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Sample records for brown algae phaeophyta

  1. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid impression material and to examine its physical characteristic. Methods: The methods of research including extraction natrium alginate from Sargassum sp, synthesis of dental impression material and the test of porosity, density, viscosity, and water content of impression material which fulfilled the standard of material used in clinical application in dentistry. Results: Extraction result of Sargassum sp was natrium alginate powder with cream colour, odorless, and water soluble. The water content of natrium alginate was 21.64% and the viscosity was 0.7 cPs. The best porosity result in the sample with the addition of trinatrium phosphate 4% was 3.61%. Density value of impression material was 3 gr/cm3. Conclusion: The research suggested that brown algae Sargassum sp from Madura strait is potential as hydrocolloid impression material, due to its physical properties which close to dental impression material, but still need further research to optimize the physical characteristic.Latar belakang: Alga coklat adalah sumber bahan baku material natrium alginat. Salah satu jenis alga coklat adalah Sargassum sp yang merupakan anggota divisi Phaeophyta. Sargassum sp dapat ditemukan di Selat Madura Indonesia. Natrium alginat dapat diekstraksi dari Sargassum sp. Kebutuhan akan bahan ini di Indonesia sebagian besar dipenuhi dari impor, padahal ketersediaan Sargassum sp di Indonesia sangat melimpah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi potensi alga coklat

  2. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

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    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  3. Algas (Phaeophyta) presentes en productos comerciales utilizados para adelgazar

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Correa, Rubén Florestan; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1997-01-01

    Numerosos registros bibliográficos se refieren a la utilización de algas en tratamientos para combatir la obesidad. En particular, están muy difundidos los productos comerciales que contienen algas pardas (Phaeophyta), principalmente del género Fucus. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los contenidos de muestras comerciales de diverso origen, en sus distintas formas farmacéuticas. Se identificaron principalmente dos géneros de Phaeophyta: Fucus y Ascophyllum. Se encontraron además elementos...

  4. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of brown algae from the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    ZELIHA DEMIREL; FERDA F. YILMAZ-KOZ; ULKU N. KARABAY-YAVASOGLU; GUVEN OZDEMIR; ATAKAN SUKATAR

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, as well as the essential oils of brown algae (Phaeophyta) Colpomenia sinuosa, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyota dichotoma var. implexa, Petalonia fascia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. The essential oil of the macroalgae was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was determined using the procedures ...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  7. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  8. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  9. Catalog of marine benthic algae from New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)

  10. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  11. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

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    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  12. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  13. Fibrinolytic Compounds Isolated from a Brown Alga, Sargassum fulvellum

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    Bin Bao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two of bioactive natural products were founded in a brown alga, Sargassum fulvellum. After isolation and purification, the molecular structures of these two products were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and GC-mass spectroscopy. The two compounds were identified to be 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl –glycerol (POGG and 1-O-myristoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl – glycerol (MOGG which were obtained from Sargassum fulvellum for the first time. POGG and MOGG showed fibrinolytic activity in the reaction system of pro-u-PA and plasminogen.

  14. Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Changhyun Roh; Min-Kyoung Park; Uhee Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the ...

  15. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  16. SULFOGLYCOLIPID FROM THE MARINE BROWN ALGA SARGASSUM HEMIPHYLLUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG CUI; YU-SHAN LI; HONG-BING LIU; DAN YUAN; BAO-REN LU

    2001-01-01

    One kinds of glycolipid (SBI) have been isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turn.) Ag. The structures of SBI have been determined as the sodium salt of 1-0-acyl-3-0-(6′-sulfo-c-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol (acyl: tetradecanoyl, pentadecanoyl, 11-hexadecenoyl, hexadecanoyl, 10,13-octadecadienoyl, 9-octade cenoyl, 15-metylheptadecanoyl and 11-eicosenoyl 17:1.5:19:153:1: 19:1:2) on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Four constituents of the SBI were new compounds [the sodium salt of 1-0-(ll″-hexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol, the sodium salt of 1-0-(10",13"-octadecadienoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol,and the sodium salt of 1-0-(15"-metylhexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-c-D-quinovopyrannosyl)glycerol, and the sodium salt of 1-0-(ll"-eicosenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl)glycerol]. All compounds were isolated from marine brown alga for the first time.

  17. Biochemical composition of some brown algae from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of brown algae collected in Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Totally eight brown algae samples (Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira corniculata, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyota dichotoma, Padina pavonia, Sargassum vulgare, Stypocaulon scoparium, Stypopodium schimperii) were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from S. schimperii ...

  18. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  19. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown algaTurbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ali Deyab; Fatma Mohamed Elnabawy Ward

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods:T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton.T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results:The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shoresbelong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth ofT. ornata with maximum abundance (24%) during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 ×108 cell/L) recorded during October. Analysis ofT. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight) and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight) contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight), lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight), polysaccharides (agar and alginates), carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight), minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions:The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth ofT. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  20. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

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    Mohamed Ali Deyab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  1. Preliminary Study on the Responses of Three Marine Algae,Ulva pertusa ( Chlorophyta),Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta)and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to Nitrogen Source and Its Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongyan; Amy Pickering; SUN Jun

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates.Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH4 and NO3. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH+4 than using NO-3 . U. Pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200 μmol L-1, but it has lower economical value. G. Amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200μmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. Enerve is higher than that of G. Amansii at 200μmolL-1, but the former's increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species.Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  2. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Busetti; Thompson, Thomas P.; Diana Tegazzini; Julianne Megaw; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2015-01-01

    The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores o...

  3. Brown Algae (Phaeophyceae) from the Coast of Madagascar: preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Eight species of brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from the coast of Madagascar have been investigated for their chemical constituents. Fucosterol (3) was obtained as the most abundant compound. The brown alga Sargassum ilicifolium was the source for the first isolation of the terpenoid C27-alcohol 1,1′,2-trinorsqualenol (1) from marine sources. From S. incisifolium we isolated the highly unsaturated glycolipid 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-stearidonoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (4) and we repor...

  4. Transcriptome-wide evolutionary analysis on essential brown algae (Phaeophyceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; LIU Tao; YU Jun; WANG Liang; WU Shuangxiu; WANG Xumin; XIAO Jingfa; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; REN Lufeng; ZHAO Yuhui

    2014-01-01

    Brown algae (Chromista, Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae) are a large group of multicellular algae that play im-portant roles in the ocean's ecosystem and biodiversity. However, poor molecular bases for studying their phylogenetic evolutions and novel metabolic characteristics have hampered progress in the field. In this study, we sequenced the de novo transcriptome of 18 major species of brown algae in China, covering six orders and seven families, using the high-throughput sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. From the transcriptome data of these 18 species and publicly available genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we identified 108 nuclear-generated orthologous genes and clarified the phy-logenetic relationships among these brown algae based on a multigene method. These brown algae could be separated into two clades:Clade Ishigeales-Dictyotales and Clade Ectocarpales-Laminariales-Desmares-tiale-Fucales. The former was at the base of the phylogenetic tree, indicating its early divergence, while the latter was divided into two branches, with Order Fucales diverging from Orders Ectocarpales, Laminariales, and Desmarestiale. In our analysis of taxonomy-contentious species, Sargassum fusiforme and Saccharina sculpera were found to be closely related to genera Sargassum and Saccharina, respectively, while Petalonia fascia showed possible relation to genus Scytosiphon. The study provided molecular evidence for the phylo-genetic taxonomy of brown algae.

  5. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  6. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  7. Brown Algae (Phaeophyceae) from the Coast of Madagascar: preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Eight species of brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from the coast of Madagascar have been investigated for their chemical constituents. Fucosterol (3) was obtained as the most abundant compound. The brown alga Sargassum ilicifolium was the source for the first isolation of the terpenoid C27-alcohol 1,1',2-trinorsqualenol (1) from marine sources. From S. incisifolium we isolated the highly unsaturated glycolipid 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-stearidonoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (4) and we report the first full assignment of its (1)H and (13)C NMR data. Apo-9'-fucoxanthinone (8) along with 24-ketocholesterol (5), (22E)-3β-hydroxycholesta-5,22-dien-24-one (6), and saringosterol (7) were obtained from Turbinaria ornata. The crude extracts of all eight species of brown algae exhibited a pronounced antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:26358714

  8. Anticancer and Antitumor Potential of Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin, Two Main Metabolites Isolated from Brown Algae

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    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is one of the largest producers of biomass in marine environment and is a rich arsenal of active metabolites and functional ingredients with valuable beneficial health effects. Being a staple part of Asian cuisine, investigations on the crude extracts of Phaeophyceae or brown algae revealed marked antitumor activity, eliciting a variety of research to determine the active ingredients involved in this potential. The sulfated polysaccharide of fucoidan and carotenoid of fucoxanthin were found to be the most important active metabolites of brown algae as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents. This review strives to provide detailed account of all current knowledge on the anticancer and antitumor activity of fucoidan and fucoxanthin as the two major metabolites isolated from brown algae.

  9. Arsenic content in certain marine brown algae and mangroves from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Chinnaraj, S.; Inamdar, S.N.; Untawale, A.G.

    (CF less than 1). In brown algae organic As is accounted for about 75-90% of total, but in S. Cinereum and Sphacelaria furcigera about 50-60% inorganic As is noted. Basal thallus and reproductive organs of S. cinereum have higher concentration of total...

  10. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  11. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal Chakraborty; Kodayan Kizekadath Vijayan; Gonugontla Syda Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. [Turbinaria conoides (T. conoides) and Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems. Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), H2O2/HO radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE)/g of the seaweed extracts. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation. Results: Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of T. conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content (105.97 mg GE/g) than that of T. ornata (69.63 mg GE/g). Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH (64.14%) radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata. A higher ABTS.+ radical scavenging (IC50 3.16 µg/mL), Fe2+ chelating (IC50 0.46 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging (IC50 4.25 mg/mL), lipid peroxidation inhibitory (TBARS, IC50 0.21 mg/mL), and reducing abilities (IC50 52.67 mg/mL) (P<0.05) were realized in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata than other fractions. Conclusions: This study indicated the potential use ofT. conoides and T. ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption, and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.

  12. Toward systems biology in brown algae to explore acclimation and adaptation to the shore environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Thierry; Eveillard, Damien; Prigent, Sylvain; Bourdon, Jérémie; Potin, Philippe; Boyen, Catherine; Siegel, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to land plants and animals. They are almost exclusively found in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment where organisms are submitted to marine and terrestrial constraints. In relation with their unique evolutionary history and their habitat, they feature several peculiarities, including at the level of their primary and secondary metabolism. The establishment of Ectocarpus siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques have been developed, in particular, to study the response of these organisms to abiotic stresses. With the recent publication of medium to high throughput profiling data, it is now possible to envision integrating observations at the cellular scale to apply systems biology approaches. As a first step, we propose a protocol focusing on integrating heterogeneous knowledge gained on brown algal metabolism. The resulting abstraction of the system will then help understanding how brown algae cope with changes in abiotic parameters within their unique habitat, and to decipher some of the mechanisms underlying their (1) acclimation and (2) adaptation, respectively consequences of (1) the behavior or (2) the topology of the system resulting from the integrative approach. PMID:22136637

  13. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.(Phaeophyta,Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajal; Chakraborty; Nammunayathuputhenkotta; Krishnankartha; Praveen; Kodayan; Kizekadath; Vijayan; Gonugontla; Syda; Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp.[Turbinaria conoides(T.conoides)and Turbinaria ornata(T.ornata)collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems.Methods:The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems,viz.,I,I-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH),2,2’-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt(ABTS),H202/H0 radical scavenging,Fe2+ion chelating ability,and reducing potential.Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts,and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents(GE)/g of the seaweed extracts.Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation.Results:Ethyl acetate(EtOAc)fraction of T.conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content(105.97 mg GE/g)than that of T.ornata(69.63 mg GE/g).Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH(64.14%)radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata.A higher ABTS(?)radical scavenging(IC503.16μg/mL),Fe2+chelating(IC500.46 mg/mL),H2O2 scavenging(IC504.25 mg/mL),lipid peroxidation inhibitory(TBARS,IC500.21 mg/mL),and reducing abilities(IC5052.67 mg/mL)(P<0.05)were realized in EtOAc fraction of T.ornata than other fractions.Conclusions:This study indicated the potential use of T.conoides and T.ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption,and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.

  14. Influence of the Brown Marine Algae on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristcs of the Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Sălăgean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to asses the influence of the brown algae on the quality in manufacturing of a certain halfsmoked sausages assortment.  Exploiting the natural plant resources as well as reducing the animal fat in the finished product by replacing it with proteins, fibers and minerals (provided by the brown marine algae were also intended. Two technological variants with different ratios of algae (V1-10% respectively V2-15% from those 25% of fat (the remaining of 75% beeing represented, in each case, by beef were experienced and compared with the control sample (VM, without algae, 75% beef and 25% fat. The finished products were analyzed in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical, in different stages of storage, at 24 hours after obtaining and seven days of storage at 10 to 12 degrees. The correlations between investigated quality parameters and the ratios of algae were also established. The physicochemical analysis highlighted the highest values regarding the protein, moisture, sodium chloride and the lowest fat content values in the case of the V2 variant compared to the V1 and VM variants. Furthermore, an increase in protein, fat, sodium chloride and a decrease of the moisture content have been found in all variants observed during the storage. The shelf life of the product was not negatively affected by the addition of algae due to their antimicrobial activity. The addition of algae in combination with beef components led to obtaining a higher quality product with functional characteristics.

  15. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION BIOACTIVE PROTEINS BROWN ALGAE Sargassum duplicatum FROM LAE - LAE ISLAND, SOUTH SULAWESI AS ANTIBACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Zulviana

    2014-01-01

    All protein fractions from the brown algae Sargassum duplicatum isolated compounds showed a bioactive protein that has the inhibition of the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Sthpylococus aureus and Echercia coli.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  17. Occurrence and production of carbon monoxide in some brown algae. [Pelagophycus porra; Pelagophycus giganteus; Nereocystis luetkeana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.J.; Tocher, R.D.

    1966-01-01

    The first report of carbon monoxide in plants was based on studies with the Pacific Coast kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana. This work was extended and later confirmed. In (1916) it was reported that the brown algae Egregia menziesii, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Fucus evanescens did not contain carbon monoxide. Using a more sensitive method, researchers recently showed that the pneumatocysts of Egregia menziesii do indeed contain carbon monoxide, and they also studied its production by tissues of several brown and red algae. Another researcher found that Sargassum linifolium and Fucus virsoides were devoid of this gas, at least in concentrations detectable with a haemoglobin analytical method. By the method to be described, the gas was taken from pneumatocysts of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales) collected at Halifax, Nova Scotia. No carbon monoxide could be detected when 10 cm/sup 3/ of pooled samples of gas was analyzed. 10 references, 2 tables.

  18. Anticancer and Antitumor Potential of Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin, Two Main Metabolites Isolated from Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Hamed Karimian; Ramin Khanabdali; Mahboubeh Razavi; Mohammad Firoozinia; Keivan Zandi; Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed is one of the largest producers of biomass in marine environment and is a rich arsenal of active metabolites and functional ingredients with valuable beneficial health effects. Being a staple part of Asian cuisine, investigations on the crude extracts of Phaeophyceae or brown algae revealed marked antitumor activity, eliciting a variety of research to determine the active ingredients involved in this potential. The sulfated polysaccharide of fucoidan and carotenoid of fucoxanthin were...

  19. Biosorption of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution by biomass of brown algae Laminaria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Y; Kim, K W; Baek, Y J; Chung, D Y; Lee, E H; Lee, S Y; Moon, J K

    2014-01-01

    The uranium(VI) adsorption efficiency of non-living biomass of brown algae was evaluated in various adsorption experimental conditions. Several different sizes of biomass were prepared using pretreatment and surface-modification steps. The kinetics of uranium uptake were mainly dependent on the particle size of the prepared Laminaria japonica biosorbent. The optimal particle size, contact time, and injection amount for the stable operation of the wastewater treatment process were determined. Spectroscopic analyses showed that uranium was adsorbed in the porous inside structure of the biosorbent. The ionic diffusivity in the biomass was the dominant rate-limiting factor; therefore, the adsorption rate was significantly increased with decrease of particle size. From the results of comparative experiments using the biosorbents and other chemical adsorbents/precipitants, such as activated carbons, zeolites, and limes, it was demonstrated that the brown algae biosorbent could replace the conventional chemicals for uranium removal. As a post-treatment for the final solid waste reduction, the ignition treatment could significantly reduce the weight of waste biosorbents. In conclusion, the brown algae biosorbent is shown to be a favorable adsorbent for uranium(VI) removal from radioactive wastewater.

  20. Symbiotic associations in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy S Balakirev

    Full Text Available The brown alga Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is a highly polymorphic representative of the family Laminariaceae, inhabiting the northwest Pacific region. We have obtained 16S rRNA sequence data in symbiont microorganisms of the typical form (TYP of S. japonica and its common morphological varieties, known as "longipes" (LON and "shallow-water" (SHA, which show contrasting bathymetric distribution and sharp morphological, life history traits, and ecological differences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences shows that the microbial communities are significantly different in the three forms studied and consist of mosaic sets of common and form-specific bacterial lineages. The divergence in bacterial composition is substantial between the TYP and LON forms in spite of their high genetic similarity. The symbiont distribution in the S. japonica forms and in three other laminarialean species is not related to the depth or locality of the algae settlements. Combined with our previous results on symbiont associations in sea urchins and taking into account the highly specific character of bacteria-algae associations, we propose that the TYP and LON forms may represent incipient species passing through initial steps of reproductive isolation. We suggest that phenotype differences between genetically similar forms may be caused by host-symbiont interactions that may be a general feature of evolution in algae and other eukaryote organisms. Bacterial symbionts could serve as sensitive markers to distinguish genetically similar algae forms and also as possible growth-promoting inductors to increase algae productivity.

  1. Microbiota influences morphology and reproduction of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Esteban Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Associated microbiota play crucial roles in health and disease of higher organisms. For macroalgae, some associated bacteria exert beneficial effects on nutrition, morphogenesis and growth. However, current knowledge on macroalgae-microbiota interactions is mostly based on studies on green and red seaweeds. In this study, we report that when cultured under axenic conditions, the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus sp. loses its branched morphology and grows with a small ball-like appearance. Nine strains of periphytic bacteria isolated from Ectocarpus sp. unialgal cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, and assessed for their effect on morphology, reproduction and the metabolites secreted by axenic Ectocarpus sp. Six of these isolates restored morphology and reproduction features of axenic Ectocarpus sp. Bacteria-algae co-culture supernatants, but not the supernatant of the corresponding bacterium growing alone, also recovered morphology and reproduction of the alga. Furthermore, colonization of axenic Ectocarpus sp. with a single bacterial isolate impacted significantly the metabolites released by the alga. These results show that the branched typical morphology and the individuals produced by Ectocarpus sp. are strongly dependent on the presence of bacteria, while the bacterial effect on the algal exometabolome profile reflects the impact of bacteria on the whole physiology of this alga.

  2. Evaluation of marine sediments as microbial sources for methane production from brown algae under high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    Various marine sediments were evaluated as promising microbial sources for methane fermentation of Saccharina japonica, a brown alga, at seawater salinity. All marine sediments tested produced mainly acetate among volatile fatty acids. One marine sediment completely converted the produced volatile fatty acids to methane in a short period. Archaeal community analysis revealed that acetoclastic methanogens belonging to the Methanosarcina genus dominated after cultivation. Measurement of the specific conversion rate at each step of methane production under saline conditions demonstrated that the marine sediments had higher conversion rates of butyrate and acetate than mesophilic methanogenic granules. These results clearly show that marine sediments can be used as microbial sources for methane production from algae under high-salt conditions without dilution.

  3. Phylogenomic analysis of transcriptomic sequences of mitochondria and chloroplasts of essential brown algae (Phaeophyceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Shangang; LIU Tao; WU Shuangxiu; WANG Xumin; LI Tianyong; QIAN Hao; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; YU Jun; REN Lufeng; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast and mitochondrion of brown algae (Class Phaeophyceae of Phylum Ochrophyta) may have originated from different endosymbiosis. In this study, we carried out phylogenomic analysis to distinguish their evolutionary lineages by using algal RNA-seq datasets of the 1 000 Plants (1KP) Project and publicly available complete genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts of Kingdom Chromista. We have found that there is a split between Class Phaeophyceae of Phylum Ochrophyta and the others (Phylum Cryptophyta and Haptophyta) in Kingdom Chromista, and identified more diversity in chloroplast genes than mitochondrial ones in their phylogenetic trees. Taxonomy resolution for Class Phaeophyceae showed that it was divided into Laminariales-Ectocarpales clade and Fucales clade, and phylogenetic positions of Kjellmaniella crassi-folia, Hizikia fusifrome and Ishige okamurai were confirmed. Our analysis provided the basic phylogenetic relationships of Chromista algae, and demonstrated their potential ability to study endosymbiotic events.

  4. Biological activities of fucose-containing polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, Seiichirou; Soegima, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-04-23

    A fucose-containing, sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Composition analysis demonstrated that ascophyllan mainly contains uronic acid, xylose, fucose, and sulfate half ester in approximately equimolecular proportions, which are evidently distinct from those of alginate and fucoidan. Ascophyllan inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and DNA-fragmentation and typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed in the ascophyllan-treated cells. Furthermore, ascophyllan induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. PMID:19352011

  5. Growth and grazing on the 'Texas brown tide' alga Aureoumbra lagunensis by the tintinnid Amphorides quadrilineata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hyatt, C.; Buskey, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and ingestion by the loricate ciliate Amphorides quadrilineata exposed to increasing dietary doses of the Texas brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis were investigated. The ciliate grew at a maximum rate of 0.38 d(-1), ingesting 0.032 ppm (similar to6.4 x 10(2) cells) prey d(-1) on a diet....... lagunensis by increasing the turning rate per unit time. This study suggests that efficient top-down control of A. lagunensis by heterotrophic protozoans such as the studied ciliate may not happen as long as phytoplankton organisms other than A. lagunensis make up a minor part of the standing phytoplankton...

  6. 4α-Acetoxyamijidictyol - A New Antifeeding Dolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel Bianco, Éverson; Martins Francisco, Thiago; Basílio Pinheiro, Carlos; Bagueira de Vasconcellos Azeredo, Rodrigo; Laneuville Teixeira, Valéria; Crespo Pereira, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Chemical investigation of the CH2 Cl2 crude extract from the brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Dictyotaceae) led to isolation of one new (1) and four previously reported dolastane diterpenes (2-5). Their structures were characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques, including a full single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis for 1, 2, and 4. In addition, the new structure 1 was assayed as chemical defense inhibiting the feeding by the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. This study constitutes an additional report broadening the known spectrum of action and defensive roles of secondary metabolites of the C. cervicornis and Dictyotales species.

  7. Potentiating effect of ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using brown alga: antimicrobial and anticancer activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRI VISHNU PRIYA RAMASWAMY; S NARENDHRAN; RAJESHWARI SIVARAJ

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities of biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles was assessed by well diffusion method. The anticancer activity of brown algae-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was determined by MTT assay against the cell line (MCF-7). Maximum activity was observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. Effective growth inhibition of cells was observed to be more than 93% in antibacterial activity. Thus, the results of the present study indicates that biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles can be used for several diseases, however, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

  8. Mitochondrial genome of Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae): comparative mitogenomics of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh is a perennial brown alga native to coral reef ecosystems of tropical areas of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Very little is known about its organellar genome structure. In the present work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. ornata was determined and compared with other reported brown algal mtDNAs. The circular mitogenome of 34,981 bp contains a basic set of 65 mitochondrial genes. The structure and organization of T. ornata mitogenome is very similar to Sargassum species. Turbinaria ornata genes overlap by a total of 164 bp in 12 different locations from 1 to 66 bp, and the non-coding sequences are 1872 bp, constituting approximate 5.35 % of the genome. The total spacer size has positive correlation with the brown algal mitogenome size with the correlation coefficient of 0.7972. Several regions displaying greater inconsistency (rnl-trnK spacer, cox2 gene, cox3-atp6 spacer, rps14-rns middle region and trnP-rnl spacer) have been identified in brown algal mtDNAs. The observed uncertainty regarding the position and support values of some branches might be closely associated with the heterogeneity of evolutionary rate. PMID:25893565

  9. Production of brown algae pyrolysis oils for liquid biofuels depending on the chemical pretreatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of Saccharina japonica, brown algae to produce hydrocarbons. • Sulfuric acid pretreatment of macroalgae to remove inorganic elements. • CaCl2 treatment of macroalgae to remove valuable fucoidan. • Sulfuric acid pretreatment suppressed the formation of large biochar chunks. • The pretreatment methods allowed the continuous operation of pyrolysis. - Abstract: Based on observations of rapidly growing biochar in fluidization beds, kelp (Saccharina japonica), a species of brown algae, was pretreated for the efficient operation of pyrolysis processes to produce pyrolysis oils. The removal of catalytically active inorganic minerals and the softening of polymeric seaweed structures were performed by means of chemical treatments, including a CaCl2 treatment to isolate valuable and sticky fucoidan and a sulfuric acid treatment to remove catalytically active minerals. The sulfuric acid pretreatment significantly reduced the inorganic elements but did not significantly affect the properties of the pyrolysis oil compared to the non-treated kelp pyrolysis oil. Whereas the non-treated kelp produced significantly large chunks of biochar, which hindered the continuous operation of pyrolysis, the kelp treated with sulfuric acid did not produce aggregated large particles of biochar, thereby offering a means of developing reliable continuous pyrolysis processes

  10. Complete plastid genome of an ecologically important brown alga Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hyun; Graf, Louis; Cho, Chung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Hee; Kim, Jeong Ha; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-08-01

    The brown algal species Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) is widely distributed in coastal area of East Asia. This alga is ecologically and economically important seaweeds; however, no genome data was reported thus far. To get a better understanding of organellar genome of S. thunbergii, we sequenced and annotated its complete plastid genome. The circular plastid genome is 124,592bp in size with 30.4% GC content, which is composed of a large single-copy (LSC) region of 73,668bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 40,032bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) of 5446bp each. The plastid genome of S. thunbergii includes 139 protein-coding genes, six ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons, 28 transfer RNA (tRNA) sequences, and one intron (214bp) in tRNA-Leu (trnL) gene. Five overlapping genes were identified in the compact plastid genome. Base on the comparison with previously published five brown algae plastid genomes, we found that the gene content and gene order of S. thunbergii are identical to that of other Fucales species Fucus vesiculosus. PMID:27012360

  11. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds. Methods: The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique. Results: The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α- linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic> nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H. triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  12. Semi-continuous methane production from undiluted brown algae using a halophilic marine microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Acclimated marine sediment-derived culture was used for semi-continuous methane production from materials equivalent to raw brown algae, without dilution of salinity and without nutrient supply, under 3 consecutive conditions of varying organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Methane production was stable at 2.0gVS/kg/day (39-day HRT); however, it became unstable at 2.9gVS/kg/day (28-day HRT) due to acetate and propionate accumulation. OLR subsequently decreased to 1.7gVS/kg/day (46-day HRT), stabilizing methane production beyond steady state. Methane yield was above 300mL/g VS at all OLRs. These results indicated that the acclimated marine sediment culture was able to produce methane semi-continuously from raw brown algae without dilution and nutrient supply under steady state. Microbial community analysis suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogens predominated among archaea during unstable methane production, implying a partial shift of the methanogenic pathway from acetoclastic methanogenesis to acetate oxidation.

  13. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  14. Fouling mediates grazing: intertwining of resistances to multiple enemies in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormalainen, Veijo; Wikström, Sofia A; Honkanen, Tuija

    2008-03-01

    Macroalgae have to cope with multiple natural enemies, such as herbivores and epibionts. As these are harmful for the host, the host is expected to show resistance to them. Evolution of resistance is complicated by the interactions among the enemies and the genetic correlations among resistances to different enemies. Here, we explored genetic variation in resistance to epibiosis and herbivory in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, both under conditions where the enemies coexisted and where they were isolated. F. vesiculosus showed substantial genetic variation in the resistance to both epibiosis and grazing. Grazing pressure on the alga was generally lower in the presence than in the absence of epibiota. Furthermore, epibiosis modified the susceptibility of different algal genotypes to grazing. Resistances to epibiosis and grazing were independent when measured separately for both enemies but positively correlated when both these enemies coexisted. Thus, when the enemies coexisted, the fate of genotypes with respect to these enemies was intertwined. Genotypic correlation between phlorotannins, brown-algal phenolic secondary metabolites, and the amount of epibiota was negative, indicating that these compounds contribute to resistance to epibiosis. In addition, phlorotannins correlated also with the resistance to grazing, but this correlation disappeared when grazing occurred in the absence of epibiota. This indicates that the patterns of selection for the type of the resistance as well as for the resistance traits vary with the occurrence patterns of the enemies.

  15. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Busetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds.

  16. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetti, Alessandro; Thompson, Thomas P; Tegazzini, Diana; Megaw, Julianne; Maggs, Christine A; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-06-01

    The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds. PMID:26058011

  17. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  18. Normalisation genes for expression analyses in the brown alga model Ectocarpus siliculosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousvoal Sylvie

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown algae are plant multi-cellular organisms occupying most of the world coasts and are essential actors in the constitution of ecological niches at the shoreline. Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model for brown algal research. Its genome has been sequenced, and several tools are being developed to perform analyses at different levels of cell organization, including transcriptomic expression analyses. Several topics, including physiological responses to osmotic stress and to exposure to contaminants and solvents are being studied in order to better understand the adaptive capacity of brown algae to pollution and environmental changes. A series of genes that can be used to normalise expression analyses is required for these studies. Results We monitored the expression of 13 genes under 21 different culture conditions. These included genes encoding proteins and factors involved in protein translation (ribosomal protein 26S, EF1alpha, IF2A, IF4E and protein degradation (ubiquitin, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme or folding (cyclophilin, and proteins involved in both the structure of the cytoskeleton (tubulin alpha, actin, actin-related proteins and its trafficking function (dynein, as well as a protein implicated in carbon metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The stability of their expression level was assessed using the Ct range, and by applying both the geNorm and the Normfinder principles of calculation. Conclusion Comparisons of the data obtained with the three methods of calculation indicated that EF1alpha (EF1a was the best reference gene for normalisation. The normalisation factor should be calculated with at least two genes, alpha tubulin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme or actin-related proteins being good partners of EF1a. Our results exclude actin as a good normalisation gene, and, in this, are in agreement with previous studies in other organisms.

  19. Biochecmial composition of marine brown alga Lobophora variegata from Mandapam in the South East Coast of Tamil Nadu

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    Sathyaseelan Thennarasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are well-known as a functional food for their richness in lipids, minerals, certain vitamins and also several bioactive substances like polysaccharides, proteins and polyphonies. Thus, the brown alga was analyzed for its biochemical properties for rich source of all essential nutrients which is promising as a source of pharmacognosical value. In the present study, brown alga Lobophora variegata was studied for the biochemical properties, such as Carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, sterols, fatty acid and minerals composition were carried out by using gas chromatography method and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method respectively. Among biochemical content total protein were present in higher quantity 23.13 ± 0.05%, followed by total carbohydrates-19.34 ± 0.10% and total lipid-0.27± 0.5%. Also the experimental alga were rich in vitamins (especially vitamin C, Fatty acids (Omega fatty acid, and minerals (calcium respectively. Comparatively the sterols also been noted. Thus, the results of biochemical composition of marine brown alga seem to be more valuable for the nutraceutical as well as pharmaceutical industry as a potential source.

  20. Biosorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by brown algae: Equilibrium, dynamic and thermodynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption characteristics of nickel(II) ions using the brown algae (Cystoseria indica, Nizmuddinia zanardini, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina australis) were investigated. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH level, contact time, initial metal concentration and temperature were studied. The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir adsorption model in the concentration range of nickel(II) ions and at all the temperatures studied. Evaluation of the experimental data in terms of biosorption dynamics showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) onto algal biomass followed the pseudo-second-order dynamics well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at the temperature ranges of 293-313 K.

  1. Improved methane production from brown algae under high salinity by fed-batch acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Here, a methanogenic microbial community was developed from marine sediments to have improved methane productivity from brown algae under high salinity. Fed-batch cultivation was conducted by adding dry seaweed at 1wt% total solid (TS) based on the liquid weight of the NaCl-containing sediment per round of cultivation. The methane production rate and level of salinity increased 8-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, at the 10th round of cultivation. Moreover, the rate of methane production remained high, even at the 10th round of cultivation, with accumulation of salts derived from 10wt% TS of seaweed. The salinity of the 10th-round culture was equivalent to 5% NaCl. The improved methane production was attributed to enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis because acetate became rapidly converted to methane during cultivation. The family Fusobacteriaceae and the genus Methanosaeta, the acetoclastic methanogen, predominated in bacteria and archaea, respectively, after the cultivation.

  2. Biosorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by brown algae: Equilibrium, dynamic and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahlavanzadeh, H., E-mail: pahlavzh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshtkar, A.R.; Safdari, J. [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365, 8486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadi, Z. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The biosorption characteristics of nickel(II) ions using the brown algae (Cystoseria indica, Nizmuddinia zanardini, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina australis) were investigated. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH level, contact time, initial metal concentration and temperature were studied. The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir adsorption model in the concentration range of nickel(II) ions and at all the temperatures studied. Evaluation of the experimental data in terms of biosorption dynamics showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) onto algal biomass followed the pseudo-second-order dynamics well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at the temperature ranges of 293-313 K.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics. PMID:26600756

  4. Direct quantification of brown algae-derived fucoidans in human plasma by a fluorescent probe assay

    CERN Document Server

    Warttinger, Ulrich; Harenberg, Job; Krämer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Fucoidan is a generic term for a class of fucose rich, structurally diverse sulfated polysaccharides that are found in brown algae and other marine organisms. Depending on the species from which the fucoidan is extracted, a wide variety of biological activities including antitumor, antiinflammatory, immune-modulating, antiviral, antibacterial and pro- and anticoagulant activities has been described. Fucoidans have the advantage of low toxicity and oral bioavailibiity and are viable drug candidates, preclinical and pilot clinical trials show promising results. The availability of robust assays, in particular for analysing the blood levels of fucoidan, is a fundamental requirement for pharmacokinetic analysis in drug development projects. This contribution describes the application of a commercially availbale, protein-free fluorescent probe assay (Heparin Red) for the direct quantification of several fucoidans (from Fucus vesiculosus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Undaria pinnatifida) in human plasma. By only minor...

  5. Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ehrig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%. Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81, fucose content (86.1% and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8 and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 μg/mL. Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP.

  6. Isolation and characterization of fucoidans from five brown algae and evaluation of their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guiyan; Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongfeng; Yuan, Yi; Han, Lijun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the chemical property and antioxidant activity of fucoidans isolated from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJF), Lessonia nigrescens (LNF), Lessonia trabeculata (LTF), Ascophyllum mackaii (AMF), and Ecklonia maxima (EMF). LJF was less in sulfate content (14.16%) and more in galactose and mannose content (1.08 and 0.68) than the documented early. EMF contained 20%-30% of sulfate and fucose, 0.97 in molar ratio which was lower than that of sulfate to other four fucoidans (1.21-1.41). AMF (162 kDa) and EMF (150 kDa) were the first two largest in molecular weight, which were followed by LJP (126 kDa), LNF (113 kDa) and LTF (105 kDa). The fucoidans isolated these algae showed a wide range of antioxidant activity in vitro. It was found that the reducing power of the isolated fucoidans was positively correlated with their sulfate content and molecular weight. In addition, LNF and LTF at low concentrations exhibited high superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. This demonstrated that low molecular weight fucoidans may perform a high antioxidant activity.

  7. Biosynthesis of antibacterial gold nanoparticles using brown alga, Stoechospermum marginatum (kützing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiya Aarthi Rajathi, F.; Parthiban, C.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Anantharaman, P.

    2012-12-01

    Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by brown alga, Stoechospermum marginatum biomasses through a green route was reported in this study. The formation of the gold nanoparticles was observed within 10 min. The properties of prepared nanoparticles were characterized by photoluminescence spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis and quantified by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be photoluminescent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by the presence of an absorption peak at 550 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. TEM image revealed that most of the particles are spherical in shape and some are hexagonal and triangle with size ranged from 18.7 to 93.7 nm. The nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and it was confirmed by XRD pattern and the presence of elemental gold (45.92%) was confirmed by WD-XRF. From the FTIR measurements it is noticed that the reduction has been carried out by hydroxyl groups present in the diterpenoids of the brown seaweed. Furthermore the biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be effective against bacterial pathogens.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BROWN ALGAE SARGASSUM SPECIES EXTRACTS FROM THE COASTLINE OF JAVA ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti A. Budhiyanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastlines with rocky shores at Java Island Indonesia, Gunung Kidul (Yogyakarta and Jepara (Central Java, have abundant resource of brown algae Sargassum sp. Little effort, however, has been made to explore the antioxidant potential of the algae harvested from these area. Tropical brown algae have proven to produce a very effective antioxidant defence system due to the strong UV radiation in the tropical environment. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC of the extracts were evaluated by using Follin Ciocalteau reagent, while antioxidant activities were evaluated by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrzyl Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH-RSA and Ferrous Ion-Chelating (FIC ability. The effects of treatments on TPC and antioxidant activities were analysed using analysis of variance models. There were four treatments and three replicates. These treatments were extract types (cytoplasmic and membrane bound, harvest sites (Gunung Kidul and Jepara, harvest seasons (dry and rainy and various Sargassum species. The TPC of extracts varied from 0.006-0.65 and 6.72-21.99 g phloroglucinol equivalent/100 g dried extract for cytoplasmic and membrane bound extract, respectively. The DPPH-RSA in extracts concentration of 0.45 mg mL-1 were in the range of 14.61-48.71 % for membrane bound and 0.17-44.05 % for cytoplasmic extracts. The FIC in extract concentration of 3.3 mg mL-1 were in the range of 2.0512.51 and 26.77-68.80 % for cytoplasmic and membrane bound extract, respectively. Nevertheless, these extracts had lower activity when compared with BHT and EDTA as positive control of RSA-DPPH and FIC, respectively. The antioxidant activities of Sargassum were influenced by types of extracts, harvest sites, seasons and species. The antioxidant activity of membrane bound was higher than cytoplasmic extract. The increasing of DPPH-RSA and FIC were proportional to TPC. The highest antioxidant activity was found at S. hystrix from Gunung Kidul area harvested during dry

  9. Different speciation for bromine in brown and red algae, revealed by in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample. The results highlight a diversity of fundamentally different bromine storage modes: while most of the stramenopile representatives and the dinoflagellate store mostly bromide, there is evidence for Br incorporated in nonaromatic hydrocarbons in Thalassiosira. Red algae operate various organic bromine stores - including a possible precursor (by the haloform reaction) for bromoform in Asparagopsis and aromatically bound Br in Polysiphonia and Corallina. Large fractions of the bromine in the red algae G. dura and C. crispus and the brown alga F. serratus are present as Br(-) defects in solid KCl, similar to what was reported earlier for Laminaria parts. These results are discussed according to different defensive strategies that are used within algal taxa to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:26988449

  10. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Jena, K.B.; Pise, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H sub(2) O sub(2) were measured as oxidative stress markers...

  11. Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta for Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaweman, A. C.; Pamungkas, J.; Madduppa, H.; Thoms, C.; Tarman, K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta macroalgae are important sources of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutically relevant antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral bioactivities. Oftentimes, these algae-derived compounds are, in fact, produced by endophytic fungi living inside the macroalgal tissue. Numerous studies have shown that endophytic fungi can produce a broad range of active metabolites such as terpenes, alkaloids, and quinones. The aim of the present study was to screen fungal strains isolated from a variety of Caulerpa spp., Halimeda spp., and Sargassum spp. for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thirteen morphologically different isolates were tested. Two of them showed pronounced activity against S. aureus in agar diffusion assays.

  12. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium meal in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae. The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%. The diets were given with or without enzyme supplementation. This resulted in 3 (preparation methods × 2 (concentrations of supplemented BMA, i.e. 3 and 6 % × 2 (with and without enzyme supplementation diet programs plus two control groups (with and without enzyme supplementation for a total of 14 treatments. Each treatment was represented by six replicates of five hens each. Sun dried or autocalved brown marine algae at 3% without enzyme supplementation in the laying hen diet could be fed to laying hens without any adverse effect on laying performance. However, enzyme supplementation to a diet containing 6% autocalved brown marine algae improved productive performance and eggshell quality.

  13. Dolabelladienols A–C, New Diterpenes Isolated from Brazilian Brown Alga Dictyota pfaffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Pardo-Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17-dolabelladiene (1, (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17-dolabelladiene (2, (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3, termed dolabelladienols A–C (1–3 respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4–6. The elucidation of the compounds 1–3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM, which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents.

  14. Dolabelladienols A-C, new diterpenes isolated from Brazilian brown alga Dictyota pfaffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; de Barcelos Oliveira, Ingrid; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; de Palmer Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A-C (1-3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4-6). The elucidation of the compounds 1-3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  15. Dolabelladienols A–C, New Diterpenes Isolated from Brazilian Brown Alga Dictyota pfaffii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; Oliveira, Ingrid de Barcelos; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A–C (1–3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4–6). The elucidation of the compounds 1–3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents. PMID:25056631

  16. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  17. A novel thyroglobulin-binding lectin from the brown alga Hizikia fusiformis and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingjiang; Tong, Changqing; Wu, Yue; Liu, Shuai; Li, Wei

    2016-06-15

    A lectin (HFL) was isolated from the brown alga, Hizikia fusiformis, through ion exchange on cellulose DE52 and HPLC with a TSK-gel G4000PWXL column. SDS-PAGE showed that HFL had a molecular mass of 16.1 kDa. The HPLC (with a TSK-gel G4000PWXL column) indicated that HFL is a tetramer in its native state. The total carbohydrate content was 41%. Glucose, galactose and fucose were the monosaccharide units of HFL, and the normalized mol% values were 6, 14 and 80, respectively. HFL contains a large amount of the acidic amino acid, Asx. The β-elimination reaction suggested that the oligosaccharide and peptide moieties of HFL may belong to the N-glucosidic linkage. The amino acid sequences, of about five segments of HFL, were acquired by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and the sequences have no homology with other lectins. HFL was found to agglutinate sheep erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by thyroglobulin, from bovine thyroid, but not by any of the monosaccharides tested. The lectin reaction was independent of the presence of the divalent cation Ca(2+). HFL showed free radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals. PMID:26868541

  18. Antioxidant Effects of Brown Algae Sargassum on Sperm Parameters: CONSORT-Compliant Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Alireza; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Natami, Mohammad; Fallahi, Soghra

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of oxidative stress during the sperm freeze-thaw cycles affects the sperm parameters and eventually leads to a decrease in its reproductive potential. Sperm protection against oxidative reactions during freezing is done by antioxidants. Since the selection of a suitable sperm cryopreservation bank is effective in maintaining acceptable reproductive potential and motility of sperm during cryopreservation.This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of different doses of the extract of brown algae Sargassum on oxidative stress and frozen human sperm parameters.We conducted a randomized controlled trial on the semen samples from 11 healthy men in the age group of 25 to 36 years. The samples were collected by masturbation after 3 to 5 days of abstinence from ejaculation. The specimens were divided into 3 equal parts, including 1 control group and 2 experimental groups.The 2 experimental groups were frozen using the rapid solidification technique with Sargassum extract at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL.Motility and morphology of sperms were measured using a computer system and CASA software and the amount of reactive oxygen species was determined using Oxisperm kit.Sargassum extract significantly decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (P Sargassum prevents reactive oxygen species production during the solidification process and improves sperm motility at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL. PMID:26717354

  19. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-09-08

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs.

  20. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae: A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivid Costa Soares

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL, and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs.

  1. Cytotoxic activity of some marine brown algae against cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Nabavi, Maryam; Sadati, Nargess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammadreza; Sohrabipour, Jelve; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad B; Ghaeli, Padideh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract of MeOH (70%) and partition fractions of hexan, chloroform (CHCL3), ethylacetate (EtOAc) and MeOH-H2O of brown algae species (Sargassum swartzii, Cystoseira myrica, Colpomenia sinuosa) found in the Persian Gulf against in different cell lines including HT-29, Caco-2, T47D, MDA-MB468 and NIH 3T3 cell lines by MTT and AnnexinV-PI assay. The hexan fraction of S. swartzii and C. myrica showed selective cytotoxicity against proliferation of Caco-2 cells (IC50 hexan fraction of C. myrica on T47D parent cells was lower than it was on T47D-TR cells (IC50 99.9 ± 8.11 vs. 143.15 ± 7.80). This finding suggests a role for the MDR-1 in the development of possible future tolerance to the extract. PMID:21157630

  2. 4-Acetoxydolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis as Antileishmanial Agent

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    Elizandra Aparecida Britta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural marine products have shown an interesting array of diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities. Our study reports the antiproliferative assays of crude extracts, fraction and pure compound (4R,9S,14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 obtained from brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis showing the antileishmanial activity. We showed that 1 had a dose-dependent activity during 72 h of treatment, exhibiting IC50 of 2.0 µg/mL, 12.0 µg/mL, and 4.0 µg/mL for promastigote, axenic amastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, respectively. A cytotoxicity assay showed that the action of the isolated compound 1 was 93.0 times less toxic to the macrophage than to the protozoan. Additionally, compound 1 induced ultrastructural changes, including extensive mitochondrial damage; decrease in Rh123 fluorescence, suggesting interference with the mitochondrial membrane potential; and lipid peroxidation in parasite cells. The use of 1 from C. cervicornis against L. amazonensis parasites might be of great interest as a future alternative to the development of new antileishmanial drugs.

  3. 4-Acetoxydolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis as Antileishmanial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Britta, Elizandra Aparecida; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2011-01-01

    Natural marine products have shown an interesting array of diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities. Our study reports the antiproliferative assays of crude extracts, fraction and pure compound (4R,9S,14S)-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15),7-diene (1) obtained from brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis showing the antileishmanial activity. We showed that 1 had a dose-dependent activity during 72 h of treatment, exhibiting IC50 of 2.0 μg/mL, 12.0 μg/mL, and 4.0 μg/mL for promastigote, axenic amastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, respectively. A cytotoxicity assay showed that the action of the isolated compound 1 was 93.0 times less toxic to the macrophage than to the protozoan. Additionally, compound 1 induced ultrastructural changes, including extensive mitochondrial damage; decrease in Rh123 fluorescence, suggesting interference with the mitochondrial membrane potential; and lipid peroxidation in parasite cells. The use of 1 from C. cervicornis against L. amazonensis parasites might be of great interest as a future alternative to the development of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:22163190

  4. Dolabelladienols A-C, new diterpenes isolated from Brazilian brown alga Dictyota pfaffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vargas, Alonso; de Barcelos Oliveira, Ingrid; Stephens, Paulo Roberto Soares; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; de Palmer Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Resende, Jackson Antonio Lamounier Camargos; Teixeira, Valeria Laneuville; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-07-23

    The marine brown alga Dictyota pfaffii from Atol das Rocas, in Northeast Brazil is a rich source of dolabellane diterpene, which has the potential to be used in future antiviral drugs by inhibiting reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1. Reexamination of the minor diterpene constituents yielded three new dolabellane diterpenes, (1R*,2E,4R*,7S,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (1), (1R*,2E,4R*,7R*,10S*,11S*,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8(17)-dolabelladiene (2), (1R*,2E,4R*,8E,10S*,11S,12R*)10,18-diacetoxy-7-hydroxy-2,8-dolabelladiene (3), termed dolabelladienols A-C (1-3) respectively, in addition to the known dolabellane diterpenes (4-6). The elucidation of the compounds 1-3 was assigned by 1D and 2D NMR, MS, optical rotation and molecular modeling, along with the relative configuration of compound 4 and the absolute configuration of 5 by X-ray diffraction. The potent anti-HIV-1 activities displayed by compounds 1 and 2 (IC50 = 2.9 and 4.1 μM), which were more active than even the known dolabelladienetriol 4, and the low cytotoxic activity against MT-2 lymphocyte tumor cells indicated that these compounds are promising anti-HIV-1 agents.

  5. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  6. Potential antibacterial and antioxidant properties of a sulfated polysaccharide from the brown marine algae Sargassum swartzii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pandian Vijayabaskar; Noormohamed Vaseela; Ganapathy Thirumaran

    2012-01-01

    AIMS:Sulfated polysaccharide extracted from the brown algae Sargassum swartzii was studied for antioxidant potential.METHODS:The extracted sulfated polysaccharide was analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics,TAC,reducing power,free radical scavenging potentials (DPPH,ABTS,H2O2 radical) and antibacterial properties.RESULTS:The extract showed a high percentage of carbohydrate (7.40 ± 0.63) %,followed by sulfate (5.3 ± 1.54) %.The highest antioxidant activity was observed in ABTS (55 ± 3.61)%,followed by H2O2 (47.23 ± 2.81)% and DPPH (25.33 ± 2.52) %; significant differences were observed at (P ≥ 0.05).Among the ten human pathogenic strains tested,E.coli was the more sensitive.The characterization and mobility of the sulfated polysaccharide was examined by the FT-IR spectrum and assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis which showed highest mobility at higher pH buffer in carbonate-bicarbonate (pH 10) buffer.The molecular weight of the sulfated polysaccharide was determined by gradient PAGE and was found to be 50 KDa.Finally,GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to dimethyl-4-nitroaniline (26.34%).CONCLUSIONS:It is suggested that the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum swartzii could be a better source of natural antioxidant,as well as an antibacterial agent.

  7. DNA variation in the phenotypically-diverse brown alga Saccharina japonica

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    Balakirev Evgeniy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharina japonica (Areschoug Lane, Mayes, Druehl et Saunders is an economically important and highly morphologically variable brown alga inhabiting the northwest Pacific marine waters. On the basis of nuclear (ITS, plastid (rbcLS and mitochondrial (COI DNA sequence data, we have analyzed the genetic composition of typical Saccharina japonica (TYP and its two common morphological varieties, known as the “longipes” (LON and “shallow-water” (SHA forms seeking to clarify their taxonomical status and to evaluate the possibility of cryptic species within S. japonica. Results The data show that the TYP and LON forms are very similar genetically in spite of drastic differences in morphology, life history traits, and ecological preferences. Both, however, are genetically quite different from the SHA form. The two Saccharina lineages are distinguished by 109 fixed single nucleotide differences as well as by seven fixed length polymorphisms (based on a 4,286 bp concatenated dataset that includes three gene regions. The GenBank database reveals a close affinity of the TYP and LON forms to S. japonica and the SHA form to S. cichorioides. The three gene markers used in the present work have different sensitivity for the algal species identification. COI gene was the most discriminant gene marker. However, we have detected instances of interspecific COI recombination reflecting putative historical hybridization events between distantly related algal lineages. The recombinant sequences show highly contrasted level of divergence in the 5’- and 3’- regions of the gene, leading to significantly different tree topologies depending on the gene segment (5’- or 3’- used for tree reconstruction. Consequently, the 5’-COI “barcoding” region (~ 650 bp can be misleading for identification purposes, at least in the case of algal species that might have experienced historical hybridization events. Conclusion Taking into account

  8. Phlorotannins from Brown Algae: inhibition of advanced glycation end products formation in high glucose induced Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakambari, Ganeshan; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Varalakshmi, Perumal

    2015-06-01

    Advanced Glycation End products (AGE) generated in a non enzymatic protein glycation process are frequently associated with diabetes, aging and other chronic diseases. Here, we explored the protective effect of phlorotannins from brown algae Padina pavonica, Sargassum polycystum and Turbinaria ornata against AGEs formation. Phlorotannins were extracted from brown algae with methanol and its purity was analyzed by TLC and RP-HPLC-DAD. Twenty five grams of P. pavonica, S. polycystum, T. ornata yielded 27.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml, 37.7 μg/ml and 37.1 ± 0.74 μg/ml of phloroglucinol equivalent of phlorotannins, respectively. Antioxidant potentials were examined through DPPH assay and their IC50 values were P. pavonica (30.12 ± 0.99 μg), S. polycystum (40.9 ± 1.2 μg) and T. ornata (22.9 ± 1.3 μg), which was comparatively lesser than the control ascorbic acid (46 ± 0.2 μg). Further, anti-AGE activity was examined in vitro by BSA-glucose assay with the extracted phlorotannins of brown algae (P. pavonica, 15.16 ± 0.26 μg/ml; S. polycystum, 35.245 ± 2.3 μg/ml; T. ornata, 22.7 ± 0.3 μg/ml), which revealed the required concentration to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (IC50) were lower for extracts than controls (phloroglucinol, 222.33 ± 4.9 μg/ml; thiamine, 263 μg/ml). Furthermore, brown algal extracts containing phlorotannins (100 μl) exhibited protective effects against AGE formation in vivo in C. elegans with induced hyperglycemia. PMID:26155677

  9. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae.

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    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs. The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

  10. Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Sargassum mcclurei

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    Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35% galactofucan, and the main chain of the polysaccharide contains a →3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3−-(1→ motif with 1,4-linked 3-sulfated α-l-Fucp inserts and 6-linked galactose on reducing end. Possible branching points include the 1,2,6- or 1,3,6-linked galactose and/or 1,3,4-linked fucose residues that could be glycosylated with terminal β-d-Galp residues or chains of alternating sulfated 1,3-linked α-l-Fucp and 1,4-linked β-d-Galp residues, which have been identified in galactofucans for the first time. Both α-l-Fucp and β-d-Galp residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 (and some C-6 of β-d-Galp and potentially the C-3 of terminal β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp and 1,4-linked α-l-Fucp residues. All fucoidans fractions were less cytotoxic and displayed colony formation inhibition in colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions are potential antitumor agents.

  11. Shewanella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoo, Han-Su; Lee, Dong-Heon; Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium motile by means of a single polar flagella, strain ST-6T, was isolated from a brown alga (Sargassum thunbergii) collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Strain ST-6T was psychrotolerant, growing at 4-30 °C (optimum 20 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences revealed that strain ST-6T belonged to a distinct lineage in the genus Shewanella. Strain ST-6T was related most closely to Shewanella basaltis J83T, S. gaetbuli TF-27T, S. arctica IT12T, S. vesiculosa M7T and S. aestuarii SC18T, showing 96-97 % and 85-70 % 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ST-6T and the type strains of two species of the genus Shewanella were 5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/ or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, iso-C13:0 and C17:1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain ST-6Twas 42.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone MK-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain ST-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST-6T (= KCTC 23253T = JCM 31091T). PMID:26962005

  12. Rapid Mass Spectrometric Analysis of a Novel Fucoidan, Extracted from the Brown Alga Coccophora langsdorfii

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    Stanislav D. Anastyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel highly sulfated (35% fucoidan fraction Cf2 , which contained, along with fucose, galactose and traces of xylose and uronic acids was purified from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii. Its structural features were predominantly determined (in comparison with fragments of known structure by a rapid mass spectrometric investigation of the low-molecular-weight fragments, obtained by “mild” (5 mg/mL and “exhaustive” (maximal concentration autohydrolysis. Tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS of fucooligosaccharides with even degree of polymerization (DP, obtained by “mild” autohydrolysis, were the same as that observed for fucoidan from Fucus evanescens, which have a backbone of alternating (1 → 3- and (1 → 4 linked sulfated at C-2 and sometimes at C-4 of 3-linked α-L-Fucp residues. Fragmentation patterns of oligosaccharides with odd DP indicated sulfation at C-2 and at C-4 of (1 → 3 linked α-L-Fucp residues on the reducing terminus. Minor sulfation at C-3 was also suggested. The “exhaustive” autohydrolysis allowed us to observe the “mixed” oligosaccharides, built up of fucose/xylose and fucose/galactose. Xylose residues were found to occupy both the reducing and nonreducing termini of FucXyl disaccharides. Nonreducing galactose residues as part of GalFuc disaccharides were found to be linked, possibly, by 2-type of linkage to fucose residues and were found to be sulfated, most likely, at position C-2.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China); Zou, Huixi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pang, Qiuying, E-mail: qiuying@nefu.edu.cn [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival.

  14. The Tropical Brown Alga Lobophora variegata: A Source of Antiprotozoal Compounds

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    Zulema Cantillo-Ciau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobophora variegata, a brown alga collected from the coast of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, was studied for antiprotozoal activity against Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The whole extract showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 3.2 mg/mL. For the fractions, the best antiprotozoal activity was found in non-polar fractions. The chloroform fraction of the extract contained a major sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG, identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6´´´-sulfo-a-D-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (1, together with small amounts of 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6´´´-sulfo-a-D-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (2 and a new compound identified as 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(6´´´-sulfo-a-D-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and careful analysis of FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SQDGs from L. variegata. The mixture of 1–3 showed good activity against E. histolytica and moderate activity against T. vaginalis with IC50s of 3.9 and 8.0 mg/mL, respectively, however, the activity of 1–3 is not as effective as metronidazole. These results afford ground information for the potential use of the whole extract and fractions of this species in protozoal infections.

  15. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the enumeration of brown tide algae Aureococcusanophagefferens in coastal waters of Qinhuangdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; LIU Yongjian; ZHANG Qi; YUAN Xiutang; ZHANG Weiwei; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens, a small pelagophyte algae, has caused brown tide blooms in coastal waters of Qinhua-ngdao in recent years, presenting significant negative impacts on the shellfish mariculture industry. Under standard light microscopy, it is visually indistinguishable from other small algae in field samples due to its extremely small size. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on 18S rDNA sequences was developed and used to detect and enumerate A. anophagefferens. A linear regression (R2=0.91) was generated based on cycle thr-esholds value (Ct) versus known concentrations of A. anophagefferens. Twenty-two field samples collected in coastal waters of Qinhuangdao were subjected to DNA extraction and then analyzed using qPCR. Results showed that A. anophagefferens had a wide distribution in coastal waters along Qinhuangdao. Elevated A. anophagefferens abun-dance, category 3 brown tide blooms (>200 000 cells/mL) occurred at Dongshan Beach and Tiger-stone Beach in August in 2013. In shellfish mariculture areas along coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, 4 stations had category 3 blooms, and 6 stations had category 2 blooms (35 000–200 000 cells/mL) in August and all stations had category 1 blooms (>0 to ≤35 000 cells/mL) in October. Quantitative PCR allows for detection of A. anophagefferens cells at low levels in filed samples, which is essential to effective management and prediction of brown tide blooms.

  16. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  17. The Cultivable Surface Microbiota of the Brown Alga Ascophyllum nodosum is Enriched in Macroalgal-Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marjolaine; Barbeyron, Tristan; Martin, Renee; Portetelle, Daniel; Michel, Gurvan; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysaccharides do not accumulate in nature, these bacteria and their unique polysaccharidases must not be that uncommon. We, therefore, looked at the polysaccharide-degrading activity of the cultivable bacterial subpopulation associated with Ascophyllum nodosum. From A. nodosum triplicates, 324 bacteria were isolated and taxonomically identified. Out of these isolates, 78 (~25%) were found to act on at least one tested algal polysaccharide (agar, ι- or κ-carrageenan, or alginate). The isolates "active" on algal-polysaccharides belong to 11 genera: Cellulophaga, Maribacter, Algibacter, and Zobellia in the class Flavobacteriia (41) and Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Cobetia, Shewanella, Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Paraglaceciola in the class Gammaproteobacteria (37). A major part represents likely novel species. Different proportions of bacterial phyla and classes were observed between the isolated cultivable subpopulation and the total microbial community previously identified on other brown algae. Here, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be the most abundant and some phyla (as Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria) frequently encountered on brown algae weren't identified. At a lower taxonomic level, twelve genera, well-known to be associated with algae (with the exception for Colwellia), were consistently found on all three A. nosodum samples. Even more interesting, 9 of the 11 above mentioned genera containing polysaccharolytic isolates were predominant in this common core. The cultivable fraction of

  18. The cultivable surface microbiota of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine eMartin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysaccharides do not accumulate in nature, these bacteria and their unique polysaccharidases must not be that uncommon. We, therefore, looked at the polysaccharide-degrading activity of the cultivable bacterial subpopulation associated with Ascophyllum nodosum. From A. nodosum triplicates, 324 bacteria were isolated and taxonomically identified. Out of these isolates, 78 (~25% were found to act on at least one tested algal polysaccharide (agar, ι- or κ-carrageenan, or alginate. The isolates active on algal-polysaccharides belong to 11 genera: Cellulophaga, Maribacter, Algibacter, and Zobellia in the class Flavobacteriia (41 and Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Cobetia, Shewanella, Colwellia, Marinomonas, and Paraglaceciola in the class Gammaproteobacteria (37. A major part represents likely novel species. Different proportions of bacterial phyla and classes were observed between the isolated cultivable subpopulation and the total microbial community previously identified on other brown algae. Here, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be the most abundant and some phyla (as Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria frequently encountered on brown algae weren’t identified. At a lower taxonomic level, twelve genera, well-known to be associated with algae (with the exception for Colwellia, were consistently found on all three A. nosodum samples. Even more interesting, 9 of the 11 above mentioned genera containing polysaccharolytic isolates were predominant in this common core. The

  19. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación

    2003-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  20. Enemy release an unlikely explanation for the invasive potential of the brown alga Sargassum muticum: experimental results, literature review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Johnsen, Kathrine L.; L. Halle, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The enemy release hypothesis predicts that non indigenous species (NIS) are released from natural enemies (e.g. grazers etc.) in their new environment, thus facilitating invasion. Sargassum muticum is a conspicuous and successful invasive brown alga and several studies have investigated...... species of algae and 14 species of invertebrate grazers. Meta-analysis on these data showed the same overall trend as observed in our experiments; S. muticum is generally consumed at the same rate or faster than other thick, leathery and canopy-forming algae, which are assumed to constitute the major...

  1. Diversity of thraustochytrid protists isolated from brown alga, Sargassum cinereum using 18S rDNA sequencing and their morphological response to heavy metals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, V.S.

    matter and pollution. To study their response to heavy metal pollution, they were isolated from the brown alga Sargassum cinereum from the coastal waters of Dona Paula, Goa, India. A total of 22 isolates were obtained from two samples collected during...

  2. AN IN VITRO STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF SULFATED POLYSACCHARIDE FROM BROWN ALGAE TO ITS ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN FENG HU; MEI YU GENG; JUN TIAN ZHANG; HAN DONG JIANG

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the structure-activity relationships of chemically modified uronic acid polymer fragments from brown algae with regard to their antioxidant effects on H2O2-damaged lymphocyte were studied. The results indicated that the most potent antioxidant activity was obtained from the sulfated polysaccharide with ratio of mannuronate blocks (M-blocks) to guluronate blocks (G-blocks) of 3 to 1 and carboxyl residue unesterified. The sulfated G-blocks with esterified carboxyl residue also prevented lymphocyte from injury. However, the sulfated G-blocks bearing unesterified carboxyl residue hardly exerted antioxidant activity. These findings suggested that both M-blocks and esterified carboxyl residue were determinant structures in preventing lymphocyte from being oxidized by H2O2, indicating that the existence of M-blocks was more important in scavenging free radicals.

  3. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL. PMID:26728965

  4. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL.

  5. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  6. Chukchia pedicellata gen. et sp. nov. and C. endophytica nov. comb., arctic endemic brown algae (Phaeophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilce, Robert; Pedersen, Poul Møller; Sekida, S.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the north Alaskan brown algal epiphyte Chukchia pedicellata sp. nov. suggests an apparently close relationship to Phaeostroma. Phaeostroma endophyticum S. Lund from east Greenland, Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, shows generic identity with Chukchia and specific differences from C. pedice...

  7. BIOACTIVITY OF PROTEIN FRACTION IN BROWN ALGAE, Turbinaria decurrens, AS ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dali, Seniwati; Natsir, Hasnah; Usman, Hanapi; Ahmad, Ahyar

    2013-01-01

    A research on the ability of protein fraction from chocolate algae Turbinaria decurrens in territorial of South Sulawesi to inhibit the growth of Salmonella thypi and Staphylococcus aureus has been conducted. Proteins was fractionated from the whole extract using salting out method with 0-20%, 20-40%, 40-60% and 60-80% ammonium sulphate saturation. Protein was purified by a dialysis method using a selophan membrane. The protein level was determined by a Lowry method, the highest protein conce...

  8. Molecular phylogeny of two unusual brown algae, Phaeostrophion irregulare and Platysiphon glacialis, proposal of the Stschapoviales ord. nov. and Platysiphonaceae fam. nov., and a re-examination of divergence times for brown algal orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Draisma, Stefano G A; Wilce, Robert T; Andersen, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    The molecular phylogeny of brown algae was examined using concatenated DNA sequences of seven chloroplast and mitochondrial genes (atpB, psaA, psaB, psbA, psbC, rbcL, and cox1). The study was carried out mostly from unialgal cultures; we included Phaeostrophion irregulare and Platysiphon glacialis because their ordinal taxonomic positions were unclear. Overall, the molecular phylogeny agreed with previously published studies, however, Platysiphon clustered with Halosiphon and Stschapovia and was paraphyletic with the Tilopteridales. Platysiphon resembled Stschapovia in showing remarkable morphological changes between young and mature thalli. Platysiphon, Halosiphon and Stschapovia also shared parenchymatous, terete, erect thalli with assimilatory filaments in whorls or on the distal end. Based on these results, we proposed a new order Stschapoviales and a new family Platysiphonaceae. We proposed to include Phaeostrophion in the Sphacelariales, and we emended the order to include this foliose member. Finally, using basal taxa not included in earlier studies, the origin and divergence times for brown algae were re-investigated. Results showed that the Phaeophyceae branched from Schizocladiophyceae ~260 Ma during the Permian Period. The early diverging brown algae had isomorphic life histories, whereas the derived taxa with heteromorphic life histories evolved 155-110 Ma when they branched from the basal taxa. Based on these results, we propose that the development of heteromorphic life histories and their success in the temperate and cold-water regions was induced by the development of the remarkable seasonality caused by the breakup of Pangaea. Most brown algal orders had diverged by roughly 60 Ma, around the last mass extinction event during the Cretaceous Period, and therefore a drastic climate change might have triggered the divergence of brown algae. PMID:26986888

  9. Annual variation of stable iodine in brown sea algae (hijiki, Hizikia fusiforme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Kitao, K.; Izawa, G.; Omori, T.; Yoshihara, K.

    1987-03-01

    The amount of radioecologically significant iodine in sea algae was determined during the period from June 1982 to May 1983, applying the PIXE method. Parallel analyses were carried out on aliquot samples by two PIXE systems one at Tohoku University and one at NIRS. The results of the two systems for the corresponding samples were reasonably analogous. The annual mean value was 190 ppm in dry matter. The pattern suggested that the content of stable iodine changed periodically, showing three maxima: in September, March and May. The highest value was found in March (430 ppm in dry matter), whereas the lowest was found in December (95 ppm), the variation factor being nearly 4.5 in magnitude. This variation was not caused by the change of tide and currents in the environment nor by the physiological activities of the algae under natural conditions, but rather by the effect of harvestings for commercial foods. This detailed information on stable iodine can possibly provide the amount of its radioisotopes. which, as is currently expected in the field of radioecology, is necessary for a more precise evaluation of radiation doses.

  10. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 1. Interactive effects on photosynthesis, growth, and copper accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Solène; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-07-01

    The effect of copper enrichment and salinity on growth, photosynthesis and copper accumulation of two temperate brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, was investigated in laboratory experiments. A significant negative impact of reduced salinity on photosynthetic activity and growth was observed for both species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, photosynthesis of A. nodosum was entirely inhibited and growth ceased at a salinity of 15. Increased copper concentration negatively affected photosynthetic activity of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus resulting in chlorosis and reduced seaweed growth; 5 mg L⁻¹ copper caused an inhibition of the photosynthesis and the degradation of seaweed tips. Under reduced salinity, copper toxicity was enhanced and caused an earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. After exposure to copper and different salinities for 15 days, copper contents of seaweeds were closely related to copper concentration in the water; seaweed copper contents reached their maximum after 1 day of exposure; contents only increased again when additional, free copper was added to the water. At high water copper concentrations or low salinity, or a combination of both, copper content of A. nodosum decreased. By contrast, copper content of F. vesiculosus increased, suggesting that different binding sites or uptake mechanisms exist in the two species. The results suggest that when using brown seaweeds in biomonitoring in situ, any change in the environment will directly and significantly affect algal physiology and thus their metal binding capacity; the assessment of the physiological status of the algae in combination with the analysis of thallus metal content will enhance the reliability of the biomonitoring process. PMID:21549661

  11. Concentrations and concentration factors of heavy metals in brown algae. [Fucus vesiculosus; Ascophyllum nodosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, P.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations and concentration factors of zinc, copper, manganese and nickel in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected from the Menai Straits are presented. Temporal variations in dissolved trace metal concentrations to which these algae are exposed have been intensively monitored for several years. Algal concentrations are compared with those of similar samples taken from a highly polluted area. Both species are recommended as potential biological indicators for copper. F. vesiculosus is the more sensitive to increases in the mean ambient dissolved concentrations of zinc. For neither species does a direct relationship exist between concentrations of iron and manganese in the weeds and water. Algal concentrations of cadmium, lead and chromium are also discussed. In highly polluted environments algal concentrations of minor elements do not reflect the water concentrations to which they have been exposed.

  12. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    makes this alga particularly attractive for the development of new natural antioxidants. While the in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts are widely studied, studies evaluating the antioxidant efficacy of such extracts in food and skin care products are scarce. This PhD study...... investigated the possibilities of using extracts from Nordic F. vesiculosus as natural antioxidants in food and skin care products. All tested food products were fortified with fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil was added specifically in order to examine the effectiveness......, and how each specific phlorotannin contributed to the overall antioxidant activity. All extracts examined and also the phlorotannin-rich fraction were somewhat able to improve the oxidative stability of the food and skin care products. The effectiveness of these extracts was to a large degree dependant...

  13. Potential Use of Polysaccharides from the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida as Anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Faggio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida is a highly invasive species and has caused concern all over the world because it has invaded coastal environments, has the potential to displace native species, significantly alters habitat for associated fauna, and disturbs navigation. Any attempt to eradicate it would be futile, owing to the elusive, microscopic gametophyte, and because the alga thrives in sites rich in anthropic activities. Venice Lagoon is the largest Mediterranean transitional environment and the spot of the highest introduction of non-indigenous species, including U. pinnatifida, which is removed as a waste. We demonstrated that polysaccharide extracts from U. pinnatifida have an anticoagulant effect on human blood in vitro and are not cytotoxic. The results obtained by PT (normal values 70-120% and APTT (normal values 28-40s assays were significantly prolonged by the polysaccharide extracts of U. pinnatifida, therefore algal extracts are ideal candidates as antithrombotic agents.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of a new compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Myung; Lee, Seung-Hong; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the natural antioxidative compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol (PPB) isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava was assessed in vitro by measuring the radical scavenging activities (DPPH, alkyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide) using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, and DNA damage assay. According to the results of these experiments, the scavengin...

  15. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies on aluminum biosorption from aqueous solution by brown algae (Padina pavonica) biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies on aluminum biosorption from aqueous solution by brown algae (Padina pavonica) biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were determined as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of Al(III) by P. pavonica biomass. The biosorption capacity of P. pavonica biomass was found as 77.3 mg/g. The metal ions were desorbed from P. pavonica using 1 M HCl. The high stability of P. pavonica permitted a slight decrease about 20% in the recovery of Al(III) ions after 10 times of adsorption-elution process. The mean free energy value evaluated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of Al(III) onto P. pavonica biomass was taken place by chemical ion exchange. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo showed that the biosorption of Al(III) onto P. pavonica biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data was also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Al(III) onto P. pavonica biomass followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  16. Circadian rhythms in the growth and reproduction of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida and gametogenesis under different photoperiods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhihuai; PANG Shaojun

    2007-01-01

    Circadian growth rhythm of the juvenile sporophyte of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida was measured with the computer-aided image analysis system in constant florescent white light under constant temperature ( 10 ℃ ). The growth rhythm persisted for 4 d in constant light with a free-running period of 25.6 h. Egg release from filamentous gametophytes pre-cultured in the light - dark regime was evaluated for six consecutive days at fixed time intervals in constant white light and 12 h light per day. Egg release rhythm persisted for 3 d in both regimes, indicating the endogenous nature. Temporal scale of egg release and gametogenesis in 18, 16, 12 and 8 h light per day were evaluated respectively using vegetatively propagated filamentous gametophytes. Egg release occurred 2 h after the onset of dark phase and peaked at midnight. Evaluation of the rates of oogonium formation, egg release or fertilization revealed no significant differences in four light-dark regimes, indicating the great plasticity of sexual reproduction. No photoperiodic effect in gametogenesis in terms of oogonium formation and egg release was found, but fertilization in short days was significantly higher than in long days. Results of this investigation further confirmed the general occurrence of circadian rhythms in intertidal seaweed species.

  17. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  18. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  19. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren, (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...

  20. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Creis

    Full Text Available A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70, which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast, which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo, which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of

  1. Biosorption of chromium(III) by two Brown algae macrocystis pyrifera and undaria pinnatifida: equilibrium and kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazon, Josefina Plaza H.; Benitez, Leonardo; Donati, Edgardo; Viera, Marisa [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 y 115 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    Two brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida, were employed to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Both seaweeds were characterized in terms of alginate yields. The alginate contents were 20 and 30% of the dry weight for M. pyrifera and U. pinnatifida, respectively. Kinetics experiments were carried out at different initial pH values. Cr(III) biosorption was affected by the solution pH. The highest metal uptake was found at pH 4 for both biosorbents. Different models were applied to elucidate the rate-controlling mechanism: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion. The application of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models to the equilibrium data showed a better fitting to the first model. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity (q{sub m}) and the affinity coefficient (b) were very similar for both biosorbents: 0.77 mmol/g and 1.20 L/mmol for M. pyrifera and 0.74 mmol/g and 1.06 L/mmol for U. pinnatifida. The free energy of the sorption process was estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The values indicate that the processes are chemical sorptions. To evaluate the significance of the ion-exchange mechanism, the light metals (Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} and K{sup +}) and pH were measured during the experiments. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  3. Vitamin B12, a chlorophyll-related analog to pheophytin a from marine brown algae, promotes neurite outgrowth and stimulates differentiation in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ina, Atsutoshi; Kamei, Yuto

    2006-01-01

    We previously isolated an analog to chlorophyll-related compounds, pheophytin a, from the marine brown alga Sargassum fulvellum and demonstrated that it is a neurodifferentiation compound. In the current study, we investigated the effects of the pheophytin a analog vitamin B12 on PC12 cell differentiation. In the presence of a low level of nerve growth factor (10 ng ml−1), vitamin B12 demonstrated neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in PC12 cells. The effect was dose-dependent in the range o...

  4. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  5. Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations. Cylindrical specimens (100 mm x 200 mm were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO2 for 120 days. The compressive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control.Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración. Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm x 200 mm fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO2 por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control.

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Jeddah corniche algae, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amoudi, Omar A.; Mutawie, Hawazin H.; Patel, Asmita V.; Blunden, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57....

  7. Quantitative reproduction and reproductive effort by stands of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis in South-eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, R.

    1986-04-01

    Quantitative variation in reproduction by the perennial brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis was examined around the coast of Nova Scotia. Annual reproductive effort is defined as the proportion of net annual production which is invested in reproduction. This is distinct from the reproductive proportion of biomass, which is the annual reproduction as a proportion of the total standing crop including vegetative growth from previous years. Variation in reproduction around the coast was considerable, but did not appear to follow any directional trends. With increasing shelter from wave action the reproductive standing crop showed a marked increase, whereas annual reproductive effort decreased. No clear trend in reproductive effort was found with shore level. Overall, there was a decrease in reproductive effort with increasing standing crop and the raising of the algal canopy. This is discussed in relation to the intensity of competition.

  8. Oxidative stability and microstructure of 5% fish-oil-enriched granola bars added natural antioxidants derived from brown algaFucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadağ, Ayşe; Hermund, Ditte Baun; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard;

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to; 1) investigate the ability of Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation in granola bars fortified with fish oil-in-water emulsion; 2) investigate whether addition of the seaweed extracts affected the physical microstructure...... of the oil droplets in granola bars. The oxidative stability of the bars at 20°C was evaluated over a period of 10 weeks by measuring the development of peroxides and volatile compounds using dynamic headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (DHS GC-MS). The physical microstructure was determined using...... microscopy. All extracts - except water extract in low concentration - reduced lipid oxidation during 10 weeks of storage when added in a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g extract/100 g emulsion. EE and AE (in the lowest concentration) were found to be most efficient as antioxidants in the bars. The antioxidant...

  9. Waterborne signaling primes the expression of elicitor-induced genes and buffers the oxidative responses in the brown alga Laminaria digitata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Thomas

    Full Text Available As marine sessile organisms, seaweeds must respond efficiently to biotic and abiotic challenges in their natural environment to reduce the fitness consequences of wounds and oxidative stress. This study explores the early steps of the defense responses of a large marine brown alga (the tangle kelp Laminaria digitata and investigates its ability to transmit a warning message to neighboring conspecifics. We compared the early responses to elicitation with oligoguluronates in laboratory-grown and harvested wild individuals of L. digitata. We followed the release of H₂O₂ and the concomitant production of volatile organic compounds. We also monitored the kinetics of expression of defense-related genes following the oxidative burst. Laboratory-grown algae were transplanted in kelp habitats to further evaluate their responses to elicitation after a transient immersion in natural seawater. In addition, a novel conditioning procedure was established to mimic field conditions in the laboratory. Our experiments showed that L. digitata integrates waterborne cues present in the kelp bed and/or released from elicited neighboring plants. Indeed, the exposure to elicited conspecifics changes the patterns of oxidative burst and volatile emissions and potentiates this kelp for faster induction of genes specifically regulated in response to oligoguluronates. Thus, waterborne signals shape the elicitor-induced responses of kelps through a yet unknown mechanism reminiscent of priming in land plants.

  10. Development and application of a monoclonal-antibody technique for counting Aureococcus anophagefferens, an alga causing recurrent brown tides in the Mid-Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, David A; Dennett, Mark R; Moran, Dawn M; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Lonsdale, Darcy J; Gobler, Christopher J; Nuzzi, Robert; McLean, Tim I

    2003-09-01

    A method was developed for the rapid detection and enumeration of Aureococcus anophagefferens, the cause of harmful algal blooms called "brown tides" in estuaries of the Mid-Atlantic United States. The method employs a monoclonal antibody (MAb) and a colorimetric, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. The MAb obtained exhibits high reactivity with A. anophagefferens and very low cross-reactivities with a phylogenetically diverse array of other protists and bacteria. Standard curves are constructed for each 96-well microtiter plate by using known amounts of a preserved culture of A. anophagefferens. This approach allows estimation of the abundance of the alga in natural samples. The MAb method was compared to an existing method that employs polyclonal antibodies and epifluorescence microscopy and to direct microscopic counts of A. anophagefferens in samples with high abundances of the alga. The MAb method provided increased quantitative accuracy and greatly reduced sample processing time. A spatial survey of several Long Island estuaries in May 2000 using this new approach documented a range of abundances of A. anophagefferens in these bays spanning nearly 3 orders of magnitude.

  11. Aqueous Extracts of the Marine Brown Alga Lobophora variegata Inhibit HIV-1 Infection at the Level of Virus Entry into Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan

    2014-08-21

    In recent years, marine algae have emerged as a rich and promising source of molecules with potent activities against various human pathogens. The widely distributed brown alga Lobophora variegata that is often associated with tropical coral reefs exerts strong antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects, but so far has not been associated with specific anti-viral activities. This study investigated potential HIV-1 inhibitory activity of L. variegata collected from different geographical regions, using a cell-based full replication HIV-1 reporter assay. Aqueous L. variegata extracts showed strong inhibitory effects on several HIV-1 strains, including drug-resistant and primary HIV-1 isolates, and protected even primary cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infection. Anti-viral potency was related to ecological factors and showed clear differences depending on light exposition or epiphyte growth. Assays addressing early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle indicated that L. variegata extracts inhibited entry of HIV-1 into cells at a pre-fusion step possibly by impeding mobility of virus particles. Further characterization of the aqueous extract demonstrated that even high doses had only moderate effects on viability of cultured and primary cells (PBMCs). Imaging-based techniques revealed extract effects on the plasma membrane and actin filaments as well as induction of apoptosis at concentrations exceeding EC50 of anti-HIV-1 activity by more than 400 fold. In summary, we show for the first time that L. variegata extracts inhibit HIV-1 entry, thereby suggesting this alga as promising source for the development of novel HIV-1 inhibitors.

  12. A simple and effective method for high quality co-extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA from low biomass Ectocarpus siliculosus, the model brown alga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Greco

    Full Text Available The brown seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus is an emerging model species distributed worldwide in temperate coastal ecosystems. Over 1500 strains of E. siliculosus are available in culture from a broad range of geographic locations and ecological niches. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its capacity to cope with different environmental and biotic stressors, genomic and transcriptomic studies are necessary; this requires the co-isolation of genomic DNA and total RNA. In brown algae, extraction of nucleic acids is hindered by high concentrations of secondary metabolites that co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Here, we propose a reliable, rapid and cost-effective procedure for the co-isolation of high-quality nucleic acids using small quantities of biomass (25-, 50- and 100 mg from strains of E. siliculosus (RHO12; LIA4A; EC524 and REP10-11 isolated from sites with different environmental conditions. The procedure employs a high pH extraction buffer (pH 9.5 which contains 100 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl, with the addition of 5 mM DTT and 1% sarkosyl to ensure maximum solubility of nucleic acids, effective inhibition of nuclease activity and removal of interfering contaminants (e.g. polysaccharides, polyphenols. The use of sodium acetate together with isopropanol shortened precipitation time and enhanced the yields of DNA/RNA. A phenol:chlorophorm:isoamyl alcohol step was subsequently used to purify the nucleic acids. The present protocol produces high yields of nucleic acids from only 25 mg of fresh algal biomass (0.195 and 0.284 µg mg(-1 fresh weigh of RNA and DNA, respectively and the high quality of the extracted nucleic acids was confirmed through spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analyses. The isolated RNA can be used directly in downstream applications such as RT-PCR and the genomic DNA was suitable for PCR, producing reliable restriction enzyme digestion patterns. Co-isolation of DNA/RNA from different strains indicates

  13. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  14. The genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus contains a series of viral DNA pieces, suggesting an ancient association with large dsDNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boland Wilhelm

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectocarpus siliculosus virus-1 (EsV-1 is a lysogenic dsDNA virus belonging to the super family of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV that infect Ectocarpus siliculosus, a marine filamentous brown alga. Previous studies indicated that the viral genome is integrated into the host DNA. In order to find the integration sites of the viral genome, a genomic library from EsV-1-infected algae was screened using labelled EsV-1 DNA. Several fragments were isolated and some of them were sequenced and analyzed in detail. Results Analysis revealed that the algal genome is split by a copy of viral sequences that have a high identity to EsV-1 DNA sequences. These fragments are interspersed with DNA repeats, pseudogenes and genes coding for products involved in DNA replication, integration and transposition. Some of these gene products are not encoded by EsV-1 but are present in the genome of other members of the NCLDV family. Further analysis suggests that the Ectocarpus algal genome contains traces of the integration of a large dsDNA viral genome; this genome could be the ancestor of the extant NCLDV genomes. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that the EsV-1 genome might have originated in these viral DNA pieces, implying the existence of a complex integration and recombination system. A protein similar to a new class of tyrosine recombinases might be a key enzyme of this system. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that some dsDNA viruses are monophyletic and evolved principally through genome reduction. Moreover, we hypothesize that phaeoviruses have probably developed an original replication system.

  15. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). From the results obtained, chemically modification leads to higher capacity of biosorption. → The equilibrium experimental data were tested using the most common isotherms. The results are best fitted by the Freundlich model among two-parameter models and the Toth, Khan and Radke-Prausnitz models among three-parameter isotherm models for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), respectively. → One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities after five cycles of sorption and desorption. → The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. From the results obtained, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes best the biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead ions. - Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Batch shaking adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, biomass concentration, biomass treatment and initial metal concentration on the removal process. The optimum sorption conditions for each heavy metal are presented. One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities

  16. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer-Rahmati, Mohammad Mehdi, E-mail: mrahmati@ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran 4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Parisa; Abdolali, Atefeh [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran 4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshtkar, Ali Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). From the results obtained, chemically modification leads to higher capacity of biosorption. {yields} The equilibrium experimental data were tested using the most common isotherms. The results are best fitted by the Freundlich model among two-parameter models and the Toth, Khan and Radke-Prausnitz models among three-parameter isotherm models for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), respectively. {yields} One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities after five cycles of sorption and desorption. {yields} The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. From the results obtained, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes best the biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead ions. - Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Batch shaking adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, biomass concentration, biomass treatment and initial metal concentration on the removal process. The optimum sorption conditions for each heavy metal are presented. One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical

  17. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg;

    A new Danish macroalgae project (Acronym MAB3) financed by the Danish Strategic Research Council presents an integrated macroalgae biorefinery concept. It was started from march 2012 and will continue for the next 4 years (2012-2016). Initial studies on the first harvested materials of wild...... Laminaria digtata (harvested during the summer 2012 from Limfjorden in Denmark), including cultivation, pretreatment and bioethanol set-up and trials will be presented in this presentation. The macroalgae substrates were screw-pressed to dewater and the algae biomass were fractionated before storage...... and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...

  18. Temperature and light tolerance of representative brown,green and red algae in tumble culture revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Shaojun; SHAN Tifeng

    2008-01-01

    Laminaria japonica,Undaria pinnatifida,Ulva lactuca,Grateloupia turuturu and Palmaria palmata are suitable species that fit the requirements of a seaweed-animal integrated aquaculture system in terms of their viable biomass,rapid growth and promising nutrient uptake rates. In this investigation,the responses of the optimal chlorophyll fluolescence yield of the five algal species in tumble culture were assessed at a temperature range of 10~30℃.The results revealed that Ulva lactuca was the most resistant species to high temperature,withstanding 30℃ for 4 h without apparent decline in the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield. While the arctic alga Palmaria palmata was the most vulnerable one,showing significant decline in the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield at 25℃ for 2 h.The cold-water species Laminaria japonica,however,demonstrated strong ability to cope with higher temperature(24~26℃)for shorter time(within 24 h)without significant decline in the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield.Grateloupia turuturu showed a general decrease in the optimal chiorophyll fluores-cence yield with the rising temperature from 23 to 30℃,similar to the temperate kelp Undaria pinnatifida.Changes of chio-rophyll fluorescence yields of these algae were characterized differently indicating the existence of species-unique strategy to cope with high light.Measurements of the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence yield after short exposure to direct solar irradiance revealed how long these exposures could be without significant photoinhibition or with promising recovery in photosynthetic activities. Seasonal pattern of alternation of algal species in tank culture in the Northern Hemisphere at the latitude of 36°Nwas proposed according to these basic measurements.

  19. Effects of sulfated fucan, ascophyllan, from the brown Alga Ascophyllum nodosum on various cell lines: a comparative study on ascophyllan and fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Yokose, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2010-07-01

    The effects of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, ascophyllan and fucoidan, isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, on the growth of various cell lines (MDCK, Vero, PtK(1), CHO, HeLa, and XC) were investigated. In a colony formation assay, ascophyllan and fucoidan showed potent cytotoxic effects on Vero and XC cells, while other cell lines were relatively resistant to these polysaccharides. Almost no significant effects of these polysaccharides were observed in the cell lines tested using the Alamar blue cytotoxicity assay over 48 h with varying initial cell densities (2500-20,000 cells/well) in growth medium. Interestingly, a significant growth promoting effect of ascophyllan on MDCK cells was observed, whereas treatment with fucoidan showed growth suppressive effects on this cell line under the same experimental conditions. These results suggest that ascophyllan is distinguishable from fucoidan in terms of their bioactivities. This is the first report of the growth promoting effects of a sulfated fucan on a mammalian cell line under normal growth conditions. PMID:20541128

  20. Tissue Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations in different-aged and different functional thallus regions of three brown algae from western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, D. B.; McGrath, H.; Morrison, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    Copper and iron concentrations in three brown algae, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata (and additionally Mn in L. digitata) from the Irish west coast were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metal concentrations in the three species were indicative of prevailing bioavailable metal concentrations in situ but varied greatly between functional tissue parts, between sites and over time. Cu concentrations in actively growing tips of A. nodosum decreased over a 4-month period during autumn/winter, while Fe concentrations increased. Both Fe and Cu concentrations in different thallus sections of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus increased with increasing age of thallus part in a clean site, but there was no consistent trend for F. vesiculosus from an industrialized site. Within sites, concentrations of all Cu and Fe were similar in both fucoids, but concentrations at the industrialized site were about twice as high as at the pristine site. In L. digitata, all three metals were highest in holdfasts, but had distinctly different distribution patterns in stipes and blade sections, which were most likely related to growth pattern and tissue function. Fe was lowest in meristematic and young blade regions, suggesting small-scale Fe limitation in actively growing tissue. Mn concentrations were higher in distal blade sections than in stipes, and Cu concentrations were highest in meristematic and young thallus parts.

  1. The Effect of Sulfated (1→3-α-l-Fucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia S. Vishchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1→3-α-l-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the α-l-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer.

  2. Climate-driven range shifts explain the distribution of extant gene pools and predict future loss of unique lineages in a marine brown alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, J; Serrão, E A; Claro, B; Perrin, C; Pearson, G A

    2014-06-01

    The climate-driven dynamics of species ranges is a critical research question in evolutionary ecology. We ask whether present intraspecific diversity is determined by the imprint of past climate. This is an ongoing debate requiring interdisciplinary examination of population genetic pools and persistence patterns across global ranges. Previously, contrasting inferences and predictions have resulted from distinct genomic coverage and/or geographical information. We aim to describe and explain the causes of geographical contrasts in genetic diversity and their consequences for the future baseline of the global genetic pool, by comparing present geographical distribution of genetic diversity and differentiation with predictive species distribution modelling (SDM) during past extremes, present time and future climate scenarios for a brown alga, Fucus vesiculosus. SDM showed that both atmospheric and oceanic variables shape the global distribution of intertidal species, revealing regions of persistence, extinction and expansion during glacial and postglacial periods. These explained the distribution and structure of present genetic diversity, consisting of differentiated genetic pools with maximal diversity in areas of long-term persistence. Most of the present species range comprises postglacial expansion zones and, in contrast to highly dispersive marine organisms, expansions involved only local fronts, leaving distinct genetic pools at rear edges. Besides unravelling a complex phylogeographical history and showing congruence between genetic diversity and persistent distribution zones, supporting the hypothesis of niche conservatism, range shifts and loss of unique genetic diversity at the rear edge were predicted for future climate scenarios, impoverishing the global gene pool. PMID:24766057

  3. Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brkljača

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15 and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6–8, and 11–14 bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9, and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 5–7, and 10–12 other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2 in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration.

  4. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of dolabelladienotriol, a potential antiviral from the brown alga Dictyota pfaffii, in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Garrido

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dolabelladienotriol is a product extracted from the brown marine alga Dictyota pfaffii from Brazil that has been shown to have antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity. Our studies have evaluated the acute toxicity of dolabelladienotriol in BALB/c mice for ten days after administration of a single dose. Among the parameters considered were behavior, weight, biochemical and histological analyses of blood samples taken at three different times (Bs.0, Bs.1 and Bs.2 and optical microscopic examination of organs like liver, kidney, stomach and small intestine. Mice deaths were not observed at any dose during the ten day period. There were some changes in the biochemical analysis results for urea nitrogen (BUN and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, but the changes were not significantly different from the reference levels of the animals before administration of the substance. Histological analyses of tissues were very similar for all animals. The alterations in liver and kidney tissues did not affect the animals´ behavior at any concentration, not even at 50 mg/kg, where the most significant changes in tissues were seen. This study indicates that dolabelladienotriol has low toxicity in administered dose range.

  5. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups. PMID:27384013

  6. The production of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafiroh, Siti; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Sari, Ilma Indana

    2016-03-01

    The majority of energy was used in this period is from fossil fuel, which getting decreased in the future. The objective of this research is production and characterization of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) for alternative energy. PEMFC was produced with 4 variations (w/w) ratio between chitosan and sodium alginate, 8 : 0, 8 : 1, 8 : 2, 8 : 4 (w/w). The production of membrane was mixed sodium alginate solution into chitosan solution and sulfonated with H2SO4 0.72 N. The characterization of the PEM was uses Modulus Young analysis, water swelling, ion exchange capacity, FTIR, SEM, DTA, methanol permeability and proton conductivity. The result of the research, showed that the optimum membrane was with ratio 8 : 2 (w/w) that the Modulus Young 8564 kN/m2, water swelling 31.86%, ion exchange capacity 1.020 meq/g, proton conductivity 8,8 × 10-6 S/cm, methanol permeability 1.90 × 10-8 g/cm2s and glass transition temperature (Tg) 100.9 °C, crystalline temperature (Tc) 227.6 °C, and the melting temperature (Tm) 267.9 °C.

  7. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saderne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  8. Proteome changes driven by phosphorus deficiency and recovery in the brown tide-forming alga Aureococcus anophagefferens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie L Wurch

    Full Text Available Shotgun mass spectrometry was used to detect proteins in the harmful alga, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and monitor their relative abundance across nutrient replete (control, phosphate-deficient (-P and -P refed with phosphate (P-refed conditions. Spectral counting techniques identified differentially abundant proteins and demonstrated that under phosphate deficiency, A. anophagefferens increases proteins involved in both inorganic and organic phosphorus (P scavenging, including a phosphate transporter, 5'-nucleotidase, and alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, an increase in abundance of a sulfolipid biosynthesis protein was detected in -P and P-refed conditions. Analysis of the polar membrane lipids showed that cellular concentrations of the sulfolipid sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG were nearly two-fold greater in the -P condition versus the control condition, while cellular phospholipids were approximately 8-fold less. Transcript and protein abundances were more tightly coupled for gene products involved in P metabolism compared to those involved in a range of other metabolic functions. Comparison of protein abundances between the -P and P-refed conditions identified differences in the timing of protein degradation and turnover. This suggests that culture studies examining nutrient starvation responses will be valuable in interpreting protein abundance patterns for cellular nutritional status and history in metaproteomic datasets.

  9. Homogeneous population of the brown alga Sargassum polycystum in Southeast Asia: possible role of recent expansion and asexual propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Wai Chan

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has been known as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Repeated glacial cycles during Pleistocene were believed to cause isolation of marine taxa in refugia, resulting in diversification among lineages. Recently, ocean current was also found to be another factor affecting gene flow by restricting larval dispersal in animals. Macroalgae are unique in having mode of reproduction that differs from that of animals. Our study on the phylogeographical pattern of the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum using nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, plastidal RuBisCO spacer (Rub spacer and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-III (Cox3 as molecular markers revealed genetic homogeneity across 27 sites in Southeast Asia and western Pacific, in sharp contrast to that revealed from most animal studies. Our data suggested that S. polycystum persisted in single refugium during Pleistocene in a panmixia pattern. Expansion occurred more recently after the Last Glacial Maximum and recolonization of the newly flooded Sunda Shelf could have involved asexual propagation of the species. High dispersal ability through floating fronds carrying developing germlings may also contribute to the low genetic diversity of the species.

  10. Biología, distribución e integración del alga alóctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta en las comunidades bentónicas de las costas de Galicia (NW de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremades Ugarte, Javier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Undaria pinnatifida is an Asian seaweed that is valuable as an edible species. This kelp was first reported for Spain in the 1980s on Galician coasts, where it is now widely distributed and incorporated into the native community. In Galicia, intertidal populations of the sporophytic phase typically inhabit sites under moderate wave-exposure in the early spring, albeit they can be found throughout the year as the species displays at least two recruitment periods per year. The morphology varies between individuals and depends strongly on the spatiotemporal pattern of environmental conditions. The chronology of the introduction of this species and the types of habitat where it is currently integrated on Galician coasts clearly reveal that the presence and local expansion of this kelp is influenced largely by human activities, mainly shellfish aquaculture and maritime traffic. U. pinnatifida has a slow natural expansion, limited aggressiveness and it temporarily fills empty niches; this kelp displays luxuriant growth only on artificial substrates or in otherwise disturbed communities.Undaria pinnatifida es una especie asiática de gran interés económico como alga alimentaria que en la década de los ochenta apareció por primera vez en España en las costas de Galicia, donde actualmente se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y naturalizada. Las poblaciones intermareales de los esporófitos de esta especie en la costa gallega son propias de localidades moderadamente expuestas a la acción del oleaje, siendo muy notorias a principios de primavera; aunque pueden encontrarse casi todoel año, al existir al menos dos períodos anuales de reclutamiento. La morfología de los ejemplares que las forman es muy variable y está fuertemente relacionada con las variaciones espaciotemporales de las condiciones ambientales. Analizando la cronología de su introducción en Galicia y los hábitats y tipos de comunidades en las que se integra, se observa claramente

  11. Variability in δ{sup 15}N of intertidal brown algae along a salinity gradient: Differential impact of nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Inés G., E-mail: inesgviana@gmail.com; Bode, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    While it is generally agreed that δ{sup 15}N of brown macroalgae can discriminate between anthropogenic and natural sources of nitrogen, this study provides new insights on net fractionation processes occurring in some of these species. The contribution of continental and marine sources of nitrogen to benthic macroalgae in the estuary-ria system of A Coruña (NW Spain) was investigated by analyzing the temporal (at a monthly and annual basis) and spatial (up to 10 km) variability of δ{sup 15}N in the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and three species of the genus Fucus (F. serratus, F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus). Total nitrate and ammonium concentrations and δ{sup 15}N-DIN, along with salinity and temperature in seawater were also studied to address the sources of such variability. Macroalgal δ{sup 15}N and nutrient concentrations decreased from estuarine to marine waters, suggesting larger dominance of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the estuary. However, δ{sup 15}N values of macroalgae were generally higher than those of ambient nitrogen at all temporal and spatial scales considered. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these macroalgae is strongly affected by fractionation during uptake, assimilation or release of nitrogen. The absence of correlation between macroalgal and water samples suggests that the δ{sup 15}N of the species considered cannot be used for monitoring short-term changes. But their long lifespan and slow turnover rates make them suitable to determine the impact of the different nitrogen sources integrated over long-time periods. - Highlights: • Variability of Fucacean δ{sup 15}N indicates N sources along a salinity gradient. • δ{sup 15}N of Fucaceae and seawater are not correlated at short time scales. • Isotopic fractionation in macroalgal tissue varies at seasonal and at local scale. • Fucacean species are suitable for monitoring chronic N loadings.

  12. Contrasting geographical distributions as a result of thermal tolerance and long-distance dispersal in two allegedly widespread tropical brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tronholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many tropical marine macroalgae are reported from all three ocean basins, though these very wide distributions may simply be an artifact resulting from inadequate taxonomy that fails to take into account cryptic diversity. Alternatively, pantropical distributions challenge the belief of limited intrinsic dispersal capacity of marine seaweeds and the effectiveness of the north-south oriented continents as dispersal barriers. We aimed to re-assess the distribution of two allegedly circumtropical brown algae, Dictyota ciliolata and D. crenulata, and interpret the realized geographical range of the respective species in relation to their thermal tolerance and major tectonic and climatic events during the Cenozoic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species delimitation was based on 184 chloroplast encoded psbA sequences, using a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent method. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyzing a six-gene dataset. Divergence times were estimated using relaxed molecular clock methods and published calibration data. Distribution ranges of the species were inferred from DNA-confirmed records, complemented with credible literature data and herbarium vouchers. Temperature tolerances of the species were determined by correlating distribution records with local SST values. We found considerable conflict between traditional and DNA-based species definitions. Dictyota crenulata consists of several pseudocryptic species, which have restricted distributions in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Central America. In contrast, the pantropical distribution of D. ciliolata is confirmed and linked to its significantly wider temperature tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tectonically driven rearrangements of physical barriers left an unequivocal imprint on the current diversity patterns of marine macroalgae, as witnessed by the D. crenulata-complex. The nearly circumglobal tropical distribution of D. ciliolata, however

  13. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  14. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  15. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  16. Seasonal module dynamics in Sargassum subrepandum (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Breeman, Anneke M.

    2008-01-01

    Module dynamics of the fucoid alga Sargassum subrepandum (Forssk.) C. Agardh was studied in the southern Red Sea. Seasonal variation in thallus density and size was determined, and the initiation, growth, reproduction, and shedding of modules (primary laterals) were ascertained, using a tagging appr

  17. Seasonal variations in Na, K, Mg and Ca charge balance in marine brown algae from Saurashtra Coast (NW coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    ) strongly correlated with Cl content suggesting that these cations were balanced by chloride ions. Divalent cations (Ca + Mg) seem to be balanced by the anion sulphate. Ash content of the algae was accounted by these major cations and anions. Charge...

  18. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Adana (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Marine algae and seagrasses were researched in the upper infralittoral zone of Adana (Turkish Mediterranean coasts) in this study. 381 algae and 5 seagrasses (Liliopsida) were determined (Total 386 taxa). 27 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae(195)], 78 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 72 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (18), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophor...

  19. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Hatay (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Hatay (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 377 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 30 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 201 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae (192)], 73 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 73 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (5), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (24...

  20. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Mersin Shore (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Okudan, E. S.; Erdugan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Mersin (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 396 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 36 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (6), Florideophyceae(I94)], 82 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 74 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (25...

  1. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  2. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  3. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  4. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: Kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Olga M.M. [LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ramiro J.E. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Delerue-Matos, Cristina M. [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L{sup -1}. The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents.

  5. Effect and mechanisms of brown alga oligosaccharides on exhaustive exercise of mouse in low temperature%褐藻寡糖对小鼠低温力竭游泳运动的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭霞; 卜宁; 梁传成; 王丽文

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨褐藻寡糖对小鼠低温力竭游泳运动的影响及机制.方法:将小鼠随机分成5组,空白组,对照组,3个实验组,空白组和对照组用生理盐水灌胃,3个实验组分别用0.75%、1.5%、3%不同浓度的褐藻寡糖进行灌胃,每只每天灌胃量0.3~0.5 mL,连续灌胃4周.之后对照组和试验组每组取小鼠7只,分别在(5±1)℃环境条件下进行无负重力竭游泳运动试验,观察并记录游泳力竭时间及行为改变.待小鼠死亡后(空白组断头处死),分别取出甲状腺、肾上腺、胰腺、胸腺和脾脏,用电子天平称重,并计算其系数.系数=腺体(mg)/体重(g)×100%.结果:褐藻寡糖能提高小鼠低温力竭游泳运动时间,1.5%褐藻寡糖组较对照组差异显著(P<0.05);甲状腺、肾上腺、胰腺、胸腺和脾脏系数增大.结论:褐藻寡糖能够提高小鼠的力竭游泳运动能力,1.5%浓度为最佳;一些内分泌腺和脏器不同程度参与了小鼠低温力竭游泳运动应激反应.%To study effects and mechanisms of brown alga oligosaccharides on exhaustive swim exercise of mouse. METHODS: Mice were divided into 5 groups in random (n= 10). The blank and control groups were affused into stomach with NaCl of 0. 9% and test groups were affused into stomach respectively with brown alginate oligosaccharide of 0. 75% , 1.5% and 3%. Affusing capacity was 0. 3 ~0. 5 mL per mouse per day and lasted for 4 weeks. Then, control and test groups were swum exhaustive on the conditions of (5±1)℃ respectively, and observed the survival time and behavioral alteration. After death, thyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, thymus and spleen were took out and weighted by electric scale and calculated their coefficients, coefficient = gland( mg)/weight(g) ×l00%. RESULTS: Under the condition of low temperature, the time of exhaustive swim exercise of mice was prolong, and there was difference between 1.5% brown alga oligosaccharides group and control

  6. A fucose containing polymer-rich fraction from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum mediates lifespan increase and thermal-tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, by differential effects on gene and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Evans, Franklin D; Critchley, Alan T; Zhang, Junzeng; Fitton, J H; Stringer, Damien N; Gardiner, Vicki-Anne; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-02-01

    The extracts of the brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, which contains several bioactive compounds, have been shown to impart biotic and abiotic stress tolerance properties when consumed by animals. However, the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanism underlying such effects remain elusive. We investigated the effect of A. nodosum fucose-containing polymer (FCP) on tolerance to thermally induced stress using the invertebrate animal model, Caenorhabditis elegans. FCP at a concentration of 150 μg mL(-1) significantly improved the life span and tolerance against thermally induced stress in C. elegans. The treatment increased the C. elegans survival by approximately 24%, when the animals were under severe thermally induced stress (i.e. 35 °C) and 27% under mild stress (i.e. 30 °C) conditions. The FCP induced differential expression of genes and proteins is associated with stress response pathways. Under thermal stress, FCP treatment significantly altered the expression of 65 proteins (54 up-regulated & 11 down-regulated). Putative functional analysis of FCP-induced differential proteins signified an association of altered proteins in stress-related molecular and biochemical pathways of the model worm. PMID:24323434

  7. A fucose containing polymer-rich fraction from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum mediates lifespan increase and thermal-tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, by differential effects on gene and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Evans, Franklin D; Critchley, Alan T; Zhang, Junzeng; Fitton, J H; Stringer, Damien N; Gardiner, Vicki-Anne; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-02-01

    The extracts of the brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, which contains several bioactive compounds, have been shown to impart biotic and abiotic stress tolerance properties when consumed by animals. However, the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanism underlying such effects remain elusive. We investigated the effect of A. nodosum fucose-containing polymer (FCP) on tolerance to thermally induced stress using the invertebrate animal model, Caenorhabditis elegans. FCP at a concentration of 150 μg mL(-1) significantly improved the life span and tolerance against thermally induced stress in C. elegans. The treatment increased the C. elegans survival by approximately 24%, when the animals were under severe thermally induced stress (i.e. 35 °C) and 27% under mild stress (i.e. 30 °C) conditions. The FCP induced differential expression of genes and proteins is associated with stress response pathways. Under thermal stress, FCP treatment significantly altered the expression of 65 proteins (54 up-regulated & 11 down-regulated). Putative functional analysis of FCP-induced differential proteins signified an association of altered proteins in stress-related molecular and biochemical pathways of the model worm.

  8. Variability in δ¹⁵N of intertidal brown algae along a salinity gradient: differential impact of nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Bode, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    While it is generally agreed that δ(15)N of brown macroalgae can discriminate between anthropogenic and natural sources of nitrogen, this study provides new insights on net fractionation processes occurring in some of these species. The contribution of continental and marine sources of nitrogen to benthic macroalgae in the estuary-ria system of A Coruña (NW Spain) was investigated by analyzing the temporal (at a monthly and annual basis) and spatial (up to 10 km) variability of δ(15)N in the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum and three species of the genus Fucus (F. serratus, F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus). Total nitrate and ammonium concentrations and δ(15)N-DIN, along with salinity and temperature in seawater were also studied to address the sources of such variability. Macroalgal δ(15)N and nutrient concentrations decreased from estuarine to marine waters, suggesting larger dominance of anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the estuary. However, δ(15)N values of macroalgae were generally higher than those of ambient nitrogen at all temporal and spatial scales considered. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these macroalgae is strongly affected by fractionation during uptake, assimilation or release of nitrogen. The absence of correlation between macroalgal and water samples suggests that the δ(15)N of the species considered cannot be used for monitoring short-term changes. But their long lifespan and slow turnover rates make them suitable to determine the impact of the different nitrogen sources integrated over long-time periods. PMID:25617782

  9. Profile of polychlorinated biphenyls in the brown alga Padina sanctae-crucis along the Orote dump coastline, Orote Peninsula, Western Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Brian Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the brown seaweed Padina sanctae-crucis might be used as a biomonitor organism to determine the location, distribution, and type of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) present along a contaminated tropical coastline. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in P. sanctae-crucis collected from near-shore waters along a 4-km stretch of coastline. The profile of PCB levels from samples obtained at 13 sites along the coastline demonstrated a positive concentration gradient as sample locations progressed toward the dump site. Sample locations nearest the dump site revealed PCB levels twofold higher than background levels for P. sanctae-crucis. Chromatograms of samples obtained nearest the dump site indicated a similarity to the Aroclor 1260 fingerprint. The P. sanctae-crucis frond trimmings used for laboratory analysis were approximately 3-5 wk old. This study was conducted 8 mo following the completion of the removal actions at the dump site. Data suggest a release of Aroclor 1260 into the marine environment approximately 7 mo following the completion of removal actions at the dump site.

  10. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  11. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  12. Anti-pancreatic cancer deliverables from sea: first-hand evidence on the efficacy, molecular targets and mode of action for multifarious polyphenols from five different brown-algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Aravindan

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death with an unacceptable survival that has remained relatively unchanged over the past 25 years. The presence of occult or clinical metastases at the time of diagnosis together with the lack of effective chemotherapies pose a dire need for designing new and targeted therapeutic deliverables that favors the clinical outcome. Herein, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic potential of polyphenols from five different brown-algae in human PC cells (MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, BXPC-3 and Panc-3.27. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC analysis on stepwise polyphenol separations with increasing polarity (Hexane-DCM-EA-methanol identified high levels of TAC in DCM and EA extractions across all seaweeds assessed. All DCM and EA separated polyphenols induced a dose-dependent and sustained (time-independent inhibition of cell proliferation and viability. Further, these polyphenols profoundly enhanced DNA damage (acridine orange/Ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation in all the cell lines investigated. More importantly, luciferase reporter assay revealed a significant inhibition of NFκB transcription in cells treated with polyphenols. Interestingly, QPCR analysis identified a differential yet definite regulation of pro-tumorigenic EGFR, VEGFA, AKT, hTERT, kRas, Bcl2, FGFα and PDGFα transcription in cells treated with DCM and EA polyphenols. Immunoblotting validates the inhibitory potential of seaweed polyphenols in EGFR phosphorylation, kRas, AurKβ and Stat3. Together, these data suggest that intermediate polarity based fractions of seaweed polyphenols may significantly potentiate tumor cell killing and may serve as potential drug deliverable for PC cure. More Studies dissecting out the active constituents in potent fractions, mechanisms of action and synergism, if any, are warranted and are currently in process.

  13. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  14. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  15. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales,Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shenhui; CHONG Zhuo; ZHAO Fengjuan; YAO Jianting; DUAN Delin

    2013-01-01

    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China.To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development,ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism)markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S.horneri.The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China.The percentage of polymorphic loci P% (ISSR,99.44%; SRAP,100.00%),Nei's genetic diversity H(ISSR,0.107-0.199; SRAP,0.100-0.153),and Shannon's information index I (ISSR,0.157-0.291; SRAP,0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations.Moreover,the high degree of gene differentiation Gst (ISSR,0.654; SRAP,0.718) and low gene flow Nm (ISSR,0.265; SRAP,0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation,possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation.The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices (Fst) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R=0.541 5,0.541 8; P=0.005 0,0.002 0 and R=0.728 6,0.641 2; P=0.001 0,0.001 0,respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception.Overall,the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation.The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S.horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  16. Defensive nature of Sargassum polycystum (Brown alga)against acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis in rats: Role of drug metabolizing microsomal enzyme system, tumor necrosis factor-α and fate of liver cell structural integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Balaji raghavendran; A Sathivel; T Devaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the defensive nature of Sargassum polycystum (S. Polycystum) (Brown alga) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced changes in drug metabolizing microsomal enzyme system, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)and fine structural features of the liver during toxic hepatitis in rats.METHODS: Male albino Wistar strain rats used for the study were randomly categorized into 4 groups. Group Ⅰ consisted of normal control rats fed with standard diet.Group Ⅱ rats were administered with acetaminophen (800 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Group Ⅲ rats were pre-treated with S. Polycystum extract alone.Group Ⅳ rats were orally pre-treated with S. Polycystum extract (200 mg/kg body weight for 21 d) prior to acetaminophen induction (800 mg/kg body weight,intraperitoneally). Serum separated and liver was excised and microsomal fraction was isolated for assaying cytochrome P450, NADPH Cyt P450 reductase and b5.Serum TNF-α was detected using ELISA. Fine structural features of liver were examined by transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: Rats intoxicated with acetaminophen showed considerable impairment in the activities of drug metabolizing microsomal enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, NADPH Cyt P450 reductase and b5 when compared with the control rats. The rats intoxicated with acetaminophen also significantly triggered serum TNF-α when compared with the control rats. These severe alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were appreciably prevented in the rats pretreated with S. Polycystum. The rats pretreated with S. Polycystum showed considerable inhibition in the elevation of TNF-α compared to the rats intoxicated with acetaminophen. The electron microscopic observation showed considerable loss of structural integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid infiltration and ballooning of mitochondria in the acetaminophen-intoxicated rats,whereas the rats treated with S. Polycystum showed considerable protection against acetaminophen-induced alterations in

  17. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Spatial seasonal evaluation; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Avaliacao espaco-temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    Marine macro algae from the area which is under in fluence of the heated and chlorate liquid effluent to the CNAAA were observed (1981-1983) at 3 collection points: Pingo Dagua, Velho Beach, discharge point. A total of 121 taxa were found: 29 Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 66 Rhodophyta. The spring season was the richest in taxa (78) while autumn was the poorest (85). Overall, the data suggest that the point A (Pingo Dagua) macro algae community (which is similar to the discharge point (0,80) is adequate for the control of the CNAAA effluent impact ad Piraquara de Fora. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlomphyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurenc/a okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  20. SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME MARINE ALGAE FROM THE FUJIAN COAST OF CHINA WITH THREE DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怡; 陈寅山; 卢海声

    2001-01-01

    Three different solvents viz ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene (3:1) were used to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. Their crude extracts were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among them, the ethanol extract showed the strongest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested. Four species of the Rhodophyta (Laurencia okamurai, Dasya scoparia, Grateloupia filicina and plocamium telfairiae ) showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Every solvent extract from the four species was active against all the bacteria tested. The test bacterium Pseudomonas solancearum and the fungus Penicilium citrinum were most sensitive to the extracts of marine algae. In general, the extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria and fungi tested.

  1. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  2. Uptake of technetium by marine algae: autoradiographic localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, S.; Nuyts, G.; Robbrecht, V.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der

    1988-02-01

    The uptake of technetium (sup(95m)Tc) by marine algae was localized by autoradiography. In the brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus) as well as in the red (Porphyra umbilicalis) species, the distribution of technetium was heterogeneous, this radioelement being mostly accumulated in the parts of the plant which bear reproductive cells or which contain young tissues. Since brown algae have high concentration factors, they could constitute an important link in the transfer of technetium through the food chain. On the contrary, the edible alga Porphyra umbilicalis shows a very low incorporation of technetium.

  3. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of polonium 210Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  4. Accumulation of /sup 210/Po by benthic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.; Gouvea, V.A.

    1988-08-01

    The accumulation of polonium /sup 210/Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of /sup 210/Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of /sup 210/Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium.

  5. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, 137Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 210Po, 210Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  6. Distribution, function and evolution characterization of microsatellite in Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta) transcriptome and their application in marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuli; Hu, Zimin; Liu, Wenhui; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Wenjun; Liang, Zhourui; Wang, Feijiu; Sun, Xiutao

    2016-01-01

    Using transcriptome data to mine microsatellite and develop markers has growingly become prevalent. However, characterizing the possible function of microsatellite is relatively rare. In this study, we explored microsatellites in the transcriptome of the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii and characterized the frequencies, distribution, function and evolution, and developed primers to validate these microsatellites. Our results showed that Tri-nucleotide is the most abundant, followed by di- and mono-nucleotide. The length of microsatellite was significantly affected by the repeat motif size. The density of microsatellite in the CDS region is significantly lower than that in the UTR region. The annotation of the transcripts containing microsatellite showed that 573 transcripts have GO terms and can be categorized into 42 groups. Pathways enrichment showed that microsatellites were significantly overrepresented in the genes involved in pathways such as Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, RNA degradation, Spliceosome, etc. Primers flanking 961 microsatellite loci were designed, and among the 30 pairs of primer selected randomly for availability test, 23 were proved to be efficient. These findings provided new insight into the function and evolution of microsatellite in transcriptome, and the identified microsatellite loci within the annotated gene will be useful for developing functional markers in S. thunbergii. PMID:26732855

  7. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  8. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  10. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S. E-mail: msmasri@aec.org.sy; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y

    2003-07-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight) for {sup 210}Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate {sup 210}Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br.

  11. Characteristics of bioflocculant BF-12 and its application to the treatment of wastewater from brown algae glue production%复合生物絮凝剂BF-12对褐藻胶生产废水絮凝性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 于烽; 谢云; 陈五岭

    2012-01-01

    A bioflocculant bacterium,B-12,has been isolated from activated sludge and it is determined that it should be placed in pseudomonas sp. The composite bioflocculant BF -12 produced from this bacterium is polysaccharide macromolecular compound,whose main component is hexosamine. This composite bioflocculant has been used for treating wastewater from brown algae glue production. The effects of flocculant dosage,temperature, coagulant aid dosage,pH etc. on the treatment effectiveness are discussed. The optimal conditions are as follows; mass concentration of flocculant BF-12 is 150 mg/L, temperature 45 ℃ and Ca2+0.04 mol/L,and pH 8. Under these conditions,the removing rate of CODCr,BOD5,SS,NH3-N of the wastewater from brown algae glue production are 94.96%, 96.10%, 82.28%, 81.53%, respectively.%从活性污泥中分离出一株产絮凝剂菌B-12,并鉴定其归属于假单胞菌属.此菌产生的复合生物絮凝剂BF-12为多糖类高分子化合物,其主要成分为氨基己糖.采用此复合生物絮凝剂对褐藻胶生产废水进行处理,探讨了絮凝剂投加量、温度、助凝剂投加量、pH等对处理效果的影响,确定了BF-12絮凝的最适条件为:絮凝剂投加质量浓度为150mg/L,温度为45℃,Ca2+浓度为0.04 mol/L,pH为8.在此条件下其对褐藻胶生产废水具有较好的处理效果,CODcr、BOD5、SS、NH3-N去除率分别达到94.96%、96.10%、82.28%、81.53%.

  12. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  13. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  14. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  15. Studies on {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels in marine algae collected from the coast of Niigata Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kenji; Tonouchi, Shigemasa; Maruta, Fumiyuki; Ebata, Hidekazu [Niigata Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the properties of algae to concentrate radioactive elements, 14 species of algae like Sargassum were collected in the Prefecture and analyzed for their {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels with Yokogawa HP4500 ICP-MS apparatus. The places of collection included those near the water discharge of an atomic power station. Mean {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U levels were found to be 120 and 260 ng/g dry wt, respectively, and Phaeophyta showed more than several times higher {sup 238}U level than Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. There was no clear difference in {sup 232}Th levels. No difference between places of collection was observed in Sargassum {sup 232}Th or {sup 238}U level. Adsorption of {sup 232}Th particle to and incorporation of soluble {sup 238}U into algae body were suggested. Mean {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U radioactivities were found 73 and 510 {mu}Bq/g wet wt, respectively, and the respective annual committed effective doses, 0.2 and 0.3 {mu}Sv, calculated from those values were confirmed to be enough lower than the annual public dose limit, 1 mSv. (K.H.)

  16. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  17. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  18. 含褐藻寡糖调味汁的研制%Development of condiment with phaeophyta oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈照鹏; 胡增淼; 刘培; 赵琳; 高笑; 江晓路

    2012-01-01

    以海带为原料,经褐藻胶裂解酶降解而获得含褐藻寡糖的海藻汁,并测定了海藻汁中寡糖的分子量分布及其他理化指标。经酶解作用,海藻汁中还原糖含量提高了近50倍,总糖含量增加到酶解前的2.5倍。由阴离子电喷雾电离质谱测得褐藻胶裂解酶降解产物主要是分子量小于1000,聚合度在2~5之间的小分子寡糖。在此基础上,将海藻汁与各种调味品基料按一定比例混合,根据各种调味品不同的加工工艺特点,选择不同的加入环节。通过感官评定,确定了两种海藻调味品的最佳配方,并研究了其多项理化指标和卫生指标。%Seeweed juice which contained phaeophyta oligosaccharide through the degradation of alginate lyase was obtained from kelp.Both the oligose molecular weight distribution and other physico chemical indexes in the juice were studied.After zymohydrolysis,the content of the reducing sugar in seaweed juice increased nearly 50 times,the total sugar content increased to 2.5 times.The result after analyzed by anion electrospray ionization mass spectrum measurement indicated that the product was mainly composed by a small molecule whose molecular weight was less than 1000 and whose degree of polymerization was 2~5.On this basis,seaweed juice and various condiments were put together according to certain mixing ratio,and different join links considering different process characteristics of various condiment were chosen.Through the organoleptic investigation,The optimal formula of the two kinds of seaweed was determined.Besides,multiple physiochemical indexes and health indicators were studied.

  19. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  20. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  1. Zn and Cu concentrations in ascophyllum nodosum and fucus vesiculosus (phaeophyta, fucales) after transplantation to an estuary contaminated with mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Y.B.

    1984-01-01

    In order to examine the uptake of trace metals by brown algae from the surrounding waters, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus were transplanted from a relatively unpolluted site (Torpoint) in Cornwall, England, to one (Restronguet Creek) markedly contaminated with Zn and Cu as a result of past mining activites. The transplant experiments lasted 57 days, during which period harvests were made from native plants at both sites and the transplants. Concentrations of both Zn and Cu in the native plants remained fairly constant throughout the period. Transplanted Ascophyllum took up moderate amounts of the metals from the new site, with concentrations of Zn and Cu about tripled (372 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ Zn, 101 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ Cu) after 57 days. However, metal concentrations in Fucus (1326 ..mu.. g/sup -1/ Zn, 241 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ Cu) increased by about 13-fold over the same period. The younger parts of the Ascophyllum thallus took up Zn and Cu more than the mature parts.

  2. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. F.; Neu, T. R.; Lu, S.; Händel, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Küsel, K.

    2015-09-01

    Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9-6.5), metal-rich stream water that leaked out from a former uranium mining district (Ronneburg, Germany). These algae differed in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate their potential interaction with Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9-100 %). CLSM imaging indicated a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in gene-targeted studies revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70-97 and 63-96 %, respectively), suggesting their capacity to compete with the abiotic Fe-oxidation under the putative oxygen-saturated conditions that occur in association with photosynthetic algae. Quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed even higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including some putative predators of algae. A loss of chloroplasts in the brown algae could have led to lower photosynthetic activities and reduced EPS production, which is known to affect predator colonization. Collectively, our results suggest the coexistence of oxygen-generating algae Tribonema sp. and strictly microaerophilic neutrophilic FeOB in a heavy metal-rich environment.

  3. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  4. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  5. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  6. Characteristic Study of the Marine Algae Sargassum sp. on Metal Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saravanan; V. Brindha; Soundarajan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Biomass of brown marine macro algae is a biological resource that is available in large quantities and can form a good base for the development of biosorbent material. Approach: Algae have been found to be potentially suitable biosorbents because of its cheap availability, both in fresh or salt water, relatively high surface area and high binding affinity. Results: The study considered the molecular status of the biomass such as DNA, Protein and Pigment ...

  7. Constituents of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck)-II

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Bose, A.K.; Nair, M.S.R.

    Three terpenoids, (2R,4S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone (1), 3'R,4'-[(2R,4S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexylidene] but-3'-en-2'-one or apo-9'-fucoxanthinone (2) and loliolide (3) have been isolated from the CHCl sub...

  8. Extraction and Purification of Phlorotannins from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Erwan Ar; Lelchat, Florian; Hupel, Mélanie; Jégou, Camille; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The interest in the physiological roles and bioactivities of plant phenols has increased over the past decades. In seaweeds, many investigations have dealt with phenolic compounds of Phaeophyceae (phlorotannins), even though little is known so far about the ecophysiological variations of their pool or their biosynthetic pathways. We describe here a simple procedure based on the use of water-organic solvent mixtures for the extraction of phlorotannins. Crude extracts are semi-purified and fractionated by separating methods based on both the polarity and the molecular size of compounds. Phenols are then quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their radical-scavenging activity is characterized using the DPPH test. All along the purification process of phenolic compounds, the efficiency of separation is assessed by (1)H-NMR. PMID:26108502

  9. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  10. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  11. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  12. Studies on structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits in algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits is studied in species of Halimeda, Udotea, Neomeris (Chlorophyta) and Padina (Phaeophyta). It was found that in Halimeda aragonite deposition takes place outside the cell wall...

  13. Transcriptome sequencing of essential marine brown and red algal species in China and its significance in algal biology and phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shuangxiu; YU Jun; SUN Jing; CHI Shan; WANG Liang; WANG Xumin; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Most phaeophytes (brown algae) and rhodophytes (red algae) dwell exclusively in marine habitats and play important roles in marine ecology and biodiversity. Many of these brown and red algae are also important resources for industries such as food, medicine and materials due to their unique metabolisms and me-tabolites. However, many fundamental questions surrounding their origins, early diversification, taxonomy, and special metabolisms remain unsolved because of poor molecular bases in brown and red algal study. As part of the 1 000 Plant Project, the marine macroalgal transcriptomes of 19 Phaeophyceae species and 21 Rhodophyta species from China's coast were sequenced, covering a total of 2 phyla, 3 classes, 11 orders, and 19 families. An average of 2 Gb per sample and a total 87.3 Gb of RNA-seq raw data were generated. Approxi-mately 15 000 to 25 000 unigenes for each brown algal sample and 5 000 to 10 000 unigenes for each red algal sample were annotated and analyzed. The annotation results showed obvious differences in gene expres-sion and genome characteristics between red algae and brown algae;these differences could even be seen between multicellular and unicellular red algae. The results elucidate some fundamental questions about the phylogenetic taxonomy within phaeophytes and rhodophytes, and also reveal many novel metabolic pathways. These pathways include algal CO2 fixation and particular carbohydrate metabolisms, and related gene/gene family characteristics and evolution in brown and red algae. These findings build on known algal genetic information and significantly improve our understanding of algal biology, biodiversity, evolution, and potential utilization of these marine algae.

  14. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 6 months relieves allergy symptoms in adults. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking a combination of blue-green algae and zinc by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks reduces arsenic levels and its effects on the skin in ...

  15. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  16. The resource utilization of algae - preparing coal slurry with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Li [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Education Ministry of China

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal-algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal-algae slurry was compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The results showed that, anaerobic fermentation, chemical treatment, high-speed shearing and heating are effective pre-treatment methods on reducing the viscosity of algae, which could obviously increase the maximum solids concentration of coal-algae slurry. When the de-ionized water/algae ratio is 1:1, the maximum solids concentration could get to 62.5 wt.%, which is almost the same as that of CWS. All the coal-algae slurries exhibit pseudo-plastic behavior, and this type of fluid is shear-thinning. Compared with CWS, the stability of coal-algae slurry is much better, which could be no solids deposition after 70 h. The coal-algae slurry displays better gasification reactivity than CWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  18. Fermentation of algae sludge. Fermentering av algeslam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, J.F. (Norges Landbrugshoegskole, Aas (NO). Mikrobiologisk institutt)

    1989-01-01

    Marine brown algae are used for production of alginate. In Norway Protan A/S, Drammen harvest Laminaria sp. and Ascophyllum nodosum along the Norwegian western coast for production of alginate. About 160000 tons fresh weight per year are harvested. The amount of precipitation and flotation sludges from the alginate production is estimated to 14000 ton dry weight per year. The sludges from the alginate production contain a high fraction of organic matter (75-80 % VS). Since the sludges from the alginic acid extraction process are considered as bulky wastes with a high pollution load a research programme on anaerobic digestion of these residues has been started. Preliminary results have shown that the sludges can be digested with a high yield of methane (0.15-0.30 m{sup 3}/kg VS added).

  19. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  1. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  2. Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Screening tests of different marine algae biomass types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales performed particularly well in this descending sequence: Fucus > Ascophyllum > Sargassum. Although decreasing the swelling of wetted biomass particles, their reinforcement by crosslinking may significantly affect the biosorption performance. Lead uptakes up to 370 mg Pb/g were observed in crosslinked Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. At low equilibrium residual concentrations of lead in solution, however, ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 had a higher lead uptake than the biosorbent materials. An order-of-magnitude lower uptake of nickel was observed in all of the sorbent materials examined.

  3. Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Z R; Volesky, B

    1994-05-01

    Screening tests of different marine algae biomas types revealed a high passive biosorptive uptake of lead up to 270 mg Pb/g of biomass in some brown marine algae. Members of the order Fucales perfomed particularly well in this descending sequence: Fucus > Ascophyllum > Sargassum. Although decreasing the swelling of wetted biomass particles, their reinforcement by crosslinking may significantly affect the biosorption performance. Lead uptakes up to 370 mg Pb/g were observed in crosslinked Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. At low equilibrium residual concentrations of lead in solution, however, ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 had a higher lead uptake than the biosorbent materials. An order-of-magnitude lower uptake of nickel was observed in all of the sorbent materials examined. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18615510

  4. A fast and inexpensive DNA extraction/purification protocol for brown macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoarau, Galice; Coyer, James A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a rapid method for extracting DNA from dried brown algae material using a microtitre plate system in conjunction with a milling instrument. The method allows the preparation of nuclear and organelle DNA of quality suitable for polymerase chain reaction amplification. It combines hig

  5. Miocene Coralline algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  6. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  7. Production of mexican brown macroalgae fucoidan and fucosidases under an integral green technology bioproceses by the biorefinery concept

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Ruiz, Hector A.; Victorino-Jasso, Gabriela; Cervantes-Cisneros, Daniela E.; Cabello-Galindo, Alejandra; Cristóbal N Aguilar; J.A. Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystem can be considered a rather exploited source of natural substances with enormous bioactive potential. In Mexico macro-algae study remain forgotten for research and economic purposes besides the high amount of this resource along the west and east coast. For that reason the Bioferinery Group of the Autonomous University of Coahuila, have been studying the biorefinery concept in order to recover high value byproducts of Mexican brown macro-algae including polysacc...

  8. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  10. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  11. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  12. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  13. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  14. EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baroty Gamal S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea; and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL (as % of total lipid were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7% followed by L. popillose (22.5 %. GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05% and L. popillose (5.8%, and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid, ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%. GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4 and m/z 337 (C21H58O3, were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml, comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml. On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities

  15. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  16. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  18. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  19. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  20. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S, the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  1. Excitation Energy-Transfer Dynamics of Brown Algal Photosynthetic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, D; Kita, M; Fujii, R; Sugisaki, M; Oka, N; Takaesu, Y; Taira, T; Iha, M; Hashimoto, H

    2012-09-20

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-a/c protein (FCP) complexes from brown algae Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese) contain the only species of carbonyl carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which exhibits spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) property that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. Here, we investigated the role of the ICT property of fucoxanthin in ultrafast energy transfer to chlorophyll-a/c in brown algal photosynthesis using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The observed excited-state dynamics show that the ICT character of fucoxanthin in FCP extends its absorption band to longer wavelengths and enhances its electronic interaction with chlorophyll-a molecules, leading to efficient energy transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll-a. PMID:26295888

  2. Analytical method for heavy metal determination in algae and turtle eggs from Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A standard digestion method coupled to electrochemical detection for the monitoring of heavy metals in biological samples has been used for the simultaneous analysis of the target analytes. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was employed as a fast and sensitive electroanalytical method for the detection of heavy metals. The aim of our study was to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by SWASV in brown algae (Sargasum natan and green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas using screen-printed electrodes. The method proved useful for the simultaneous analysis of these metals by comparison between two different procedures for preparing the samples. Two different approaches in digestion protocols were assessed. The study was focused on Guanahacabibes brown algae and green turtle eggs because the metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for intraspecific comparison within the Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park area, a body of water for which information is still very scarce. The best results were obtained by digesting biological samples with the EPA 3050B method. This treatment allowed the fast and quantitative extraction from brown algae and green turtle eggs of the target analytes, with high sensitivity and avoiding organic residues, eventually affecting electrochemical measurements.

  3. Biosorption of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Using Biomass of Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Sakamoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REEs and uranium (U in marine organism, the concentrations of REEs and U in some brown algae samples taken on the coast of Niigata Prefecture were determined. In addition, laboratory model experiment to uptake these elements using living and dried algae (Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum hemiphyllum was also carried out to survey the uptake and bioaccumulation mechanism of REEs and U in algae. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1 The order of the concentration of REEs for each organ in Sargassum hemiphyllum is “main branch” > “leaf” > “vesicle,” however for U, the order is “leaf” > “vesicle” > “main branch.” (2 The concentration of REEs in Sargassum hemiphyllum may be strongly affected by suspended solid in seawater. (3 The uptake and/or accumulate mechanism of REEs in brown algae may be different from that of U.

  4. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  5. Impact of UV-radiation on viability, photosynthetic characteristics and DNA of brown algal zoospores : implications for depth zonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiencke, C; Gomez, [No Value; Pakker, H; Flores-Moya, A; Altamirano, M; Hanelt, D; Bischof, K; Figueroa, FL

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of photosynthesis, germination capacity and assessment of DNA damage were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effect of different conditions of ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on zoospores of various large brown algae collected on Spitsbergen (S

  6. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria salicornia and Sargassum sp. For the Biosorption of Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Khorramabadi, Gh.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.

    In this study, the adsorption properties of two different marine algae (Gracilaria salicornia (red algae) and Sargassum sp. (brown algae) were investigated. Equilibrium isotherms were studied to evaluate the relative ability of the two algae to sequester Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. The maximum biosorption capacity obtained was 45.959 mg g-1 for G. salicornia and 33.258 mg g-1 for Sargassum sp. at a solution pH of 4 and 50 mg L-1 initial chromium concentration. A significant fraction of the total Cr (VI) uptake was achieved within 60 min. Biosorbed chromium ions concentrations increased with increasing concentrations of biosorbents and increasing pH. The biosorption of Cr (VI) on G. salicornia and Sargassum sp. could best be described by the Langmuir model (R2>0.997 for Sargassum sp. and R2>0.999 for G. salicornia).

  7. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  8. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  9. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  10. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Brown algal morphogenesis: Atomic Force Microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eTesson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves and tide, in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization, deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  12. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a sourc...

  15. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  16. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  17. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  18. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  19. Applicability of hydrogen peroxide in brown tide control - culture and microcosm studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varunpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Brown tide algal blooms, caused by the excessive growth of Aureococcus anophagefferens, recur in several northeastern US coastal bays. Direct bloom control could alleviate the ecological and economic damage associated with bloom outbreak. This paper explored the effectiveness and safety of natural chemical biocide hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 for brown tide bloom control. Culture studies showed that H(2O(2 at 1.6 mg L(-1 effectively eradicated high density A. anophagefferens within 24-hr, but caused no significant growth inhibition in the diatoms, prymnesiophytes, green algae and dinoflagellates of >2-3 μm cell sizes among 12 phytoplankton species tested over 1-week observation. When applied to brown tide bloom prone natural seawater in a microcosm study, this treatment effectively removed the developing brown tide bloom, while the rest of phytoplankton assemblage (quantified via HPLC based marker pigment analyses, particularly the diatoms and green algae, experienced only transient suppression then recovered with total chlorophyll a exceeding that in the controls within 72-hr; cyanobacteria was not eradicated but was still reduced about 50% at 72-hr, as compared to the controls. The action of H(2O(2 against phytoplankton as a function of cell size and cell wall structure, and a realistic scenario of H(2O(2 application were discussed.

  20. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  1. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  2. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  3. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  4. Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds Inhibit Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Induce Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-3 in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu;

    2011-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs...

  5. An Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of the Intertidal Brown Seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in Response to Abiotic Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, Gareth A.; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrao, Ester T. A.; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat shock/rec

  6. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  7. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  8. Zeolite‐Based Algae Biofilm Rotating Photobioreactor for Algae and Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ashton M.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline conditions induced by algae growth in wastewater stabilization ponds create deprotonated ammonium ions that result in ammonia gas (NH3) volatilization. If algae are utilized to remediate wastewater through uptake of phosphorus, the resulting nitrogen loss will hinder this process because algae generally require a stoichiometric molar ratio of N16P1. Lower ratios of N/P due to loss of ammonia gas will limit the growth and yield of algae, and therefore will reduce phosphorus removal fr...

  9. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  10. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  11. Study on the enzymatic activity of Caspase-3 in response to alginic acid decomposing bacteria in Laminaria japonica Aresch.(Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gaoge; Lin Wei; Yan Xiaojun; Duan Delin

    2005-01-01

    Caspase-3 is the major factor in apoptosis triggered by various stimuli, and plays a critical role during the apoptosis process. By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 enzymatic activities were detected in response to alginic acid bacteria in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues. Results showed that caspase-3 enzymatic activities were observed at 5 min after the infection. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity increased with the infection time, and had a tendency of moving from the infection site to outside. By applying caspase-specific peptide inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, caspase-3 activation could be effectively abolished in the infected tissues. Our results indicate that programmed cell death (PCD) may be involved in the infected Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, and provide the evidence that defense mechanisms in algae may have similar caspase cascade events in animals.

  12. Sulfated fucans extracted from algae Padina gymnospora have anti-inflammatory effect

    OpenAIRE

    Cybelle Teixeira Marques; Tarciana C. G. de Azevedo; Marília S. Nascimento; Valquíria P. Medeiros; Luciana G. Alves; Norma M. B. Benevides; Hugo A. O. Rocha; Edda Lisboa Leite

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted with acetone from brown algae Padina gymnospora. The fraction precipitated with 1.5 volumes of acetone (F1.5) purified in Sephadex G-75 was characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C and ¹H, through which the presence of sulfate groups on the C4 of α-L-fucose could be observed. This polysaccharide showed that an MW of 25,000 Da was effective in reducing leukocyte influx into the peritoneal cavity in mice at 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/k...

  13. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  14. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  15. The Algae flora in Tekirdag - Istanbul coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Hüseyin; AYDIN, Ayten

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this work 36 algae species were collected on the coastline between Tekirdag and Istanbul. There were 12 Chlorophyceae, 10 Phaeophyceae and 14 Rhodophyceae amongst them. The algae were f irst determined in Sea of Marmara are: Gigartina teedii, Cystoseira opuntioides, Lithothamnion lichenoides, Hildenbrandia prototypus, Rhodymenia corallicola.

  16. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined. PMID:23625082

  17. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  18. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Taxonomic composition; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Composicao taxonomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    A total of 134 taxa were found: 32 Chlorophyta, 29 Phaeophyta and 74 Rhodophyta. The Caulerpales (Chlorophyta) had the highest number of taxa (37,5%) followed by the Dictyotales (Phaeophyta - 43%) and Ceramiales (Rhodophyta - 53%). The benthic flora shows some affinity to that of Ilha Grande (part), Sepetiba Bay and Paraty (Sorensen`s Index - 0,62, 0,61 and 0,58 respectively. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  19. The use of the brown macroalgae, Sargassum flavicans, as a potential bioindicator of industrial nutrient enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The brown algae, Sargassum flavicans, was used as a successful nutrient bioindicator. • Creek sites adjacent to an industry refinery showed increased nutrient enrichment. • Higher nutrient loads in creek sites compared to adjacent oceanic sites. • Higher nutrient discharge was observed during the wet season. • δ15N values were the best endpoints to detect nutrient enrichment in the brown algae. -- Abstract: Nutrient bioindicators are increasingly being recognised as a diagnostic tool for nutrient enrichment of estuarine and marine ecosystems. Few studies, however, have focused on field translocation of bioindicator organisms to detect nutrient discharge from industrial waste. The brown macroalgae, Sargassum flavicans, was investigated as a potential bioindicator of nutrient-enriched industrial effluent originating from a nickel refinery in tropical north-eastern Australia. S. flavicans was translocated to a number of nutrient enriched creek and oceanic sites over two seasons and assessed for changes in stable isotope ratios of 15N and 13C within the plant tissue in comparison to reference sites. Nutrient uptake in macroalgae, translocated to the nutrient enriched sites adjacent to the refinery, increased 3–4-fold in δ15N, compared to reference sites. Using δ15N of translocated S. flavicans proved to be a successful method for monitoring time-integrated uptake of nitrogen, given the current lack of passive sampler technology for nutrient monitoring

  20. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  1. Copper stress induces biosynthesis of octadecanoid and eicosanoid oxygenated derivatives in the brown algal kelp Laminaria digitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Andrés; Goulitquer, Sophie; Salaün, Jean-Pierre; Tonon, Thierry; Correa, Juan A; Potin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the toxicity and the orchestration of antioxidant defenses of marine brown algae in response to copper-induced stress, lipid peroxidation processes were investigated in the brown alga Laminaria digitata. The expression of genes involved in cell protection and anti-oxidant responses were monitored by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the lipid peroxidation products were further characterized by profiling oxylipin signatures using high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Exposure to copper excess triggers lipoperoxide accumulation and upregulates the expression of stress related genes. It also increases the release of free polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to an oxidative cascade through at least two distinct mechanisms. Incubations in presence of inhibitors of lipoxygenases and cycloxygenases showed that in addition to the reactive oxygen species-mediated processes, copper stress induces the synthesis of oxylipins through enzymatic mechanisms. Among complex oxylipins, cyclopentenones from C18 and C20 fatty acids such as 12-oxo-PDA and prostaglandins were detected for the first time in brown algae, as well as unique compounds such as the 18-hydroxy-17-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation participates in the toxic effects of copper and that lipid peroxidation derivatives may regulate protective mechanisms by employing plant-like octadecanoid signals but also eicosanoid oxylipins which are absent in vascular plants.

  2. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  3. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  4. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  7. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  8. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  9. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  10. Nonlinear Analysis in a Nutrient-Algae-Zooplankton System with Sinking of Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Dai; Min Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed for the Zeya Reservoir to study interactions between algae and zooplankton, including the diffusive spread of algae and zooplankton and the sinking of algae. The model is investigated both with and without sinking. Conditions of Hopf and Turing bifurcation in the spatial domain are obtained, and conditions for differential-flow instability that gives rise to the formation of spatial patterns are derived. Using numerical simulation, the authors ...

  11. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  12. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  13. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  14. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  15. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  16. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  17. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Le; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete sequence (37 657 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the Saccharina sp. ye-F was determined using Illumina sequencing data (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes that are typical of Saccharina mtDNA. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae indicated that Saccharina sp. ye-F and Saccharina longissima, Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species, which strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity. PMID:26358639

  18. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cd2+ Biosorption by the Brown Algae Sargassum fusiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Xi Zou; Nan Li; Li-Hua Wang; Ping Yu; Xiu-Feng Yan

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmui...

  19. Surface metabolites of the brown alga Taonia atomaria have the ability to regulate epibiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Ahlem; Briand, Jean-François; Ayé, Mireille; Molmeret, Maëlle; Culioli, Gérald

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to improve understanding of the strategies developed by the Mediterranean seaweed Taonia atomaria to chemically control bacterial epibiosis. An experimental protocol was optimized to specifically extract algal surface-associated metabolites by a technique involving dipping in organic solvents whilst the integrity of algal cell membranes was assessed by fluorescent microscopy. This methodology was validated using mass spectrometry-based profiles of algal extracts and analysis of their principal components, which led to the selection of methanol as the extraction solvent with a maximum exposure time of 15 s. Six compounds (A-F) were identified in the resulting surface extracts. Two of these surface-associated compounds (B and C) showed selective anti-adhesion properties against reference bacterial strains isolated from artificial surfaces while remaining inactive against epibiotic bacteria of T. atomaria. Such specificity was not observed for commercial antifouling biocides and other molecules identified in the surface or whole-cell extracts of T. atomaria. PMID:27353006

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum vachellianum (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanhui; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    Sargassum vachellianum C. Agardh is endemic to China. It inhabits in rocky intertidal zones and plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of littoral ecosystems. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of S. vachellianum. The circular S. vachellianum mitogenome is 34,877 bp in size and contains the same set of 65 genes as the reported Sargassum mtDNAs. The overall AT content of the genome is 63.79%, and the inter-genic spacers constitute only 4.67%. The genome organization including the gene order, overlapping regions between genes, and the total length of inter-genic spacers is conserved among the known Sargassum mitogenomes. High divergence is in inter-genic spacer regions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that S. vachellianum combined tightly with Sargassum species with strong support values (NJ/ML, 100%). PMID:26099977

  1. Composition and cytotoxicity of a novel polysaccharide from brown alga (Laminaria japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenfei; Liu, Min; Fang, Zhexiang; Wu, Jiulin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-08-01

    A novel polysaccharide WPS-2-1, with an average molecular weight of 80 kDa, was purified from aqueous extracts of Laminaria japonica. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that WPS-2-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose and fucose with a molar ratio of 1.0:2.3:1.2. Analysis by periodate oxidation-Smith degradation indicated that WPS-2-1 had a backbone of array by (1→4)-glycosidic linkages. Cytotoxicity assay showed that WPS-2-1 presented significantly higher antitumor activities against A375 and BGC823 cells with a dose-dependent manner, and exhibited lower cytotoxicity to vascular smooth muscle cells. The results suggested that WPS-2-1 should be explored as a potential antitumor agent with low toxicity.

  2. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE AND LATITUDINAL RANGE OF BROWN-ALGAE FROM TEMPERATE PACIFIC SOUTH-AMERICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, AF; BREEMAN, AM

    1993-01-01

    Lower and upper survival temperatures of microthalli of 25 species of South American Phaeophyceae isolated from central Peru (14-degrees-S) to the Canal Beagle (55-degrees-S) were determined using 2-wk exposure for the upper and 4-wk exposure for the lower limit. All species survive 4 wks at - 2-deg

  3. Population dynamics of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata under harvesting pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnol, Doriane; Michel, Renaud; Davoult, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Through experimental harvesting, followed by a 12-month monitoring of demographic attributes, we tested the influence of harvesting on the population dynamics of Himanthalia elongata. We further explore the data to test the hypothesis that the canopy would exert a negative effect on the other developmental stages (intraspecific competition) throughout the recovery cycle of the population. This showed that the H. elongata canopy plays a marked seasonal role not by precluding the presence of other developmental stages but by delaying or preventing their growth and development. The removal of the canopy facilitates the transition from one developmental stage to another, eventually permitting a fast recovery of size structure in the population. This study allows us to integrate population dynamics and intraspecific relationships in our understanding of macroalgal recovery patterns.

  4. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  6. Marine algae as biomonitors for heavy metals accumulation at the Red Sea Sudanese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of heavy trace elements chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead was measured in three main groups of alage, green, brown and red from the Sudanese coastal water of the Red Sea at seven main locations. The analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and x-ray fluorescence. Based on the overall average concentration (ppm), manganese was the most abundant element, (range 22.64-144.77) followed by chromium (rang 8.40-14.51), zinc (range 5.82-14.23), nickel (range 4.27-6.48) copper (range 2.83-7.75) lead range (1.29-1.80) and cadmium (rang 0.05-0.15). On comparing samples results at all locations, the results showed that Sawakin locations (1) and (2) algae have a highest content of trace elements. The concentration of trace elements in marine algae at, Sawakin (1), Klanieb and Sawakin (2) shows the higher uptake of lead giving the average of 1.69, 1.70, and 1.80, respectively compared with other locations, where the lowest concentration of manganese is observed at Sawakin (1) (38.19 ppm) and Sawakin (2) (41.04 ppm) with relative excess of lead concentration (1.69 and 1.80 ppm). Data obtained in this study were treated using classical descriptive statistics to explain the measuring central tendency. Correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship of different elements. Upon comparing the elemental concentration of the Red Sea alage with published literature, marine algae collected from the study area showed relative agreement with data reported but Sawakin harbor can be considered as slightly contaminated area by heavy metals. The study showed that the red algae has higher uptake of trace elements studied than brown and green algae with some variations of metal concentrations in some species which were apparently related to the specific accumulation capacity of each particular species. These species suggest their suitability for utilization as biomonitor for heavy metals in the Red Sea coastal

  7. A sweet new wave: structures and mechanisms of enzymes that digest polysaccharides from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Boraston, Alisdair B; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2014-10-01

    Marine algae contribute approximately half of the global primary production. The large amounts of polysaccharides synthesized by these algae are degraded and consumed by microbes that utilize carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), thus creating one of the largest and most dynamic components of the Earth's carbon cycle. Over the last decade, structural and functional characterizations of marine CAZymes have revealed a diverse set of scaffolds and mechanisms that are used to degrade agars, carrageenan, alginate and ulvan-polysaccharides from red, brown and green seaweeds, respectively. The analysis of these CAZymes is not only expanding our understanding of their functions but is enabling the enhanced annotation of (meta)-genomic data sets, thus promoting an improved understanding of microbes that drive this marine component of the carbon cycle. Furthermore, this information is setting a foundation that will enable marine algae to be harnessed as a novel resource for biorefineries. In this review, we cover the most recent structural and functional analyses of marine CAZymes that are specialized in the digestion of macro-algal polysaccharides.

  8. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Payghami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sargassum species (phaeophyceae are economically important brown algae in southern parts of Iran. Sargassum is mainly harvested as a row material in alginate production industries and is a source of plant foods or plant bio-stimulants even a component of animal foods. Objective: In this study, Sargassum glaucescens, collected from the seashore of Chabahar, was employed for phytochemical and biological evaluations. Materials and Methods: For that purpose, the dried algae was extracted by methanol and subjected to different chromatographic separation methods. Results: Six sterols, fucosterol (1, 24(S-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (2, 24(R-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (3, stigmasterol (4, β-sitosterol (5 and cholesterol (6 were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibitory test was performed on the methanolic extract and the results revealed a potent inhibition (IC 50 = 8.9 ± 2.4 mg/mL of the enzyme compared to acarbose as a positive control. Conclusion: Various biological activities and distribution of sterols in Sargassum genus have been critically reviewed here. The results concluded that these algae are a good candidate for further anti-diabetic investigations in animals and human.

  9. Biosorption of cadmium by biomass of marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B.; Prasetyo, I. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Biomass of nonliving, dried brown marine algae Sargassum natans, Fucus vesiculosus, and Ascophyllum nodosum demonstrated high equilibrium uptake of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The metal uptake by these materials was quantitatively evaluated using sorption isotherms. Biomass of A. nodosum accumulated the highest amount of cadmium exceeding 100 mg Cd[sup 2+]/g (at the residual concentration of 100 mg Cd/L and pH 3.5), outperforming a commercial ion exchange resin DUOLITE GT-73. A new biosorbent material based on A. nodosum biomass was obtained by reinforcing the algal biomass by formaldehyde cross-linking. The prepared sorbent possessed good mechanical properties, chemical stability of the cell wall polysaccharides and low swelling volume. Desorption of deposited cadmium with 0.1-0.5 M HCl resulted in no changes of the biosorbent metal uptake capacity through five subsequent adsorption/desorption cycles. There was no damage to the biosorbent which retained its macroscopic appearance and performance in repeated metal uptake/elution cycles.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  11. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  12. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  13. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elegbede Isa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author’s deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  14. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  15. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  16. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  17. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  18. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  19. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  20. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  1. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  2. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  3. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  4. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  5. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  6. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  7. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  8. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  9. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  10. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrids, yeasts and mycelial fungi in six marine algae was studied. Thraustochytrids and mycelial fungi were recovered from non-surface-sterilized as well as surface-sterilized pieces of algae, whereas yeasts were isolated...

  11. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  12. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  13. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  14. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  15. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  16. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  17. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  18. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  19. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva T.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown algae Padina gymnospora contain different fucans. Powdered algae were submitted to proteolysis with the proteolytic enzyme maxataze. The first extract of the algae was constituted of polysaccharides contaminated with lipids, phenols, etc. Fractionation of the fucans with increasing concentrations of acetone produced fractions with different proportions of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate. One of the fractions, precipitated with 50% acetone (v/v, contained an 18-kDa heterofucan (PF1, which was further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 using 0.2 M acetic acid as eluent and characterized by agarose gel electrophoresis in 0.05 M 1,3 diaminopropane/acetate buffer at pH 9.0, methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Structural analysis indicates that this fucan has a central core consisting mainly of 3-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1-> or 4-ß-D-glucuronic acid 1 ->, substituted at C-2 with alpha-L-fucose or ß-D-xylose. Sulfate groups were only detected at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units. The anticoagulant activity of the PF1 (only 2.5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-sulfation at C-3 of 4-alpha-L-fucose 1-> units is responsible for the anticoagulant activity of the polymer.

  20. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  1. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  2. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  3. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  4. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  5. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  6. THE USE OF ALGAE CONCENTRATES, DRIED ALGAE AND ALGAL SUBSTITUTES TO FEED BIVALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludi Parwadani Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high nutritional value and are used to feed adult and larval stages of bivalves, the larvae of some fish and crustaceans and zooplankton. However, microalgae production for aquaculture animal is very expensive. To overcome this, the use of preserved microalgae such as algae concentrate and dried algae, or algal substitutes has been developed. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this alternative food. For example, even though the cost production for algal substitute yeast-based diet is cheaper, their nutritional value is much lower compared to fresh microalgae. Moreover, there is no significant difference in nutritional value between preserved (concentrated or dried and fresh microalgae; however, preserving microalgae for long periods will affect their nutritional value. In spite of this problem, preserved microalgae such as algal concentrate and dried algae seem to be more effective to feed bivalves than algal substitutes yeast based diet due to their availability and relatively high nutritional value. Furthermore, algae concentrates are more suitable to replace fresh algae than dried algae.

  7. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  8. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  9. Sulfated fucans extracted from algae Padina gymnospora have anti-inflammatory effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybelle Teixeira Marques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted with acetone from brown algae Padina gymnospora. The fraction precipitated with 1.5 volumes of acetone (F1.5 purified in Sephadex G-75 was characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C and ¹H, through which the presence of sulfate groups on the C4 of α-L-fucose could be observed. This polysaccharide showed that an MW of 25,000 Da was effective in reducing leukocyte influx into the peritoneal cavity in mice at 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg body weight, causing a decrease of 60 and 39%, respectively. In the present study, it was observed that this fucan has anti-inflammatory properties but no cytotoxic action, indicating its potential use in the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  11. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  12. Biosorption of Fe, Al and Mn of acid drainage from coal mine using brown seaweed sargassum sp. in continuous process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid mine drainage (AMD) are leaches as result of a coal mining running, it have low ph and high concentrations of heavy metals that convert them in strong polluter; with the purpose of reduce its concentration, a continuous biosorption system was designed by removing heavy metals from drainages using a cheap biosorbent material. The brown seaweed was pre-treatment with solutions 0,1 N of NaOH, Ca(OH)2 NaCl, CaCl2, NaSO4 y H2SO4 for to study the effect on biosorption process; the removal percentage were determined, which are better than 80% with the exception of pre-treatment with H2SO4 who cancel the algae sorption capacity. The seaweed was packed in plastic mesh and polyester tulle in the shape of a rectangular prism; there isn't effect on the biosorption process by using this packet. The continuous biosorption process was studied in two units of operation: a packed-bed flow-through sorption column and an horizontal vessel like a canal with baffles, which treated adequately 3,5 and 4,71 of AMD respectively, using in each one of them 100 g of algae. The burning of algae was studied like an alternative for the problem of handling of residual algae. The ashes kept the metals removed from AMD, furthermore keep stable too by the attack of solutions of different pH

  13. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  14. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively

  15. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  16. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  17. Microbes and algae for biodiesel production - Microfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruohonen, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: laura.ruohonen@vtt.fi; Tamminen, T. [Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    There is an acute need to identify alternatives to replace fossil resources, in particular in transportation fuels. Thus, biomass-based biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel have gained significant attention towards this goal. However, the source of biomass has raised concerns; competition with the food chain and arable land must be avoided. The project focused on identification of alternative ways to produce biomass for triacylglycerides production as raw material for biodiesel, that of autotrophic production by algae, and heterotrophic production by fungi. The fungal production process is already presently implemented by Neste Oil: In the press release on 28 August 2012, Neste Oil announced the completion of the first phase of its microbial oil pilot plant. A joint algae research programme between Neste Oil and SYKE was launched in August 2011, with the aim of further developing the knowledge basis for cost-effective microalgal production in industrial-scale volumes for future production needs.

  18. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  19. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 51Cr, 60Co and 131I were performed in 1000cm3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)

  20. Discovering novel enzymes by functional screening of plurigenomic libraries from alga-associated Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marjolaine; Vandermies, Marie; Joyeux, Coline; Martin, Renée; Barbeyron, Tristan; Michel, Gurvan; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Alga-associated microorganisms, in the context of their numerous interactions with the host and the complexity of the marine environment, are known to produce diverse hydrolytic enzymes with original biochemistry. We recently isolated several macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteria from the surface of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. These active isolates belong to two classes: the Flavobacteriia and the Gammaproteobacteria. In the present study, we constructed two "plurigenomic" (with multiple bacterial genomes) libraries with the 5 most interesting isolates (regarding their phylogeny and their enzymatic activities) of each class (Fv and Gm libraries). Both libraries were screened for diverse hydrolytic activities. Five activities, out of the 48 previously identified in the natural polysaccharolytic isolates, were recovered by functional screening: a xylanase (GmXyl7), a beta-glucosidase (GmBg1), an esterase (GmEst7) and two iota-carrageenases (Fvi2.5 and Gmi1.3). We discuss here the potential role of the used host-cell, the average DNA insert-sizes and the used restriction enzymes on the divergent screening yields obtained for both libraries and get deeper inside the "great screen anomaly". Interestingly, the discovered esterase probably stands for a novel family of homoserine o-acetyltransferase-like-esterases, while the two iota-carrageenases represent new members of the poorly known GH82 family (containing only 19 proteins since its description in 2000). These original results demonstrate the efficiency of our uncommon "plurigenomic" library approach and the underexplored potential of alga-associated cultivable microbiota for the identification of novel and algal-specific enzymes. PMID:27242143

  1. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  2. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  3. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  4. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  5. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  6. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  7. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  8. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  9. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  10. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  11. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  12. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm2, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 109-1.55 x 109 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m3. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  13. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shanshan, E-mail: luck81919@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China); Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10{sup 9}-1.55 x 10{sup 9} cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m{sup 3}. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  14. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  15. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  16. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  9. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  10. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge : Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Master plan for Browns Park NWR that discusses the history, wildlife goals, recreation goals, habitat goals, recreational and operational facilities, and estimated...

  11. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  16. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  17. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  18. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  19. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  20. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  1. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  2. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  3. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  4. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  5. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  6. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  7. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  8. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, J-O; Salovius-Laurén, S; Harju, L; Rajander, J; Saarela, K-E; Lindroos, A; Heselius, S-J

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4m depth in a water column of 8m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D'(M). For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al>Ti>Fe > Mn>Ni, Cu>Ba, Cr, Zn>Rb>K, Sr>Pb>Ca>Na>Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring.

  9. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  10. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  11. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  12. Radical-scavenging capacity of phenol fractions in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum: an electrochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Hauchard, Didier; Audibert, Laetitia; Gall, Erwan Ar

    2011-04-15

    In this article, the radical-scavenging capacity of phenol fractions extracted from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum was assessed using in parallel colorimetric methods (ABTS and DPPH) and electrochemistry (cyclic voltammetry). Results obtained by the three methods correlated in the case of global fractions, whereas only ABTS and DPPH correlated when activities were expressed on a phenol basis. The successive fractions separated by both their average molecular size and their polarity exhibited activities largely dependent on their phenol content, suggesting that phlorotannins are the main anti-oxidant molecules in hydro-alcoholic extracts of A. nodosum. In addition, phenol fractions of relative low molecular weight were clearly more active than others. This work opens new opportunities to better evaluate the radical-scavenging potential of phenol pools in algae using both bi-parametric fractionating and electrochemistry. PMID:21376981

  13. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genome of brown algal Saccharina sp. ye-C6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Wang, Shuai; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Miao, Yu; Ye, Naihao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial sequence (37 657 bp) of the Saccharina sp. ye-C6 was obtained from the assembled and annotated genome data sequenced by Illumina sequencing technology (KT271760). The circular genome contains 38 protein-coding genes (PCG), three ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 25 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Base composition of genome is A (28.41%), T (36.29%), C (14.72%), and G (20.58%). Through a phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial genomes of brown algae, we found that Saccharina sp. ye-C6 and Saccharina japonica are the most closely related species and strongly supports their close phylogenetic affinity. PMID:26403617

  14. Heavy metal contamination of brown seaweed and sediments from the UK coastline between the Wear river and the Tees river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, L

    2001-04-01

    The concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Ag were determined in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and intertidal surface sediments from coastal locations of northeast England. Levels of heavy metals similar to those of polluted areas of the British coastline were detected. There is evidence of contamination (especially with Zn and Pb) in sediments from sites affected by colliery spoil and from the Wear estuary. The pelitic fraction ( < 63 microm) is usually more enriched in heavy metals, but it represents a very small percentage of the bulk samples. The fine-grained sand is a very important repository of contaminants especially where particles of colliery spoil, secondary mineral, and amorphous phases are present. Aqua regia-extracted Zn, Cu, and Pb in sediments are significantly correlated with those in seaweed. Despite the closure of all base metal and coal mines, and the cessation of many industrial activities in the region, sediments and brown algae are contaminated with heavy metals. The control site (Holy Island) and the Tees estuary appear to be the least affected.

  15. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Salovius-Lauren, S. [Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Artillerig. 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Rajander, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Saarela, K.-E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4 m depth in a water column of 8 m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D Prime {sub M}. For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al > Ti > Fe Much-Greater-Than Mn > Ni, Cu > Ba, Cr, Zn Much-Greater-Than Rb > K, Sr > Pb Much-Greater-Than Ca Much-Greater-Than Na > Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental concentrations in P. littoralis and C. glomerata from the Archipelago Sea in Finland were measured during decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIXE and PIGE were successfully used for chemical analysis of 24 elements

  16. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  17. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  18. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  19. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  20. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  2. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  3. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the vicinity of Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji, Ohtani

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the vicinity of Syowa Station were investigated. Moss samples were collected from three localities, East Ongul Island, Mukai Rocks and Langhovde. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 23 species in total, 16 of blue-green algae, 4 of diatoms, 3 of green algae. Blue-green algae were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses in each locality. Among the three localities, Langhovde was the m...

  4. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-15

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  5. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  6. The algae biodiesel physical property and spray parameters modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Колодницька, Руслана Віталіївна; Васильєв, Руслан

    2015-01-01

    The modelling of micro-algae biodiesel density, viscosity and surface tension was performed. The spray middle diameters of droplets in diesel engine were counted.   It was shown that the property of algae biodiesel can be compare with  traditional biodiesel based on rapeseed oil.

  7. New Records for the Freshwater Algae of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKAL, Tülay; AKBULUT, Aydın; İlkay AÇIKGÖZ

    2009-01-01

    Algae samples were collected from important dam lakes and running waters of the Lower Euphrates Basin. Eighteen new records of Turkish freshwater algae were identified. Among these new records, 5 belong to Cyanophyta, 10 to Chlorophyta, 1 to Xanthophyta, and 2 to Bacillariophyta.

  8. First Case of Osteomyelitis Due to Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho-Nevers, E.; Gouriet, F.; Rovery, C.; Paris, P.; Roux, V.; Raoult, D.; Brouqui, P.

    2005-01-01

    Shewanella spp. are infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. We report here on the first case of osteomyelitis due to Shewanella algae. This bacterium, at first misidentified by phenotypic tests as Shewanella putrefaciens, was subsequently identified correctly as S. algae by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  9. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  10. Algogroup: Towards a Shared Vision of the Possible Deployment of Algae to Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sustainably. Macro-algae as a resource for bio-fuels production are very far from being a commercial reality, but do present some advantages such, for green algae, exhibiting several similarities with current GI and G2 feedstock, being producers of starch and un-lignified cellulose. Nevertheless, they also contain other specific compounds. Red and brown macro-algae are currently the most produced species, but their composition calls for the development of new transformation processes. Although technically feasible at lab-scale, the economic viability of such processes is being endangered by the complexity of the processes involved and the numerous steps required as well as by non-technical issues such as competition with other markets like green chemistry. To have a true share of the future fuel mix, macro-algae production needs to be increase by a dozen- time fold. This increase should not be done without social acceptance or at the expenses of the environment. This issue was addressed for microalgae, but data on macro-algae are currently lacking to be able to conduct Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on this very specific environment. There are also additional problems to be taken into account, such as the lack of legislation or conflicts of usage with existing sea activities for example. Potential for high tonnage production seems real, but the challenge is to federate existing actors and new ones to build a new agro-industry. As a conclusion, no true leveraging option, leading to significant breakthroughs has really emerged as a short term solution, but wide spaces for significant improvement could be envisaged and more laboratory and pilot works have to be achieved before being able to move to a higher scale, leading to the first step toward industrial production. (authors)

  11. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  12. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  13. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  14. Algae Farming in Low Earth Orbit: Past Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, N.

    Algal strains used as a production engine represent a novel example of living mechanical systems with tremendous potential for applications in space. Algae use photosynthesis to create lipids, glycerin, and biomass, with different strains of algae producing different oils. Algae can be grown to produce many types of oils, with low, medium or long hydrocarbon chain lengths. This article examines the history of algae research, as well as its value to astronauts as both a food supplement and as an oxygen production and carbon sequester engine. Consideration is given to ways algae is currently being used and tested in space, followed by a look forward envisioning dynamic living technological systems that can help to sustain our race as we travel the void between stars.

  15. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  16. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  17. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  19. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  20. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  1. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  2. Community structure of microorganisms associated with reddish-brown iron-rich snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hisaya; Fukuhara, Haruo; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-09-01

    Reddish-brown colored snow, containing spherical brown particles, has been observed in several mires in Japan. In order to characterize this remarkable phenomenon, the microbial community and chemical species in snow were analyzed. A core sample of snow which had a colored region was investigated and it revealed vertical shifts in physicochemical characteristics and the microbial community structure. The abundance of particles peaked within the colored layer, and correlated with the amount of reducible Fe(III). The interstitial water of the colored layer was enriched with Fe(II), and characterized by reduced concentration of dissolved methane. The bacterial community in the colored region was characterized by higher relative abundance of iron-reducing bacteria and methanotrophs. Aggregates of the brown particles were found as precipitates in snow melt pools, and were subjected to cloning analyses targeting several different genes. The majority of bacterial 16S rRNA gene clones belonged to the class Betaproteobacteria or the phylum Bacteroidetes. No snow algae were detected in the eukaryotic small subunit rRNA gene clone library. As a possible carbon source to sustain the community in the snow, involvements of carbon dioxide and methane were investigated by analyzing the genes involved in their assimilation. In the analyses of genes for ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, clones related to sulfur oxidizers were obtained. The analysis of particulate methane monooxygenase genes indicated dominance of Methylobacter species. These results emphasized the uniqueness of this phenomenon, and iron reducers of the genus Geobacter are suggested to be the key organisms that could be investigated in order to understand the mechanism of this phenomenon. PMID:19560891

  3. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  4. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  5. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  6. Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Gheidarloo, Razieh; Sadati, Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Tavajohi, Shohreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70%) extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and MeOH–H2O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC50 (median growth inhibitory concentration) values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10) software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC50 82.26 ± 4.09 μg/ml) and MeOH-H2O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC50 116.92 ± 8.58 μg/ml) showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 μg/ml), respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 μg/ml). Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines. PMID:22438665

  7. Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70% extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl 3 , ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and MeOH-H 2 O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29, colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, breast ductal carcinoma (T47D, and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3 cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC 50 (median growth inhibitory concentration values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10 software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC 50 82.26 ± 4.09 μg/ml and MeOH-H 2 O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC 50 116.92 ± 8.58 μg/ml showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC 50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 μg/ml, respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC 50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 μg/ml. Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines.

  8. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  9. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  10. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  11. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  12. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  13. Algae Technology for Reduction of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short overview about the climate situation with regard to CO2, the physiology of photosynthesis will be explained in nonprofessional's style using algae as an example. The photosynthesis products and their conversions into valuable materials for human nutrition or into base substances for diverse industries will be described. Furthermore, I will introduce the state of the art on current scientific projects aiming to improve algae productivity and for the synthesis of therapeutically medicinal proteins. A highly productive algae facility will be introduced including its integration in an energy concept.(author)

  14. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13N, 24Na and 22Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  15. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infec......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  16. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  17. Tolerance of endolithic algae to elevated temperature and light in the coral Montipora monasteriata from the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Maoz; Meroz-Fine, Efrat; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic endolithic algae and cyanobacteria live within the skeletons of many scleractinians. Under normal conditions, less than 5% of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reaches the green endolithic algae because of the absorbance of light by the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates and the carbonate skeleton. When corals bleach (loose dinoflagellate symbionts), however, the tissue of the corals become highly transparent and photosynthetic microendoliths may be exposed to high levels of both thermal and solar stress. This study explores the consequence of these combined stresses on the phototrophic endoliths inhabiting the skeleton of Montipora monasteriata, growing at Heron Island, on the southern Great Barrier Reef. Endoliths that were exposed to sun after tissue removal were by far more susceptible to thermal photoinhibition and photo-damage than endoliths under coral tissue that contained high concentrations of brown dinoflagellate symbionts. While temperature or light alone did not result in decreased photosynthetic efficiency of the endoliths, combined thermal and solar stress caused a major decrease and delayed recovery. Endoliths protected under intact tissue recovered rapidly and photoacclimated soon after exposure to elevated sea temperatures. Endoliths under naturally occurring bleached tissue of M. monasteriata colonies (bleaching event in March 2004 at Heron Island) acclimated to increased irradiance as the brown symbionts disappeared. We suggest that two major factors determine the outcome of thermal bleaching to the endolith community. The first is the microhabitat and light levels under which a coral grows, and the second is the susceptibility of the coral-dinoflagellates symbiosis to thermal stress. More resistant corals may take longer to bleach allowing endoliths time to acclimate to a new light environment. This in turn may have implications for coral survival.

  18. Laboratory experiments examining inducible defense show variable responses of temperate brown and red macroalgae Experimentos de laboratorio para examinar las defensas inducibles muestran respuestas variables en macroalgas pardas y rojas de ambientes templados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVA ROTHÄUSLER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae can defend themselves against generalist and specialist herbivores via morphological and/or chemical traits. Herein we examined the defensive responses (via relative palatability of two brown (Lessonia nigrescens, Glossophora kunthii and two red algae (Grateloupia doryphora, Chondracanthus chamissoi from the northern-central coast of Chile against selected generalist meso-herbivores. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate whether (i algae can respond generally to grazing pressure of meso-herbivores (amphipods, isopods and juvenile sea urchins and whether (ii these algal responses were inducible. In order to examine palatability and thus effectiveness of responses, feeding assays were run after each experiment using fresh algal pieces and artificial agar-based food. Lessonia nigrescens responded to amphipods but not to sea urchins, and G. kunthii showed inducible response against one species of amphipods. Grateloupia doryphora did not respond against any of the tested grazers, whereas C. chamissoi responded against one species of amphipods and the tested isopod. Our results indicate variable responses of macroalgae against selected generalist meso-herbivores and evidence of an inducible defense in the brown alga G. kunthii.Muchas macroalgas poseen la capacidad de defenderse contra herbívoros generalistas y especialistas utilizando defensas químicas y/o morfológicas. En este trabajo se examinó la respuesta de la palatabilidad ante meso-herbívoros generalistas de dos algas pardas (Lessonia nigrescens, Glossophora kunthii y dos algas rojas (Grateloupia doryphora, Chondracanthus chamissoi de la costa Norte de Chile. Se realizaron dos experimentos de laboratorio para investigar si: (i las algas pueden responder al pastoreo realizado por meso-herbivoros generalistas (anfípodos, isópodos y erizos juveniles y (ii si la respuesta de estas algas es inducible. Para examinar la palatabilidad y de esta forma la efectividad

  19. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 on sensitivity of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (5000 μl/L) on sensitivity comparison of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae were investigated. The results showed that, the cell densities of six species of algae grown in elevated CO2significantly increased compared to those in ambient CO2 (360 μl/L), and with the time prolonged, the increasing extent increased.Therefore, elevated CO2 can promote the growth of six species of algae. However, there were differences in sensitivity between six species of algae. Based on the effects of elevated CO2 on biomass, the sensitive order (from high to low) was Platymanas sp.,Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium, Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella sp., on the condition of solitary cultivation. Compared to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 promoted the growth of three species of algae, Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701 under the condition of mixed cultivation. The sensitivity of the three species to elevated CO2 in mixed cultivation changed a lot compared to the condition of solitary cultivation. When grown in elevated CO2 under the condition of mixed cultivation, the sensitive order from high to low were Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701. However, under the condition of solitary cultivation, the sensitive order in elevated CO2 was Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis, from sensitive to less sensitive. On the day 21, the dominant algae, the sub-dominant algae and inferior algae grown in elevated CO2 did not change. However, the population increasing dynamic and composition proportion of three algal species have significantly changed.

  1. AlgaeEconomics: bio-economic production models of micro-algae and downstream processing to produce bio energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.; Schipperus, R.; Kootstra, A.M.J.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report describes results of work carried out within the EnAlgae project to describe production costs and identify the variables that have most effect in determining future cost prices so that R&D can be focussed on these issues. This has been done by making use of pilots within the EnAlgae consortium and by describing the process in Excel models that have been spread among and discussed with stakeholders active in the field of commercial algae production. The expectation is that this...

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  3. Importance of sulfate groups for the macrophage-stimulating activities of ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Abu, Ryogo; Isaka, Shogo; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2013-10-18

    To investigate the role of sulfate groups on the macrophage-stimulating activities of ascophyllan, we prepared desulfated ascophyllan, and its effects on RAW264.7 cells were compared with native ascophyllan. The chemical structural analysis revealed that nearly 21% of sulfate groups of ascophyllan were removed by desulfation reaction, while no significant changes in the molecular mass and monosaccharide composition occurred after desulfation. NO- and cytokine- (TNF-α and G-CSF) inducing activities of the desulfated ascophyllan on RAW264.7 cells were significantly decreased as compared to native ascophyllan. Furthermore, the activity of desulfated ascophyllan to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from RAW264.7 cells decreased to almost negligible level. Our results suggest that the level of sulfate groups of ascophyllan is an important structural element responsible for the macrophage-stimulating activities. Probably, even the limited removal of sulfate residues sensitive to desulfation reaction may result in significant decrease in the bioactivities of ascophyllan. PMID:24025707

  4. The Cultivable Surface Microbiota of the Brown Alga Ascophyllum nodosum is Enriched in Macroalgal-Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Marjolaine; Barbeyron, Tristan; Martin, Renee; Portetelle, Daniel; Michel, Gurvan; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Bacteria degrading algal polysaccharides are key players in the global carbon cycle and in algal biomass recycling. Yet the water column, which has been studied largely by metagenomic approaches, is poor in such bacteria and their algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Even more surprisingly, the few published studies on seaweed-associated microbiomes have revealed low abundances of such bacteria and their specific enzymes. However, as macroalgal cell-wall polysacchar...

  5. EFFECT OF THE BROWN ALGA ASCOPHYLLUM NODOSUM AS BIOFERTILIZER ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH IN GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental growing farm technology involves utilization of agricultural inputs which are friendly with the production and ecosystem. Seaweed extracts are used as biofertilizers in horticulture in special to increase plant growth and productivity. In this study, we investigated the effect of seaweed extracts made from Ascophyllum nodosum, on vegetative growth of Vitis vinifera cv. Feteasca Alba. We used three different concentrations of seaweed extracts to asset the effect on fertility coefficients, shoot length, shoot diameter and leaf area. All treatments with seaweed extract showed a stimulatory effect for studied parameters. The plants treated with the higher levels of seaweed concentrate produced the highest absolute fertility coefficient and relative fertility coefficient relative to the plants treated with lower concentration of or untreated control plants. Foliar spray application at different concentration of seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum influenced the vegetative growth expressed by leaf area of vine stock. The results indicate that the 170 ml-1hl concentration of seaweed extract showed the higher enhanced of growth parameters in grapevine.

  6. Study of the mechanisms of iodine accumulation by the brown alga Laminaria digitata and by the mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the Nuclear Environmental Toxicology program which aims at a better understanding of the iodine biological transfer and concentration paths, this research thesis first reports a literature survey on the presence of iodine in laminaria and vanadate-containing halo-peroxidases. The author describes the development and the implementation of a screening test and the obtained results. He comments the results of in vivo investigations of the iodine capture inhibition in the Laminaria digitata. He describes chemical imagery experiments enabling the identification of tissue and sub-cellular distributions of iodine in L. digitata samples. The second part of the report deals with the mammal case, describes the strategies used for target protein identification, the development of the synthesis of inhibitors and of their photo-active analogues, as well as their biological assessments. Finally, he describes the various experimental protocols used in the different investigations

  7. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast : Acclimatization potential to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Coyer, James A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45 degrees latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the

  8. Isolation of stigmast-5,24-dien-3-ol from marine brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum and its antipredatory activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Adel, H.; Shirodkar, D.; Tilvi, S.; Furtado, J.

    against reactive species generated by oxidative processes.3 Therefore, macroalgae need to adapt quickly to different biotic and abiotic stresses in ecosystem by means of chemical protection mechanisms such as creation of antioxidants to limit oxidation4... which constitute 83–97% of the sterol content.8 Interestingly, stigmast-5,24-dien-3-ol (fucosterol) is widely utilized in biological activity studies, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective,9 anti-inflammatory,10 anticancer,11 anti-fungal,12 anti...

  9. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Cd²⁺ biosorption by the brown algae Sargassum fusiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Xi Zou

    Full Text Available A fundamental investigation of the biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution by the edible seaweed Sargassum fusiforme was performed under batch conditions. The influences of experimental parameters, such as the initial pH, sorption time, temperature, and initial Cd2+ concentration, on Cd2+ uptake by S. fusiforme were evaluated. The results indicated that the biosorption of Cd2+ depended on the initial Cd2+ concentration, as well as the pH. The uptake of Cd2+ could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model, and both the Langmuir biosorption equilibrium constant and the maximum biosorption capacity of the monolayer decreased with increasing temperature, thereby confirming the exothermic character of the sorption process. The biosorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate-limiting step for the entire biosorption period. These fundamental equilibrium and kinetic results can support further studies to the removal of cadmium from S. fusiforme harvested from cadmium-polluted waters.

  10. Thraustochytrid and fungal component of marine detritus. 1. Field studies on decomposition of the brown alga Sargassum cinereum J. Ag.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe-Pathak, V.; Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C; Sharma, S.

    . Concentrations of total carbohydrates (TCH), total phenols, proteins, alginate and mannitol, as well as C/N ratios declined as decomposition progressed, concomitant with the increase in microbial biomass. Both thraustochytrids and bacteria attained peak biomass...

  11. Seasonal variations in halides in marine brown algae from Porbandar and Okha coasts (NW coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    percentage of enrichment factor) of halides shows that the tissue concentration of each halide was independent of other halides accumulation. The extent of bioaccumulation could be related to intrinsic property such as x space (spectroscopic electronegativity...

  12. The Brown Algae Pl.LSU/2 Group II Intron-Encoded Protein Has Functional Reverse Transcriptase and Maturase Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine Zerbato; Nathalie Holic; Sophie Moniot-Frin; Dina Ingrao; Anne Galy; Javier Perea

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is...

  13. Pronounced gradients of light, photosynthesis and O2 consumption in the tissue of the brown alga Fucus serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Macroalgae live in an ever-changing light environment affected by wave motion, self-shading and light-scattering effects, and on the thallus scale, gradients of light and chemical parameters influence algal photosynthesis. However, the thallus microenvironment and internal gradients remain underexplored. In this study, microsensors were used to quantify gradients of light, O2 concentration, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and O2 consumption as a function of irradiance in the cortex and medulla layers of Fucus serratus. The two cortex layers showed more efficient light utilization compared to the medulla, calculated both from electron transport rates through photosystem II and from photosynthesis-irradiance curves. At moderate irradiance, the upper cortex exhibited onset of photosynthetic saturation, whereas lower thallus layers exhibited net O2 consumption. O2 consumption rates in light varied with depth and irradiance and were more than two-fold higher than dark respiration. We show that the thallus microenvironment of F. serratus exhibits a highly stratified balance of production and consumption of O2 , and when the frond was held in a fixed position, high incident irradiance levels on the upper cortex did not saturate photosynthesis in the lower thallus layers. We discuss possible photoadaptive responses and consequences for optimizing photosynthetic activity on the basis of vertical differences in light attenuation coefficients.

  14. [Distribution of macroalgal community and environmental effects in Yangma Island, Yantai, Shandon Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiu-ying; Yin, Xiang-bo; Liu, Dong-yan

    2014-12-01

    Distribution of macroalgal community was investigated monthly in the intertidal zone of Yangma Island, Yantai, Shandong Province, China during April 2010 to March 2011. Macroalgae sampling was conducted at two sites (A and B) along Yangma Island coastline. The relationships between macroalgae species composition and biomass and environment variables were studied. In total, 35 macroalgae species were identified, including 24 Rhodophyta (68.6% of the total number), 6 Chlorophyta (17.1% of the total number) and 5 Phaeophyta (14.3% of the total number). Brown algae and green algae dominated in summer, and red algae and brown algae dominated in other seasons. Sargassum thunbergii was the dominant species all the year. The biomass of macroalgae was higher in summer and lower in winter. The highest biomass of macroalgae was observed in June. The lowest biomass of macroalgae was observed in January at A sampling site and in November at B sampling site with the characters of macroalgae in the temperate seas. Seawater temperature, nutrients and pH could have significant effects on the variations of macroalgae biomass in the Yangma Island intertidal zone. PMID:25876420

  15. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eWang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In the article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  16. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  17. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  18. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  19. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  20. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:27598569

  1. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  2. Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to carbon burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. van der Heijden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term time scales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological time scales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m−2 yr−1 and 880 g CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr−1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr−1. Using this potential carbon storage by coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr−1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 t C yr−1. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  3. Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possess endogenous sialylated N-glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2011-01-01

    Green algae have a great potential as biofactories for the production of proteins. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a representative of eukaryotic microalgae, has been extensively used as a model organism to study light-induced gene expression, chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthesis, light perception, cell–cell recognition, and cell cycle control. However, little is known about the glycosylation machinery and N-linked glycan structures of green algae. In this study, we performed mass spectrometry a...

  4. Homogeneity of Danish Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, Hanne Marie; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Bundvad, Anemone; Søgaard, Per; Gram, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the prima...

  5. Molecular Characterization of Epiphytic Bacterial Communities on Charophycean Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Madeline M.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Linda E Graham

    1998-01-01

    Epiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, Desmidium grevillii, Hyalotheca dissiliens, and Spondylosium pulchrum (class Charophyceae, order Zygnematales), collected from a Sphagnum bog were characterized by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. A total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. By phyl...

  6. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  7. THE ALGAE OF LITTORAL SALT MARSHES OF THE MOLOCHNIY LIMAN LEFT BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroviy S.O.; Solonenko A.M.; Yarovaya T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Data on algae floristic spectrum of coastal salt marshes of the left bank of Molochny liman were presented. Thealgae diversity was presented by four compartments: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Xanthophyta. Theregistered algae belong to 15 orders, 20 families, and 27 genera. The Cyanophyta algae were the dominant in exploredsalt marshes, counted 56% from total discovered species. The schematic algae structure of left bank salt marshes ofMolochniy liman was performed, some algae...

  8. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    OpenAIRE

    Voort, van der, R.; Vulsteke, E.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.

  9. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  10. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  11. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  12. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  13. Micro-algae: French players discuss the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 75000 species of algae have been reported so far, the domains of application are huge and investment are increasing all around the world. One of the difficulties is to find the most appropriate algae to a specific application. Some development programs have failed scientifically or economically for instance the production of protein for animal food from the chlorella algae or the production of bio-fuel from C14-C18 chains, from zeaxanthine and from phycoerytrine. On the other side some research programs have led to promising industrial applications such as the production of food for fish and farm animals. Some research fields are completely innovative such as the use of micro-algae for the construction of bio-walls for buildings. Micro-algae are diverse and fragile. Photo-bioreactors have been designed to breed fragile algae like some types of chlorophycees used in bio-fuel and in cosmetics, a prototype has been tested for 15 months and its production is about 2 kg of dry matter a day. (A.C.)

  14. Microfluidic one-way streets for algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-02-01

    Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.

  15. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  16. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  17. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  18. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  19. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  20. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.