data set was normalized and then analyzed using principal component analysis. From the reduced data set, equations were developed by using stepwise linear regression which modeled reactivity of the coal in tubing bombs and in the Gulf continuous flow reactor. Through the use of factor and loading spectra, structural components of the coal which were correlated with reactivity were identified. 33 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  12. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Jerald [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  13. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  14. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  15. Research in cleaning water-walls of the TP-45 boiler with water during combustion of Angren brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrutdinov, R.Sh.; Shpakovich, E.Ya.; Guzenko, S.I.; Timofeev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

    1982-08-01

    With the growth of the electric power industry, great significance is placed on combustion of low-grade coals in large deposits with infavorable properties. Angren brown coal is an inexpensive low-grade fuel with 20-22% dry ash. During its combustion in steam generators with a radiant heat surface associated deposits are formed. Research on the problem of preventing slag formation on heating surfaces during the combustion of Angren brown coal is discussed. The use of water to clean these surfaces is also discussed.

  16. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  17. Safety analysis of the 1000 lb/day coal-liquefaction PDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 1000 lb/day PDU located in Building 83 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Risks to personnel from potential process hazards are largely controlled by installation of a major portion of the unit within a hot cell. This segregates and isolates personnel from a majority of potential equipment rupture and fire/explosion hazards. Equipment within the cell is subject to potential risks associated with overpressurization or excessively high temperature, and fire/explosion due to ignition of leaking flammable gas (i.e. H/sub 2/). There are some existing safeguards designed to protect against overpressure or high temperature. Additional safeguards are offered to minimize these risks. The hot cell is provided with general dilution ventilation and hydrogen monitoring. However, confinement effects and potential ignition sources are such that avoidance of formation and ignition of flammable mixtures cannot be assured. Potential health hazards relate to contact with coal-derived liquids or inhalation of irritant or toxic gases, vapors, or dusts, associated with slurry preparation, sampling, draw down of catch-pots, or cleaning of centrifuge bowls. No particularly serious workplace safety hazards were identified, and environmental concerns are largely limited by the relatively low throughput for the unit. A number of Category I hazards with Remote likelihood, and Category II hazards with May Occur likelihood, were identified. Recommendations were developed for these hazards. Implementation of these recommendations will materially reduce the overall risk level of the operation. The Safety Analysis was based on a site visit, process flow diagrams, material balance, equipment data, and operating procedures provided to Hercules, or as represented to Hercules, by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. A detailed listing of the data and information package is documented in Appendix A.

  18. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  19. EROI Analysis for Direct Coal Liquefaction without and with CCS: The Case of the Shenhua DCL Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are considerable discrepancies between China’s central government and some local governments in attitudes towards coal to liquids (CTL technology. Energy return on investment (EROI analysis of CTL could provide new insights that may help solve this dilemma. Unfortunately, there has been little research on this topic; this paper therefore analyses the EROI of China’s Shenhua Group Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL project, currently the only DCL commercial project in the world. The inclusion or omission of internal energy and by-products is controversial. The results show that the EROIstnd without by-product and with internal energy is 0.68–0.81; the EROIstnd (the standard EROI without by-product and without internal energy is 3.70–5.53; the EROIstnd with by-product and with internal energy is 0.76–0.90; the EROIstnd with by-product and without internal energy is 4.13–6.14. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider carbon capture and storage (CCS as a means to control the CO2 emissions. Considering the added energy inputs of CCS at the plant level, the EROIs decrease to 0.65–0.77, 2.87–3.97, 0.72–0.85, and 3.20–4.40, respectively. The extremely low, even negative, net energy, which may be due to high investments in infrastructure and low conversion efficiency, suggests CTL is not a good choice to replace conventional energy sources, and thus, Chinese government should be prudent when developing it.

  20. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  1. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  2. Design and analysis of liquefaction process for offshore associated gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquefaction is the key section on floating platform. Some experts and designers selected mixed refrigerant process for floating platform, while some recommended expander cycle. However, few of them compared the two types of processes systemically before making a choice. In this paper, the liquefaction processes of propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant cycle (C3/MRC), mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC) and nitrogen expander cycle (N2 expander) for the special offshore associated gases in South China Sea have been designed and studied. These processes have been analyzed and compared systematically considering the main factors including the performance parameters, economic performance, layout, sensitivity to motion, suitability to different gas resources, safety and operability, accounting for the features of the floating production, storage and offloading unit for liquefied natural gas (LNG-FPSO) in marine environment. The results indicated that N2 expander has higher energy consumption and poorer economic performance, while it has much more advantages than C3/MRC and MRC for offshore application because it is simpler and more compact and thus requiring less deck area, less sensitive to LNG-FPSO motion, has better suitability for other gas resources, has higher safety and is easier to operate. Therefore, N2 expander is the most suitable offshore liquefaction process. In addition, the exergy analysis is conducted for N2 expander and the results indicate that the compression equipments and after coolers, expanders and LNG heat exchangers are the main contribution to the total exergy losses. The measures to decrease the losses for these equipments are then discussed.

  3. Process for selective grinding of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  4. Reactivity of coal fractions as a probe of coal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown coal has been fractionated by two different methods. Firstly, extraction of the coal with decalin at 320 deg C to separate loosely bound guest material from the macromolecular matrix and secondly, the extraction with 1% caustic soda at 80 deg C to separate humic acid from the insoluble residue of the coal (humin). The various fractions have been reacted under CO and H2 in the presence of promoters previously used in coal liquefaction experiments. The products have been analyzed by a range of techniques, principally proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gas cromatography-mass spectrometry and the results used to gain further insight into brown coal structure. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Energy consumption, destruction of exergy and boil off during the process of liquefaction, transport and regasification of liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradioto, Diogo Angelo; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], e-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    A supply chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is composed by several processes like extraction, purification, liquefaction, storage, transport, regasification and distribution. In all these stages, processes need of energy. The main objective of this work is to quantify the energy consumption, mass loss and exergy destruction occurred throughout the chain. Results show that the process of liquefaction is the largest consumer of energy. Storage and transport by ship are responsible for the bigger mass losses and regasification is the process of larger destruction of exergy. A case study is performed considering a stream of pure methane at the input of a liquefaction plant, and evaluates energy along the chain, ending up at the distribution of NG after its regasification. (author)

  6. Thermal efficiency of the HTU Process for Biomass Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, F.; Naber, J.A. [Biofuel, Heemskerk (Netherlands); Van de Beld, B. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands); Boerefijn, F.R.; Van der Wal, S. [Jacobs Comprimo Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bos, G.M.; Zeevalkink, J.A. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2000-09-01

    The development of the HTU Process is now well under way. A pilot plant with an intake capacity of some 10 kg/h (dry basis) is in operation. Biomass is converted by treatment in liquid water at temperatures from 300 to 350C and pressures from 100 to 180 bar. The product is 'Biocrude', a heavy organic liquid with a lower heating value of 30-35 MJ/kg. A case study is presented for the HTU conversion of sugar beet pulp (130 kton/a on a dry basis). A process description is given, and the heat economy is discussed. For the generation of process heat some external fuel is required (2% of the heating value of the feedstock). The thermal efficiency is defined as the ratio of heating values of biocrude product and feedstock plus external heat input It has a theoretical maximum of 79%. The process designed here has a thermal efficiency of 75%. The total capital expenditure is 30 M$. At a zero cost of feedstock the price of the biocrude product is $153/ton, or $4.6/GJ. A number of items for further improvement of the thermal efficiency is discussed. It requires a systematic exergy analysis. However, any further gain in heat economy has to be traded off against increased capital expenditure and reduced operability.

  7. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1984-12-01

    The reactions of model coal nitrogen compounds with metal clusters to determine bonding and hopefully gain insight into the cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bonds were initiated. In addition, studies were begun involving the reaction of a saturated nitrogen heterocyclic compound, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, with bulk metal catalysts in order to determine whether carbon-nitrogen bonds could be cleaved in this model coal compound under conditios of very varied temperatures and low pressures of hydrogen gas. It has been demonstrated during the report period that quinoline will react with triruthenium dodecacarbonyl to form a compound with ruthenium carbonyls bound to the nitrogen. The compound has been identified. A similar but more complex structure is formed from tetrahydroquinoline. These compounds will be subjected to secondary reactions in attempts to split the nitrogen-carbon bond. Early attempts to cause nitrogen-carbon bond breaking in model compounds using metal catalysts have not been successful.

  8. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1984-10-01

    Work is reported as follows: (1) effect of various factors on the product distribution and kinetics of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron catalysts in a fixed bed reactor; (2) the kinetics and selectivity of hydrocarbon synthesis with unpromoted bulk iron-based catalysts in a well-stirred slurry reactor free of temperature and concentration gradients; (3) low temperature reactions between graphite and water catalyzed by KOH; and (4) the catalytic hydrogenation of structural models of coal. (LTN)

  9. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  10. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  11. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE-supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in US DOE-supported demonstration plants for the gasification and liquefaction of coal is reported: company, contract number, process description and flowsheet, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects involve coal feeders, lock hoppers, values, etc. for feeding coal into high pressure systems, coal grinding equipment and measuring and process control instrumentation. (LTN)

  12. Effect of structural alteration on the macromolecular properties of brown and bituminous coals, quantitative relationships to the hydrogenation reactivity with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Gruber, R. [Univ. de Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mobility of macromolecular network has been found to be the fundamental property of both brown and bituminous coals governing the reactivity for hydrogenation with tetralin. In Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, this was primarily affected by carboxylate cross-linking via polyvalent cations like Ca.

  13. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  14. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Annual report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.; Fish, R.H.

    1985-09-01

    The removal of nitrogen from complex matrices such as coal liquids is an extremely important area to study. We recently discovered that polynuclear heteroaromatic nitrogen compounds can be selectively reduced only in the nitrogen containing ring. We now wish to focus on the aspects of carbon-nitrogen cleavage in the saturated nitrogen heterocyclic ring of model coal compounds in order to better understand how nitrogen can be removed without additional substantial use of hydrogen gas for that reaction to occur. A duel approach will be followed that will provide fundamental information on the cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bonds using metal complexes of rhenium, iridium and ruthenium. The important coordination of metal complexes to saturated nitrogen compounds followed by oxidative addition to a methylene group alpha to the nitrogen atom will allow formation of metalla-azacyclopropanes and dimetalla-azacyclobutenes. These compounds will be reacted with nucleophiles to hopefully afford carbon-nitrogen bond cleavage. The compounds will also be reacted under hydrogenation conditions to provide a similar carbon-nitrogen bond cleavage reaction. The second approach, carried out simultaneously, will use various bulk metals such as nickel, rhodium and ruthenium supported on silica and alumina with 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline as the substrate and at temperatures of approx.300/sup 0/C and 1 atm H/sub 2/ gas to provide HDN chemistry under mild experimental conditions.

  15. Effect of hydrogen pressure on free radicals in direct coal liquefaction/coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seehra, M.S.; Ibrahim, M.M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coprocessing of coal with waste tires and commingled plastics and to characterize the relevant catalysts, using high pressure/high temperature in-situ ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) spectroscopy. The recent results from high pressure ESR spectroscopy are emphasized. During this period, considerable progress was made in developing the high pressure capabilities in in-situ ESR spectroscopy and new results carried out in 1000 psi of H{sub 2}gas are presented. In these experiments, sapphire tubes were used to contain the high pressures at temperatures up to 500{degrees}C. Results of the experiments carried out under 1000 psi of H{sub 2} are compared with those under 1000 psi of non-interacting argon and with the earlier experiments in flowing H{sub 2} gas where the volatiles are removed by the flowing gas. In these experiments, the free radical density N of the Blind Canyon coal was measured at each temperature and pressure by double integration of the ESR signal and calibrating it against a standard. The details of the experimental apparatus and procedures have been described in earlier publications.

  16. Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Final report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of solubilizing the coal has been termed liquification. Fungi were routinely maintained in both solid Sabouraud maltose agar (6%) and in Sabouraud maltose broth cultures. All cultures were incubated at 30/sup 0/C, 84 to 98% relative humidity, and pH = 5.8. All materials which came into contact with the fungi were sterilized before use. Experimental cultures were incubated as described for stock cultures. Cultures were incubated for approximately 12 days to produce a mature fungal mat across a glass petri dish. Coal pieces (approximately 5 mm/sup 3/) were placed directly on the hyphal mat. Liquified coal (the bioextract) was removed from the top of the mycelium and/or coal pieces and either stored for analyses at 4/sup 0/C or else freeze-dried and stored dessicated at room temperature. The bioextract has been produced in sufficient quantity to permit various methods of analysis including high performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, titrimetry, electrophoresis, proton nmr spectroscopy, and calorimetry. The solubility of the bioextract in different solvents has also been determined. 6 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Brown coal phaseout NRW. Which coal mining amounts are necessary from an energy point of view and are possible with respect to climate policy?; Braunkohleausstieg NRW. Welche Abbaumengen sind energiewirtschaftlich notwendig und klimapolitisch moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, Dierk; Hermann, Hauke; Ritter, David; Vogel, Moritz; Winger, Christian

    2015-04-15

    The study on the brown coal phaseout in NRW covers the following issues: scope of the study, targets on a federal level and review of actual scenario calculations; brown coal demand in Garzweiler in the different scenarios; climate policy targets in Nordrhein-Westfalen; feasibility in the frame of energy production.

  18. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  19. Reserch process geomigration during underground gasification and coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of subsoil water in the over- and subcoal deposits during underground combustion of brown coal can vary under coals thermal development product and pollution. Analysis of the substances-contaminants migratory in water is one of the main issues of further implementation of technologies UCG and UCC.

  20. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1981-06-01

    In studying product distribution of a Fischer-Tropsch reaction over copper- and potassium-promoted iron catalysts as a function of CO conversion, it was found that relative methane formation declines with increasing conversion. The potassium catalysed reaction of graphite and steam to produce methane and CO/sub 2/ at low temperatures (250/sup 0/C) was further investigated and activation energies were determined. It was shown that potassium as KOH and as K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, is catalytically effective and that impregnation of the graphite is as effective as surface deposition of K. Other alkali oxides are being investigated. It is hoped that this work may eventually lead to production of higher hydrocarbons. Electron microscope investigations of the potassium-promoted graphite, used in the conversion to methane described clearly show the progressive gasification of the carbon along the graphite-potassium interface. Reaction of hetero-atom containing aromatic model compounds with hydrogen in the presence of homogeneous ruthenium catalysts and a base gave quantitative hydrogenation of the hetero-atom containing ring, without hydrogenation of other rings. Similar results were obtained with homogeneous manganese catalysts and with synthesis gas or with the water-gas shift reaction. If further confirmed, this can be of major importance in reducing the hydrogen requirements of coal liquid hydrocracking.

  2. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1-March 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1981-03-01

    In the course of observing by means of Auger spectroscopy graphite gasification reactions catalyzed by metals, it has been found that in the presence of hydrogen, nickel appears to diffuse from the surface into the bulk of the graphite. When potassium is deposited on graphite, it is volatilized above 400/sup 0/C. Surprisingly the production of methane and carbon dioxide from the reaction of graphite and steam was catalyzed by potassium at as low a temperature as 250/sup 0/C. It has been shown that literature on the alkylation of benzene with synthesis gas is erroneous and that the products reported are due to Lewis acid catalyzed cracking of benzene. A novel cobalt mediated, reversible cleavage of a vinyl-hydrogen bond has been discovered. All products from the thermal decomposition of tetralin have been identified. The stereochemistry of cis-1, 2 dihydrotetralin was determined. In the utilization of the water gas shift reaction as a reducing agent for model coal compounds it has been found that tributylphosphine ligands increase the life of transition metal hydride catalysts. Rates of demetallation of high metal content gas oils over cobalt-molybdena-alumina catalysts were measured for vanadium and iron. Kinetic analysis is under way. It is clearly shown that pore plugging of the catalyst occurs early and results in deposition of the metals on the external catalyst surface.

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  4. Materials technology for coal-conversion processes. Progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, William A.

    1980-06-01

    The program entails nondestructive testing, failure analysis, and studies of erosive wear, corrosion, and refractory degradation. Analysis of recent refractory-slag interaction tests suggests that as the chromia content is increased from 10 to 32%, the primary reaction product changes from calcium hexaluminate to spinel, significantly increasing the corrosion resistance of the refractory. Field reliability of the high-temperature ultrasonic erosion scanner was demonstrated at both a coal liquefaction plant (SRC at Tacoma, WA) and a coal gasification plant (Morgantown, WV). Continuous high-temperature operation has been demonstrated and an accuracy of +-0.025 mm seems achievable. Equipment has been ordered for field tests of passive acoustic systems at Exxon. This includes a four-channel tape recorder, differential amplifiers, and signal conditioners. Corrosion studies have been completed on effects of multicomponent gas environments on corrosion mechanisms and uniaxial tensile properties of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. Results of these and other tests utilizing 10,000-h exposures suggest that corrosion rates of 0.6 mm/y can be expected. Failure analysis activities included studies of compressor diaphragms from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center coal-liquefaction continuous-process unit. Cracks were found in two of the three diaphragms. Failure of an internal solids transfer line from HYGAS appears to have been caused by severe localized sulfidation of the high-nickel Inconel 182 weld metal used to fabricate the line.

  5. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  6. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  7. Land management in surface mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, J.; Skalska, T.

    1986-01-01

    The Belchatow brown coal surface mine will cover 5720 ha of land - 2563 ha of arable land, 831 ha of pasture land, 1598 ha of forests and 678 ha of other land types (e.g. waste, roads, etc.). Regulations on land management and environmental protection in Poland are analyzed. Their effects on land management in the Belchatow mine are evaluated. Types of soils, their agricultural use, types of private and state farms in the mine area are discussed. Problems associated with expropriation, expropriation cost and effects of mine construction on agriculture in the Belchatow area are also analyzed. Selected problems associated with balance of manpower in the area and effects of growing employment in the mine on lack of manpower in agriculture are evaluated. Program for land reclamation, its cost, planned investment, organizational models of land reclamation and types of land utilization after reclamation are described. 1 refs.

  8. Transformation of chlorine in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during the gasification in steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu; Mohammad Asadullah; Rosalie Hocking; LIN Jian-ying; LI Chun-zhu

    2012-01-01

    This study is to examine the changes in Cl volatilizations and chemical forms in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during gasification in steam at 800 ℃ using Cl K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.The char samples were prepared in a novel one-stage fluidised-bed/fixed-bed quartz reactor at a fast heating rate.The samples were then collected and sealed in an argon-filled bag in order to minimise possible oxidation of char and Cl by air prior to analysis by XANES.Char-steam reactions were found to significantly affect the transformation of Cl,including the possible formation of chlorine-containing organic structures.On the other hand,volatile-char interactions during the gasificauon appeared to enhance the Cl retention and prevent the formation of organic chlorine compounds in chars.

  9. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay; Zhang, Lian

    2012-03-30

    The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO(2) capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO(2) capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO(2) was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60°C and a CO(2) partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO(2) capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO(2)/ton fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to cement and in the paper and pulp industry. PMID:22326240

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica;

    2014-01-01

    into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  11. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1985-March 31, 1985. [1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1985-03-01

    In the previous quarterly report, we provided evidence for the reactivity of the nitrogen-carbon bond in model coal compounds with ruthenium clusters and we were in the process of doing a survey of heterogeneous metal catalysts in order to gain insight into the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond under hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) reaction conditions with tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) as the model coal compound. We have continued to survey metal catalysts and in this quarterly report we discuss the results of this survey with copper, chromia, nickel and 5% rhodium on silica with THQ as the HDN model compound. At 300/sup 0/C in the presence of 5% rhodium on silica catalyst and hydrogen gas some HDN chemistry prevails with THQ being converted to quinoline and other as yet not fully identified products containing propylbenzene, 2-propylaniline as well as ammonia. The identified products are presently being analyzed by GC-MS analysis. 1 tab.

  12. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  14. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT PROGRAM - BENCH RUN PB-10 (HTI 227-109)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-12-30

    This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.

  15. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  16. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Arnulfo eRojas-Pérez; Mariela eFuentes-Caraballo; Isis V Robles-Ramos; Umakanta eJena; K.C. eDas

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  17. Numerical investigation on cavitation in pressure relief valve for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, G. F.; Li, W. Z.; Xiao, D. H.; Zheng, Z. J.; Dou, H. S.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The pressure relief valve for regulating the level of the high-pressure separator works under a pressure difference up to 15 MPa in the temperature of 415 °C. Severe cavitation erosion and particle impact lead to the valve disc's mass loss. In this paper, three-dimensional turbulent cavitating flows in the pressure relief valve are numerically simulated to reveal the mechanism of mass loss at valve disc. The RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the mixture model with a mass transfer for cavitation are employed to simulate the cavitating flow in the pressure relief valve. The result shows that there is phase change in the pressure relief process and cavitation bubbles would be transported by high-velocity backflow to the head of valve disc. For the local pressure higher than the saturated vapor pressure, the bubbles collapse at the head of disc and cavitation erosion is formed at the head of the disc. By comparing the cases of opening of 40%, 50%, and 60%, backflow velocity and cavitation region in front of the disc decrease with the opening increase. Therefore, during the actual operation, the pressure relief valve should be kept to a relatively large opening.

  18. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  19. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  20. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  1. Hydrothermal processing of fermentation residues in a continuous multistage rig – Operational challenges for liquefaction, salt separation, and catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermentation residues are a waste stream of biomethane production containing substantial amounts of organic matter, and thus representing a primary energy source which is mostly unused. For the first time this feedstock was tested for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production. The processing steps include hydrothermal liquefaction, salt separation, as well as catalytic gasification over a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water. In continuous experiments at a feed rate of 1 kg h−1 a partial liquefaction and carbonization of some of the solids was observed. Significant amounts of heavy tars were formed. Around 50% of the feed carbon remained in the rig. Furthermore, a homogeneous coke was formed, presumably originating from condensed tars. The mineralization of sulfur and its separation in the salt separator was insufficient, because most of the sulfur was still organically bound after liquefaction. Desalination was observed at a salt separator set point temperature of 450 °C and 28 MPa; however, some of the salts could not be withdrawn as a concentrated brine. At 430 °C no salt separation took place. Higher temperatures in the salt separator were found to promote tar and coke formation, resulting in conflicting process requirements for efficient biomass liquefaction and desalination. In the salt separator effluent, solid crystals identified as struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were found. This is the first report of struvite formation from a supercritical water biomass conversion process and represents an important finding for producing a fertilizer from the separated salt brine. - Highlights: • Continuous processing of fermentation residues in sub- and supercritical water. • Continuous separation of salt brines at supercritical water conditions. • Struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were recovered from the effluent. • Separation of sulfur from the biomass could not

  2. Characteristic parameters of the coal briquetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete knowledge about the energetic sources in our country - Republic of Macedonia, point to the fact that coals are the most attractive and highly productive, still keeping the leadership position. However, the process of lignite exploitation causes their degradation and formation of large amount of fine fractions. The industrial valorization of these fractions is the most actual problem that could be solved only through production of made-up enriched fuels of wide spectrum of application. Thus, briquetting formation, with or without use of binds, is a process of mechanical or combined modification of coal fine fractions. At the same time, this is a possible procedure of solid fuels enrichment. Lignite from the Macedonian coal deposits 'Suvodol', 'Priskupshtina' and 'Brik-Berovo' is analyzed, in order to examine the possibilities of its briquetting. The results show that the 'Suvodol' lignite satisfy the quality requirements given with the MKS B H1.031 standard as well as the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite

  3. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  4. Growth strategy of heterotrophic bacterial population along successional sequence on spoil of brown coal colliery substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristufek, V.; Elhottova, D.; Chronakova, A.; Dostalkova, I.; Picek, T.; Kalcik, J. [Academy of Science in Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Soil Biology

    2005-07-01

    The bacterial population of brown coal colliery spoil (Sokolov coal mining district, Czech Republic) was characterized by measuring viable bacterial biomass, the culturable to total cell ratio (C:T), colony-forming curve (CFC) analysis and species and/or biotype diversity. Bacterial representatives that differed in colony-forming growth (fast and/or slow growers) were used for growth-strategy investigation of heterotrophic bacteria. Spoil substrates from the surface (0-50 mm) and the mineral (100-150 mm) layers were sampled on 4 sites undergoing spontaneous succession corresponding to 1, 11, 21 and 43 years after deposition (initial, early, mid and late stages). The bacterial biomass of the surface layer increased during the initial and early stages with a maximum at mid stage and stabilized in the late stage while mineral layer biomass increased throughout the succession. The maxima of C:T ratios were at the early stage, minima at the late stage. Depending on the succession stage the C:T ratio was 1.5-2 times higher in the mineral than the surface layer of soil. An increase in the fraction of nonculturable bacteria was associated with the late succession stage. CFC analysis of the surface layer during a 3-d incubation revealed that the early-succession substrate contained more (75%) rapidly colonizing bacteria than successively older substrates. The culturable bacterial community of the mineral layer maintained a high genera and species richness of fast growers along the succession line in contrast to the surface layer community, where there was a maximum in the abundance of fast growers in the early stage. A markedly lower abundance of slow growers was observed in the mineral in contrast to the surface layer.

  5. An investigation of the role of water on retrograde/condensation reactions and enhanced liquefaction yields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.; Netzel, D.A.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.

    1995-02-01

    While great strides have been made in developing the technology of coal liquefaction processes in recent years, many unsolved problems still remain before a viable and economical process can be achieved. The technological problems that still exist can be solved through a more fundamental understanding of the chemistry associated with each stage of the coal liquefaction process, starting with any pretreatment steps that may be carried out on the coal itself. Western Research Institute, under the a contract from the US Department of Energy, has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The results of that study are the subject of this report. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. From the study of the kinetics of the chemical dehydration of coals, it was possible to quantify the amount of water on the surface, the amount readily accessible in pores, and the amount more strongly bonded in the internal structure of the coals. The results indicate that high-rank coals have proportionally less surface and easily accessible water than the lower rank coals.

  6. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  8. Nature of olefins and carboxyl groups in an Australian brown coal resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Vassallo, A.M.; Russell, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical structure of the resin from an Australian soft brown coal (Yallourn) has been investigated by cross-polarization nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning (/sup 13/C CP MAS NMR). Some additional solution /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C data were also obtained. Solid-state experiments were performed with and without a delay period before data acquisition. The resulting free induction decays were Fourier transformed with respect to acquisition time and delay period to produce two-dimensional solid-state spectra. Assignments made from the spectra clearly demonstrate that the gross chemical structure of the Yallourn resin is best described as a polymerized diterpenoid with one axial carboxylic group and two double bonds. One double bond is trisubstituted, the other is monosubstituted. After consideration of various mechanisms for polymerization of diterpenoid units during biogenesis and coalification, it was concluded that polymerization occurs at the C/sub 15/ carbon atoms in the diterpenoids without cyclization of the methylene units at C/sub 8/. 26 references.

  9. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  11. Improvement of liquefaction solvent. Increase of light oil yield with a reduction in catalyst addition; Ekika yozai no kairyo kenkyu. Sekitan ekikayu no keishitsuka to shokubai tenkaryo no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, N.; Yasumuro, M.; Sato, K.; Komatsu, N.; Okui, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For developing coal liquefaction processes, it is an important problem to improve the light oil yield with increased oil yield. It was previously reported that distillate mainly containing lighter fraction can be produced with high oil yield by reducing the iron/sulfur catalyst addition in slurry, by recycling gas in the process operation, by utilizing these effects, and by using heavy oil as recycling solvent. In this study, the maximum distillate yield of Victorian brown coal was investigated through continuous liquefaction using a bench scale unit. In addition, operation conditions for obtaining sufficient oil yield were investigated under the reduced catalyst addition into one-third. Consequently, it was confirmed that the maximum content of lighter fraction in distillate product was obtained with reduced catalyst addition by using heavy oil as recycling solvent, by adopting new catalyst, and by utilizing effects of CLB recycling and gas recycling in maximum. It was also revealed that lighter distillate can be produced compared with the oil product obtained by recycling conventional solvent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Life cycle assessment of microalgae to biofuel: Thermochemical processing through hydrothermal liquefaction or pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Edward P.

    Microalgae are currently being investigated as a renewable transportation fuel feedstock based on various advantages that include high annual yields, utilization of poor quality land, does not compete with food, and can be integrated with various waste streams. This study focuses on directly assessing the impact of two different thermochemical conversion technologies on the microalgae-to-biofuel process through life cycle assessment. A system boundary of a "well to pump" (WTP) is defined and includes sub-process models of the growth, dewatering, thermochemical bio-oil recovery, bio-oil stabilization, conversion to renewable diesel, and transport to the pump. Models were validated with experimental and literature data and are representative of an industrial-scale microalgae-to-biofuel process. Two different thermochemical bio-oil conversion systems are modeled and compared on a systems level, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and pyrolysis. The environmental impact of the two pathways were quantified on the metrics of net energy ratio (NER), defined here as energy consumed over energy produced, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Results for WTP biofuel production through the HTL pathway were determined to be 1.23 for the NER and GHG emissions of -11.4 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. WTP biofuel production through the pyrolysis pathway results in a NER of 2.27 and GHG emissions of 210 g CO2 eq (MJ renewable diesel)-1. The large environmental impact associated with the pyrolysis pathway is attributed to feedstock drying requirements and combustion of co-products to improve system energetics. Discussion focuses on a detailed breakdown of the overall process energetics and GHGs, impact of modeling at laboratory-scale compared to industrial-scale, environmental impact sensitivity to engineering systems input parameters for future focused research and development, and a comparison of results to literature.

  14. Problems in stabilizing the quality of brown coal fuel for powerful state regional electric power plants. Zadachi stabilizatsii kachestva burougol'nogo topliva dlya moshchykh GRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The change in the structure of the fuel balance of thermal electric power plants over the last decades is examined. The growing role of brown coals for coal dust combustion at the present time is shown. Data are cited which characterize the Kansko Achinskiy fuel and energy complex, the deposit of brown coal and the specifications on the quality of the coal. Characteristic to this are thick, complexly structured coal strata of high strength with substantial fluctuations in ash content, moisture level and heat creating capability. The powerful energy producing units of thermal electric power plants require a quite uniform fuel quality. The existing GOST 11717-78 insufficiently regulates the specifications for the quality of fuel for state regional electric power plants (GRES) which come from the different open pits of the Kansko Achinskiy basin. It is proposed that the coal be averaged and ground within the concentrating plant by means of cutting excavators and that corrections to the GOST be introduced.

  15. Development of Predictive Thermodynamic Model for Liquefaction of Natural Gas Using the C3-Mr Refrigeration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagde, Kenneth, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3-MR liquefaction plant with 4 pressure levels of propane cooling operational in Nigeria and demonstrates the procedure for developing a thermodynamic model that predicts the liquefied natural gas (LNG production rate. The model prediction was validated with plant data with a maximum deviation of 3%. The thermodynamic efficiency of the natural gas liquefaction plant was estimated to be 45.1%. Simulations reveals that LNG production rate for the C3-MR plant depends on cooling water supply temperature (1 ͦC rise results to 92 tonnes per day of LNG loss, thermodynamic efficiency of the overall liquefaction process (1% drop results to 215 tonnes per day of LNG loss, LNG outlet temperature (1 ͦC decrease results to 108 tonnes per day of LNG loss, LNG production to feed gas supply ratio (1% rise results to 37 tonnes per day rise in LNG, thermal efficiency of gas turbine drivers (1% drop results to 277 tonnes per day of LNG loss, ambient air temperature (1 ͦC drop results to 67 tonnes per day of LNG increase and feed gas supply pressure.

  16. Effect of process parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm biomass for bio-oil production and its life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Water is used as a clean solvent to liquefy palm biomass to bio-oil. • The optimum liquefaction condition of oil palm biomass is 390 °C and 25 MPa. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber is 120 min. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of palm kernel shell is 240 min. • From the life cycle assessment, a net 2.29 kg CO2 equivalent is generated per kg of bio-oil produced. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies on the effect of three process parameters; temperature, pressure and reaction time on the subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell. The effect of temperature (330–390 °C), pressure (25–35 MPa) and reaction time (30–240 min) on bio-oil yields were investigated using a Inconel batch reactor. The optimum liquefaction condition for empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell was at supercritical condition of water; 390 °C and 25 MPa. For the effect of reaction time, bio-oil from empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber attained maximum yields at 120 min, whereas bio-oil yield from palm kernel shell continued to increase at reaction time of 240 min. Lastly, a life cycle assessment based on a conceptual biomass hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production was constructed and presented

  17. Production of synthetic liquid fuel from run-of-mine oil shales, brown coals and waste of petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern and perspective technologies have been developed for processing run-of-mine oil shales into liquid products foreseen for producing motor fuels and chemical feedstock. Baltic run-of-mine oil shales, high-sulfur oil shales of the Volga basin, brown coals of Kansk-Atchinsk basin, as well as heavy crude oils and oil-bearing sands, solid waste of petrochemical and chemical industry may be processed. The proposed high-efficiency technology enables to produce high yields of naphtha (gasoline fraction) and diesel fuel fraction, feedstock for catalytic and hydro cracking processes, electrode coke, different adhesive materials, refractories, anodic mass, phenols, individual hydrocarbons, Ni- and V- concentrates. The process proposed is carried out using oil shales. Their organic matter has unique hydrogen donor properties which enable them to activate the thermal conversion of brown coals, high-boiling waste of petrochemical industry etc. This complex technology is based on the thermochemical conversion process of oil shales in the hydro carbonic solvent at 333-440 deg C, under the pressure of 3-5 MPa, and volumetric rate 3-6 h-1. A paste-forming substance boiling between 200-340 deg C is used as the medium. The process runs with a deficiency (up to 30 %) of regenerated paste-forming substance and therefore respective measures have been worked out to intensify the process. It enabled to close the process with respect to regenerated paste-forming substance and to design new routes for thermochemical processing of oil shales. These procedures have the following essential advantages: 1.There is no need for previous separation of asphaltenes and metals (Ni, V) from heavy petrochemical feedstock as they precipitate on the mineral part of oil shales and are discharged together with liquid products of the process. 2. Thermal cracking is carried out without molecular hydrogen and thermal hydro cracking without catalysts. 3. Raw material is considerably desulfurized.(author)

  18. Conversion of cotton plant and cotton gin residues to fuels by the extruder-feeder liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Coates, W.E. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility; Wolf, D. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Cotton is planted on a large scale in the USA, and is a major crop in Arizona. A large amount of cotton plant residue and cotton gin waste is produced annually, and these present a disposal problem. This material is comprised of cotton stalks, along with the upper portion of the taproot, and cotton gin trash. Cotton plant residues are a greater problem in the warmer regions of the USA as they serve as an over-wintering site for insect pests, and thus must be destroyed. Presently they are buried. Most field operations used to bury the residue are high energy consumers, and tend to destroy soil structure, thereby increasing the potential for erosion. This burial process is considered to be detrimental to the soil. One option to change the negative value of this biomass to a positive one is to harvest the cotton plants and combine them with other cotton wastes to produce a feedstock for liquefaction purposes. A process for harvesting and transporting the roots and stalks is being developed at the University of Arizona. In this paper we propose a combined harvesting/liquefaction system. This system would harvest and liquefy cotton wastes into oil and densified solid fuels with higher economic values. The extruder-feeder liquefaction process was developed at the University of Arizona in the 1980s under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, with the goal to convert wood to a clean, 16000 btu/lb liquid fuel. The process has been redirected to other organic wastes using additional processing to yield ``value-added`` byproducts. Cotton wastes are good candidates for this process. By combining the harvesting and fuel processing operations, a negative value biomass would become a positive value biomass by (a) solving a disposal problem, and (b) producing high value fuels. (Author)

  19. CO2 adsorption properties of char produced from brown coal impregnated with alcohol amine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Paweł; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Czuma, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction is critical to mitigating climate change. Power plants for heating and industry are significant sources of CO2 emissions. There is a need for identifying and developing new, efficient methods to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods used is flue gas purification by CO2 capture through adsorption. This study aimed to develop CO2 adsorbent out of modified brown coal impregnated with solutions of first-, second-, and third-order amines. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherms and CO2 isotherms were measured for the prepared samples. The results of experiments unexpectedly revealed that CO2 sorption capacity decreased after impregnation. Due to lack of strait trends in CO2 sorption capacity decrease, the results were closely analyzed to find the reason for the inconsistencies. It was revealed that different amines represent different affinities for CO2 and that the size and structure of impregnating factor has influence on the CO2 sorption capacity of impregnated material. The character of a support was also noticeable as well for impregnation results as for the affinity to CO2. The influence of amine concentration used was investigated along with the comparison on how the theoretical percentage of the impregnation on the support influenced the results. The reaction mechanism of tertiary amine was taken into consideration in connection to no presence of water vapor during the experiments. Key findings were described in the work and provide a strong basis for further studies on CO2 adsorption on amine-impregnated support. PMID:27317051

  20. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The two part bibliography covers aspects of coal and petroleum fuel desulfurization relating to coal preparation, coal liquids, the gasification of coal, and crude oil preparation, where the processes specifically accomplish desulfurization before combustion of the fuel. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 173 abstracts, 54 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. HYSYS在含氧煤层气液化分离中的应用研究%Application Research of HYSYS in Liquefaction Separation of Oxygen-contained Coal-bed Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖娅; 诸林; 靳亮; 邓骥

    2014-01-01

    在煤矿开采过程中采出的煤层气因含有空气难以加工利用,直接放空,不仅污染大气环境,而且浪费燃气资源。针对某典型含氧煤层气气源,设计了一种氮-甲烷膨胀制冷的液化精馏工艺,并利用HYSYS进行了模拟计算,结果显示,该工艺可较彻底除去氮气、氧气等杂质,获得较高浓度的甲烷产品,甲烷回收率达到99.99%。同时分析了回流比、塔板数以及入塔温度对塔底产品含氧量和甲烷含量的影响。%The coal-bed methane ( CBM) extracted during coal mining contains oxygen and is difficult to be processed and utilized, if it is directly vented, it not only pollutes the environment but also causes the resources waste. Based on a typical oxygen-contained CBM source, a liquefaction rectification process by nitrogen-methane expansion refrigeration was designed and simulation computation was made with HYSYS. The results showed that the nitrogen and oxygen in CBM can be completely removed by this process, the methane product with relatively high concentration can be got, and the methane recovery rate can reach 99. 99%. In addition, analysis was made on the influence of the reflux ratio, plate number and feed temperature on the oxygen and methane content in the bottom products.

  2. Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

    1993-12-31

    Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

  3. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  4. Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation mechanism studied for demineralised coal in a direct carbon fuel cell. • Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2. • Major fuel cell performance loss occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts. • The anode retained its phase structure with minor other phases formed in operation. - Abstract: The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance

  5. Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Palynostratigraphy from the Arkhara-Boguchan Brown Coal Mine of Zeya-Bureya Depression, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatyana V. Kezina

    2003-01-01

    A well-preserved Late Cretaceous-Paleogene palynological flora from the middle member of the Tsagajan Formation and the upper member of the Tsagajan Formation including the Kivda Beds is reported for the first time from the Arkhara-Boguchan brown coal mine, southeastern part of the Zeya-Bureya Basin. Four palynocomplexes were established for the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. The climate and phytocoenoses were also analyzed,based on the detailed palynological data. The results are coincident with those of mega-flora studied by Akhmetiev et al. (2002).

  6. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  7. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO42- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO42- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Quarterly technical report: March 1, 1993 to May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.; Ilias, S. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1993-11-01

    The viscosity of coal derived liquids is an important property that is required for the design of the coal liquefaction processes, as well as for understanding the flow characteristics of coal liquids. Coal liquids are complex undefined mixtures and boil over a wide range of temperatures. One method of characterizing coal liquids is to treat coal liquids as a continuous distribution of molecular weights. Upon review of the literature for viscosity correlations, the authors quickly concluded that there is no accurate method available that may be successfully applied to coal liquids. They generally believe that correlations based on molecular structure of materials are superior to those that use solely the characterization parameters such as refractive index, critical properties, density, boiling points etc. A few correlations in the literature do consider molecular structures in viscosity determinations. Using important features in these correlations, they set out to develop a new viscosity correlation that would apply to model coal aromatic compounds, their mixtures and finally to coal derived liquids themselves. The correlation for pure compounds and mixtures has been developed and is discussed below. Attempts are now being made to apply this to coal derived liquids.

  9. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  10. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase. PMID:26432053

  11. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  12. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed.

  13. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  14. Autochthonous microbe-assisted phytoremediation of brown coal mine overburden soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidović, Saud; Teodorović, Smilja; Lalević, Blažo; Karličić, Vera; Jovanović, Ljubinko; Kiković, Dragan; Raičević, Vera

    2015-04-01

    One of the largest brown coal mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Kakanj, has been exploited for over a hundred years. As a consequence of decades of exploitation, severe biocenosis disturbance and degradation of the entire ecosystem have occurred, resulting in overburden soil formation. A significant challenge in remediation of degraded mining areas is difficulty in creating conditions favorable for vegetation growth. Thus, numerous remediation technologies have focused on increasing soil nutrient composition, as well as the number and activity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), given that they stimulate host plant growth by increasing the availability of essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, manganese, iron), producing phytohormones, and providing protection from pathogens. The main objective of this research was to characterize autochthonous plant and microbial overburden communities and access their ability to restore these contaminated soils. Phytocenological analysis of vegetation and plant species was performed according to Flora Europaea (2001), from 2011 - 2013. Our results show that plant species were not detected at mine overburden soil in 2011. However, we detected presence of a single plant species, Amaranthus albus L., in 2012. Further, we recorded the presence of five families (Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae) in 2013. Microbial abundance and enzymatic activity were also examined during the same period. The diversity of microbial populations in the first year was rather small. Two Bacillus spp., B. simplex and a B. cereus group member, indigenous to mine overburden were isolated and identified using standard macroscopic and microscopic, as well as molecular techniques (Hamidovic et al., submitted). Phosphate solubilizing activity of bacteria was tested on National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (1999). Production of ammonia was determined in peptone water with Nessler

  15. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RLJ Coetzer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of the Sasol-Lurgi gasification process was carried out by utilising the method of Factorial Experimental Design on the process variables of interest from a specifically equipped full-scale test gasifier. The process variables that govern gasification are not always fully controllable during normal operation. This paper discusses the application of statistical robustness studies as a method for determining the most efficient combination of process variables that might be hard-to-control during normal operation. Response surface models were developed in the process variables for each of the performance variables. It will be shown how statistical robustness studies provided the optimal conditions for sustainable gasifier operability and throughput. In particular, the optimum operability region is significantly expanded towards higher oxygen loads by changing and controlling the particle size distribution of the coal.

  16. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  17. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  18. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS. Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols.

  19. Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry of Pyrolysis Oil from German Brown Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Jan; Kroll, Marius M; Rathsack, Philipp; Otto, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil from the slow pyrolysis of German brown coal from Schöningen, obtained at a temperature of 500°C, was separated and analyzed using hyphenation of gas chromatography with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS). Development of this ultrahigh-resolving analysis method is described, that is, optimization of specific GC and APCI parameters and performed data processing. The advantages of GC-APCI-FT-ICR-MS hyphenation, for example, soft ionization, ultrahigh-resolving detection, and most important isomer separation, were demonstrated for the sample liquid. For instance, it was possible to separate and identify nine different propylphenol, ethylmethylphenol, and trimethylphenol isomers. Furthermore, homologous series of different acids, for example, alkyl and alkylene carboxylic acids, were verified, as well as homologous series of alkyl phenols, alkyl dihydroxy benzenes, and alkoxy alkyl phenols. PMID:27066076

  20. 落叶松锯屑液化工艺研究%Study of the Liquefaction Process of Larch Sawdust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春霞; 刘浩阳; 崔立东; 张晶; 张长武

    2012-01-01

      By means of uniform design experimentation and regression analysis, the interaction between various factors involved in the liquefaction process of larch sawdust is obtained. Through gel permeation chromatography, inspection is conducted of samples of liquefied larch sawdust obtained under 8 different synthesis conditions, with number-average molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight obtained respectively. The result shows that no matter what liquefaction conditions, the molecular weight of liquefied samples is dominated by large molecules, to be exact, high molecule weight segments.%  通过均匀设计试验法和回归分析得出落叶松锯屑液化工艺各因子之间的交互作用。使用凝胶渗透色谱仪对8种不同合成条件下的落叶松锯屑液化物样品进行检测,分别求得数均分子量和重均分子量。结果表明:无论液化条件如何,液化物的分子量仍是以大分子为主,且在液化物中以这样的高分子量片段为主。

  1. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  2. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF)

  3. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  4. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  5. Chemistry and catalysis of coal liquefaction: catalytic and thermal upgrading of coal liquid and hydrogenation of CO to produce fuels. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.

    1980-08-01

    Analysis of a group of coal liquids produced by catalytic hydrogenation of Utah coals with ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst was begun. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography techniques will be used to correlate chemical properties with hydrogenation reactivity. Equipment previously used for downflow measurements of heat and momentum transfer in a gas-coal suspension was modified for upflow measurements. The catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of methyl benzoate has been studied to elucidate the reactions of ester during upgrading of coal-derived liquids. The kinetics of hydrogenation of phenanthrene have also been determined. The catalytic cracking mechanism of octahydroanthracene is reported in detail. Studies of the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene indicate that some thiophene is strongly adsorbed as a hydrogen-deficient polymer on cobalt-molybdate catalyst. Part of the polymer can be desorbed as thiophene by hydrogenation. Poisoning of the catalyst inhibits the hydrosulfurization activity to a greater degree than the hydrogenation activity. Iron-manganese catalysts for carbon monoxide hydrogenation is studied to determine the role of iron carbide formation on selectivity. Pure iron catalyst forms a Hagg iron carbide phase under reaction conditions.

  6. 铁元素对褐煤热解及气化特性的影响%Impact of Iron-loading on the Pyrolysis and Gasification Features of the Brown Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利; 王冬梅; 尹丰魁; 余江龙

    2011-01-01

    综述了铁元素对褐煤热解及气化的影响方面的研究进展,在褐煤中植入铁元素对褐煤热解和气化的半焦产物、气体产物的影响,分析了铁在褐煤热解和气化过程中的迁移和转化,并与褐煤中植入的其他金属元素产生的影响进行了简单对比.%Poly-generation system based on coal pyrolysis and gasification is one of the options of clean and efficient utilization of coal in China. In this paper, an overview of current status and progress of studies on the effects of iron loading on the pyrolysis and gasification features of brown coals upon heating has been provided with the changes in char and gaseous products because of iron-loading were summarized. The transformation of iron species during pyrolysis and gasification processes is discussed. The effect of iron-loading is also compared with that of other metals loaded into the brown coal.

  7. New progress in the processing and efficient utilization of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yuemin; Liu Jiongtian; Wei Xianyong; Luo Zhenfu; Chen Qingru; Song Shulei

    2011-01-01

    Coal accounts for about 70% of the primary energy sources in China.The environmental pollution and resources waste involved with coal processing and utilization are serious.It is therefore urgent to develop highly-efficient coal resources utilization theory and methods with low-carbon discharge.Based on our long-term basic research and technology development,the progress in beneficiation,cleaning,and transformation of coal,which includes dense phase fluidized bed dry beneficiation,deep screening of wet fine coal,micro-bubble flotation column separation,molecular coal chemistry,and transformation and separation of coal and its derivatives into value-added chemicals under mild conditions,is discussed.

  8. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  9. Ash removal plants in large power stations designed for higher ash contents in brown coal and the utilization of waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G.; Nicko, K.H.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1984-12-01

    More than 80% of the electric power generated in the GDR is produced on the basis of raw brown coal. Mean ash concentrations of 18 to 20% in raw brown coal and calorific values of 7000 kJ/kg are quite common. This means a higher amount of combustion residues, e.g. slag, fly ash and fly dust. In consequence, ash removal technologies for coal-fired power plants are getting increasingly important. Most of the present systems are combinations of suction and pressure-pneumatic systems. The most widely used system consists of a conveying trough, a pressure vessel conveyor, and a dry ash bunker. This combination is economically efficient, easy to operate, and requires little maintenance.

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  11. Proceedings of the papers of the 33rd Coal Science Conference (1996); Dai 33 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi happyo ronbunshu (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-28

    This is a proceedings of the papers made public in the 33rd (fiscal 1996) Coal Science Conference held by the Japan Institute of Energy. The number of the papers included is 82. The processes such as coal liquefaction, coal gasification and pyrolysis are largely influenced by reaction of the carbon compound in coal. However, coal, which is different in reaction characteristics depending on its producing area, is a comprehensive compound. Therefore, the trial has been made for clarifying the molecular structure and skeleton. In the sense, the following papers are taken notice of: Suzuki and others` Estimation for origin of coals by biomaker analysis; Sugimoto and others` Change of unit skeletons during the artificial coalification; Hirado and others` Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Okawa and others` Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kanbayashi and others` Analysis of the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction characteristics by using the coal database.

  12. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  13. Use of a Nuclear High Temperature Gas Reactor in a Coal-To-Liquids Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA's High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) can potentially provide nuclear-generated, high-level heat to chemical process applications. The use of nuclear heat to help convert coal to liquid fuels is particularly attractive because of concerns about the future availability of petroleum for vehicle fuels. This report was commissioned to review the technical and economic aspects of how well this integration might actually work. The objective was to review coal liquefaction processes and propose one or more ways that nuclear process heat could be used to improve the overall process economics and performance. Shell's SCGP process was selected as the gasifier for the base case system. It operates in the range of 1250 to 1600 C to minimize the formation of tars, oil, and methane, while also maximizing the conversion of the coal's carbon to gas. Synthesis gas from this system is cooled, cleaned, reacted to produce the proper ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide and fed to a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction and product upgrading system. The design coal-feed rate of 18,800 ton/day produces 26.000 barrels/day of FT products. Thermal energy at approximately 850 C from a HTGR does not directly integrate into this gasification process efficiently. However, it can be used to electrolyze water to make hydrogen and oxygen, both of which can be beneficially used in the gasification/FT process. These additions then allow carbon-containing streams of carbon dioxide and FT tail-gas to be recycled in the gasifier, greatly improving the overall carbon recovery and thereby producing more FT fuel for the same coal input. The final process configuration, scaled to make the same amount of product as the base case, requires only 5,800 ton/day of coal feed. Because it has a carbon utilization of 96.9%, the process produces almost no carbon dioxide byproduct Because the nuclear-assisted process requires six AREVA reactors to supply the heat, the capital cost is high. The conventional plant is

  14. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  16. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Flotation process diagnostics and modelling by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P; O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Jenkins, B. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In coal flotation, particles of different components of the coal such as maceral groups and mineral matter and their associations have different hydrophobicities and therefore different flotation responses. By using a new coal grain analysis method for characterising individual grains, more detailed flotation performance analysis and modelling approaches have been developed. The method involves the use of microscopic imaging techniques to obtain estimates of size, compositional and density information on individual grains of fine coal. The density and composition partitioning of coal processed through different flotation systems provides an avenue to pinpoint the actual cause of poor process performance so that corrective action may be initiated. The information on grain size, density and composition is being used as input data to develop more detailed flotation process models to provide better predictions of process performance for both mechanical and column flotation devices. A number of approaches may be taken to flotation modelling such as the probability approach and the kinetic model approach or a combination of the two. In the work reported here, a simple probability approach has been taken, which will be further refined in due course. The use of grain data to map the responses of different types of coal grains through various fine coal cleaning processes provided a more advanced diagnostic capability for fine coal cleaning circuits. This enabled flotation performance curves analogous to partition curves for density separators to be produced for flotation devices.

  18. A Quick Quantitative Analysis for Group Composition of Coal Liquefaction Oil by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy%紫外光谱法分析煤直接液化油族组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文俊; 吴美香; 郝建树; 冯杰; 李文英

    2015-01-01

    煤液化油组成的测定方法以色谱法为主,但由于样品沸程长,组分性质不均一,色谱法无法实现简便快速地对液化油族组分进行定性/定量。为建立一种快速准确定量煤液化油中的酚类化合物、芳烃、脂肪烃的分析方法,本文选取具有代表性组成的煤液化油180~200℃馏分为研究对象,筛选了环己烷、乙醇、氢氧化钠‐乙醇(50 W t%,简称碱醇溶剂)三种分离溶剂。通过对煤液化油样品在200~400 nm波长间的特征吸收峰分析,发现碱醇溶剂可使芳烃化合物对酚类化合物的干扰减少到最小,可以有效避免吸收峰重叠问题。在此基础上,进一步对比分析了苯酚,间甲酚,邻甲酚,对甲酚等标准化合物与液化油酚类混合物在碱醇溶液中紫外吸收的标准曲线,以定量样品组成。选择间甲酚为标准化合物,根据其在290 nm处的标准曲线,得到煤液化油中酚类化合物的总量为32.14%,测定结果与宏量样品分离、称重、物料平衡后结果基本一致。在得到酚类化合物含量之后,以四氢萘为标准物,获得液化油中芳烃的总量为44.91%,脂肪烃的含量为22.95%。为确定方法的准确性,油样分别加入不同量的间甲酚和四氢萘标准物,酚的加标回收率为104.3~110.75%,芳香烃的加标回收率在84.3~91.75%。综上表明:利用紫外光谱法,以碱醇溶剂排除芳烃对酚吸收的影响,能够快速测定煤液化油中酚类和芳香烃的含量,脂肪烃的含量可差减得到。%Gas chromatography is now the primary analysis method for the coal liquefaction oil .However ,a simple and rapid quantification/qualification of the coal liquefaction oil can hardly be realized ,because the coal liquefaction oil is in a heterogeneous state with a long boiling range .The aim of this study was to establish a rapid and accurate method for the quantification of

  19. 紫外光谱法分析煤直接液化油族组成%A Quick Quantitative Analysis for Group Composition of Coal Liquefaction Oil by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文俊; 吴美香; 郝建树; 冯杰; 李文英

    2015-01-01

    煤液化油组成的测定方法以色谱法为主,但由于样品沸程长,组分性质不均一,色谱法无法实现简便快速地对液化油族组分进行定性/定量。为建立一种快速准确定量煤液化油中的酚类化合物、芳烃、脂肪烃的分析方法,本文选取具有代表性组成的煤液化油180~200℃馏分为研究对象,筛选了环己烷、乙醇、氢氧化钠‐乙醇(50 W t%,简称碱醇溶剂)三种分离溶剂。通过对煤液化油样品在200~400 nm波长间的特征吸收峰分析,发现碱醇溶剂可使芳烃化合物对酚类化合物的干扰减少到最小,可以有效避免吸收峰重叠问题。在此基础上,进一步对比分析了苯酚,间甲酚,邻甲酚,对甲酚等标准化合物与液化油酚类混合物在碱醇溶液中紫外吸收的标准曲线,以定量样品组成。选择间甲酚为标准化合物,根据其在290 nm处的标准曲线,得到煤液化油中酚类化合物的总量为32.14%,测定结果与宏量样品分离、称重、物料平衡后结果基本一致。在得到酚类化合物含量之后,以四氢萘为标准物,获得液化油中芳烃的总量为44.91%,脂肪烃的含量为22.95%。为确定方法的准确性,油样分别加入不同量的间甲酚和四氢萘标准物,酚的加标回收率为104.3~110.75%,芳香烃的加标回收率在84.3~91.75%。综上表明:利用紫外光谱法,以碱醇溶剂排除芳烃对酚吸收的影响,能够快速测定煤液化油中酚类和芳香烃的含量,脂肪烃的含量可差减得到。%Gas chromatography is now the primary analysis method for the coal liquefaction oil .However ,a simple and rapid quantification/qualification of the coal liquefaction oil can hardly be realized ,because the coal liquefaction oil is in a heterogeneous state with a long boiling range .The aim of this study was to establish a rapid and accurate method for the quantification of

  20. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  1. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Marcelo A; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K; Cypess, Aaron M; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-08-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.

  2. Supercritical Fluid Reactions for Coal Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles A. Eckert

    1997-11-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we developed a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as one model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was selected as a second model system, and it was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  3. Research Progress of CBM Liquefaction Technologies%煤层气液化技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文胜; 高婷; 席芳; 杜忠选; 顾安忠

    2011-01-01

    Liquefaction provides an efficient approach for better recovery and utilization of CBM (coal bed methane). For CBM with low methane content, methane enrichment has to be considered along with liquefaction, so the liquefaction technology is different from that for the ordinary natural gas. There are mainly two solutions for the liquefaction of CBM with low methane content: one is liquefaction at first and then concentrate methane via a distillation process; the other one is adopting an adsorption process firstly to concentrate methane and then liquefaction. For the former solution, researches for liquefaction processes suitable for small-scale CBM liquefaction plants, methane concentrate technologies by distillation, and integrated processes of liquefaction and distillation were introduced. For the latter one, researches for methane/nitrogen separation technologies by adsorption and integrated processes of adsorption and liquefaction were introduced. Furthermore, the heat transfer characteristics for CBM liquefaction processes as well as the cooling heat transfer characteristics for supercritical methane/nitrogen were also introduced.%煤层气液化是对其回收利用的有效途径.由于需要进行甲烷提浓,低浓度煤层气的液化技术与常规天然气有较大差别.主要技术方案包括先液化再精馏提浓甲烷的液化-精馏方案,以及先吸附分离提浓甲烷再进行液化的吸附-液化方案.对于前者,主要介绍了适合于煤层气小型液化装置的液化流程、甲烷精馏提纯工艺、整体化液化-精馏方案等方面的研究进展.对于后者,主要介绍了甲烷/氮吸附分离、整体化吸附-液化方案等方面的研究进展.此外,还介绍了煤层气液化过程传热特性、超临界甲烷/氮冷却换热等研究情况.

  4. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. These asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. Those coal-derived asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions will be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units in the United States. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions. The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  5. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. The asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. These coal-derived asphaltene and preashpaltene fractions will then be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions.The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  6. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Elucidation of hydrogen mobility in tetralin under coal liquefaction conditions using a tritium tracer method. Effects of the addition of H2S and H2O; Tritium tracer ho wo mochiita sekitan ekika hanno jokenka deno tetralin no suiso idosei hyoka. Ryuka suiso oyobi mizu no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, M.; Saito, M.; Ishihara, A.; Kabe, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously reported that the tritium tracer method is useful for the quantitative consideration of hydrogen behavior in coal during coal liquefaction reaction. Tetralin is excellent hydrogen donating solvent, and is considered as one of the model compounds of coal. In this study, effects of H2S and H2O on the hydrogen exchange reaction between tetralin and gaseous hydrogen labeled by tritium were investigated. It was suggested that the conversion of tetralin and the hydrogen exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and tetralin proceed through the radical reaction mechanism with a tetralyl radical as an intermediate product. When H2S existed in this reaction, the hydrogen exchange yield increased drastically without changing the conversion yield. This suggested that the hydrogen exchange reaction proceeds even in the reaction where radical does not give any effect. In the case of H2O addition, the conversion yield and hydrogen exchange rate decreased into a half or one-third. It was suggested that H2O inhibited the formation process of tetralyl radical. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  9. The natural gas liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, P.

    1996-03-01

    This work deals with the transport of natural gas and more particularly with the natural gas liquefaction. Indeed, the transport distances (several thousands of kilometers) and the existing seaways have incited to develop a marine transport chain: the liquefied natural gas is carried out at - 161 degrees Celsius in thermically isolated containers of methane tankers. The interest of liquefying the natural gas is that it allows to reduce a lot the storage containers (650 m{sup 3} of gas at the atmospheric pressure only gives 1 m{sup 3} at the liquid state). In this study, the main constituents of the natural gas are given. The different liquefaction plants which exist in the world are described. Two units types exist at present: the base load and the peak shaving units. The liquefaction processes are then explained (the Pictet cycles, the auto-refrigerated cascade cycle and the combined cycles). The liquid obtained from natural gas has then to be re-gasified before being distributed. The re-gasification processes are then given. The heat exchangers used in liquefaction or re-gasification plants equipment are cryogenic exchangers: they can run with very weak temperature variations and on a very large temperature range. They are compared into details. The important quantities of the cryogenic liquid that constitutes the natural gas liquid contain a considerable energetic potential. In order to recover this energy, several solutions have been elaborated, for instance in using as cold source the natural gas liquid under re-gasification. A cost estimation of a natural gas plant is given too. (O.M.). 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. An investigation of the effectiveness of blending (averaging) brown coal for state regional electric power plants (GRES). Issledovaniye effektivnosti usredneniya burykh ugley dlya GRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The variability of the ash content of coal effects the specific expenditure of fuel by a state regional electric power plant for producing electric power. The studies were conducted at the Aleksandriyskiy thermal power plant (TeTs) number three and at the Zaporozhye, Yermakovskiy and Nazarovskiy state regional thermal power plants. It is established that a reduction in the mean square deviation of the hourly volumes of coal from 3 to 0.5 leads to a savings of 3.2 to 3.8 percent of coal and 2.4 to 2.9 percent brown coal. Regression equations are acquired. Correlation factors are calculated which do not exceed 0.7 percent of the reliable association between indicators.

  11. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  12. Estimation of Population Size of Dentaria Enneaphyllos in the Vicinity of the Bełchatów Brown Coal Mine and the Attempt of its Metaplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurowski, Józef; Koczywąs, Ewelina; Pieńkowski, Michał

    2012-01-01

    The impact of anthropopressure on the flora in the vicinity of the Bełchatów Brown Coal Mine in Central Poland has been substantially strong. Consequently, certain changes in habitat conditions have been observed, leading to a decline in particular species stands. Mechanical damage, as well as the mine and power plant expansion have contributed to further species decline in the area. Ex situ conservation, e.g. metaplantation from native to secondary localities seems an efficient method of ens...

  13. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  14. Synfuels from coal - an environmentally sound approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.N. (Sasol Technology Ltd (South Africa))

    1991-01-01

    The Sasol oil from coal process is a two stage process in which indirect liquefaction is used to convert coal to synthesis gas which is then reacted in a second stage to produce hydrocarbon liquids. The process has been used for over 35 years, and has been advanced and modernized to provide almost the same degree of environmental friendliness as some of the new clean coal technologies. A further advantage of the production of transport fuels from coal is that all sulphur is removed prior to processing and the product petrol and diesel fuels are fully sulphur free. Sasol has now diversified into added value products, and today's coal refineries co-produce power, steam, fuel and chemicals from coal. 2 tabs.

  15. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  16. Coal damage mechanism in the developing process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-wei; HU Qian-ting; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the damage analysis of elliptical aperture, the mechanism of coal dam-age in the developing process of coal and gas outburst was researched. The results show that the damage to coal by gas is mainly caused by the concentrated tensile stress appearing near the endpoint of the pores. Fractures in coal, gas pressure, ground stress and the tensile strength of the coal matrix are the major controlling factors of this kind of damage. When the ground stress releases abruptly and the gas pressure is high, tensile failure will occur around the endpoint of the small pores due to gas pressure, and the coal may be broken up like pow-der; this is called pulverization. Otherwise, when the gas pressure is low, the tensile stress can only occur around the endpoint of the large pores and fractures due to gas pressure, the frac-tures in coal extend and link together, the fracture extension direction is statistically perpen-dicular to the direction of the minor principal stress. This kind of damage is shown as the strati-fied spall around the outburst hole.

  17. Polyphenolic Compound and the Degree of Browning in Processing Apple Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ye; YAO Yu-xin; ZHAI Heng; DU Yuan-peng; CHEN Feng; WEI Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    Polyphenolic compound in processing apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) varieties and the relationship between polyphenol content and enzymatic browning were studied to provide reference for raw material selection and processing method optimization. The content of polyphenol compound in 10 processing apple varieties (4 cider and 6 juice varieties) were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and HPLC. The degree of browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase were also studied. The content and proportion of the polyphenol varied depending on the variety. Bitter varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than sweet or acid varieties. Proanthocyanidins, chlorogenic acid,(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin were high-concentrated polyphenols in apple fruits. Phloridzin, the unique polyphenol of apple, was abundant in the bitter variety Frequin rouge fruit. Total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, (+)-catechin, and phloridzin had higher correlations with browning. The correlation was low between chlorogenic acid and browning. The polyphenolic profiles were correlated with the apple types. Cider apples contained more polyphenol than juice apple varieties. The content of flavan-3-ol has a close relationship with fruit browning.

  18. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  19. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  20. Experimental study of coal topping process in a downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.G.; Lu, X.S.; Yao, J.X.; Lin, W.G.; Cui, L.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Processing Engineering

    2005-02-02

    Experiments were carried out in a downer reactor integrated in a circulating fluidized bed combustor to examine the performance of the coal topping process. The effects of reaction temperature and coal particle size on the product distribution and their compositions were determined. The experimental results show that an increase in temperature will increase the yields of gas and liquid product, and the liquid yield decreases with the increase in coal particle size. The experiments exhibit an optimal condition for the liquid product. When the pyrolysis temperature is 660{sup o}C and coal particle size is less than 0.2-8 mm, the yield of light tar (hexane-soluble fraction) reaches 7.5 wt % (dry coal basis). The light tar is composed of acid groups (57.1 wt %), crude gasoline (aliphatics) (12.9 wt %), aromatics (21.4 wt %), and polar and basic groups (8.6 wt %). The experiments indicate that the coal topping process is a promising technology for partially converting coal into liquid fuels and fine chemicals.

  1. Use of once-through treat gas to remove the heat of reaction in solvent hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoff, Alan J.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein feed coal is contacted with molecular hydrogen and a hydrogen-donor solvent in a liquefaction zone to form coal liquids and vapors and coal liquids in the solvent boiling range are thereafter hydrogenated to produce recycle solvent and liquid products, the improvement which comprises separating the effluent from the liquefaction zone into a hot vapor stream and a liquid stream; cooling the entire hot vapor stream sufficiently to condense vaporized liquid hydrocarbons; separating condensed liquid hydrocarbons from the cooled vapor; fractionating the liquid stream to produce coal liquids in the solvent boiling range; dividing the cooled vapor into at least two streams; passing the cooling vapors from one of the streams, the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range, and makeup hydrogen to a solvent hydrogenation zone, catalytically hydrogenating the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range and quenching the hydrogenation zone with cooled vapors from the other cooled vapor stream.

  2. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiec, Jan P; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products. PMID:12509065

  3. Groundwater flowing the forefield of the CSA mine (North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin in the Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizka, L.; Halir, J. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin is home to one of the largest active open cast mines in the Czech Republic. Groundwater flow in the quaternary sediments is causing stability problems in the upper overburden at the mine. A 3-D geological model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the area. The lithological characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the mine were also considered in order to identify areas that may pose risks during the extraction of mineral resources. The simulation focused on the characterization of the quaternary and crystalline aquifer collectors located in the region of the mine. The study showed that groundwater flow is influenced by the configuration of the quaternary floor, as well as by the deposition and character of the basin sediments and crystalline rocks. The donation area corresponds with the mountain slopes. Groundwater flow is influenced by disruptions in the crystalline roof with quaternary sediments. The quaternary aquifer will be dewatered in order to ensure the future safety of the mine. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabrna, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s., Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Peleska, O. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. 褐煤与煤直接液化残渣共热解产物半焦性能研究%Properties of semi-coke from co-pyrolysis of lignite and direct liquefaction residue of Shendong coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 马江山; 薛艳利; 李文英

    2015-01-01

    为使煤直接液化残渣得到清洁高效再利用,采用常压固定床反应器,对神东煤直接液化残渣与呼伦贝尔褐煤共热解制取的半焦进行了研究。结合扫描电镜、N2-吸附、X射线衍射、拉曼光谱以及热重分析发现,共热解过程中存在的软化熔融现象导致液化残渣与褐煤相互黏结,共热解半焦比表面积与孔体积减小,半焦结构有序化程度增加。与褐煤单独热解半焦相比,共热解半焦CO2气化反应性能低。%In order to make use of coal direct liquefaction residue efficiently, co-pyrolysis of Hulunbuir lignite and direct liquefaction residue ( DLR) of Shendong coal were conducted in a fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The physicochemical properties of co-pyrolysis semi-coke were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that DLR semi-coke and lignite semi-coke are cohered each other, because the DLR is softened and melted during co-pyrolysis. The specific surface area and pore volume of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decrease. Characterization of both XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the order degree of co-pyrolysis semi-coke increases with the addition of DLR. Compared with the lignite semi-coke, the CO2 gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decreases.

  6. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i. e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical intermediate. In this paper, these novel chemical looping gasification processes are described and their advantages and potential challenges for commercialization are discussed.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  8. Part 1. Approaches to the total synthesis of the diterpene marrubin. Part II. Ligand assisted nucleophilic additions. Part III. Coal processing in a non-dissolving medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscombe, J.; Charles, W. II

    1987-01-01

    The total synthesis of the diterpene marrubiin was attempted using methodology previously developed in the Liotta laboratories. Ligand Assisted Nucleophilic Additions (LANA) comprise a new class of synthetic reactions involving the stereoselective addition of some group, usually in an intramolecular conjugate fashion. This group is itself derived from an earlier nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl moiety. Exchange of the original metal of the alkoxide with a second metal (which must be at least divalent) having a transferrable group demands that the stereochemistry of the first addition control the second. The general features of these types of processes are discussed. Initial work with substituted quinones is presented, and some mechanistic rationales are given. A novel method of coal processing at modest temperatures and hydrogen pressures (250-300/sup 0/C, 8.0 MPa) is discussed. Coals reacted with small amounts of tetrahydroquinoline in the presence of fluorocarbons or other non-dissolving media underwent astounding increases in pyridine solubility, a common standard in coal liquefaction studies. Several additives were employed, although only tetrahydroquinoline was found to effectively increase coal solubility. Coals having vastly different individual properties behaved similarly under these conditions. Kinetic and model studies were used in an attempt to clarify the reactions occurring under these novel conditions.

  9. Cavitation-wear Coupling Research on the Hydraulic Control Valve in Coal Liquefaction High Temperature and Pressure Separator%煤液化热高分液控阀空蚀磨损耦合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎; 郑智剑; 肖定浩; 偶国富

    2013-01-01

    采用煤液化热高分液控阀的实际操作条件、工艺介质和结构特性,基于两相空化流动方程、Lagrangian固体颗粒控制方程和RNG k-ε湍流模型,开展空蚀和磨损的耦合计算。计算结果表明:在阀芯的出口处,由于流速降低导致的分离现象,会出现回流区和空化带;在阀芯和阀座的间隙处,由于局部压力降低至液相的饱和蒸汽压以下,阀芯壁面存在明显的空化区域,易发生空蚀;阀座的近壁面存在高速固体颗粒的团聚现象,易发生磨损。实际失效案例与数值计算的结果基本一致,验证了数值计算的可靠性。%According to the actual operating conditions ,process medium and structural properties of hydraulic control valve in coal liquefaction high temperature and pressure separator ,the cavitation-wear coupling calculation was carried out based on the two-phase cavitating flowing equation ,lagrangian solid particles control equation and RNG k -ε turbulence model .The results showed that:the recirculation and cavitation region was formed in the outlet of the valve piston because of the flowing separation induced by the decreasing of flow rate;In the gap between the valve seat and piston ,due to the local pressure is reduced to lower than the saturation vapor pressure of the liquid ,the obvious cavitation region appeared in the wall of the valve piston and the cavi-tation erosion is prone to occur;the wear is also prone to happen for the agglomeration phenomenon of the high speed solid parti -cles near the wall of the valve seat .The actual failure case is basically in accordance with the numerical simulation results ,the re-liability of the calculation is verified .

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  11. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  12. Environmental and technical aspects of the utilization of SRC, AFBC, and low-Btu coal gasification in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.A.; Brown, C.D.; Hamilton, R.W.; Habegger, L.J.

    1978-10-01

    The decreasing availability of oil and natural gas has stimulated the search for industrial coal-utilization methods that are alternatives to conventional coal combustion. Three such alternative methods discussed in this report are solvent refined coal (SRC-I), atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), and low-Btu coal gasification. Clean low-Btu gas and SRC may have several nonboiler industrial applications. In contrast to conventional coal combustion, use of these fuels has the potential for reduced environmental impact at the industrial plant site, although the impact of coal mining and transportation will be higher. The impact of coal gasification and liquefaction on occupational health and safety will cause the greatest concern.

  13. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  14. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  15. Bare face red-brown bricks manufactured with fly ash from the Narcea (Asturias Coal Power Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesta, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, from the Coal Power Plant of Narcea (Asturias, has been used to determine its possible use as a raw material in the bare face red-brown brick manufacture. The correct mould of a ceramic material demands a paste with an adequate plasticity. So, the optimum compositions of humidity, lubricant (talc and binder (white dextrin have been investigated. The samples were made by compressing paste into a mould using varying values of pressure and boiling temperature once the cooling speed had been established. Finally, the cooked pieces were submitted to trials demanded by the Basic Construction Norm, to see if they met the required specifications concerning Water Absorption, Suction, Contraction, Resistance to Freezing, Efflorescence and Compressive Strength.

    Se caracterizan las cenizas volantes de la Central Térmica del Narcea (Asturias para determinar su utilización como materia prima en la obtención de ladrillos cara vista. El moldeo correcto de una pieza cerámica exige trabajar una pasta con una adecuada plasticidad, para ello se investiga cuál ha de ser la composición óptima de la misma, en cuanto a: humedad, cantidad de lubricante (talco y de ligante (dextrina blanca. El conformado de las piezas o ladrillos se realiza por prensado, utilizando distintos valores de presión, así como la temperatura de cocción, una vez establecida la velocidad de enfriamiento. Finalmente, las piezas cocidas se someten a los ensayos exigidos por la Norma Básica de Edificación, para ver si cumplen las especificaciones requeridas en cuanto a: Absorción de agua. Succión, Contracción, Heladicidad, Eflorescencia y Resistencia a la compresión.

  16. Investigation of processing properties of polyamide filled with hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to present the influence of contents and kind of hard coal used as powder filler on rheological properties (viscosity of polyamide 6.Design/methodology/approach: Preparation of composite of polyamide 6 with hard coal was carried out on laboratory twin screw extruder. Extruded composite was granulated and in this form was used for MFR analysis. Taking into account MFR results viscosity was calculated. The influence of filler content on viscosity was next searched.Findings: Results of research showed that addition of powdered hard coal to polyamide 6 matrix cause pronounced decrease of MFR index. In this way significant increase of viscous flow was observed. It is often observed phenomenon for polymer composite filled with powder materials.Research limitations/implications: It is necessary to carry out the research with surface modified hard coal with coupling agents which provide better adhesion of polymer matrix to filler.Practical implications: Hard coal used as a filler in composites makes it possible to gain new and cheaper polymeric materials with many possible applications.Originality/value: Investigation described in article shows possibility of hard coal application as innovatory filler of polymers. The influence of this filler on rheological properties indicate that processing of these new materials may be accompanied with some problems.

  17. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta/sup 13/C PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for Tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coal liquefaction from peat to Tertiary lignites and sub bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-Range/Degari coal field' in Baluchistan are attributed to the depositional environments. More sampling of stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  18. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  19. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process

  20. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.)

  1. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  2. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. 褐煤本源菌在煤层生物气生成中的微生物学特征%Performance of indigenous bacteria during the biogenic gas generation from brown coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宽; 秦勇

    2011-01-01

    为探明微生物菌群在褐煤生物气生成过程中的作用机制,利用厌氧手套箱为操作平台,从云南昭通盆地新鲜褐煤样品中富集培养本源产甲烷菌群,并通过褐煤生物气生成模拟实验,研究了产气过程中发酵细菌、产氢产乙酸菌数量和纤维素酶、辅酶F420活性的变化特征.结果表明:在生物气产生过程中,发酵细菌始终保持着较高活性(大于7.5×106个/mL),产氢产乙酸菌数量和增殖速率明显小于发酵细菌,但其数量变化趋势与发酵细菌相似,两者在营养生态位上显示出明显的承继关系;纤维素酶始终保持较高的活性(0.018~0.023mg/(mL.h));辅酶F420活性会受到产酸发酵菌所产生的酸性物质的抑制,其最低活性值为峰值的55.91%~67.61%;辅酶F420活性在褐煤生物气产出过程中经历了两个高峰期,指示着褐煤的煤层气生成过程具有阶段性.%In order to verify the functional mechanism of microbial community in biogenic gas generation progress from brown coal,we used anaerobic glove chamber as the experimental platform to enrich and cultivate active methanogen flora from freshly collected brown coal samples from Zhaotong basin,Yunnan Province,China.A simulating experiment of biogenic gas from brown coal was conducted with these indigenous bacteria.The amounts of fermentation and syntrophic acetogenic bacteria,and the activities of cellulase and coenzyme F420 were analyzed during the experiment.The results show that the fermentation bacteria kept quite active(≥7.5×106/mL) throughout the biogas generation process;and both the amount and breeding rate of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria were smaller than that of fermentation bacteria.But the amounts of both kinds of bacteria had the same changing trend,which shows significant inherited food chain-related relationship.The activities of cellulase remained fairly(0.018-0.023 mg/(mL·h));while those of coenzyme F420 could

  4. Liquefaction of crop residues for polyol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan, C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction of crop residues in the presence of ethylene glycol, ethylene carbonate, or polyethylene glycol using sulfuric acid as a catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 160C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of feedstock to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was 30:100. The results show that the acid catalyzed liquefaction process fit a pseudo-first-order kinetics model. Liquefaction yields of 80, 74, and 60% were obtained in 60 minutes of reaction when corn stover was liquefied with ethylene glycol, a mixture of polyethylene glycol and glycerol (9:1, w/w, and ethylene carbonate, respectively. When ethylene carbonate was used as solvent, the liquefaction yields of rice straw and wheat straw were 67% and 73%, respectively, which is lower than that of corn stover (80%. When a mixture of ethylene carbonate and ethylene glycol (8:2, w/w was used as solvent, the liquefaction yields for corn stover, rice straw and wheat straw were 78, 68, and 70%, respectively.

  5. Development of scientific and technological bases for application of brown coal semi coke in the technology of non- milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics is investigated, and the optimum temperature and time modes of carbonization of a briquetted silica fume batch- brown coal semi coke are defined. The complete carbonization of the batch in the conditions of heat treatment is achieved at a temperature of 1923 - 1973 K within 15 - 20 minutes. The conditions and indicators of the chemical enrichment of carbonization products are established. After enrichment, the carbide content is more than 90%. Silicon carbide micro-powder is obtained with a specific surface area 8000 - 9000 m2/kg.

  6. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2016-01-01

    inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually. The influences of the refrigerant properties and process technologies are analysed, and the most...

  7. The HTU process for biomass liquefaction: R and D strategy and potential business development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naber, J.E.; Goudriaan, F. [Biofuel B.V., Heemskerk (Netherlands); Wal, S. van der [Stork Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zeevalkink, J.A. [TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beld, B. van de [Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The HTU process offers excellent opportunities for conversion of biomass to a transportable form of energy with a heating value approaching that of fossil fuels. It converts biomass in liquid water at temperatures of about 300{sup o}C to a 'biocrude' that resembles the atmospheric distillate of crude oil. On the basis of research carried out in 1981-1988 in the Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam, technical and economic feasibility studies were completed in 1995-1997. They concluded that the process is potentially well placed in comparison with the main alternatives for biomass conversion. Main strengths are the (prospective) economics, processibility, of a wide variety of (wet) feedstocks, product quality and flexibility and the potential for upsealing and rapid rate of commercial development. A detailed R and D and business plan has been worked out and a consortium has been formed that started a 6 M US dollar R and D Project, supported by the Dutch Government, on November 1, 1997. The programme will run until mid-2000. Its purpose is the development of data for a reliable design of the first commercial applications. Preparatory project studies are underway to pursue opportunities in The Netherlands for a 10,000 tonne (dry basis) commercial demonstration, starting operation in 2001 or 2002. (author)

  8. Further development and commercialization of the Shell hydrothermal upgrading process for biomass liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naber, J.E.; Goudriaan, F. [Biofuel, Heemskerk (Netherlands); Louter, A.S. [Stork Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    Conversion of biomass to a transportable form of energy with a density approaching that of fossil fuels is a prerequisite for a viable strategy for large scale biomass conversion. The Shell Hydrothermal Upgrading (HTU) Process offers excellent opportunities for such a strategy. It converts biomass in liquid water at temperatures above 300 {sup o}C to a 'biocrude' which resembles fossil fuels. The process was studied in the Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam from 1981 till 1989, but the investigations were discontinued owing to low medium-term energy prices. In 1995 a technical and economic feasibility study concluded that, after an adequate period on the technical and commercial learning curve, and with further developments in biomass cultivation, biocrude can be produced for about 25 US dollars/bbl oil equivalent. The HTU process will therefore be able to compete with fossil fuel (and also with gasification and pyrolysis) in the not too distant future. A detailed development and business plan has now been worked out and a consortium is being formed to further develop and commercialize the HTU technology, targeting a first commercial demonstration in 2001/2002. (author)

  9. Numerical analysis on coal-breaking process under high pressure water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-hua Chen; Yun-pei Liang; Guo-qiang Cheng [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2009-09-15

    Based on the theory of nonlinear dynamic finite element, a control equation of coal and water jet was acquired in the coal breaking process under a water jet. A calculation model of coal breaking under a water jet was established; the fluid-structure coupling of water jet and coal was implemented by penalty function and convection calculation. The dynamic process of coal breaking under a water jet was simulated and analyzed by combining the united fracture criteria of the maximum tensile strain and the maximal shear strain in the two cases of damage to coal and damage failure to coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Numerical analysis on coal-breaking process under high pressure water jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-hua; LIANG Yun-pei; CHENG Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of nonlinear dynamic finite element, the control equation of coal and water jet was acquired in the coal breaking process under a water jet. The calcu-lation model of coal breaking under a water jet was established; the fluid-structure cou-pling of water jet and coal was implemented by penalty function and convection calculation. The dynamic process of coal breaking under a water jet was simulated and analyzed by combining the united fracture criteria of the maximum tensile strain and the maximal shear strain in the two cases of damage to coal and damage failure to coal.

  11. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  12. The certification of the gross calorific value and mass fractions of ash, C, H, N, S, Cl, major elements and trace elements in three coal materials: ERM®-EF411 (hard coal), ERM®-EF412 (brown coal) and ERM®-EF413 (furnace coke)

    OpenAIRE

    Linsinger, Thomas; Raffaelli, Barbara; OOSTRA Albert

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the production of ERM-EF411, ERM-EF412 and ERM-EF413, three coal materials certified for proximates and trace elements. The materials have been produced following ISO Guide 34:2009. Industial hard coal, brown coal and furnace coke were obtained, dried, milled (ERM-EF411 and ERM-EF413) and filled into aluminium laminated sachets. Between-unit homogeneity were quantified and stability during dispatch and storage were assessed in accordance with ISO Guide 35:2006. Wit...

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's experimental coal program: minimizing the hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III; Cochran, H.D.; Bolton, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    Many processing techniques for the liquefaction or gasification of coal are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere. Although different in many other respects, all coal conversion processes produce a liquid effluent comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Such mixtures invariably contain significant amounts of polycyclic, aromatic compounds, some of which are known to be highly active carcinogens. The underlying philosophy that has been adopted for the protection of personnel involved in experimental coal processing operations is defined, and procedures that have been instituted to govern the conduct of such experimental work and handling of associated coal-derived liquids are detailed.

  14. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbron, E; Larrinaga, A; Rustrian, E

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with a working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1) and 0.5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1). The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g x l(-1) respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD x l(-1) x d(-1) and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD x l(-1), and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH4 and 20% CO2. These results show that a humid coffee "Beneficio" processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH4 m3 x d(-1). This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a "Beneficio" using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater.

  15. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbron, E; Larrinaga, A; Rustrian, E

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with a working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1) and 0.5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1). The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g x l(-1) respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD x l(-1) x d(-1) and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD x l(-1), and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH4 and 20% CO2. These results show that a humid coffee "Beneficio" processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH4 m3 x d(-1). This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a "Beneficio" using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater. PMID:14640226

  16. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  17. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  18. Announcement concerning the promotion of research and development projects through the promotion scheme 'Environmental Research and Environmental Engineering' in the field of 'Rehabilitation and ecological design of the landscapes in brown coal mining areas of the new Laender'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMFT intends to promote research projects serving the rehabilitation and ecological re-design of the landscapes bordering the Lausitz and in the region of Leipzig and Halle as they present after the demise of brown coal mining. The following types of projects will be considered for promotion: recultivation projects; projects on environmentally benign design concepts for the landscapes left by mining; on techniques for the water-economical rehabilitation and rehabilitation of old deposits in the brown coal mining areas. Short presentations for project proposals can be submitted until 30 April 1994. (orig./HP)

  19. Watermanagement - related and ecological demands on brown-coal mining. A statement of position; Wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologische Forderungen fuer den Braunkohlenabbau. Positionspapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This statement of position aims to identify influences exerted before, during and after brown-coal open-pit mining activities and to assess them in general terms from a water-management and ecological viewpoint. The form chosen is that of individual, concise postulates. Each of these is followed by an explanation. To illustrate the great variety of potentially arising problems, the major German brown-coal mining districts Lausitz, eastern Germany, and Lower Rhine are dealt with. A particular characteristic of the eastern German and Lausitz mining districts is that as the demand structure abruptly collapsed early in the 90s, closures became necessary on a large scale without preparatory measures having been taken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem vorliegenden Positionspapier wurde der Versuch unternommen, die Beeinflussungen vor, waehrend und nach dem Abbau von Braunkohle im Tagebaubetrieb inhaltlich zu erfassen und aus wasserwirtschaftlich-oekologischer Sicht verallgemeinernd zu bewerten. Dabei ist die From einzelner kurzgefasster Forderungen gewaehlt worden. Jede dieser Forderungen ist durch eine Erlaeuterung untersetzt. Um die Vielfalt der auftretenden Probleme zu verdeutlichen, werden beispielhaft in einem Anhang die grossen deutschen Braunkohlenreviere in der Lausitz, in Mitteldeutschland und am Niederrhein vorgestellt. Fuer das Mitteldeutsche und das Lausitzer Revier ist besonders anzumerken, dass mit dem schlagartigen Zusammenbruch der Bedarfsstruktur am Anfang der 90er Jahre in grossem Umfang Stillegungen ohne entsprechende Vorarbeiten notwendig wurden. (orig.)

  20. Process for the extraction of thick coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, K.; Salamon, H.; Solymos, A.; Takacs, J.; Toth, I.

    1983-08-23

    There is disclosed a process for the extraction of thick coal seams by means of which coal seams not extractable in one bank or slice and/or located at peripheral areas may also be extracted under improved mine safety conditions and with high productivity. According to the invention the thick coal seam is if required, divided horizontally and/or vertically into extraction blocks which are bounded and separated by stowing pillars arranged according to the direction of advance of the extraction. The cavity of the pillars is advanced at a level higher than the level of the roof of the extraction space, after which the cavity of the pillar is back-filled. Then the block is extracted by means of block caving in a manner known per se. In a preferred embodiment of the invention incombustible material that agglomerates under the effect of the static pressure of the rock is used for stowing. The utilization of the process for extraction according to the invention results in a considerable increase of intensity. Whether the extraction is in one or more slices and whether using individual self-advancing supports, using track-bound or independent loading/conveyor equipment, an economic extraction of coal seams is achieved.

  1. Expect the unexpected: non-equilibrium processes in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarf atmosphere are a chemically extremely rich, one example being the formation of clouds driven by the phase-non-equilibrium of the atmospheric gas. Cloud formation modelling is an integral part of any atmosphere simulation used to interpret spectral observations of ultra-cool objects and to determine fundamental parameters like log(g) and Teff. This proceeding to the workshop 'GAIA and the Unseen: The Brown Dwarf Question' first summarizes what a model atmosphere simulation is, and then advocates two ideas: A) The use of a multitude of model families to determine fundamental parameters with realistic confidence interval. B) To keep an eye on the unexpected, like for example, ionisation signatures resulting plasma processes

  2. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  3. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  4. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  5. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  6. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  7. Comparative cost estimates of five coal utilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Detailed capital and operating cost estimates were prepared for the generation of electric power in a new, net 500 MW (e), coal-burning facility by five alternative processes: conventional boiler with no control of SO/sub 2/ emissions, atmospheric fluidized bed steam generator (AFB), conventional boiler equipped with a limestone FGD system, conventional boiler equipped with magnesia FGD system, and coal beneficiation followed by a conventional boiler quipped with limestone FGD for part of the flue gas stream. For a coal containing 3.5% sulfur, meeting SO/sub 2/ emission limits of 1.2 pounds per million Btu fired was most economical with the limestone FGD system. This result was unchanged for a coal containing 5% sulfur; however, for 2% sulfur, limestone FGD and AFB were competitive methods of controlling SO/sub 2/ emissions. Brief consideration of 90% reduction of SO/sub 2/ emissions led to the choice of limestone FGD as the most economical method. Byproduct credit for the sulfuric acid produced in regenerating the magnesia could make that system competitive with the limestone FGD system, depending upon local markets. The cost of sludge fixation and disposal would make limestone FGD noneconomic in many situations, if these steps are necessary.

  8. Hydration process in Portland cement blended with activated coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-ping LIU; Pei-ming WANG; Min-ju DING

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydration of a blend of Portland cement and activated coal gangue in order to determine the relationship between the degree of hydration and compressive strength development.The hydration process was investigated by various means:isothermal calorimetry,thermal analysis,non-cvaporable water measurement,and X-ray diffraction analysis.The results show that the activated coal gangue is a pozzolanic material that contributes to the hydration of the cement blend.The pozzolanic reaction occurs over a period of between 7 and 90 d,consuming portlandite and forming both crystal hydrates and ill-crystallized calcium silicate hydrates.These hydrates are similar to those found in pure Portland cement.The results show that if activated coal gangue is substituted for cement at up to 30% (w/w),it does not significantly affect the final compressive strength of the blend.A long-term compressive strength improvement can in fact be achieved by using activated coal gangue as a supplementary cementing material.The relationship between compressive strength and degree of hydration for both pure Portland cement and blended cement can be described with the same equation.However,the parameters are different since blended cement produces fewer calcium silicate hydrates than pure Portland cement at the same degree of hydration.

  9. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  10. Hydrothermal liquefaction of freshwater and marine algal biomass: A novel approach to produce distillate fuel fractions through blending and co-processing of biocrude with petrocrude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, Melcureraj; Meenakshisundaram, Arunachalam; Renganathan, Sahadevan; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Lewis, David Milton; Nallasivam, Jaganathan; Bhaskar, Sailendra

    2016-03-01

    Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels. PMID:26735877

  11. Study on the formation mechanism of shock wave in process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-ling; MIAO Fa-tian; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    According to the research results of motion parameters of coal-gas flow, ana-lyzed the formation mechanism of shock waves at different states of coal-gas flow in the process of coal and gas outburst, and briefly described the two possible cases of outburst shock wave formation and their formation conditions in the process of coal and gas out-burst, and then pointed out that a high degree of under-expanded coal-gas flow was the main reason for the formation of a highly destructive shock wave. The research results improved the shock wave theory in coal and gas outburst.

  12. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  13. 煤直接液化生成油沸腾床加氢处理催化剂的研发%Research and Development of Fluidized Bed Hydroprocessing Catalyst in Generating Oil by Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁明

    2012-01-01

    A kind of ebullated-bedreactor catalyst for hydrotreating heavier distillate from direct coal liquefaction productswas developed. The catalyst hasthe advantages of strength, abrasion resistance,activities of hydrodesulphurization, hydrodenitrogenation, hydrodearomatics and stability by adding 3-8w% of alumina-fibre.%为了进一步完善煤直接液化技术,研究开发了适用于煤直接液化生成油沸腾床加氢处理的催化剂。本催化剂的特点是在常规加氢催化剂中引入了氧化铝纤维组分,氧化铝纤维组分在催化剂中的含量为3w%。8w%。本催化剂具有好的机械强度和抗磨性能,并且其加氢脱硫、脱氮、芳烃饱和活性高,是一种较好的煤直接液化生成油沸腾床加氢处理催化剂。

  14. Micro-CT experimental of the thermal cracking of brown coal%褐煤热破裂的显微CT实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟巧荣; 赵阳升; 胡耀青; 冯增朝; 徐素国

    2011-01-01

    Using μCT225kVFCB high precision micro-CT system and a small moveable argon furnace, thermal cracking of brown coal from Pingzhuang mining in Inner Mongolia municipality was studied under different temperature.The results show that for brown coal,the big cracks( >800 μm) occupy leading position at about 100 ℃ ,the medium cracks ( 100 ~ 400 μm) are more important than others at about 200 ℃, the micro-cracks ( < 100 μm)become dominant above 300 ℃ ;threshold temperature of thermal cracking is 300 ℃, more or less;when temperature is lower than 300 ℃, the formation and evolution of crack and pore result mostly from thermal cracking, above 300 ℃, micro-cracks and pores produce mainly because coal pyrolysis produce and release oil gas, and turn coal skeleton into char gradually with temperature.%采用μCT25kVFCB型高精度显微CT试验系统并配以微型气氛炉,研究了内蒙古平庄褐煤热破裂随温度的变化关系.研究结果表明,褐煤在l00℃左右时,大裂隙(>800μm)占主导地位;200℃左右时,中等裂隙(100~400μm)占主导地位;300℃之后微裂隙(<100μm)占主导地位;热破裂的阈值为300℃左右;在300℃之前孔隙裂隙的产生发展主要是因为热破裂,300℃之后,微裂隙和孔隙的产生主要是因为煤体发生热解化学反应,油气逸出,固体骨架逐渐转变为半焦体.

  15. Review of the study ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast'' from the perspective of brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2014 the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) published an expertise prepared by the EWI, GWS and Prognos institutes entitled ''Development of the energy markets - energy reference forecast''. This study presents probable developments in the energy economy up to the year 2030 (reference forecast) on the assumption of a yet more stringent energy and climate protection policy as well as continuing impediments to its implementation. Complementing the forecast is an outlook up to the year 2050 (scenario of trends). But what do the findings of this expertise say about the future utilization of Germany's greatest domestic energy resource, namely brown coal? This question is addressed in the following article.

  16. Changes in char reactivity due to char-oxygen and char-steam reactions using Victorian brown coal in a fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Yonggang Luo; Chunzhu Li; Yonggang Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study was to examine the influence of reactions of char–O2 and char–steam on the char reactivity evolution. A newly-designed fixed-bed reactor was used to conduct gasification experiments using Victorian brown coal at 800 °C. The chars prepared from the gasification experiments were then collected and subjected to reactivity characterisation (ex-situ reactivity) using TGA (thermogravimetric analyser) in air. The results indicate that the char reactivity from TGA was generally high when the char experienced intensive gasification reactions in 0.3%O2 in the fixed-bed reactor. The addition of steam into the gasification not only enhanced the char conversion sig-nificantly but also reduced the char reactivity dramatical y. The curve shapes of the char reactivity with involve-ment of steam were very different from that with O2 gasification, implying the importance of gasifying agents to char properties.

  17. Organic geochemistry and coal petrology of Tertiary brown coal in the Zhoujing mine, Baise Basin, South China -4. Biomarker sources inferred from stable isotope compositions of individual compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoell, M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Wang, T.-G. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

    Carbon isotopic compositions of extractable compounds derived from higher land plants are with [+-]2[per thousand] of the bulk coal ([delta][sup 13]C -27.0[per thousand]) from Baise Basin. This data suggests that either similar species contributed these compounds or that the plants from which this coal was formed imposed similar biosynthetic fractionations. The terpenoid hydrocarbons form two isotopically distinct groups: the diterpenoids ([delta][sup 13]C 2.50 [+-] 1.4[per thousand]) and the sesquiterpenoids ([delta][sup 13]C 25.9 [+-] 1.5[per thousand]) are on average 1-2[per thousand] enriched in [sup 13]C compared to the bulk coal, whereas the oleanane-ursane-lupane derivatives ([delta][sup 13]C 29.0 [+-] 0.8[per thousand]) are on average 1-2[per thousand] depleted in [sup 13]C compared to the bulk coal. The n-alkanes, ranging from C[sub 15] to C[sub 35], have a mean [delta][sup 13]C value of -32.4 [+-] 0.6[per thousand], whereby averages for the C[sub 17]-C[sub 22] and C[sub 23]-C[sub 33] n-alkanes do not significantly differ from the overall average. Hopane derivatives in this coal extract are depleted in [sup 13]C compared to the bulk coal by 8-34[per thousand] suggesting that bacterial cycling of methane played a role during formation of this coal. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Experimental simulation and numerical analysis of coal spontaneous combustion process at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文虎; 徐精彩; 葛岭梅

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of coal spontaneous, combustion includes oxidative property and exothermic capacity. It can really simulate the process of coal spontaneous combustion to use the large-scale experimental unit loading coal ! 000 kg. According to the field change of gas concentration and coal temperature determined through experiment of coal self-ignite at low temperature stage, and on the basis of hydromechanics and heat-transfer theory, some parameters can be calculated at different low temperature stage, such as, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation intensity. It offers a theoretic criterion for quantitatively analyzing characteristic of coal self-ignite and forecasting coal spontaneous combustion. According to coal exothermic capability and its thermal storage surroundings, thermal equilibrium is applied to deduce the computational method of limit parameter of coal self-ignite. It offers a quantitative theoretic criterion for coal self-ignite forecasting and preventing. According to the measurement and test of spontaneous combustion of Haibei coal, some token parameter of Haibei coal,spontaneous combustion is quantitatively analyzed, such as, spontaneous combustion period of coal, critical temperature, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation intensity, and limit parameter of coal self-ignite.

  19. Experimental simulation and numerical analysis of coal spontaneous combustion process at low temperature*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hu; XU Jing-cai; GE Ling-mei

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of coal spontaneous combustion includes oxidative p roperty and exothermic capacity. It can really simulate the process of coal spon taneous combustion to use the large-scale experimental unit loading coal 1 000 kg. According to the field change of gas concentration and coal temperature determi ned through experiment of coal self-ignite at low temperature stage, and on the basis of hydromechanics and heat-transfer theory, some parameters can be calcul at ed at different low temperature stage, such as, oxygen consumption rate, heat li beration intensity. It offers a theoretic criterion for quantitatively analyzing characteristic of coal self-ignite and forecasting coal spontaneous combustion . According to coal exothermic capability and its thermal storage surroundings, t hermal equilibrium is applied to deduce the computational method of limit parame ter of coal self-ignite. It offers a quantitative theoretic criterion for coal s elf-ignite forecasting and preventing. According to the measurement and test of spontaneous combustion of Haibei coal, some token parameter of Haibei coal spont aneous combustion is quantitatively analyzed, such as, spontaneous combustion pe riod of coal, critical temperature, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation int ensity, and limit parameter of coal self-ignite.

  20. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  1. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  2. An optimal design methodology for large-scale gas liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Configuration selection and parametric optimization carried out simultaneously for gas liquefaction systems. ► Effective Heat Transfer Factor proposed to indicate the performance of heat exchanger networks. ► Relatively high exergy efficiency of liquefaction process achievable under some general assumptions. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimization methodology for thermodynamic design of large scale gas liquefaction systems. Such a methodology enables configuration selection and parametric optimization to be implemented simultaneously. Exergy efficiency and genetic algorithm have been chosen as an evaluation index and an evaluation criterion, respectively. The methodology has been applied to the design of expander cycle based liquefaction processes. Liquefaction processes of hydrogen, methane and nitrogen are selected as case studies and the simulation results show that relatively high exergy efficiencies (52% for hydrogen and 58% for methane and nitrogen) are achievable based on very general consumptions.

  3. CO2 GASIFICATION REACTIVITY OF BROWN COAL CHAR%一种褐煤热解煤焦的CO2气化反应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范冬梅; 张海霞; 朱治平; 吕清刚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the step utilization of brown coal pyrolysis, partial gasification, and residual carbon combustion, a brown coal from Shigouyi Coal Mine in Ningxia was chosen as research object to produce the rapid and slow coal chars at temperature of 700 ℃-950 ℃ in a hori- zontal tube furnace. The effect of pyrolysis conditions on carbon microcrystal structure and BET surface area of chars was investigated. The carbon dioxide gasification reactivity was analyzed by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric technology, and different evolution indexes were used to characterize the reactivity of chars. It is found that the gasification rate of Shigouyi chars increases by more than 50% with the temperature increasing by 50 ℃. When the pyrolysis temperature rises, the carbon microcrystal structure of coal chars becomes more orderly and the BET surface area decreases. However, the gasification reactivity is mainly controlled by gasification temperature. The gasification reactivity of rapid pyrolyzed coal char is better than that of slow pyrolyzed coal char, and the difference between them become greater as gasification temperature rises. Average specific reaction rates of both rapid and slow pyrolyzed chars have a linear relationship with reaction index.%针对褐煤的热解-部分气化-残炭燃烧梯级利用工艺,以宁夏石沟驿褐煤为原料,采用水平管式炉在700℃~950℃温度范围内分别制备快速和慢速热解煤焦,考察了煤焦微晶结构和比表面积随制焦条件的变化.利用热重-质谱联用技术研究煤焦CO2气化反应特性,并采用不同评价指标对煤焦气化活性进行了表征.结果表明:气化温度每升高50℃,煤焦CO2气化反应速率增加50%以上;热解温度升高,虽然煤焦微晶结构的有序化程度加深,比表面积减小,但煤焦CO2气化反应活性主要受气化温度影响;快速热解煤焦的CO2气化反应活性高于慢速热解煤焦,二者的差异随着气化温度升

  4. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  5. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  7. Sensitivity problems of control system of coal preparation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaula Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of technological processes of coal preparation takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. No less important problem in the control process is the tuning of the controller parameters. In the paper the analysis of influence of changes in object model parameters on the course of the controlled value was carried out. For the controller settings, calculated according to model parameters research was carried out on object with other values of parameters. In the studies a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning PI controller for control systems of coal preparation processes characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay was presented. Considerations were performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of the set point. The assessment of the considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality was realized.

  8. Activity of enzymes associated with the enzymatic browning of minimally processed potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Dario Vitti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different potato cultivars and storage temperatures on the specific activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD in minimally processed potatoes. Potato cultivars Agata, Asterix and Monalisa were selected, washed, peeled, diced, sanitized, centrifuged, vacuum- packed and stored at 5 and 15°C for 9 and 5 days, respectively. There was an increase in the enzymatic activity in all the cultivars stored at 15°C. The cultivars 'Agata' and 'Asterix' stored at 5ºC did not differ significantly between them for the PAL, PPO and POD activities. The PAL, PPO and POD activities were also influenced by the storage temperature. The cultivars Agata and Asterix were more suitable in minimal processing than 'Monalisa', which was more susceptible to oxidative browning.

  9. On the constitutionality of subsidizing regimes for energy sources. Part 2. First the ``coal penny``, then the ``wind penny``, and now perhaps the ``brown coal penny`` to support brown coal mining in eastern Germany?; Zur Verfassungsmaessigkeit energiewirtschaftlicher Subventionsregime. T. 2. Vom ``Kohlepfennig`` ueber den ``Windpfennig`` zum ``ostdeutschen Braunkohlepfennig``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, H.J.; Peilert, A.

    1999-10-01

    While the first part of this review discusses the so-called ``coal penny`` tax and the act for enhanced use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (StrEG) as one of the subsidizing and financing models of the German legislator, this second part deals with the `protection of interest clause` laid down in the recent German legislation for reform of the energy industry law in compliance with European open energy market directives. This clause is intended to protect to a certain extent the brown coal mining industry and the electric power industry in the eastern federal states of Germany from the harsh winds of competition in the liberalized German and European energy market. Those states have been making tremendous efforts after the German re-unification to catch up with modern standards in the energy sector, and the Government wishes to prevent the considerable investments made in those states from becoming ``stranded investments``. The analysis examines economic, political, and legal aspects of the legislative intent and the subsidizing schemes of the German government with regard to the question of whether such shift of financial burden from the public to the private sector is in compliance with constitutional law. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Nachdem im Teil 1 der sog. ``Kohlepfennig`` und die Verguetungsregelung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien als Formen der Subventionierung diskutiert wurden, befasst sich der 2. Teil der Abhandlung mit der Verfassungsmaessigkeit der Schutzklausel zugunsten der ostdeutschen Braunkohle. Diese Schutzklausel ist erstmals im Gesetz zur Neuregelung des Energiewirtschaftsrechts enthalten und soll der Stromwirtschaft in den neuen Bundeslaendern einen gewissen Schutz gegen Verdraengungswettbewerb im liberalisierten Energiemarkt gewaehren, u.a. auch um die erst vor kurzem getaetigten hohen Investitionen in neue Stromerzeugungs- und Verteilungsanlagen in den oestlichen Bundeslaendern davor zu

  10. Conversion of the compensation measures for the utilization of a FFH area of the brown coal open mining Cottbus North; Umsetzung der Kompensationsmassnahmen fuer die Inanspruchnahme eines FFH-Gebietes durch den Braunkohletagebau Cottbus-Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstgraser, Christoph [gerstgraser - Ingenieurbuero fuer Renaturierung, Cottbus (Germany); Arnold, Ingolf; Dingethal, Heidemarie [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the year 1981, the open mining Cottbus-North (Brandenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) produces brown coal. Presently, 5 million tons of brown coal are produced. This brown coal is used in the power generation at the coal-fired power station Jaenschwalde. Within this area of mining there is the pond's group Lakoma. This pond's group consisted of 22 ponds with a total area of 69 ha. These ponds served for breeding of fishes and accommodated protected animal species. In December 2003, the pond's group Lakoma was suggested as a FFH area by the country Brandenburg. With the planning approval procedure for waters, a FFH area was completely eliminated in the approach of an open mining. A licensing procedure came to the result that a removal of these ponds was permissible with consideration of the public interest, if a reconciliation for the plants and animals is carried out. These compensation measures were realized within short time. Thus the open mining Cottbus-North could be continued according to plan.

  11. Swelling and shrinkage behavior of raw and processed coals during pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhixin Fu; Zhancheng Guo; Zhangfu Yuan; Zhi Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Laboratory of Multiphase Reactions, Institute of Process Engineering

    2007-02-15

    Direct observation of transient swelling and shrinkage behavior of raw coals and processed coals was conducted by using a digital camera with a long focus lens, and quantitative description of swelling and shrinkage was resulted from subsequent image processing. The results showed that the raw and processed coals in pyrolysis behaved differently. The shrinkage of the processed coals was quite different, the maximum volumetric shrinkage ratio at 1000{sup o}C as in the range of 32-38% with swelling ratios less than 5%, and the volumetric swelling ratio increased and the shrinkage ratio decreased with the increase of coal sample density. The maximum volumetric swelling ratio of the raw coals was more prominent than those of the processed coals. The raw coal A{sub 2} showed a maximum swelling ratio of 20-85% and the raw coal B{sub 2} showed a maximum swelling ratio of 25-45%. The volumetric swelling ratios decreased and the shrinkage increased with the decrease of the sample size. It is considered that the different pyrolysis behaviors were mainly due to the variation in their macroscopic structures. However, the similar swelling and shrinkage curves of coal samples were observed for the same raw or processed coals. In addition, the effect of volatile matter on the volumetric shrinkage ratios would be weakened if the raw coal was crushed into powder and then pressed into processed coal samples. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that the structure of coke after pyrolysis was also different. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Biodesulfurization of Malaysian coals using mixed microbial cultures in batch and continuous processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafpour, G.D.; Azizan, A.; Harun, A. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The determination of chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable to grown on coal with high sulfur content, made it possible to develop mixed culture processes for coal desulfurization. The ability of the microbial cultures to metabolize different sulfur compounds originated from coal in the range of 3-5% sulfur, were demonstrated in batch experimental stage. Biodesulfurization of coal as suspended solid coal particles were carried out in a broth media for coal content of 1-5% solid. Four species of microbial culture were grown on coal and acclimated for optimal growth. The coal samples obtained from Malaysian coal mine with 2-5% of sulfur content were used in batch and continuous cultures experiments. The microbial cultures were used to reduce pyrite sulfur, inorganic sulfur content of coal. The culture isolated from pharmaceutical wastewater shown that more than 80% of sulfur content of coal was reduced. The growth of microorganisms on coal shown that maximum solid content of 5% was tolerable maximum grow on 3% coal shown high cell density. Nutrient media with acidic PH value of 3-4 was required for growth of Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Thiobacillus fierrooxidans. The growth was limited at PH = 2 but at PH 3-4 growth was stimulated. Phosphate buffer was used with coal solution to monitor the PH. The PH was initially adjusted but was not controlled during the period of incubation. An optimum PH for Thiobacillus species with maximum desulfuriation was 2.65. High coal content about 10% was shown that bacterial was unable to grow. The cell dry weight, cell optical density and sulfur content of coal samples using TGA and elemental analyzer were conducted for all experiments. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  14. The small natural gas liquefaction process using liquid nitrogen%利用液氮冷能的小型天然气液化流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗和; 郭汇江; 王卫晓; 纪超

    2013-01-01

    In order to simplify the refrigerating equipment of small - scale natural gas liquefaction process and increase the product yield rate, a natural gas liquefaction process with distillation using the cold energy of liquid nitrogen was designed so that the liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the liquefied petrol gas (LPG) could be gotten at the same time in this technology. The HYSYS software was adapted to simulate the process; P - R equation was selected to calculate the phase equilibrium properties of the natural gas. The process is optimized through the objective function that is the minimum power consumption in obtaining unit quality LNG production. The simulative calculation of the small scale LNG project achieved the key node parameters and the column operation condition. The load and temperature distribution in heat exchanger were analyzed. The results indicate that operating pressure of the tower has a great influence on the purity of the product, large temperature difference and heat exchange load are the primary reasons of exergy loss in heat exchangers, and the LNG recovery rate is over 90%.%为了简化小型天然气液化流程中的制冷装置,增加产品的收益率,设计了一种利用液氮冷能且带精馏的天然气液化流程,在得到液化天然气(LNG)的同时得到液化石油气(LPG).采用HYSYS软件对流程进行模拟,选取P-R方程计算天然气气液相平衡特性,以生产单位质量的LNG耗功最小为目标函数进行优化,得到了关键节点参数,主要分析了塔内工作状况和换热器管路的热负荷分布情况.结果表明:塔的操作压力对产品纯度影响很大,换热器过大的温差和负荷造成了主要的(火用)损失,LNG回收率大于90%.

  15. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiangyun; Wu, Shiyong; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai

    2013-12-01

    The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

  17. Study of methanol-to-gasoline process for production of gasoline from coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Tian-cai; CHENG Xiao-han; LI Ling; MENG Guo-ying

    2009-01-01

    The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process is an efficient way to produce liquid fuel.The academic basis of the coal-to-liquid process is described and two different syn-thesis processes are focused on: Fixed MTG process and Fluid Bed MTG process.Then,the superiority of the Fluid Bed MTG Process is pointed out relative to the Fixed MTG Process.In addition,the development of the coal-to-liquid technique in China is briefly summarized.

  18. Mechanical/thermal dehydration - a new process for treatment of peat and coal; Mechanisch/Thermische Entwaesserung - ein neues Verfahren zur Veredelung von Torf und Kohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergins, C.; Berger, S.; Strauss, K. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany); Elsen, R.O. [RWE Energie, Essen (Germany); Erken, M. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Bielfeldt, F.B. [Dieffenbacher, Eppingen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In order to keep German brown coal competitive, new technologies for enhanced efficiency of power generation from brown coal were developed in the past few years. At a water content of 50-60 percent by weight, much energy is lost for evaporation. Reduction of the water content will incur a 5 percent effiency enhancement. A new process was developed at Dortmund university, i.e. mechanical/thermal dehydration in which the water contained in brown coal is removed by heat and mechanical pressure. The process is described, and its applicability for other moist fuels, e.g. peat or waste from the paper and wood processing industry ist discussed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Damit Braunkohle in Deutschland als heimischer und subventionsfreier Energietraeger diesen Stellenwert behaupten und in Zukunft weiter ausbauen kann, wurde in den letzten Jahren verstaerkt die Entwicklung neuer Technologien zur Effizienzsteigerung der Braunkohleverstromung vorangetrieben. Bei der Verbrennung von Braunkohlen mit Wassergehalten von 50-60 Gew.-% ist in herkoemmlichen Kraftwerken ein erheblicher Teil des Energieinhaltes zur Verdampfung des Wassers mit Hilfe von heissen Rauchgasen in sogenannten Mahltrockungsanlagen erforderlich. Durch eine energetisch guenstige Reduzierung des Wassergehaltes vor der Verbrennung sind hier Wirkungsgradsteigerungen um bis zu 5 Prozentpunkte moeglich. Ein neues, fuer diese Aufgabenstellung einsetzbares Verfahren ist das am Lehrstuhl Energieprozesstechnik und Stroemungsmechanik der Universitaet Dortmund entwickelte Mechanisch/Thermische Entwaesserungsverfahren (MTE-Verfahren). Durch die kombinierte Anwendung von Waerme und mechanischem Druck laesst sich das in der Kohle enthaltene Wasser in fluessiger Form entfernen. Neben der Darstellung des MTE-Verfahrens am Beispiel von Braunkohle soll im folgenden auch auf die Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung des Verfahrens fuer andere feuchte Brennstoffe wie Torf und Abfaelle aus der Papier- und Holzverarbeitung eingegangen werden

  19. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  20. Self-organized criticality of liquefaction in saturated granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱祥; 孙业志; 李青松

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing the dissipative structure theory, the evolutionary process of vibrating liquefaction in saturatedgranules was analyzed. When the irreversible force increases to some degree, the system will be in a state far fromequilibrium, and the new structure probably occurs. According to synergetics, the equation of liquefaction evolutionwas deduced, and the evolutionary process was analyzed by dynamics. The evolutionary process of vibrating lique-faction is a process in which the period doubling accesses to chaos, and the fluctuation is the original driving force ofsystem evolution. The liquefaction process was also analyzed by fractal geometry. The steady process of vibratingliquefaction obeys the scaling form, and shows self-organized criticality in the course of vibration. With the incre-ment of the recurrence number, the stress of saturated granules will decrease rapidly or lose completely, and thestrain will increase rapidly, so that the granules can not sustain load and the "avalanche" phenomenon takes place.

  1. 铁基催化剂对将军庙煤低压直接液化性能影响%Effect of Iron-based Catalysts on Direct Liquefaction Performance of Coal From Jiangjunmiao, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海龙; 廖玲

    2015-01-01

    以将军庙煤为研究对象,催化剂用量按活性金属元素计为3%(wtCoaldaf)、反应温度T=420℃、反应时间τ=75 min、溶煤比S/C=2/1和氢初压PH2=6.5 MPa条件下,首先,以油产率为目标,Fe2O3为主催化剂,S为助催化剂,通过考察S/Fe对煤样直接液化性能的影响,确定了最佳S/Fe=1/1。其次,在S/Fe为1/1和上述反应条件下,考察了一系列铁基催化剂对煤样液化性能的影响。结果表明,以油产率为目标,其活性由高到低为:Fe2O3/S>油溶性Fe3O4/S >油溶性Fe3O4(中试)/S >飞灰/S >纳米Fe3O4/S>黄铁矿/Fe2O3>油酸铁/S > FeSO4/S> Fe(NO3)3/S>β-FeOOH/S >FeCl3/S >还原铁粉/S >FeS。最后,将Fe2O3/S与MoO3/S、FeSO4/S与NiSO4/S和CoSO4/S分别进行了比较。结果表明:Fe2O3/S比MoO3/S更能促进沥青质向油的转化;FeSO4/S与NiSO4/S和CoSO4/S三者油产率相差甚小,均约67%。故此,Fe2O3/S的催化活性最好。%The research objectwasthe coal from Jiangjunmiao. First of all,takingoil yield as the target and Fe2O3as the maincatalyst and S as the sub-catalyst, the best S/Fe=1∶1wasconfirmedby investigating the effect of S/Fe on direct liquefaction performanceof coal sample under the reaction conditions of catalysts 3%( wt), 420℃,reaction time 75 min, solvent/coal=2/1 and H2initial pressure 6.5 MPa. Theneffect of a series of iron-based catalysts on liquefaction performanceof coal sample under S/Fe=1/1andotheraboveconditionswas investigated. The results showthat:the rank ordering of the activity of catalysts according to the oil yield is Fe2O3/S>oil-soluble Fe3O4/S > oil-soluble(pilot plant) Fe3O4/S >fly ash/S >nanometer Fe3O4/S>pyrite/Fe2O3>oleic acid iron/S > FeSO4/S> Fe(NO3)3/S > β-FeOOH/S>FeCl3/S >iron powder/S >FeS. At last,Fe2O3/S and MoO3/S, FeSO4/S and NiSO4/S and CoSO4/Swererespectively compared. Theresults show that:Fe2O3/S can more promote theconversionof asphaltene to oil than MoO3/S;thegap of the oil yieldsamong FeSO4/S

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  3. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric;

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  4. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  5. Computerized processing of Kosovo Coal Basin on a study scale. [Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovicic, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series dealing with the computerized processing of the Kosovo Coal Basin. A study programme was initiated requiring the collection and processing of material to form as comprehensive a data base as possible. The project did not include a detailed analysis of the information, which dealt with coal, overburden, hydrological conditions, land costs, compension for subsidence, communications, etc.

  6. Rate of coal hydroliquefaction: correlation to coal structure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Voorhees, K.J.; Durfee, S.L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out on DOE grant No. FG22-83PC60784. The work was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of a series of coal liquefaction rate measurements on seven different coals from the Exxon sample bank, followed by correlation with parent coal properties. The second phase involved characterization of the coals by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and subsequent correlations of the Py/MS patterns with various liquefaction reactivity parameters. The hydroliquefaction reactivities for a suite of 7 bituminous and subbituminous coals were determined on a kinetic basis. These reactivities were correlated fairly successfully with the following parent coal properties: volatile matter, H/C and O/C ratios, vitrinite reflectance, and calorific value. The total surface areas of the coals were experimentally determined. Reactivity was shown to be independent of surface area. Following completion of the batch reactor experiments, the seven coals investigated were analyzed by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry. The pyrolysis spectra were then submitted to factor analysis in order to extract significant features of the coal for use in correlational efforts. These factors were then related to a variety of liquefaction reactivity definitions, including both rate and extent of liquefaction to solvent solubility classifications (oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, etc.). In general, extent of reaction was found to correlate best with the Py/MS data. 37 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Prospects of LTC process of coal and pollutional potentiality of its wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is one of the non-renewable energy sources and is available in plenty as a natural reserves in India. There are various technologies to convert coal into different forms of energy to be used for various purposes. Low temperature carbonization (LTC) of coal is one of the economically viable technology which is employed for low grade Indian coals to obtain the products, like domestic coke, tar, oil, etc. Some undesirable chemicals are also generated during LTC process of coal and get discharged into the environment in the form of liquid waste, Waste ammonia liquor (WAL). Such wastes are of environmental concern. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate critically the prospects of LTC process of coal in Indian scenario, chemistry of different pollutants and pollutional potentiality of the wastewater. (author). 55 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. FeCl3的负载对褐煤热解提质中有机硫迁移转化的影响%Effects of FeCl3 Addition on Transformation of Organic Sulfur During the Pyrolysis Upgrading of Ximeng Brown Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常丽萍; 秦政; 王美君; 张玉龙

    2012-01-01

    The removal of organic sulfur and/or water from low-quality coals is the key and foundation in their clean and effective utilization. Ximeng brown coal containing rich organic sulfur was selected as the experimental sample. Effects of the methods and amounts of FeCl3 added into coal on the transformation and release of sulfur were studied in the fixed bed pyrolysis-gas chromatographic analysis apparatus. The results show that methods and amounts of iron added in coal obviously affected the sulfur releasing temperature and the ratio in gases and char. The iron added in coal through mechanical mixing method was mainly dispersed on the surface of coal and had the role of reducing the sulfur released to gas and retaining it in char by formation of Fe1-xS. When iron was added by the method of modified impregnation, it was evenly loaded in coal and ion-exchange occured with the organic functional groups in coal matrix. The action of iron on the transformation of sulfur in the upgrading process of brown coal by pyrolysis changed with the Fe content in impregnation solution. Low content iron promoted the release of sulfur by improving the pyrolysis reactivity of coal, while the role of high loading content iron was mainly to retain sulfur in the char by the reaction between iron and organic sulfur in coal and H2S in gas. Effect of FeCl3 added to coal by different method on the release of COS from the coal pyrolysis primarily presented a promotive action, but the influencing extent was different owing to the distribution of FeCl3 in coal for different methods.%有机硫的脱除与褐煤的提质是低品质煤清洁有效利用的关键.以富含有机硫的锡盟褐煤为研究对象,分别用机械混合和改进的浸渍法负载FeCl3,对其进行固定床热解提质实验研究,以期获得该过程中有机硫的变迁行为及其释放规律.实验结果显示:FeCl3的负载方式及负载量对锡盟褐煤热解提质过程中硫的迁移转化具有较大的影

  9. Management of local economic and ecological system of coal processing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, T. V.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Karasev, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The management issues of local ecological and economic system of coal processing company - coal processing plant - are considered in the article. The objectives of the research are the identification and the analysis of local ecological and economic system (coal processing company) performance and the proposals for improving the mechanism to support the management decision aimed at improving its environmental safety. The data on the structure of run-of-mine coal processing products are shown. The analysis of main ecological and economic indicators of coal processing enterprises, characterizing the state of its environmental safety, is done. The main result of the study is the development of proposals to improve the efficiency of local enterprise ecological and economic system management, including technical, technological and business measures. The results of the study can be recommended to industrial enterprises to improve their ecological and economic efficiency.

  10. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  11. The use of solid-state NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Quarterly report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, D.A.; Mitzel, J.

    1993-08-01

    One area for improvement in the economics of coal liquefaction is coal drying, particularly for the lower rank coals. however, there is considerable evidence to show that drying has a detrimental effect on the liquefaction behavior of coals. Regarding the liquefaction of coal, there does not appear to have been any systematic study of the methods of coal drying on coal structure and the role water plays in enhancing or lessening coal reactivity toward liquefaction. In part, this may have been the result of not having the techniques that are now available, such as solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results of NMR examination of several coals dried by thermal, microwave, and chemical methods are given.

  12. Ash removal equipment of large power plants designed for increased brown coal ash content and for economic use of waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, G.; Nicko, K.H.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1984-12-01

    The design and performance of the pneumatic deashing system of a brown coal fired steam generator with 660 t/h steam capacity are explained. Experiments were carried out aimed at improving the performance of the pneumatic conveyor with its discontinuously working pressure vessel. A modified technology of operating the pneumatic system quasi-continuously was investigated, with which a 100% higher ash throughput, elimination of pipe clogging and a 40% reduction in air requirement were achieved. Equipment for loading ash from bunkers into closed container cars was further studied. Substantial steel wear was noted at the mixing screw of the ash moistening trough. A new ash moistening and mixing drum (4 m long, 1.8 m diameter, 20 kW drive) has been developed, capable of moistening 600 m/sup 3//h of ash with only 15% of the electrical energy and 30% of the maintenance expenditures of mixing screw equipment. The manufacturer, OBV Budapest, will produce 3 sizes of the new ash mixing drum for reconstruction of ash loading facilities at various power plants. 7 references.

  13. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  14. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  16. 小型N2-CH4膨胀机天然气液化流程影响因素分析%Analysis of Influence Factors on Small N2-CH4 Expender Liquefaction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋鹏; 诸林; 范峻铭; 张政

    2014-01-01

    利用HYSYS对小型N2-CH4膨胀机天然气液化流程进行模拟,分析关键参数对流程性能(比功耗、液化率)的影响。结果显示:降低制冷剂高压压力、LNG储存压力、制冷剂中甲烷含量和提高制冷剂低压压力、天然气入口压力,有利于减少比功耗;提高制冷剂高压压力、LNG储存压力、制冷剂中甲烷含量和降低制冷剂低压压力、天然气入口压力,有利于提高天然气液化率。%HYSYS was used to simulate N2-CH4 expander natural gas liquefaction process; influences of key parameters on the performance (including power consumption ratio and liquefaction rate) of N2-CH4 expander liquefaction process were analyzed. The results show that, reducing refrigerant high pressure, LNG storage pressure, the methane content in the refrigerant, as well as improving the refrigerant low pressure and gas inlet pressure, can reduce power consumption ratio;improving the refrigerant high-pressure, LNG storage pressure, the methane content in the refrigerant, as well as reducing refrigerant low-pressure, gas inlet pressure, can improve natural gas liquefaction rate.

  17. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now