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Sample records for brotes por norovirus

  1. Brote de infección por norovirus del Grupo II en un centro de entrenamiento militar, Perú 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos un brote de norovirus (NoV ocurrido en un centro de entrenamiento militar peruano. Trece muestras de heces tomadas de casos iniciales resultaron positivas a NoV GII por RT-PCR. Se realizó un estudio caso-control para determinar factoresasociados a la infección. Se identificó 164 casos probables(tasa de ataqueclínica: 45,2%. El único factor asociado a la infecciónfue el "haber compartido habitación con un caso" (ORa=1,7; IC95% 1,1 a 2,7. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos sugieren que el virus fue propagado persona a persona. Futuras investigaciones de brotes de diarrea en el Perú deberían considerar al NoV como un agente etiológico

  2. Brote de infección por norovirus del Grupo II en un centro de entrenamiento militar, Perú 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos un brote de norovirus (NoV ocurrido en un centro de entrenamiento militar peruano. Trece muestras de heces tomadas de casos iniciales resultaron positivas a NoV GII por RT-PCR. Se realizó un estudio caso-control para determinar factoresasociados a la infección. Se identificó 164 casos probables(tasa de ataqueclínica: 45,2%. El único factor asociado a la infecciónfue el "haber compartido habitación con un caso" (ORa=1,7; IC95% 1,1 a 2,7. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos sugieren que el virus fue propagado persona a persona. Futuras investigaciones de brotes de diarrea en el Perú deberían considerar al NoV como un agente etiológico

  3. Brote de norovirus en Mallorca asociado al consumo de ostras Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain associated with oyster consumption

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    Antònia Galmés Truyols

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la investigación de un brote de gastroenteritis por norovirus asociado al consumo de ostras. Se encuestaron 346 expuestos (266 afectados. Solamente se enviaron 14 muestras de heces de pacientes al Centro Nacional de Microbiología. Se mandaron ostras recogidas en el lugar de producción al Centro Nacional de Alimentación. Las ostras cumplían los parámetros microbiológicos de calidad aplicables antes de la comercialización, que no incluyen investigación de virus. El análisis epidemiológico asoció la aparición de la enfermedad al consumo de ostras (odds ratio [OR]=60,4; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 26,2-139,3 y de navajas (OR=3,13; IC95%: 1,4-6,9. Los análisis microbiológicos identificaron norovirus en los afectados, pero no en las ostras que habían estado sometidas a un tiempo mayor de depuración que las consumidas. Es necesario un control riguroso de los alimentos de especial riesgo para la transmisión de norovirus y disponer de recursos de laboratorio para investigar brotes alimentarios por norovirus.We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR=60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3 and razor shells (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9. Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the

  4. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en una residencia de ancianos

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    Yáñez Ortega Jose Luis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de gastroenteritis por Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipo 1, declarado en una residencia de ancianos de Burgos el 15 de noviembre de 1999. El objetivo de la investigación del brote ha sido determinar la fuente de infección, el mecanismo de transmisión y proponer las medidas adecuadas para evitar la recurrencia del problema. Métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo encuestando a 106 de un total de 119 residentes y a 9 trabajadores del centro. Se ha estimado el Riesgo Relativo de enfermar en función del consumo de diversos alimentos. Se ha utilizado la Regresión Logística para calcular las odds ratio ajustadas por edad, sexo y por el consumo de alimentos y vino. Se ha estudiado la concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico por coprocultivo mediante el índice de concordancia Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: Un total de 42 personas refirieron sintomatología (37 residentes y 5 empleados. La tasa de ataque clínico fue de 36,5 %. De 91 coprocultivos realizados (82 en residentes y 9 en empleados 45 resultaron positivos (41 en residentes y 4 en empleados. La Tasa de ataque de casos confirmados por coprocultivo fue de 49,5% en los investigados. La leche frita ha sido el alimento implicado epidemiológicamente con la aparición del brote: RR: 3,25 (IC95% 1,10-9,59. El efecto protector del vino (Odds Ratio: 0,68 no alcanzó significación estadística (p=0,36. El índice Kappa resultó 0,43 (p<0,001, lo que demuestra la escasa concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico mediante coprocultivo. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica de que el consumo de leche frita ha sido el mecanismo de transmisión de la infección, y la conservación a temperatura inadecuada del alimento ha sido el factor contribuyente determinante en la eclosión del brote. Esto demuestra que lo más idóneo para prevenir este tipo de brotes son las prácticas y h

  5. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

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    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  6. Signos Vitales de los CDC Cómo prevenir los brotes de norovirus (Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los norovirus infectan cada año a cerca de 20 millones de personas en los Estados Unidos. Sepa cómo protegerse y proteger a su familia de esta enfermedad que es muy contagiosa y potencialmente grave.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  7. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

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    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  8. Brote de gastroenteritis por virus Norwalk en una residencia de ancianos de Granada

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    Almagro Nievas Diego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los brotes de gastroenteritis aguda de origen vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal-Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15-18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  9. Brote epidémico por Trichinella britovi en Granada durante la primavera del 2000

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    López Hernández Begoña

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La triquinelosis continúa presentándose en nuestro medio de forma epidémica. La magnitud de cada epidemia depende del alcance del producto contaminado distribuido. En la primavera del año 2000 se investigó en la capital de Granada un episodio ocasionado por la venta de embutidos sin control sanitario. El objetivo de este trabajo es la descripción epidemiológica del brote causado por Trichinella britovi. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo del brote así como de las medidas de control. El alimento vehículo del parásito se investigó mediante encuesta epidemiológica. Resultados: Entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-22 se declararon 38 casos. Los síntomas identificados con más frecuencia fueron fiebre, mialgias y edemas palpebrales. El 87% de las personas afectadas presentó eosinofilia. El 40% requirieron ingresos hospitalarios. Se encontró T. britovi en la longaniza. Conclusiones: Las epidemias de triquinelosis pueden superar los sistemas de inspección y control actuales, poniendo en riesgo la seguridad alimentaria. La difusión de la alerta sanitaria disminuye la demora diagnóstica. Proponemos la intensificación de la educación sanitaria y continuar con la implantación de programas de autocontrol en industrias y establecimientos, debidamente supervisados y evaluados. Se debe mantener un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica sensible y de rápida actuación.

  10. Brote de diarrea por Shigella en Coto Brus: Costa Rica,de octubre a diciembre del 2001

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    Azalea Espinoza Aguirre

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción Coto Brus,cantón cafetalero localizado en la zona fronteriza con Panamá,reportó,en noviembre del 2001,dos defunciones en menores de un año por Shigella flexnnery ,debido a un brote de diarrea.Se inició la investigación para determinar la magnitud y el mecanismo de transmisión del brote y recomendar acciones para prevenir nuevos casos. Métodos Se revisaron 2862 hojas de consultas por diarrea en el Hospital de Coto Brus,de enero a noviembre del 2001,para caracterizar el brote.Se tomaron muestras de agua para el cultivo bacteriológico y coprocultivos.Para determinar el mecanismo de transmisión de Shigella ,se realizó un estudio caso-control.Un caso fue toda persona de Coto Brus,referida al hospital del lugar por diarrea y que presentó un coprocultivo positivo por Shigella ,del 1 ºal 15 diciembre del 2001. Se calcularon OR(IC95%a variables socio-laborales y condiciones higiénicas. Resultados De 29 coprocultivos enviados se aislaron 19 por Shigella flexneri. Factores de riesgo como: no lavarse las manos antes de comer presentó un OR=4,80;IC(1,28-18,73,para recolectores de café el OR=4,17(1,09-16,73y contactar con una persona con diarrea OR=4,36(IC95%=1,08- 18,27.Las muestras de agua no reportaron contaminación con el agente.La propagación persona a persona fue identificada como mecanismo de transmisión. Conclusiones Deficientes condiciones de saneamiento en las fincas cafetaleras y las malas prácticas higiénicas facilitaron la transmisión de Shigella entre los recolectores de café.Se recomendó supervisar la actividad cafetalera por los Ministerios de Salud y Trabajo para garantizar condiciones de saneamiento básicas y promover prácticas higiénicas en los trabadores durante la época de recolección del café.

  11. Reflexión sobre los modelos para el estudio de los brotes de rabia humana por murciélago

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    Schneider Maria Cristina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una reflexión sobre cuál de los posibles modelos en salud pública contribuiría más para el entendimiento de la ocurrencia de brotes de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos. En un primer momento se hace una breve revisión sobre los modelos más utilizados para analizar nuestro objeto de estudio. Posteriormente se presenta la investigación de un brote de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos con base en el modelo epidemiológico social. Este mismo brote se analiza nuevamente utilizando como marco teórico la teoría de sistemas complejos, como forma de un ejercicio teórico-práctico para intentar una aproximación a esta teoría, como un posible modelo para estudiar el problema presentado.

  12. Brote de diarrea debido a intoxicación por alimentos en una empresa X. San José, Costa Rica, del 8 al 9 de julio 2003

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    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre; Hilda Ramírez Fernández; Henry Wasserman Teitelbaum

    2007-01-01

    El 9 de julio del 2003, se informó al Ministerio de Salud, la existencia de un brote de diarrea en una empresa X, en San José. Se investigó el brote, con el objetivo de verificar su magnitud, determinar factores de riesgo y mecanismo de transmisión, también recomendar medidas de prevención y control, a las autoridades de salud. Se revisaron 40 expedientes clínicos de pacientes atendidos por diarrea, en el consultorio de la empresa. Se definió como caso a todo funcionario, que pres...

  13. Brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones transmitidas por alimentos en Costa Rica, 2005

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    Hilda Ma Bolaños-Acuña

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: En la actualidad, las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, incluyendo las diarreas e intoxicaciones, constituyen uno de los problemas de salud pública de mayor importancia a nivel mundial, ya que ocasionan alta morbilidad y mortalidad, generan grandes costos a los servicios de salud, pérdidas económicas, demandas y pérdida de confianza de los consumidores. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la información disponible en el Centro Nacional de Referencia en Bacteriología del INCIENSA (CNRB, de los brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias ocurridos en 2005, en los que se refirieron muestras clínicas o de alimentos, para identificar los agentes y vehículos de infección asociados. Materiales y métodos:Se realizó el análisis descriptivo de la información epidemiológica y de laboratorio disponible en el CNRB en relación con los brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias ocurridos en 2005. Resultados:Durante el período el CNRB documentó 23 brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias, para un total aproximado de 819 afectados, en su mayoría procedentes de la gran área metropolitana. Trece de los brotes fueron intrafamiliares (diez de ellos debidos a especies y serotipos de Shigella; sin embargo, el mayor número de enfermos se presentó en los brotes comunitarios y los que se produjeron en poblaciones cautivas, asociados a rotavirus, Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica y Clostridium perfringens productor de toxina A, con 518, 138 y 54 enfermos, respectivamente. Conclusión:Estos hallazgos evidencian deficiencias en la cadena de transporte, conservación y manipulación de los alimentos, así como en la higiene personal, y pueden ser de utilidad para la implementación de intervenciones inmediatas.Justification and objective:Food borne diseases ncluding diarrhea and food poisoning represent one of the major public health problems worldwide, since they cause high morbidity and mortality

  14. Brote causado por Escherichia coli en Chalco, México Outbreak caused by Escherichia coli in Chalco, México

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    Iliana Alejandra Cortés-Ortiz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el agente causal del brote de diarrea asociado con el desbordamiento del canal de aguas negras en Chalco. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y transversal, efectuado en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE, de la Secretaría de Salud, con 1 550 hisopos rectales para el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de V. cholerae y enterobacterias, obtenidos de la población del Valle de Chalco, que presentó diarrea y vómito durante el desastre natural acontecido el 31 de mayo de 2000. El análisis de los resultados se efectuó por la diferencia entre las proporciones de dos poblaciones (prueba de Ji cuadrada. Las cepas de E. coli se hibridaron por "colony blot" para los grupos ETEC, EIEC, EPEC y EHEC. Resultados. El 0.45% correspondió a Salmonella: S. agona, S. infantis, S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. typhimurium; 0.06% a Shigella flexneri 3a, y 76.6% a E. coli: 62.2% a ETEC (44.6 % con LT, 11.2% con ST, y 44.1% con ambas sondas, 0.84% a EIEC (sonda ial, 0.84% a EPEC (sonda bundle-forming pilus BFP, 0.08% a E. coli enterohemorrágica no-O157:H7 (sonda pCVD419, y 36.02% no hibridó. No se encontró asociación entre E. coli patógena con la edad y género. Conclusiones. Escherichia coli podría ser responsable del brote de diarrea. Es importante conocer el agente etiológico del brote para encaminar las estrategias en el estudio y control sanitario del mismo.Objective. To identify the etiologic agent responsible for a disease outbreak following an overflow of sewage water in Valle de Chalco, Mexico. Material and Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out. Rectal samples were collected from the population of Chalco valley, who suffered from diarrhea and vomiting during a natural disaster that took place on May 31, 2000. The Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (Epidemic Reference and Diagnosis Institute, InDRE, Ministry of Health, received 1521 rectal

  15. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among hospital workers

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    Ma. Eugenia Chávez-de la Peña

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  16. Brote de Fiebre Hemorrágica por el virus del Ébola en Uganda Hemorrhagic Fever outbreak due to Ebola virus in Uganda

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    MªC. Aríñez Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Uganda se está llevando a cabo la Misión de la Unión Europea (EUTM Somalia, en la que participan efectivos de las Fuerzas Armadas españolas. En mayo de 2011 el Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda notificó un brote de fiebre hemorrágica por el virus del bola a 70 km de distancia de Kampala. El caso índice y único caso confirmado, fue una niña de 12 años que falleció. La investigación epidemiológica se llevó a cabo por un equipo internacional que incluyó personal del Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda y de la OMS. Tras mantener la vigilancia del brote durante un tiempo igual a dos veces el periodo de incubación y no confirmar otros casos, fue declarado finalizado el brote el 17 de junio de 2011. Se distribuyó información sobre el brote y recomendaciones de actuación tanto a profesionales de la salud como a la población general.The European Mission (EUTM Somalia is being conducted in Uganda. Military personnel of the Spanish Armed Forces participate in that mission. On 13 May 2011, The Ministry of Health of Uganda notified a case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a district 70 kilometers far from Kampala. The index case and only confirmed case, was a 12-year-old girl who finally died. Epidemiologic surveillance was conducted by an international team including representatives of the Ugandan Ministry of Health and WHO. The Ministry of Health of Uganda declared the end of the outbreak on the 17 June 2011, since the epidemiological investigations, including twofold the incubation period surveillance, did not confirm new cases. Guidelines to control the outbreak and information on the disease were distributed to health professionals and general population.

  17. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

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    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.

  18. Implicaciones en la salud humana de la gastroenteritis aguda por norovirus como producto de la contaminación hídrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Delgadillo Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En julio del 2010, un brote de gastroenteritis Aguda surgió entre los residentes de la ciudad principal de la Región Norte de Costa Rica: Ciudad Quesada. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para explorar y caracterizar el brote en esa zona rural. Los datos de vigilancia y los registros médicos de los pacientes fueron analizados para elaborar un estudio descriptivo entre el 08 de julio y 14 de julio del 2010 en el Cantón de San Carlos. Una hoja de datos (Ficha Colectiva de Investigación VE 0.2 fue aplicada para obtener información de los pacientes. Con el fin de detectar la presencia de enteropatógenos, una prueba de ELISA fue aplicada a las muestras de heces tomadas. Las muestras de agua también se analizaron para detectar bacterias y coliformes fecales en el sistema de distribución. Un total de 352 casos fueron confirmados en la región estudiada con la presencia de síntomas frecuentes entre los casos confirmados; estos síntomas fueron diarrea (94,2%, náuseas (92,7% y vómitos (91,7%. La edad media de los pacientes fue de 29 años (15,8 y el 50,8% correspondió a sujetos del sexo femenino. El grupo de edad más afectado es el representado por los lactantes de 1 a 4 años (tasa de ataque 18,2 / 1000 habitantes La zona con más afectación fue el área central de Ciudad Quesada. En cinco de cada seis pruebas de heces fue posible aislar el norovirus. Por otra parte, en las pruebas aplicadas al agua solo se identifica la presencia de Escherichia coli. Los resultados sugieren que el norovirus fue transmitido por agua contaminada con materia fecal. Este es el primer brote documentado que ha sido causado por este virus en la región norte del país. Se recomienda mejorar la vigilancia de la calidad del agua, promover el uso de agua potable entre los residentes, generar un plan de educación que fomente prácticas seguras de manejo y distribución de agua; así como campañas de sensibilización en comunidades rurales como ésta en temas

  19. Brote por pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar-Compte Diana; Jacquemin Benedicte; Díaz-González Adriana; Velásquez Consuelo; Volkow Patricia

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del ...

  20. Brote por pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilar-Compte Diana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del personal de salud. Se efectuó un análisis de casos y controles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 13 infecciones tardías del sitio quirúrgico por P aeruginosa. La Pseudomona se aisló de las narinas de la enfermera y de las gasas que ella misma colocaba sobre la mesa de mayo, pero no de los paquetes de gasas cerrados del área de curaciones ambulatoria de tumores mamarios. El 14 de abril de 2000 se transfirió a la enfermera a otra área y se instauraron medidas estrictas para el control de infecciones. Después de esta fecha se diagnosticaron cuatro casos más. La radioterapia fue el único factor de riesgo asociado con la infección (RM=5.1, IC 95%=1.1-28.4. CONCLUSIONES: El brote probablemente estuvo causado en un inicio por una fuente común y se extendió por infección cruzada entre las pacientes. Las prácticas deficientes detectadas en el manejo de heridas y drenajes condujo a instaurar medidas preventivas específicas.

  1. Norovirus - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  2. Investigación de vectores y reservorios en brote de Chagas agudo por posible transmisión oral en Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con vivienda sin triatominos domiciliados y, Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus y dos Didelphis marsupialis infectados con T. cruzi en palmas de Attalea butyracea y Elaeis oleifera del área urbana de Aguachica. Se analiza la participación del R. pallescens y el rol de las palmas en el ciclo silvestre de T. cruzi y para la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas. Incursiones esporádicas de R. pallescens, P. geniculatus y E. cuspidatus silvestres desde palmas cercanas al domicilio humano pueden provocar brotes cada vez más frecuentes de Chagas oral.

  3. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio López; Jorge Neira; María Alejandra Morales; Cintia Fabbri; María Laura D´Agostino; Teresa Zitto

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y p...

  4. Brote de diarrea debido a intoxicación por alimentos en una empresa X. San José, Costa Rica, del 8 al 9 de julio 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El 9 de julio del 2003, se informó al Ministerio de Salud, la existencia de un brote de diarrea en una empresa X, en San José. Se investigó el brote, con el objetivo de verificar su magnitud, determinar factores de riesgo y mecanismo de transmisión, también recomendar medidas de prevención y control, a las autoridades de salud. Se revisaron 40 expedientes clínicos de pacientes atendidos por diarrea, en el consultorio de la empresa. Se definió como caso a todo funcionario, que presentó más de 2 deposiciones semilíquidas, y que consumió alimentos del comedor de la empresa, el 8 julio del 2003. Se tomaron coprocultivos, muestras de alimentos consumidos, y se enviaron a un laboratorio privado para el análisis. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, y se aplicó un cuestionario. Se calcularon los riesgos relativos (RR, con intervalos de confianza del 95%, las tasas de ataque y porcentajes para los alimentos servidos. El 100% de los casos presentaron diarrea, sin fiebre. A los coprocultivos y a las muestras de alimentos, no se les buscó Clostridium perfringens. Las muestras de agua no reportaron contaminación fecal. El alimento sospechoso: cerdo con piña, presentó un RR=1,94;IC:95%(1,26-2,96. El período de incubación y la descripción de la enfermedad coincidieron con una intoxicación por Clostridium perfringens, por lo que, se asoció el brote al alimento sospechoso. Como en la empresa X se desconocían los procedimientos a seguir ante un brote de diarrea, causado por alimentos, se recomendó a los encargados de epidemiología del Área Rectora de Salud, capacitar en el abordaje de las intoxicaciones causadas por alimentos; a las empresas bajo su responsabilidad, que cuentan con establecimientos de alimentación.On July the 9th., 2003, an outbreak in company X was notified to the Ministry of Public Health in San José. This outbreak was investigated with the purposes of verifying its magnitude, determining risk

  5. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Godoy

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.Introduction: The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of

  6. Reflexión sobre los modelos para el estudio de los brotes de rabia humana por murciélago Comments on models for studying human rabies outbreaks from bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una reflexión sobre cuál de los posibles modelos en salud pública contribuiría más para el entendimiento de la ocurrencia de brotes de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos. En un primer momento se hace una breve revisión sobre los modelos más utilizados para analizar nuestro objeto de estudio. Posteriormente se presenta la investigación de un brote de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos con base en el modelo epidemiológico social. Este mismo brote se analiza nuevamente utilizando como marco teórico la teoría de sistemas complejos, como forma de un ejercicio teórico-práctico para intentar una aproximación a esta teoría, como un posible modelo para estudiar el problema presentado.This paper analyzes which of the possible public health models could contribute to an understanding of human rabies outbreaks transmitted by bats. First, we present a short review of the most common pertinent models. Second, we present an investigation of a human rabies outbreak transmitted by bats based on the socio-epidemiological model. The same outbreak is analyzed again using the complex system theory as a theoretical framework, as both a theoretical-practical exercise seeking an approximation to this theory and a model to study this problem.

  7. Infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del virus dengue durante un brote en el noroeste de Perú, 2008 Concurrent infections by two dengue virus serotypes during an outbreak in northwestern Peru, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Mamani; Dana Figueroa; María Paquita García; María del Carmen Garaycochea; Edwar J. Pozo

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir la existencia de infecciones concurrentes por diferentes serotipos del virus dengue (DENV) en un brote ocurrido en el noroeste de Perú durante el 2008. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 73 muestras séricas de pacientes con dengue en un brote en el noroeste de Perú entre mayo y junio de 2008. Para la serotipificación del DENV se utilizó técnicas de biología molecular; así, primero se realizó la extracción del ARN con el kit QIAamp viral RNA Mini, luego se realizó la transcri...

  8. Brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas Outbreak of postmastectomy wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ambulatory surgical care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Vilar-Compte; Benedicte Jacquemin; Adriana Díaz-González; Consuelo Velásquez; Patricia Volkow

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del ...

  9. Brote epidémico de dermatitis por la oruga procesionaria del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) en escolares Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    F. Artola-Bordás; A. Arnedo-Pena; M. A. Romeu-García; J. B. Bellido-Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Fundamento. Describir un brote de dermatitis por exposición a las orugas procesionarias del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) ocurrido el 15 de marzo del 2006 en escolares, que realizaron una estancia vacacional en una masía rural a 2 Km de Villahermosa del Río (Castellón). Métodos. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal que incluyó a los setenta escolares, de 10 años de edad, y a 3 profesores procedentes de Castellón. Se empleó un cuestionario específico para ser cumplimentado por los...

  10. Aislamiento rápido del virus dengue 3 por el método de shell vial en el brote de dengue en Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Gutiérrez P; Miryam Palomino R; Marcela Olivares S; Gissella Noroña C

    2005-01-01

    El aislamiento de virus dengue con los métodos tradicionales demora hasta un mes, en situaciones de emergencia como el brote de dengue clásico en el distrito de Comas-Lima entre abril y mayo de 2005, es necesario un diagnóstico precoz. Se procesaron 117 muestras de sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de dengue clásico en fase virémica procedentes la zona del brote, mediante el método de shell vial para el aislamiento del virus dengue en la línea celular C6-36, se identificó el serotip...

  11. Infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del virus dengue durante un brote en el noroeste de Perú, 2008 Concurrent infections by two dengue virus serotypes during an outbreak in northwestern Peru, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Mamani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la existencia de infecciones concurrentes por diferentes serotipos del virus dengue (DENV en un brote ocurrido en el noroeste de Perú durante el 2008. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 73 muestras séricas de pacientes con dengue en un brote en el noroeste de Perú entre mayo y junio de 2008. Para la serotipificación del DENV se utilizó técnicas de biología molecular; así, primero se realizó la extracción del ARN con el kit QIAamp viral RNA Mini, luego se realizó la transcripción inversa y amplificación de los fragmentos de ADNc viral mediante las técnicas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR multiplex y de RT-Anidada PCR (RT-Nested PCR, y finalmente de realizó el secuenciamiento genético de los fragmentos de ADNc viral utilizando el kit Big Dye Terminator v.3,1. Resultados. Los 73 casos de dengue presentaron infecciones por diferentes serotipos: 34 (46,6% por DENV-3, 29 (39,7% por DENV-1, 4 (5,5% por DENV-4 y 6 casos (8,2% por DENV-1 y DENV-3. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron fiebre y cefalea (100%, mialgia (94,5%, dolor ocular (83,6%, artralgia (78,1%, escalofríos (63,0%, nauseas/vómitos (38,4%, prueba de lazo positiva (30,1% y erupción cutánea (20,5%. Los pacientes con infecciones concurrentes presentaron cuadros leves, excepto una paciente que presentó prueba de lazo positivo y sangrado genital. Conclusión. Es el primer reporte de pacientes peruanos con infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del DENV sin formas graves de la enfermedad.Objetives. To establish the existence of concurrent infections by different dengue virus (DENV serotypes in an outbreak in the Northwestern in Peru during 2008. Material and methods. 73 serum samples from patients with dengue were analyzed during an outbreak that occurred in Northwestern in Peru between May and June 2008. Molecular biology techniques were used to serotype the DENV, thus, firstly the viral RNA

  12. Brote de gastroenteritis por el consumo de agua de suministro público causado por Shigella sonnei Waterborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei caused by consumption of public supply water

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Godoy; Rosa Bartolomé; Joan Torres; Lina Espinet; Amàlia Escobar; Carmen Nuin; Ángela Domínguez

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: Investigar un brote de gastroenteritis que afectó a la población de València d'Àneu (Lleida). Métodos: Estudio de cohortes sobre el consumo de agua de la red, de agua embotellada y de agua de manantiales. La cohorte se elaboró mediante contacto telefónico con todos los números privados del municipio. Se encuestó al 58,3% de la población censada (105/180) sobre diferentes consumos de agua, número de vasos consumidos diariamente y sintomatología. Se tomaron muestras de agua de la red...

  13. Brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas Outbreak of postmastectomy wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ambulatory surgical care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vilar-Compte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del personal de salud. Se efectuó un análisis de casos y controles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 13 infecciones tardías del sitio quirúrgico por P aeruginosa. La Pseudomona se aisló de las narinas de la enfermera y de las gasas que ella misma colocaba sobre la mesa de mayo, pero no de los paquetes de gasas cerrados del área de curaciones ambulatoria de tumores mamarios. El 14 de abril de 2000 se transfirió a la enfermera a otra área y se instauraron medidas estrictas para el control de infecciones. Después de esta fecha se diagnosticaron cuatro casos más. La radioterapia fue el único factor de riesgo asociado con la infección (RM=5.1, IC 95%=1.1-28.4. CONCLUSIONES: El brote probablemente estuvo causado en un inicio por una fuente común y se extendió por infección cruzada entre las pacientes. Las prácticas deficientes detectadas en el manejo de heridas y drenajes condujo a instaurar medidas preventivas específicas.OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in postmastectomy wounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were patients with a surgical infection caused by P. aeruginosa resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin seen between March 13, 2000 and May 18, 2000, at Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City. Specimens for culturing were taken from faucets, antiseptics, and tap water, as well as from healthcare workers. A case-control analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Thirteen late surgical infections were caused

  14. Brote epidémico de dermatitis por la oruga procesionaria del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa en escolares Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Artola-Bordás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Describir un brote de dermatitis por exposición a las orugas procesionarias del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa ocurrido el 15 de marzo del 2006 en escolares, que realizaron una estancia vacacional en una masía rural a 2 Km de Villahermosa del Río (Castellón. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal que incluyó a los setenta escolares, de 10 años de edad, y a 3 profesores procedentes de Castellón. Se empleó un cuestionario específico para ser cumplimentado por los escolares. Resultados. Seis casos de dermatitis (tasa de ataque 8,6%: 6/70 ocurrieron después del baño en la piscina climatizada de la masía al secarse con toallas, que habían dejado fuera del recinto de la piscina, y la Thaumetopoea pityocampa se deslizó sobre ellas. Los casos precisaron atención médica con administración de antihistamínicos, corticoides y duchas de agua fría. El riesgo de sufrir el cuadro por contacto con la Thaumetopoea pityocampa fue muy alto (Odds Ratio = 157,2; Intervalo de confianza del 95% 18,4-∞. Se recogieron Thaumetopoea pityocampa en las inmediaciones de la piscina y se observaron sus nidos en pinos próximos. Conclusiones. La presencia de Thaumetopoea pityocampa en zonas próximas a albergues rurales puede ser causa de brotes epidémicos y se requiere educación sanitaria de los escolares y eliminación de los nidos de Thaumetopoea pityocampa en las inmediaciones de estos albergues.Background. To describe a dermatitis outbreak caused by exposure to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa that took place on March 15th, 2006, in schoolchildren during their stay at a rural farm holiday centre in Villahermosa del Río (Castellón. Methods. A cross sectional epidemiological study was carried out on seventy schoolchildren, average age 10 years, and 3 teachers from Castellón. A specific questionnaire was used to be filled in by the schoolchildren. Results. Six cases of dermatitis (attack rate 8

  15. Brotes de infección por histeria monocytogenes: Una revisión de las vías que llevan a su aparición Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks: A review of the routes that favor bacterial presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura Rossi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes es un patógeno que cuando se encuentra en los alimentos, puede causar serias enfermedades, principalmente en grupos de alto riesgo como inmunocomprometidos, mujeres embarazadas y neonatos. Listeria monocytogenes es una importante causa de abortos, septicemia o infección del SNC. Antiguamente, los brotes se vinculaban con una gran variedad de alimentos, especialmente carnes procesadas (salchichas, paté, productos precocidos; en la actualidad, la mayoría se vinculan al consumo de leche cruda o quesos elaborados con leche sin pasteurizar. La importancia de la listeriosis para la salud pública no siempre es reconocida, sobre todo porque es una enfermedad relativamente rara, en comparación con otras más comunes como la salmonelosis. Sin embargo, debido a su alta tasa de letalidad, la listeriosis se encuentra entre las causas más frecuentes de muerte por enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos ocupando la segunda posición, despu��s de la salmonelosis. Los cambios en la forma de producción, almacenamiento y distribución de los alimentos han propiciado diversos brotes. En las últimas décadas, muchos países han encaminado intensos trabajos hacia la prevención de la listeriosis; la notable reducción de su incidencia en la década del '90, sugiere una relación positiva con las medidas implementadas.Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and neonates. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicaemia or infections of the central nervous systems. Listeriosis outbreaks have mostly been linked to consumption of raw milk or cheese made of unpasteurized milk. Previous outbreaks of listeriosis have been linked to a variety of foods especially processed meats (such as hot dogs, deli meats, and páté. The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized

  16. Brote de influenza en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Mayca P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicar un brote de influenza basado en la notificación de un probable brote de infección respiratoria en diciembre de 2002 por el Centro de Salud Nueva Requena (Pucallpa. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó casos con fiebre no mayor de 72 horas, y por lo menos dos síntomas relacionados. Se tomó hisopado nasal-faríngeo, detectándose mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI: influenza A, B, adenovirus, parainfluenza y virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR. Se recolectaron 14 muestras, reportándose principalmente fiebre (92,8%, rinorrea (92,8% y tos (42,8% Se encontró influenza B y parainfluenza 2 en 05 casos. Los diagnósticos encontrados coinciden con la literatura nacional. Es necesario implementar un sistema de vigilancia, descentralizando el diagnóstico laboratorial y las campañas educativas poblacionales.

  17. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

  18. Implicaciones en la salud humana de la gastroenteritis aguda por norovirus como producto de la contaminación hídrica

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda Delgadillo Espinoza; Cristian Moreira Segura; Freddy Araya Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En julio del 2010, un brote de gastroenteritis Aguda surgió entre los residentes de la ciudad principal de la Región Norte de Costa Rica: Ciudad Quesada. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para explorar y caracterizar el brote en esa zona rural. Los datos de vigilancia y los registros médicos de los pacientes fueron analizados para elaborar un estudio descriptivo entre el 08 de julio y 14 de julio del 2010 en el Cantón de San Carlos. Una hoja de datos (Ficha Colectiva de Investigación VE 0.2)...

  19. Brote de gastroenteritis por el consumo de agua de suministro público causado por Shigella sonnei Waterborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei caused by consumption of public supply water

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    Pere Godoy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Investigar un brote de gastroenteritis que afectó a la población de València d'Àneu (Lleida. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes sobre el consumo de agua de la red, de agua embotellada y de agua de manantiales. La cohorte se elaboró mediante contacto telefónico con todos los números privados del municipio. Se encuestó al 58,3% de la población censada (105/180 sobre diferentes consumos de agua, número de vasos consumidos diariamente y sintomatología. Se tomaron muestras de agua de la red municipal y de heces de diez enfermos. La implicación de cada agua consumida se estudió con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%. Resultados: La tasa de ataque global fue del 64,8% (68/105. La curva epidémica fue concordante con una exposición de 6 días. Resultó implicado el consumo de agua de suministro público (RR=4,2; IC95%: 1,5-11,9. Además, se constató una relación dosis-respuesta (χ²=34,1; p Objective: To investigate a waterborne outbreak in the population of València d'Àneu (Lleida, Spain. Methods: A cohort study of consumption of mains water, bottled water and spring water was carried out. The sample was obtained by telephone contact with all private numbers in the municipality. We surveyed 58.3% of the population census (105/180 for water consumption, number of glasses drunk daily and symptoms. The water supply in the municipal system was sampled, and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in the stool samples of 10 patients was determined. The association of each type of water was studied with estimation of relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The overall attack rate was 64.8% (68/105. The epidemic curve was consistent with an exposure of 6 days. Consumption of public supply water was associated with gastroenteritis (RR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.5-11.9. In addition, a dose-response relationship was found (χ²=34.1; p <0.001. There was a higher risk of illness in consumers of 2

  20. Identificación de una nueva área de infección por Rickettsias del grupo typhi: estudio de un brote de tifus en Huánuco

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    Rosa Mostorino E

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Investigar un brote de síndrome febril en el distrito de Punchao mediante una evaluación clínica, laboratorial y entomológica para conocer los factores asociados a la aparición de dicho brote. Materiales y métodos: Debido al reporte de tres pacientes con cuadro clínico febril asociado a cefalea, mialgias y postración en la semana epidemiológica Nº41 del año 2000, procedentes del distrito de Punchao, Humalíes, Huánuco y ante la información de presentación inusual de pacientes febriles en la última semana en dicho lugar, se decidió investigar la naturaleza y características del brote. Se definió como caso a todo paciente con cuadro febril agudo y uno de estos síntomas: cefalea, mialgias o postración; procediéndose a la búsqueda activa de éstos y a la evaluación de presencia de anticuerpos para rickettsias en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. Se capturaron roedores y se colectaron ectoparásitos en las viviendas (roedores, animales domésticos y humanos, a fin de identificar la presencia de Rickettsias en ellos mediante IFI, aislamiento o PCR. Resultados: No se logró el aislamiento del agente causal. Se evidenció circulación de la Rickettsia sp. (serología positiva tanto en humanos (en casos y en no casos como en roedores. Se evidenció mayor presencia de malos hábitos de aseo y condiciones inadecuadas de saneamiento básico en los casos (respecto a los no casos y una disminución de los casos luego del inicio de las medidas de control. Conclusiones: Las evidencias encontradas permitieron identificar un brote de tifus en Punchao, no pudiéndose determinar la especie involucrada debido a que no se aisló el agente causal.

  1. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio López; Jorge Neira; María Alejandra Morales; Cintia Fabbri; María Laura D´Agostino; Teresa Zitto

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y p...

  2. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz

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    Valadés F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p < 0,001. Se aisló el virus en las 4 muestras de vesículas estudiadas y la serología (IgM fue positiva en los 9 sueros estudiados. El coste total de brote fue de 927,21 e, con una media de 12,53 e por caso, y 205 días de pérdida escolar. Conclusión: Se confirmó la existencia de un brote de varicela en el colegio de la localidad de Herrera del Duque, con transmisión persona a persona, que afectó a niños de entre uno y 9 años. La elevada

  3. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz)

    OpenAIRE

    Valadés F.J.; Barrasa A.; Peña E.; Sánchez J.F.; Amela C.; Pachón I.; Herrera D.; Martínez-Navarro F.; Ramos J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO) oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptiv...

  4. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  5. Norovirus in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarone, Michael P; Sheahan, Anna; Kamboj, Mini

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are among the most common cause of diarrhea in transplant recipients. The clinical spectrum of norovirus infection after transplant is increasingly being recognized. As substantial morbidity is now associated with norovirus infections in this population; the quest for rapid diagnostic modalities and newer therapies has expanded. Transplant recipients with norovirus infection are at risk for several complications, including protracted illness with malnutrition, organ failure, and chronic viral shedding. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the epidemiology, complications, diagnosis, and treatment of norovirus infection in the transplant setting. PMID:27115700

  6. Brote nosocomial y comunitario de queratoconjuntivitis epidémica en Navarra

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    Salcedo Miqueleiz Asunción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La queratoconjuntivitis epidémica (QCE es una infección aguda, generalmente bilateral, que se presenta de forma esporádica o en brotes a partir de una fuente de infección común, que puede ser una consulta de oftalmología o una piscina. La queratitis puede evolucionar hacia la formación de lesiones subepiteliales cornéales que pueden persistir durante varios meses. El objetivo de este trabaji fue la descripción de un brote de queratoconjuntivitis epidémica ocurrido en Navarra (España entre Abril y Agosto de 1996 que afectó al menos a 266 personas MÉTODOS: Descripción del brote, definición de caso clínico, investigación microbiológica, e investigación epidemiológica del brote mediante encuesta. RESULTADOS: En la investigación epidemiológica destaca la existencia de 2 consultas de oftalmología como mecanismo de transmisión de la enfermedad en 47 de los 116 pacientes investigados. La diseminación de la enfermedad en el entorno de los pacientes se pudo conocer en 119 casos, de éstos, 62 se consideraron casos secundarios. El diagnóstico etiológico del brote se realizó a los 11 días de iniciada la investigación microbiológica, aislándose adenovirus en muestras conjuntivales de 8 de los 19 pacientes investigados. CONCLUSIONES: Las medidas de prevención instauradas para el control del brote y la eficacia de las mismas se pone de manifiesto por la reducción paulatina de casos.

  7. Megadosis de metilprednisolona oral frente a intravenosa para el brote de esclerosis múltiple comparación de la eficacia clínica y radiológica /

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo Tello, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    La mayoría de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM) sufrirán, sobretodo al principio de su enfermedad, episodios subagudos de déficit neurológico (brotes), de los que se recuperarán en mayor o menor medida. Minimizar el riesgo de padecer un brote es el pilar en el que se basan las terapias actuales para la EM, pero ninguna de las disponibles es capaz de evitarlo por completo, por lo que el tratamiento adecuado del brote, que persigue acortar su duración y mejorar su recuperación, sigue s...

  8. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  9. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a rural population, spread person to person contact Brote de gastroenteritis aguda en una población rural por transmisión de persona a persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Garrido Almagro

    2004-12-01

    ón logística.Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en la variable sexo y de consumo de cualquier tipo de agua (red y embotellada. La curva epidémica no refleja un comienzo explosivo. En el cálculo de la OR ajustada destaca la relación causal los antecedentes familiares de padecer la enfermedad (OR ajustada= 5,32; IC-95% 1,23- 22,93; p=0,025. La inspección de la red de agua estaba bien y no se remitieron muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis.Conclusiones: Se trata de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de base poblacional, de etiología desconocida y con mecanismo de transmisión de persona a persona.

  10. LA BRUCELOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD PROFESIONAL: ESTUDIO DE UN BROTE DE TRANSMISION AEREA EN UN MATADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Elena Rodríguez Valín

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. Métodos: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. Conclusiones: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  11. ¿Qué hacemos ante un brote de escabiosis en un hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Maestre Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La escabiosis o sarna es una enfermedad de la piel producida por Sarcoptes scabiei; puede ir aumentando el número de casos, hasta llegar a producir verdaderas epidemias¹. Se procede a describir las actuaciones del Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales de un hospital ante un brote de escabiosis ocurrido en una planta de hospitalización, con afectación de trabajadores sanitarios, tras el contacto con un paciente fuente (sospecha clínica y epidemiológica de escabiosis.

  12. Brote de criptosporidiosis en Guadarrama (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodríguez-Salinas Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En la primavera de 1998 hubo un brote de gastroenteritis aguda en Guadarrama (Comunidad de Madrid, España que afectó sobre todo a niños en edad preescolar. Métodos: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y analítico (casos y controles del brote. Se tomaron muestras para estudio microbiológico de las heces de los afectados. Se inspeccionó el sistema de captación de agua de consumo de propiedad municipal y se tomaron muestras para análisis microbiológico. Resultados: Veintiún niños/as de 0 a 5 años presentaron diarrea líquida de más de 5 días de duración. Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el consumo de agua del grifo y la gastroenteritis [OR=5,73 (1,18-43,30; p<0,05]. No se halló asociación con otras variables investigadas. Se detectaron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium parvum en heces de ocho de las personas afectadas. Se observaron deficiencias en el sistema de captación y depuración de agua de consumo público de propiedad municipal pero no se encontraron ooquistes en los análisis del agua. Conclusiones: Los resultados de la investigación epidemiológica sustentan que el origen del brote de gastroenteritis por Cryptosporidium parvum fue el agua del grifo. Aunque no se detectó este parásito en los análisis de agua, esto es explicable por las dificultades que entraña esta técnica. En la revisión bibliográfica, no se han hallado descripciones de brotes epidémicos similares en nuestro país, pero según algunos informes, no son infrecuentes en países de nuestro entorno. Por tanto, Cryptosporidium parvum debería ser tenido en cuenta en el diagnóstico y manejo de estas situaciones.

  13. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  14. PLAN DE VIGILANCIA DE BROTES EPIDÉMICOS RECIENTES DE SARAMPIÓN Y RUBEOLA EN CATALUÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Jané

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El sarampión y la rubeola son dos enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. En Cataluña, desde 1988, se administra a todos los niños y niñas dos dosis de vacuna antirubeola y antisarampión con altas coberturas vacunales. Desde 1990 se lleva a cabo el Programa de eliminación del sarampión en Cataluña que contempla alcanzar y mantener un nivel elevado de inmunidad en la po-blación mediante coberturas vacunales altas, una vigilancia epidemiológica intensa y una respuesta inmediata ante la aparición de un caso o un brote. La tasa de sarampión se situó en 2014 en 1,9 casos/100.000 habitantes, des-tacando los brotes recientes de 2006, 2011, 2013 y 2014, que afectaron a 381, 289, 31 y 124 personas respectivamente. Todos los brotes fueron des-encadenados por un caso importado. En el 2011 y 2014 el 6% y 5,5% de los afectados fueron profesionales de la salud. En todos los brotes se observó una amplia variedad genotípica. En el caso del Programa de eliminación de la rubeola, desde el 2002 ha habido 68 casos confirmados de rubeola post-natal y 5 casos de rubeola congénita confirmada. En la vigilancia y control del sarampión y la rubeola, además de reforzar las coberturas vacunales, es esencial la declaración urgente, antes de las 24 horas, de la sospecha y la confirmación por parte del laboratorio de los casos declarados. Respecto a las coberturas vacunales, destaca la necesidad de reforzar la vacunación en el grupo de profesionales de la salud al igual que en otros colectivos no vacunados. En este sentido se aconseja vacunar a todas las personas nacidas después de 1966 que no estén correctamente vacunadas con dos dosis de triple vírica. Asimismo es de destacar que el avance en el estudio de los genotipos aislados permite identificar diversas importaciones procedentes de otros países europeos con brotes activos, aspecto que facilita la vigilancia de estas enfermedades.

  15. El papel del agua para consumo humano en los brotes de diarrea reportados en el período 1999 - 2001 en Costa Rica

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    Carmen Valiente

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio recopila los resultados de veintidos brotes de diarrea reportados en Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre marzo 1999 y marzo del 2001, con el objetivo de evaluar el papel del agua para consumo humano como canal de transmisión de los potenciales agentes causantes; para lograrlo se estableció un "Sistema Cualitativo de Valoración del Grado de Importancia del Agua para Consumo Humano en la Transmisión de las Diarreas". Los resultados indican que cinco brotes (22.7% se clasifican en la categoría 1, es decir, el agua tuvo un 100% de responsabilidad en la transmisión del agente etiológico; ya que este se aisló tanto en las heces de los pacientes como en el agua para consumo de las poblaciones respectivas. Dos brotes se ubicaron en la categoría 11 (9.1 %; en este caso, aunque se aislaron los mismos géneros bacterianos en las heces y el agua, diferían en la especie o en alguna otra característica. En diez brotes no se logró aislar el agente patógeno en el agua de consumo (45.0%; sin embargo, las poblaciones afectadas utilizaban agua de calidad no potable, por eso se sitúan en la categoría III. En la categoría IV se clasificó solo un brote (4.5%, ya que no se pudo comprobar la presencia del agente patógeno en el agua de consumo y esta no presentaba contaminación fecal (catalogada como potable, pero se aislaron bacterias patógenas oportunistas en las fuentes de abastecimiento. En la categoría V se ubican cuatro brotes (18.2%, pues las poblaciones afectadas usaban agua potable pero no se logró aislar ningún patógeno oportunista en el preciado líquido. Otro aporte de este trabajo es que demuestra que la mayoría de los brotes de diarrea se presentan en la época de verano, principalmente en los meses de febrero y marzo. Además, en el 36.0% de los brotes se aisló la bacteria Shigella (flexneri y sonnei, seguida por Aeromonas (hydrophila y caviae en el 14%. En uno de los brotes se aisló Salmonella

  16. ANÁLISIS DE UN BROTE DE SARAMPIÓN EN UNA BARRIADA DE LA PROVINCIA DE SEVILLA, ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luna Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: En 2011 en Sevilla (España un brote de Sarampión afec- tó a 1.759 personas. Comenzó en la Barriada de Santa Isabel, San Juan de Az- nalfarache (Sevilla, donde reside una comunidad Romaní. El objetivo del trabajo es describir epidemiologicamente el brote en la localidad y calcular el riesgo de enfermar por sarampión de los residentes en la barriada Santa Isa- bel. Método: Se diseñó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo. Se consideró población expuesta a los residentes en la barriada de Santa Isabel y no ex- puesta a la del resto del municipio. Las fuentes de datos fueron: el Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía, el Ayuntamiento del municipio y el Sistema de Vi- gilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía. Se describió el brote y se calcularon incidencias y el Riesgo Relativo. Los casos fueron confirmados por criterios clínicos, de laboratorio y/o epidemiológicos. Resultados: En la barriada los casos se concentraron entre el colectivo etario de entre 2 y 19 años, mientras que en el resto de la localidad se produ- jo en menores de 2 y mayores de 19 años. La incidencia global del brote fue de 0,98 por 1.000 habitantes. En San Juan de 4,94 . Entre los expuestos fue de 23,15 y de 2,1 en los no expuestos. En el colectivo de 2 a 19 años la inciden- cia fue 89,58 por 1.000 habitantes en la Barriada y de 5,33 por 1.000 habitan- tes en el resto de la localidad. Conclusiones: El brote afectó en mayor medida a menores de 20 años, a población no vacunada y residente en la Barriada Santa Isabel. El riesgo de enfermar de Sarampión en la Barriada fue de 11 y de 17 en el colectivo entre 2 y 19 años. Precisamos elaborar estrategias que reduzcan las desigualdades en salud que acompañan a algunos brotes epidémicos.

  17. Prevent the Spread of Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diarrhea. Norovirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the U.S. CDC estimates that each year ... Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases , Division of Viral Diseases Page maintained by: Office of the Associate ...

  18. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  19. Descripción de un brote de enfisema y edema pulmonar agudo del bovino (EPAB) en Parral (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    H. URRUTIA; C. BREVIS; M. QUEZADA; S. DONOSO

    1997-01-01

    Se describe un brote de enfisema y edema alveolar agudo del bovino (EPAB) ocurrido en la zona centro-sur a fines del verano de 1995. Los animales Frisón negro, de aproximadamente 2 años de edad, fueron afectados después de cambiarse de una pradera fibrosa a una suculenta de alfalfa. La mortalidad por esta causa fue de un 23%. Las principales lesiones encontradas en la necropsia fueron enfisema y edema intersticial intenso del pulmón, lo cual fue corroborado histopatológicamente, encontrándose...

  20. Personalized Genetic Testing and Norovirus Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prystajecky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-to-consumer personalized genetic testing has enabled the public to access and interpret their own genetic information. Various genetic traits can be determined including resistance to norovirus through a nonsense mutation (G428A in the FUT2 gene. Although this trait is believed to confer resistance to the most dominant norovirus genotype (GII.4, the spectrum of resistance to other norovirus strains is unknown. The present report describes a cluster of symptomatic norovirus GI.6 infection in a family identified to have norovirus resistance through personalized genetic testing.

  1. Norovirus Surveillance: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John P

    2016-02-01

    Surveillance for norovirus is challenging because the nature of illness due to norovirus is such that the majority of people who are infected will not have any contact with medical services and are highly unlikely to have a sample collected for diagnosis. Public health advice urges people to not visit hospitals or their family physicians, to prevent the risk further spread. The recognition of the importance of this pathogen was quickly established following the introduction of surveillance of outbreaks of gastrointestinal infection in England and Wales in 1992. This period saw >1800 outbreaks of norovirus infection reported in hospitals in England, affecting >45 000 patients and staff. A new system for reporting outbreaks of norovirus infection in hospitals, the Hospital Norovirus outbreak Reporting Scheme (HNORS), began in January 2009. Summary information on outbreaks is provided by infection control staff at hospitals and includes questions on the date the first and last person in the outbreak became symptomatic and whether closure of a bay or ward was needed. In the first 3 years (2009-2011) of the HNORS surveillance scheme, 4000 outbreaks were reported, affecting 40 000 patients and 10 000 staff. Over the last 3 years, these outbreaks have been associated with an average of 13 000 patients and 3400 staff becoming ill, with 15 000 lost bed-days annually. With the possible introduction of a vaccine on the horizon, targeted research with a more integrated approach to laboratory testing and outbreak reporting is essential to a greater understanding of the epidemiology of norovirus. PMID:26744431

  2. Brotes de leptospirosis humana en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba Human leptospirosis outbreak in the district of Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Suárez Hernández

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los brotes de leptospirosis ocurridos en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila en el periodo de 1980 a 1995. En la etapa se notifican 40 brotes. Las actividades principales vinculadas a los mismos fueron la atención al cultivo de la caña de azúcar, al cultivo del plátano, el baño en río y las inundaciones. Se nota un incremento de brotes a partir del mes de junio. En los meses de octubre y noviembre se reportan las mayores incidencias. Los grupos de edades que más casos aportaron fueron de 10-14 años, 15-19 años y 30-34 años. El sexo más afectado fue el masculino. Los grupos más afectados fueron los estudiantes, pobladores urbanos y trabajadores agrícolas cañeros. De los 40 brotes, 21 fueron confirmados por medio de la prueba de microaglutinación y 19 por la prueba hemolitica, siendo los serogrupos más frecuentes Pomona y Australis.Forty leptospirosis outbreaks occurred in Ciego de Avila province from 1980 to 1995. The main events involved in the outbreaks were floods, bathing in rivers and activities related to sugar cane and banana cultivation. The number of cases increased after June, with higher incidences reported in October and November. The most affected age groups were 10-14 years, 15-19 years and 30-34 years. Men were more affected than women. Students, people residing in the urban zone and farmers were the most affected groups. A total of 21 outbreaks out of 40 were confirmed by the microagglutination test and the remaining 19 by the hemolytic test. Pomona and Australis were the serogroups most frequently detected by microagglutination.

  3. Comparing human norovirus surrogates: murine norovirus and Tulane virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-01-01

    Viral surrogates are widely used by researchers to predict human norovirus behavior. Murine norovirus (MNV) is currently accepted as the best surrogate and is assumed to mimic the survival and inactivation of human noroviruses. Recently, a new calicivirus, the Tulane virus (TV), was discovered, and its potential as a human norovirus surrogate is being explored. This study aimed to compare the behavior of the two potential surrogates under varying treatments of pH (2.0 to 10.0), chlorine (0.2 to 2,000 ppm), heat (50 to 75°C), and survival in tap water at room (20°C) and refrigeration (4°C) temperatures for up to 30 days. Viral infectivity was determined by the plaque assay for both MNV and TV. There was no significant difference between the inactivation of MNV and TV in all heat treatments, and for both MNV and TV survival in tap water at 20°C over 30 days. At 4°C, MNV remained infectious over 30 days at a titer of approximately 5 log PFU/ml, whereas TV titers decreased significantly by 5 days. MNV was more pH stable, as TV titers were reduced significantly at pH 2.0, 9.0, and 10.0, as compared with pH 7.0, whereas MNV titers were only significantly reduced at pH 10.0. After chlorine treatment, there was no significant difference in virus with the exception of at 2 ppm, where TV decreased significantly compared with MNV. Compared with TV, MNV is likely a better surrogate for human noroviruses, as MNV persisted over a wider range of pH values, at 2 ppm of chlorine, and without a loss of titer at 4°C. PMID:23317870

  4. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hote...

  5. Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mattison, Kirsten; Shukla, Anu; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Kelton, David; Bidawid, Sabah; Farber, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the predominant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Strains of norovirus also exist that are uniquely associated with animals; their contribution to the incidence of human illness remains unclear. We tested animal fecal samples and identified GIII (bovine), GII.18 (swine), and GII.4 (human) norovirus sequences, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that GII.4-like strains can be present in livestock. In addition, we detected GII.4-like noroviral R...

  6. Brote de encefalitis de San Luis en el Área Metropolitana Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hallazgos epidemiológicos y clínicos de 13 enfermos con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, con transmisión entre enero y marzo de 2010, en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires (AMBA. Los 13 enfermos, promedio de edad 38 años, tuvieron un comienzo agudo caracterizado por hipertermia y cefalea. Entre los días dos y diez de iniciados los síntomas, 7/13 enfermos tuvieron signos y síntomas de compromiso neurológico caracterizado por meningitis sin signos encefálicos en 1/7. En 6/7 los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron: rigidez de nuca, desorientación temporoespacial, fotofobia, confusión y alteración del lenguaje. Dos resonancias magnéticas y un electroencefalograma presentaron signos de afectación de lóbulos temporales. El líquido cefalorraquídeo se caracterizó por pleocitosis con predominio de células mononucleadas, glucorraquia normal y discreto aumento de proteínas. No hubo casos fatales. En 6/13 pacientes la sospecha clínica inicial fue dengue. Por la agrupación espacial y temporal de los casos puede considerarse un brote epidémico, el primero conocido en el AMBA, ya que no se había notificado previamente la circulación epidémica del virus.

  7. Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  8. Brote de fiebre amarilla selvática en Colombia 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bernal M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Antecedentes: el 9 de enero se confirma un caso de fiebre amarilla en la sierra nevada de Santa Marta cuya circulación viral es la continuación de la presentada en el 2003 en la región del Catatumbo. En la región no se confirmaban casos desde el año 1979 y el comportamiento del brote es similar al presentado en dicho año.

    Metodología: estudio descriptivo longitudinal de casos captados mediante vigilancia activa comunitaria, estudio de casos y vigilancia pasiva. Los casos son confirmados por IgM, inmunohistoquímica y patología. Se realizaron acciones del fortalecimiento de la vigilancia de febriles icterohemorrágicos, entomológica, vectorial y de epizootias. Igualmente acciones de intensificación de la inmunización de susceptibles y educación a la comunidad.

    Resultados: se confirmó la circulación del virus en epizootias ocurridas en tres zonas de la región (Municipios de Valledupar, La Paz y Santa Marta. Por fecha de inicio de síntomas los casos comenzaron en la semana 51 de 2003 y el pico epidémico fue en la semana 1 de 2004; el último caso se confirmó el 22 de enero de 2004. Se confirmaron 29 casos de 787 notificados (15 del distrito de Santa Marta, 8 del departamento del Cesar y 6 de La Guajira; 20% de los casos fueron captados por vigilancia activa. El 28% fue confirmado por patología e inmunohistoquímica y el restante por IgM. El grupo de edad con mayor incidencia fue 15 a 44 años (75%, hombres (72% y agricultores (45%. La letalidad fue 28%.

    La vigilancia entomológica reportó la presencia de Sabethes s.p en Valledupar y los índice médicos, excepto en esta última ciudad, fueron mayores del 10%. Las coberturas de

  9. Tipificación molecular del virus dengue 3 durante el brote epidémico de dengue clásico en Lima, Perú, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Mamani Z

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar mediante trascripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR y sitios específicos de restricción - reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RSS-PCR al agente causal del brote epidémico presentado en el distrito de Comas, Lima en abril del año 2005. Materiales y métodos: veinte muestras de suero colectadas durante el brote de dengue fueron procesados por RT-PCR para determinar el serotipo, esta técnica se realizó en un solo paso. Luego se aplicó la técnica RSS-PCR para la identificación del genotipo circulante y se corroboraron los resultados posteriormente con aislamiento viral y secuenciamiento. Resultados: El análisis del RTPCR del ARN extraído de las muestras presentó un producto amplificado de 290pb que corresponden al dengue serotipo 3 (DEN 3. El análisis de los productos de RSS-PCR del ARN extraído a partir de aislamientos de DEN 3 correspondió al patrón C, incluido en el genotipo III. Los aislamientos de los virus dengue 3 en líneas celulares C6/36, tipificadas por IFI y el secuenciamiento genético confirmaron los resultados obtenidos por las pruebas previamente descritas. Conclusión: Durante el brote epidémico de dengue clásico en Lima, circuló el genotipo III del virus DEN 3.

  10. Brote de varicela en el Servicio de Oncología de hombres del Hospital San Juan de Dios, febrero-abril de 2004, San José, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sócrates Vargas-Naranjo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo:La infección intrahospitalaria por varicela en adultos es infrecuente, a pesar de ser una enfermedad altamente contagiosa. Es reconocido que en adultos se presentan las tasas de letalidad más altas y por ello es importante analizar las características del presente brote y así determinar cuáles factores contribuyeron a que ocurriera, para recomendar acciones dirigidas a la prevención de un brote similar. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para identificar los factores asociados al brote por varicela en el hospital. La prueba de U de Mann-Whitney se utilizó para valorar diferencias entre casos y controles según edad, contacto entre pacientes, estancia hospitalaria y grupo de cama. El cálculo de los Odds Ratio ayudó a determinar la posible asociación entre las variables y la presentación de la enfermedad. Se recomendó la cuarentena del Servicio. Resultados:El primer caso de varicela ocurrió en febrero, al tercer día de su ingreso al hospital. Posteriormente, se presentaron 5 casos más. Al analizar las variables estudiadas, la curva epidémica y el período de incubación, la variable contacto entre los pacientes fue la más importante para mantener la existencia del brote p < 0,05; R = 25; [IC95%]=2,3 - 275,7. Conclusión:Se confirmó la transmisión persona-persona de la varicela como fuente principal de contagio en el hospital. Si bien la cuarentena permitió detener el brote, se deben tomar medidas más prácticas y menos costosas, que prevengan la aparición de un brote similar.

  11. Investigación de un brote de fiebre de origen desconocido en una localidad colombiana del Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laguado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Realizar un estudio serológico de un brote de fiebre tropical de origen desconocido (FOD en una zona del departamento de Córdoba, donde hay agentes etiológicos comunes de la región como Plasmodium, Leptospira, Rickettsia, Salmonella, Brucella y Orienta. Materiales y métodos. En el municipio de Chimá (Córdoba se presentó un brote de FOD. Los casos se recopilaron de un grupo de 209 pacientes sintomáticos que asistieron a la consulta. De ellos, en 89 (42.6% se obtuvo información clínica, epidemiológica y exámenes paraclínicos. Para establecer la causa de la FOD, se hicieron estudios serológicos y de laboratorio para leptospirosis, dengue, salmonelosis, rickettsiosis, Orienta, brucelosis y malaria. Resultados. Los siguientes síntomas y signos se presentaron en 30.4% del total de la población estudiada: cefalea (66%, artralgias (40% fiebre y cefalea (62.9%. A pesar de serologías positivas para Rickettsia, Salmonella y Leptospira, se consideró que la causa de la FOD en la población fue una infección aguda producida por un flavivirus y que se sospechó como dengue. La positividad de anticuerpos anti-dengue IgM fue en 45% de los casos (40/89. La IgG se encontró en 89% de los pacientes antes negativos para IgM. Además, 44% de los pacientes fueron positivos para IgG e IgM; 30% de los casos se presentaron asociados con Leptospira (n=8, pero no se pudo determinar si estas infecciones fueron recientes o pasadas. Conclusión. Después de un estudio epidemiológico, serológico y de laboratorio de siete enfermedades tropicales, se estableció que el brote de FOD se debió presumiblemente al virus de dengue.

  12. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  13. El hospital ante un brote prolongado de legionelosis The hospital faced with a prolonged Legionella outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fernández

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los recursos asistenciales utilizados en pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía por Legionella durante un brote ocurrido en Alcoy y compararlos con los empleados en otras neumonías. Métodos y resultados: Mediante un protocolo, se analiza y compara a 177 pacientes con neumonía por Legionella con 180 pacientes ingresados por otras neumonías, y se describe su tratamiento y los recursos empleados. La claritromicina fue el antibiótico más utilizado en ambos grupos. La estancia hospitalaria fue similar, pero los requerimientos de ventilación mecánica y cuidados intensivos fueron superiores para Legionella. La hospitalización domiciliaria se utilizó con éxito en un 15,6% de los pacientes con Legionella y en un 11,3% de los demás. El uso de oxigenoterapia domiciliaria al alta fue menor para Legionella (7,8% que para el resto de neumonías (16,7%. Conclusiones: Se destaca la mayor necesidad de ventilación mecánica en la neumonía por Legionella y los buenos resultados de la hospitalización domiciliaria dentro de los nuevos sistemas de gestión.Objective: To describe the health resources used in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia during an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Alcoy (Spain, and to compare them with those used in other forms of pneumonia. Methods and results: Using a clinical protocol, 177 Legionella pneumonia patients were compared with 180 patients hospitalized for other types of pneumonia. Data on therapy and the resources used were collected. The most common antibiotic treatment in both groups was clarithromycin, but intensive care and mechanical ventilation requirements were greater in Legionella pneumonia. Home-based hospital care was successfully used in 15.6% of patients with Legionella pneumonia and in 11.3% of those with other types of pneumonia. Home oxygen therapy after discharge was less frequent in the Legionella pneumonia group (7.8% than in the group with non

  14. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bv Venkataram; Shanker, Sreejesh; Muhaxhiri, Zana; Deng, Lisheng; Choi, Jae-Mun; Estes, Mary K; Song, Yongcheng; Palzkill, Timothy; Atmar, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Human noroviruses are major causative agents of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis both in children and adults. Currently there are no licensed therapeutic intervention measures either in terms of vaccines or drugs available for these highly contagious human pathogens. Genetic and antigenic diversity of these viruses, rapid emergence of new strains, and their ability to infect a broad population by using polymorphic histo-blood group antigens for cell attachment, pose significant challenges for the development of effective antiviral agents. Despite these impediments, there is progress in the design and development of therapeutic agents. These include capsid-based candidate vaccines, and potential antivirals either in the form of glycomimetics or designer antibodies that block HBGA binding, as well as those that target essential non-structural proteins such as the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition to these classical approaches, recent studies suggest the possibility of interferons and targeting host cell factors as viable approaches to counter norovirus infection. This review provides a brief overview of this progress. PMID:27318434

  15. The Evolution of Norovirus, the "Gastric Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C Lindesmith; Eric F Donaldson; LoBue, Anna D.; Jennifer L Cannon; Zheng, Du-Ping; Vinje, Jan; Baric, Ralph S.

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu), the symptoms of which include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There is no treatment for infection with these highly contagious viruses. While most people recover within a few days, the very young and old may experience severe disease. Like influenza, large outbreaks (epidemics) of norovirus infection occur periodically (often in closed communities such as cruise ships), and most people have ...

  16. Ultrasensitive norovirus detection using DNA aptasensor technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Giamberardino

    Full Text Available DNA aptamers were developed against murine norovirus (MNV using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. Nine rounds of SELEX led to the discovery of AG3, a promising aptamer with very high affinity for MNV as well as for lab-synthesized capsids of a common human norovirus (HuNoV outbreak strain (GII.3. Using fluorescence anisotropy, AG3 was found to bind with MNV with affinity in the low picomolar range. The aptamer could cross-react with HuNoV though it was selected against MNV. As compared to a non-specific DNA control sequence, the norovirus-binding affinity of AG3 was about a million-fold higher. In further tests, the aptamer also showed nearly a million-fold higher affinity for the noroviruses than for the feline calicivirus (FCV, a virus similar in size and structure to noroviruses. AG3 was incorporated into a simple electrochemical sensor using a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNPs-SPCE. The aptasensor could detect MNV with a limit of detection of approximately 180 virus particles, for possible on-site applications. The lead aptamer candidate and the aptasensor platform show promise for the rapid detection and identification of noroviruses in environmental and clinical samples.

  17. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán) durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte I: Características clínicas y reducción de la duración de la fiebre con el uso de oseltamivir Outbreak of new influenza a H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan) during july and august 2009. Part I: Clinical features and reducing the duration of fever with the use of oseltamivir during the outbreak of new influenza A H1N1 in Spanish forces in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    F. Maimir Jané; J.M. García Ortiz; M.A. Sánchez Gil; R.L. García de Guadiana; C. Gutiérrez Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Desde la declaración de alerta fase 6 por la OMS se han presentado brotes de gripe A H1N1 en todo el mundo. Presentamos los resultados del estudio realizado en el brote de nueva gripe A H1N1 en la Base Militar de Camp Arena en Herat (Afganistán). Método: Estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, de pacientes controlados por el Servicio de Sanidad del Role 2, valorando la edad, síntomas al ingreso, duración de la fiebre, test de despistaje rápido, complicaciones, intolerancia al ose...

  18. Human norovirus infection in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Poló, Tatiane; Peiró, Juliana R; Mendes, Luiz Cláudio Nogueira; Ludwig, Louisa F; de Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Bucardo, Filemon; Huynen, Pascale; Melin, Pierrette; Thiry, Etienne; Mauroy, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses are important enteric pathogens involved in non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Noroviruses mainly occur from person to person via the fecal-oral route but also through contaminated food or water; indirect contamination is also possible due to the resistance of the virus in the environment. Latin American countries as a whole cover a vast North-to-South range, which is highly heterogeneous in terms of climate, ecosystem, human population distribution (urban areas with high human densities versus closed communities), economic development and genetic backgrounds resulting from each particular historical context. This review aims to present epidemiological and clinical patterns of human norovirus infections in Latin American countries. Divergent prevalences were observed depending on the country and the surveyed population. In particular, a shift in rotavirus/norovirus ratio in the etiologies of gastroenteritis was detected in some countries and could be attributed partly to rotavirus vaccine coverage in their infant population. While GII.4 noroviruses were seen to constitute the most common genotype, differences in genotype distribution were observed both in the environment (via sewage sampling proxy) and between genotypes circulating in healthy and diarrheic patients. Due to high climatic discrepancies, different patterns of seasonality were observed. Accordingly, this continent may condense the different particular epidemiological features encountered for HuNoV infections worldwide. PMID:27018574

  19. Estudio de un brote de bacteremia secundaria asociada con nutrición parenteral en una unidad de recién nacidos de tercer nivel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. del Río

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ante la evidencia de un brote de bacteremia secundaria neonatal, en la Unidad de Recién Nacidos, Hospital de Caldas, Manizales, se realizó un estudio de casos y controles 1:4, para determinar la asociación de factores de riesgo importantes para los pediatras como nutrición parenteral, terapia respiratoria, tubo orotraqueal, cámara cefálica, parto vaginal, la aplicación de hemoderivado, remisión de otra unidad, leche materna por sonda, peso y edad. Como definición de caso se adoptó la clínica con por lo menos dos hemocultivos positivos, patógeno de piel hemocultivado y germen aislado en sangre sin foco definido. Los 19 controles se tomaron al azar de los recién nacidos que se encontraban hospitalizados por otras causas diferentes o relacionadas con la patología. Se realizó una regresión logística paso a paso, para determinar los eventos causales. Los gérmenes hemocultivados fueron Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, E. aerogenes y E. cloacae. La edad promedio de los casos fue 30.6 semanas, en los controles 36.6 meses (p 0.2 NS. Peso promedio de los casos 1,385 g contra 2,621 g en los controles. Se encontró asociada la nutrición parenteral con el brote OR=15 (IC=1-482 p 0.027 S. Otros factores como la edad y el peso fueron de confusión. En cuanto a la nutrición parenteral, se corroboró su implicación, porque al revisar de inmediato el proceso de nutrición parenteral se encontró que los productos sobrantes se estaban almacenando y reutilizando hasta por 30 días.

  20. Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads through contaminated food and water... For Health Care Providers Clinical features, transmission, diagnosis, disease burden, treatment... For Public Health Professionals Information about burden ...

  1. Regeneración in vitro de brotes de Polianthes tuberosa L. a partir de yemas vegetativas de la inflorescencia y de tejido de cormo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Hernández-Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polianthes tuberosa L. es una planta endémica de México, comercialmente se cultiva para flor de corte, y, además, es utilizada en la industria farmacéutica y del perfume. Tradicionalmente, los productores la propagan utilizando los cormos, lo que ha ocasionado que el cultivo presente poca variabilidad genética y posiblemente, por esta razón solo se conocen cultivares con flores blancas. Con base en lo anterior el objetivo de la presente investigación consistió en establecer la metodología práctica y competitiva para propagar in vitro Polianthes tuberosa L. Las yemas y pequeños segmentos de tejido de cormo fueron colocadas sobre la superficie del medio de cultivo, base GC (comunicación personal Guillermo Carrillo con las sales inorgánicas del medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog (1962 por litro, 50 mL de agua de coco, 20 g de sacarosa, 6.4 g de agar y el pH fue ajustado a 5.7. Con este medio básico se prepararon medios de cultivo que contenían bencilaminopurina (BAP, ácido naftalenacético (ANA, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, ácido indolacético (AIA, y cinetina. La formación de brotes que dieron origen a las plántulas ocurrió mediante, la regeneración directa de la yema floral la cual al crecer forma sólo una plántula y a partir del tejido de la base de la yema, de esta región se obtuvieron hasta seis brotes por yema en el medio que contiene BAP, 4.5 mg y ANA, 0.1 mg, del cual la regeneración de brotes fue mayor (56.1 %. En el caso de cormo el problema fue la contaminación llegando en algunos casos hasta el 100 % de los cultivos. Es de resaltar la importancia de poder lograr la regeneración masiva in vitro de plantas de nardo a partir de yemas florales.

  2. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz Chickenpox outbreak in Herrera del Duque, Badajoz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Valadés

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p Introduction: Chickenpox is a worldwide disease with high morbidity but few complications, although complications can be sevre in immunocompromised individuals and healthy adults. The annual chickenpox rate declared to the National Notification Disease Surveillance System is approximately 5 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in Extremadura (Spain. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics and cost of an epidemic outbreak of chickenpox

  3. Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This podcast is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  4. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vipin Kumar; George, Santosh; Sarkar, Rajiv; Giri, Sidhartha; Samuel, Prasanna; Vivek, Rosario; Saravanabavan, Anuradha; Liakath, Farzana Begum; Ramani, Sasirekha; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia. Methods Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group. Results Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2%) were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6%) were norovirus GI, 150(8.1%) norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4%) were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4%) were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8%) were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6%) GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0%) with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3%) ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428) were at a significantly lower risk (48/190) of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease. PMID:27284939

  5. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  6. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L. Regeneración de brotes adventicios en hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivadas in vitro

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    Trujillo Sánchez Reinaldo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used like explant in all experiments. The best re-sult was reached with MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. Was de-monstrated that for the leaves with more multiplication subculture number and taken from lower part of shoot (older; the morfogenetic potential falls significantly (p<0.05. The highest shoot regeneration rate (>60% and the largest number of shoot per regenerating leaf (>3 were obtained with several wounds carried out in f orm of jabs to the central nerve of leaves. This regeneration protocol constitutes an important tool that can be applied for future studies of genetic transformation in this species. Key words: Tissue culture, leaf explants, growth regulators, organogenesis, guavaLa regeneración de brotes adventicios es una etapa clave para la aplicación de las técnicas de ingeniería gené­tica. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo el desarrollo de un procedimiento para la regeneración de brotes por organogénesis a partir de hojas de microesquejes o brotes de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivados in vi­tro. Para ello se estudiaron algunos de los principales factores que afectan la regeneración de brotes, tales como la concentración de reguladores del crecimiento (citoquinina, el estado fisiológico del explante y la he­rida. En todos los experimentos se utilizaron como explantes hojas de vitroplantas de guayaba de la variedad Enana Roja Cubana EEA18-40 de diferentes subcultivos. El mejor resultado se

  7. Descripción de un brote de enfisema y edema pulmonar agudo del bovino (EPAB en Parral (Chile

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    H. URRUTIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de enfisema y edema alveolar agudo del bovino (EPAB ocurrido en la zona centro-sur a fines del verano de 1995. Los animales Frisón negro, de aproximadamente 2 años de edad, fueron afectados después de cambiarse de una pradera fibrosa a una suculenta de alfalfa. La mortalidad por esta causa fue de un 23%. Las principales lesiones encontradas en la necropsia fueron enfisema y edema intersticial intenso del pulmón, lo cual fue corroborado histopatológicamente, encontrándose a nivel pulmonar una hiperplasia de neumocitos tipo II y membranas hialinas. Se practicó tratamiento sintomático al inicio del cuadro, el cual no fue efectivoAn outbreak of acute bovine pulmonary oedema and emphysema (ABPE, which occurred in the south central Chile at the end of the summer of 1995, is described. The Friesian cattle, approximately 2 years old, which were affected presented severe signs of expiratory dyspnoea after they were moved from a fibrous pasture to one which was lush with alfalfa. Mortality rate was 23%. The main lesions found in the necropsy were severe interstitial emphysema and oedema of the lungs. These were corroborated by histopathological findings in the lungs which showed an hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes as well as the presence of hyaline membranes. Syntomatic treatment was given at the outset of the diseases. But did not have any positive results

  8. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Vincent, Emily M; Meade, Gloria K; Watson, Clytrice L; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-02-01

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by treatment of up to 60 min resulted in minimal binding reduction (~0.1 log₁₀) suggesting that H₂O₂ is not a good liquid sanitizer for HuNoV. Overall this study suggests that HuNoV is remarkably resistant to several commonly used disinfectants and advocates for the use of chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible. PMID:24334094

  9. Determinación de tamaño de muestra de características del xilema de brote de aguacate mediante remuestreo

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    Elizabeth Meza-Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el tamaño de muestra adecuado, para detectar diferencias estadísticas en análisis de varianza de los caracteres de xilema, en brotes anuales de aguacate. Para esto, fueron registradas en tres árboles con altura contrastante las variables frecuencia, área, perímetro y diámetro de los vasos del xilema. A partir de 50 observaciones de cada árbol, se realizaron 5.000 remuestreos no paramétricos, para cada repetición de 2 a 50 campos microscópicos. A partir del tamaño de muestra de 15 repeticiones, las desviaciones en los cinco estadísticos son mínimas, por lo que se propone como el mínimo para el muestreo de dichas variables.

  10. Intoxicación alimentaria por Clostridium perfringens en el Centro Penitenciario de Atención Institucional de San José: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Wong-Mc Clure; Armando Silva-Solórzano; Xiomara Badilla-Vargas

    2004-01-01

    Las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos se presentan anualmente en Costa Rica y por lo general se estudian hasta identificar el agente etiológico, pero no hasta determinar su fuente de contaminación. No se ha documentado la importancia de fortalecer la inocuidad de alimentos, lo cual produce eventos que comprometen la salud pública cada año, por lo que fue importante estudiar el presente brote. En este estudio se analiza el brote diarreico de un centro penitenciario de San José, en 20...

  11. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIAID)

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  12. Posibles Brotes de Zoonosis relacionadas a Huracanes (artículo de opinión)

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Rivera

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad es frecuente la presentación de fenómenos naturales con pérdidas potenciales o reales para los intereses humanos, alteraciones atribuidas al cambio climático y al calentabiento global. Esto es importante porque determina cambios en las rutas de las aves migratorias, potencialmente transmisoras de enfermedades como la influenza aviar, diferentes zoonosis y algunas enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes. Se presentan algunos datos sobre brotes que contextualizan la amenaza pote...

  13. Aplicación del teorema del umbral estocástico de Whittle a un brote de varicela Application of Whittle's stochastic threshold theorem to a chickenpox outbreak

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    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar el ritmo reproductivo básico en un brote de varicela, aplicar el teorema umbral estocástico para estimar la probabilidad de la ocurrencia del brote e identificar medidas preventivas. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en una guardería de 16 niños, con 13 susceptibles, un infectado inicial y dos niños inmunes por antecedente de enfermedad. Se partió de un modelo estocástico: susceptible - infectado - removido. Se estimó el ritmo de reproducción básico de la enfermedad R0, usando un método de máxima verosimilitud basado en el conocimiento de la distribución de probabilidades para el tamaño total de la epidemia y haciendo una aproximación de epidemia casi-completa. Con el R0 obtenido se aplicó el teorema de umbral estocástico para obtener algunas medidas preventivas que podrían impedir la irrupción del brote de varicela. RESULTADOS: Cada infectado inicial produjo tres casos nuevos de infección, requiriendo para impedir el brote, una cobertura mínima de vacunación del 62%, o disminuir en 62% el contacto entre miembros del grupo o aumentar en 170% la remoción de infectados. CONCLUSIONES: El teorema del umbral estocástico permite identificar medidas que se podrían implementar para prevenir y controlar brotes de varicela. Aunque la distribución del tamaño de la epidemia en forma bimodal con similar probabilidad de ocurrencia de brotes grandes y pequeños, señala la incertidumbre del proceso epidémico en grupos pequeños, requiriéndose un estrecho seguimiento de los brotes en tales grupos.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the basic reproductive rate of a chickenpox outbreak, to apply the stochastic threshold theorem to estimate the probability of an outbreak occurrence and to identify preventive measures. METHODS: The study was carried out in a daycare center comprising 16 children, 13 susceptible, one infected and two children with acquired immunity by previous disease. A stochastic susceptible - infected - removed

  14. Teething and nutritional condition in children between 5 and 13 years. Brote dentario y estado nutricional en niños de 5 a 13 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Apolinaire Pennini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.Fundamento: Durante las últimas décadas se ha hecho cada vez más evidente que la nutrición desempeña un papel importante en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de los tejidos de la cavidad bucal y principalmente de los dientes. Objetivo: Caracterizar el brote dentario en la dentición permanente y su relación con la nutrición en niños de 5 a 13 años. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, de corte transversal desarrollado en un universo constituido por 1003 niños del Área II de Cienfuegos, del que se seleccionó una muestra de 330 ni

  15. Micropropagación de plantas de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal a partir de brotes axilares Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Vegas García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shootsTítulo corto: Micropropagación de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal.Resumen: Se estandarizaron las condiciones de iniciación, multiplicación, enraizamiento y aclimatización de plantas hermafroditas de lechosa cv Maradol provenientes de brotes axilares, producidos en recipientes de inmersión temporal RITA®. En cada envase, contentivo de 200 ml de medio de cultivo líquido de Fitch, se colocaron cuatro brotes de 2 a 3 cm de longitud. Los biorreactores se conectaron a tres líneas de inmersión de 5, 2 y 1 min cada 4h y se colocaron 6 envases en promedio por línea, en condiciones de fotoperíodo de 16 h. Transcurridos 30 a 45 días, se cuantificaron los brotes y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tamaño: < 2 cm (pequeños, entre 2 a 3 cm (medianos,  ˃ 3 cm con y sin raíz (grandes. Los dos primeros tipos de brotes se continuaron multiplicando en los mismos medios; y los más elongados se aclimatizaron utilizando el Sistema Autotrófico Hidropónico (SAH. Se determinó la sanidad y la fidelidad de las plantas producidas mediante pruebas de ELISA y RAPD, respectivamente. Durante un periodo de 6 meses se reciclaron un total de 47 recipientes, los cuales produjeron 1.091 brotes: 377  pequeños; 482 medianos; 175 grandes sin raíz y 57 con raíz. Usando el SAH se obtuvo 89,5% de plantas aclimatizadas cuando se usaron brotes enraizados, y 41,6% a partir de brotes sin  raíces. Con la combinación de las técnicas RITA y SAH se logró un sistema continuo y eficiente de producción de plantas sanas y fieles al tipo, en comparación con los métodos convencionales de micropropagación y aclimatización.Palabras clave: Carica papaya, RITA®, sistema autotrófico, estabilidad genética.Abstract: We standardized initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization conditions of papaya cv Maradol hermaphrodite plants from axillary

  16. Brote urbano de leishmaniasis visceral en Neiva, Colombia

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    Pilar Zambrano-Hernandez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estudiar clínica y epidemiológicamente focos de leishmaniasis visceral (LV urbana en Neiva (Colombia. Materiales y Métodos Seis niños consultaron por hepato-esplenomegalia. Presentaban anemia y leucopenia. Se realizó biopsia por aspiración de medula ósea (5 pacientes y de bazo (1 paciente. Se hizo búsqueda activa de casos en la comunidad y de anticuerpos anti-Leishmania infantum por inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI en los sintomáticos y en reservorios caninos (IFI, rK39. Se hicieron visitas domiciliarias para educación comunitaria y búsqueda de vectores. Los pacientes recibieron Miltefosina, Anfotericina B o Glucantime®. Resultados Se confirmó LV en siete niños. En seis, el aspirado de medula ósea o bazo demostró amastigotes. La IFI fue positiva en 4 pacientes y negativa en 3. Un niño se detectó por búsqueda activa comunitaria, con clínica de LV, confirmada por IFI (1:32. La miltefosina no fue útil en 6 de los 7 casos. La Anfotericina B liposomal o deoxicolato, curó 6 pacientes y el Glucantime® uno. La seroprevalencia en 1182 caninos (IFI y rK39 fue de 6.1 %; los animales positivos fueron sacrificados. Se demostró Lu. longipalpis, vector de LV, en el peridomicilio. Conclusiones Demostramos LV urbana en dos comunas de Neiva. La confirmación diagnóstica incluyó aspiración de medula ósea e IFI. La Miltefosina no fue útil. La Anfotericina B liposomal fue la terapia ideal. Para controlar la LV es necesario hacer BAC, educación comunitaria, control de vectores y reservorios.

  17. Efectos de la cobertura vacunal previa en la dinamica de un brote de sarampion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La eficacia de una vacuna debería medirse mediante ensayos clínicos controlados, no obstante, aspectos éticos lo impiden. Orenstein sugiere que se estime la eficacia de una vacuna mediante, entre otros métodos, el estudio de los brotes epidémicos de la enfermedad caso de ser posible. El presente estudio plantea el cálculo de la eficacia vacunal en el terreno y de los efectos protectores de un programa de vacunación mediante el análisis de un brote epidémico de sarampión. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo. La población de estudio la constituyó el grupo de niños nacidos en el municipio de Aznalcollar (localidad de 5.571 habitantes perteneciente al Distrito Sanitario Aljarafe-Sevilla entre dos brotes epidémicos de sarampión ocurridos en dicha localidad en los años 1986 y 1994. Se excluyeron de la cohorte a aquellos niños que a comienzos del brote de 1994 no habían cumplido la edad de vacunación y también a quienes tuvieron exposición anterior al virus, es decir los nacidos antes y durante la epidemia de 1986. El estudio incluyó a vacunados y no vacunados. Todos los casos cumplían los criterios diagnósticos establecidos. A todos los niños en seguimiento se les revisó sus antecedentes vacunales. Tras el cálculo de las tasas de ataque en vacunados y no vacunados, se determinaron la eficacia vacunal y los efectos indirectos totales y medios del programa de vacunación. RESULTADOS: La vacuna resultó eficaz en el 91'5 % de los vacunados. El programa de vacunación produjo una reducción del número de casos en los no vacunados del 78'9%, del 98% en los vacunados y del 92% en el conjunto de la cohorte estudiada, siendo la cobertura vacunal de la misma del 66'4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los efectos de la vacunación y la eficacia vacunal pueden y deben ser calculados aprovechando la aparición de brotes epidémicos caso de ser posible. Se recomienda incrementar las coberturas de vacunación de la poblaci

  18. Eliminating Murine Norovirus by Cross-Fostering

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Laurence U.; DeRitis, Pierina C.; Chu, Niansheng; Conti, Pierre A.

    2011-01-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is a newly discovered and extremely prevalent pathogen of laboratory mouse colonies. MNV causes severe disease in some immunocompromised mouse strains and can cause persistent infections even in immunocompetent mice. Despite the fact that immunocompetent mice are generally asymptomatic, the possibility that MNV infection might alter immune responses makes its eradication a potentially useful goal for many facilities. Initial attempts by others to use a strategy of testi...

  19. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contam...

  20. Brote de legionelosis asociado a un balneario Legionella outbreak at a spa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serrano Ibarbia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 el inicio de la temporada de actividad de un balneario en Gipuzkoa coincidió con la detección de un brote de legionelosis asociado al mismo, lo cual condujo al cierre de la instalación y al estudio epidemiológico -casos y controles- y ambiental oportunos. Se definió como caso toda persona que durante su estancia en el balneario o durante los 10 días siguientes presentará neumonía o un cuadro febril compatible con fiebre de Pontiac.El estudio ambiental incluyó la inspección del balneario y entorno y muestreos de los sistemas sanitarios de agua y de los elementos de hidroterapia.De las 287 personas encuestadas de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, el 12.5% cumplían con la definición de caso; 9 casos presentaron neumonía y 26 fiebre de Pontiac. La curva epidémica se inició el 7 de mayo, alcanzando un pico los días 14 y 15 de mayo y finalizando el día 20. El riesgo de enfermar ajustado por edad, sexo y consumo de tabaco se asoció con la duración de la estancia en el balneario (OR=118.5, 95% I.C: 18.7-750.2 y con el uso de una piscina (OR=10.5, 95% I.C: 1.3-82.6. Se detecto L. pneumophila serogrupo1 en recuentos superiores a 103 ufc/l en diversos puntos de la red de hidroterapia y en la ducha de la habitación de uno de los enfermos. El análisis por electroforesis en campos pulsados de una muestra biológica y muestras ambientales permitió la confirmación genotípica. El establecimiento se abrió al público tras realizar un tratamiento de choque y comprobar que transcurridos 15 días no se detectó L. pneumophila en las muestras ambientales.The start of seasonal activity at a spa in Guipuzcoa coincided with the detection of an associated legionnaire outbreak in 1998. This led to the closure of the premises and to the carrying out of opportune environmental and epidemiological studies. The latter included case-control study. A case was defined as a person who, either during his stay or in a period of 10 days thereafter

  1. Norovirus Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    Nearly one in 15 people in the U.S. gets sick from norovirus each year and up to 800 die. This podcast discusses the importance of hand washing, and other ways to prevent the spread of noroviruses.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  2. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nelson; Martin C W Chan; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K.W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K.S.; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Cockram, C.S.; Sung, Joseph J Y; Leung, Wai K

    2007-01-01

    Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

  3. Fecal Viral Load and Norovirus-associated Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin C W Chan; Sung, Joseph J Y; Lam, Rebecca K. Y.; Chan, Paul K.S.; Nelson L S Lee; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Leung, Wai K

    2006-01-01

    We report the median cDNA viral load of norovirus genogroup II is >100-fold higher than that of genogroup I in the fecal specimens of patients with norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. We speculate that increased cDNA viral load accounts for the higher transmissibility of genogroup II strains through the fecal-oral route.

  4. Six Tips to Help Prevent the Spread of Norovirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-27

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses six tips to help prevent the spread of norovirus.  Created: 8/27/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 8/27/2013.

  5. Norovirus Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    If you’re suffering from vomiting and diarrhea, you might be among the millions of Americans who get sick from norovirus each year. In this podcast, Dr. Aron Hall discusses ways to prevent norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  6. Posibles Brotes de Zoonosis relacionadas a Huracanes (artículo de opinión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rivera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad es frecuente la presentación de fenómenos naturales con pérdidas potenciales o reales para los intereses humanos, alteraciones atribuidas al cambio climático y al calentabiento global. Esto es importante porque determina cambios en las rutas de las aves migratorias, potencialmente transmisoras de enfermedades como la influenza aviar, diferentes zoonosis y algunas enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes. Se presentan algunos datos sobre brotes que contextualizan la amenaza potencial para América Latina.

  7. Brote de fiebre amarilla selvática en Colombia 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Bernal M.; Ingrid García; Martha Velandia; Mauricio Vera

    2004-01-01

    Antecedentes: el 9 de enero se confirma un caso de fiebre amarilla en la sierra nevada de Santa Marta cuya circulación viral es la continuación de la presentada en el 2003 en la región del Catatumbo. En la región no se confirmaban casos desde el año 1979 y el comportamiento del brote es similar al presentado en dicho año.

    Brote de dengue autóctono en el área metropolitana Buenos Aires: Experiencia del Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz Outbreak of indigenous dengue in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Experience of the F.J. Muñiz Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Seijo; Yamila Romer; Manuel Espinosa; Jessica Monroig; Sergio Giamperetti; Diego Ameri; Leslie Antonelli

    2009-01-01

    Como consecuencia de la epidemia de dengue que afectó a la República de Bolivia y provincias del norte argentino, se produjo por primera vez un brote de dengue autóctono en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires. A partir de enero de 2009 asistimos casos de dengue importado hasta la tercera semana de marzo, cuando aparecieron los primeros casos por transmisión local, tendencia que se mantuvo hasta mediados de mayo. La mayor concentración de casos autóctonos atendidos residía en la región oeste de...

  8. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  9. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI LI; LING FANG; LI RONG ZOU; CHANG WEN KE; PING HUANG; JI CHENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong. During October 2003 and December 2004, fecal and anal swabs specimens collected from 13 outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis were tested for norovirus. Specimens were detected by RT-PCR and sequenced. The descriptive data were also collected. Eight in 13 outbreaks of gastroenteritis were positive for norovirus. All of 8 virus strains were identified as genogroup Ⅱ but belonged to 3 genotypes. Six strains were G Ⅱ-4 genotype. Norovirus is a major cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Guangdong province and has a wide distribution. The illness happended from late autumn to winter. The prevalent strains were genogroup Ⅱ virus.

  10. Llama Nanoantibodies with Therapeutic Potential against Human Norovirus Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I.; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y.; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV di...

  11. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Accompanied by Marked Elevation of Transaminases

    OpenAIRE

    Zenda, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Masaji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman was admitted because of frequent watery diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. An examination of the stool for norovirus antigen was positive, and a blood examination revealed a marked elevation of liver enzymes. Liver dysfunction, as well as symptoms related to gastroenteritis, was ameliorated solely by supportive treatment. Although liver injury concurrent with norovirus gastroenteritis is rarely documented and its pathogenesis remains unknown, clinicians should consi...

  12. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Accompanied by Ischemic Colitis : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zenda, Takahiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Noriki, Sakon

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of frequent bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. While the patient was diagnosed with norovirus gastroenteritis based on the presence by chance of positive norovirus antigen in the stool samples, endoscopic as well as pathological examinations demonstrated left-sided ischemic colitis. The patient soon recovered solely by supportive treatment. Although it is believed that patients with viral gastroenteritis do not develop blo...

  13. Demand for care and nosocomial infection rate during the first influenza AH1N1 2009 virus outbreak at a referral hospital in Mexico City Demanda asistencial y tasa de infección nosocomial durante el primer brote de influenza AH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Comparison of routine hospital indicators (consults at the Emergency Room (ER and hospital admissions during the 2009 pandemic of the influenza AH1N1 virus at the national referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outbreak was from April to mid-May 2009 and two control periods were used:2009 (before and after the outbreak,and during April-May from 2007 and 2008. RESULTS: During the outbreak total consultation at the ER increased six times compared with the 2007-2008 control period and 11 times compared with the 2009 control period. Pneumonia- or influenza-related ER consultations increased 23.2 and 15.3%, respectively. The rate of nosocomial infection during the outbreak was 13.6 and that of nosocomial pneumonia was 6 per/100 hospital discharges, a two-fold and three-fold increase compared to the control periods respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak,mean severity of admitted patients increased,with a rise in in-hospital mortality and nosocomial infections rate, including nosocomial pneumonia.OBJETIVO: Comparación de indicadores hospitalarios de rutina (consultas de urgencia, admisiones hospitalarias etc. durante la pandemia de influenzaAH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia para enfermedades respiratorias de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El brote se consideró de abril a la mitad de mayo de 2009 y se comparó con dos periodos control: el de 2009 (antes y después del brote, y durante abril y mayo de 2007 y 2008. RESULTADOS: Durante el brote las consultas de urgencia crecieron seis veces comparadas con el periodo control 2007-2008 y 11 veces contra el periodo control de 2009. Las consultas por neumonía o influenza incrementaron 23.2 y 15.3% comparadas contra los periodos control, respectivamente. La tasa de infección nosocomial durante el brote fue de 13.6 y la de neumonía nosocomial de 6.0 por 100 egresos hospitalarios, el doble y el triple de la documentada en los

  14. Norovirus infections in preterm infants: wide variety of clinical courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Kathrin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Findings The typical symptoms of norovirus infection are in part also seen in premature born infants but with a different pattern and a huge variety of clinical courses. Vomiting is not the main symptom of norovirus infection in premature infants but distended abdomen and other symptoms such as apnea, gastric remainders or sepsis like appearance. The course in premature born patients could be explained by an immunocompromised mice model. Extensive hygienic measures were necessary to control the outbreak without closing the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Conclusion Norovirus infection in premature infants shows an impressive pattern of a wide variety of clinical courses. Only the consequent use of different hygienic pattern can lead to elimination of norovirus.

  15. Antiviral Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenosides on Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus as Surrogates for Human Norovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min Hwa; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Jung, Ji-Youn; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    Korean red ginseng has been studied various biological activities such as immune, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anticancer activities but antiviral mechanism needs further studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the antiviral effects of Korea red ginseng extract and ginsenosides on norovirus surrogate, including murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). We evaluated the pre-, co-, and post-treatment effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1. To measure...

  16. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, L. van; Siebenga, J.; Wijngaard, C. van den; Verheij, R.; Vliet, H. van; Kretzschmar, M.; Boshuizen, H.; Pelt, W. van; Koopmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on m

  17. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van L.; Siebenga, J.; Wijngaard, van den C.; Verheij, R.; Vliet, van H.; Kretzschmar, M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Pelt, van W.; Koopmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on m

  18. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jing; Sun, Limei; Fang, Lin; Yang, Feng; Mo, Yanling; Lao, Jiaqian; Zheng, Huanying; Tan, Xiaohua; Lin, Hualiang; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lili; Ke, Changwen; Hui, Li

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the most prevalent norovirus genotype causing viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, including China, has been GII.4. In winter 2014–15, norovirus outbreaks in Guangdong, China, increased. Sequence analysis indicated that 82% of the outbreaks were caused by a norovirus GII.17 variant.

  19. Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Monassa Fioretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of NoV, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. The present study assessed the circulation of NoV genotypes in different Brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 was the prevalent (78% followed by GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.16 and GII.17, demonstrating the great diversity of NoV genotypes circulating in Brazil. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of NoV and their spreading potential.

  1. [Research Progress in Norovirus Bioaccumulation in Shellfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deqing; Su, Laijin; Zhao, Feng; Ma, Liping

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the most important foodborne viral pathogens worldwide. Shellfish are the most common carriers of NoVs as they can concentrate and accumulate large amounts of the virus through filter feeding from seawater. Shellfish may selectively accumulate NoVs with different genotypes, and this bioaccumulation may depend on the season and location. Our previous studies found various histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in shellfish tissues. While HBGAs might be the main reason that NoVs are accumulated in shellfish, the detailed mechanism behind NoV concentration and bioaccumulation in shellfish is not clear. Here we review current research into NoV bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, seasonal variation, and binding mechanism in shellfish. This paper may provide insight into controlling NoV transmission and decreasing the risks associated with shellfish consumption. PMID:26470540

  2. Norovirus Epidemiology in Africa: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Janet; Armah, George E.; Steele, A. Duncan; Taylor, Maureen B.

    2016-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. The prevalence and diversity of NoVs in many African countries is still unknown, although early sero-prevalence studies indicated widespread early infection. Reports on NoVs in Africa vary widely in terms of study duration, population groups and size, inclusion of asymptomatic controls, as well as genotyping information. This review provides an estimate of NoV prevalence and distribution of genotypes of NoVs in Africa. Inclusion criteria for the review were study duration of at least 6 months, population size of >50 and diagnosis by RT-PCR. As regions used for genotyping varied, or genotyping was not always performed, this was not considered as an inclusion criteria. A literature search containing the terms norovirus+Africa yielded 74 publications. Of these 19 studies from 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa met the inclusion criteria. Data from studies not meeting the inclusion criteria, based on sample size or short duration, were included as discussion points. The majority of studies published focused on children, under five years of age, hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis. The mean overall prevalence was 13.5% (range 0.8–25.5%) in children with gastroenteritis and 9.7% (range 7–31%) in asymptomatic controls, where tested. NoV GII.4 was the predominant genotype identified in most of the studies that presented genotyping data. Other prevalent genotypes detected included GII.3 and GII.6. In conclusion, NoV is a common pathogen in children with diarrhoea in Africa, with considerable carriage in asymptomatic children. There is however, a paucity of data on NoV infection in adults. PMID:27116615

  3. Estudio de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a brotes comunitarios de legionelosis Study of refrigeration towers associated with community outbreaks of legionellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Pérez Lleonart

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a un brote comunitario de legionelosis según sus características de mantenimiento y la calidad del agua. Método: Comparar los datos recogidos entre los 4 tipos de torres de refrigeración: control 1, control 2, probable y confirmada. Se han estudiado un total de 184 torres de refrigeración asociadas a 17 brotes comunitarios de legionelosis de la provincia de Barcelona durante el año 2004, de las cuales 112 son control 1, 54 control 2, 8 probables y 10 confirmadas. Resultados: Las torres confirmadas se caracterizan por: niveles elevados de conductividad, aerobios totales, dureza cálcica, sólidos totales en disolución, temperatura y turbidez; concentraciones de cloro deficientes (Objetive: To evaluate the factors of risk of the risk cooling towers associated to a community outbreak of legionellosis according to its characteristics of maintenance and the quality of the water with the purpose of improving the systems of prevention of this one disease. Method: To compare the piece of information gathered between the 4 types of cooling towers: control 1, control 2, probable and confirmed. A total of 184 cooling towers have been studied associated to 17 community outbreak of legionellosis of the province of Barcelona (Spain during the year 2004, of which 112 are control 1, 54 control 2, 8 probable and 10 confirmed. Results: The confirmed towers are characterized by: high levels of conductivity, total aerobes, calcic hardness, total solids in dissolution, temperature and turbidity; low levels of chlorine (< 2 ppm; of use hypochlorite as disinfectant in a 10%; greater degree of breach of the revision program and cleaning of the internal elements of the tower (tray, stuffed and separating of drops; degree of performance of the periodic disinfections and the cleaning of deposits of the 100%. A 47% of the investigated towers do not use the previous treatments of the

  4. Características clínico-epidemiológicas de un brote de influenza A en personal militar de Trujillo, Perú 2008 Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of an influenza outbreak in military personnel-Trujillo, Peru, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Chávez; V Alberto Laguna-Torres; Burga, Ana M.; Merly Sovero; Rollin Cruz; Juan Pérez; María Gamero; Jane Ríos; Tadeusz Kochel

    2010-01-01

    Se describe un brote de infección respiratoria febril aguda en una unidad militar de Trujillo, Perú. Se usó la definición de caso de síndrome gripal del Ministerio de Salud, se tomó hisopado nasal para prueba rápida de influenza (PRI) e hisopado faríngeo para aislamiento viral en cultivo celular. La genotipificación de influenza A fue por secuenciamiento genético de una región del gen de hemaglutinina teniendo como base la cepa vacunal de 2008. Se presentaron 59 casos entre el 01 y 08 de abri...

  5. Norovirus prevalence in ‘pathogen negative’ gastroenteritis in children from periurban areas in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Medina, Anicia M.; Ecker, Lucie; Mercado, Erik; Gil, Ana I.; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Norovirus was detected in 17.4% of 224 diarrhoeal samples from children younger than 24 months of age in Lima, in whom all common pathogens had been excluded (pathogen negative). Norovirus was identified more frequently in children older than 12 months of age than in younger children (34% vs 8%, P<0.001). Among norovirus-positive samples, genogroup II was the predominant group (92%). Compared with rotavirus, norovirus episodes tended to be of shorter duration and less severe. The role of norovirus as a cause of diarrhoea and the ascertainment of its severity in developing countries needs further confirmation by future epidemiological studies. PMID:21962615

  6. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey;

    2007-01-01

    I 0-fold dilutions of human faecal samples containing norovirus genogroup II. The samples were tested on three different occasions using four different sample treatment protocols. The protocols were assessed with regard to their ability to recover viral RNA and detect norovirus in spiked oysters and...... for their in-house reproducibility. One method using viral elution by a Mixer Mill Cell Disrupter resulted in a 10-fold better recovery than the other three protocols when an RT-seminested PCR (G2SKR/COG2F and G2SKR/G2SKF) detection approach was applied. Although less distinctive this was also the...

  7. Infectious Diarrhea: Norovirus and Clostridium difficile in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary B; Rajagopalan, Shobita; Yoshikawa, Thomas T

    2016-08-01

    Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection. Appropriate preventive measures and judicious use of antibiotics can help mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infection. PMID:27394020

  8. Response of first attack of inflammatory bowel disease requiring hospital admission to steroid therapy Respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo del primer brote de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal que requiere ingreso hospitalario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu-Suboh Abadía

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: corticoid administration is the usual treatment of Crohn' disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC attacks. How-ever, information available on response rates and their predictive factors is scarce. Objective: to establish response to steroidal treatment in an homogeneous group of patients with CD or UC during their first admission to hospital. Methods: restrospective analysis of 86 patients who received systemic steroidal treatment for a severe flare-up during their first hospital admission between 1995 and 2000. Patients were treated per protocol with fluid therapy, absolute diet, IV 6-methyl-prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, and enoxaparin at prophylactic doses. Clinical response at 30 days was considered good in case of complete remission, and poor in case of partial or absent remission. Univariate and multivariate analyses according to non-parametric statistics were performed for sociodemographic and biologic variables. Results: 45 patients with CD and 41 with UC were included. Good response rates were 64.4% for CD and 60.9% for UC. The univariate analysis showed that patients with good response have shorter evolution times and fewer previous flare-ups (p Introducción: la administración de corticoides constituye el tratamiento habitual de los brotes de enfermedad de Crohn (EC y colitis ulcerosa (CU. Sin embargo, existe poca información sobre las tasas de respuesta y los factores que puedan predecirla. Objetivo: determinar la respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo en un grupo homogéneo de pacientes de EC y CU que ingresan por primera vez en el hospital. Métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 86 pacientes que en su primer ingreso hospitalario recibieron tratamiento esteroideo sistémico por brote grave de EC o CU entre 1995 y 2000. Fueron tratados de forma protocolizada con sueroterapia, dieta absoluta, 6-metil-prednisolona 1 mg/kg/día IV y enoxaparina a dosis profilácticas. Se ha considerado la respuesta clínica a los 30 días como

  9. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in children and the elderly in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jumi; Wahl, Kelly; Sederdahl, Bethany K; Jerris, Robert R; Kraft, Colleen S; McCracken, Courtney; Gillespie, Scott; Anderson, Evan J; Kirby, Amy E; Shane, Andi L; Moe, Christine L

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis, which can be severe at the extremes of ages. Data documenting the endemic burden of norovirus among children and elderly adults are lacking. Stool specimens submitted for clinical testing were collected from elderly (≥65 years) adults and children (<18 years) with acute vomiting and/or diarrhea seeking care at several metropolitan Atlanta adult and pediatric hospitals from January 2013-June 2013. Specimens were tested for norovirus with real-time RT-PCR and sequenced if norovirus was detected. Corresponding clinical and demographic data were abstracted from retrospective chart review. Norovirus was detected in 11% (11/104) of elderly specimens and 11% (67/628) of pediatric, with GII.4 Sydney_2012 detected in 64% (7/11) of elderly norovirus-positive and 11% (8/67) of pediatric specimens, P < 0.001. In comparison to hospitalized children, hospitalized elderly with norovirus were more commonly admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (36% vs. 7%, P = 0.02). Norovirus in the elderly can be associated with severe illness requiring ICU admissions. The pediatric group demonstrated greater variability in genotype distribution. Ongoing surveillance of norovirus genotypes is crucial for norovirus vaccine development in understanding circulating and emerging genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 88:961-970, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26600094

  10. Escabiosis: a propósito de un brote Escabiosis: a clinical outbrake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Silvino Diana Domínguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Comentaremos a continuación un brote de escabiosis sucedido en dos centros de trabajo que pertenecen a una empresa pública y en donde coexisten trabajadores de tres empresas distintas. Pretendemos expresar la importancia de la aplicación de los protocolos existentes y su revisión para aquellas enfermedades poco frecuentes y con posibilidad de convertirse en epidemias, así como la importancia de la coordinación empresarial en aquellos centros de trabajo donde realizan su función dos o más empresas.We discuss below a scabies outbreak happened in two workplaces belonging to a public company and where coexist workers from three different companies. We intend to express the importance of the implementation of existing protocols and review for those with rare diseases and epidemics become possible, and the importance of business coordination in all cases of prevention and treatment in those workplaces where do function two or more companies.

  11. Low-Density microarray technologies for rapid human norovirus genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the most common cause of food borne disease and viruses are likely responsible for a large proportion of foodborne diseases of unknown etiology. Recent advancements in molecular biology, bioinformatics, epidemiology, and risk analysis have aided the study of these agent...

  12. Duodenal perforation associated with norovirus and rotavirus gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Norishi; Shimotake, Takashi; Ohama, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Norovirus (NoV) and rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are usually self-limiting. However, few pediatric cases of bowel perforation and no duodenal perforation with NoV gastroenteritis were reported. We describe two children with duodenal perforation due to NoV or RV gastroenteritis. Suspicion for this association enables prompt intervention, preventing lethal outcomes of these common infections.

  13. Norovirus Excretion in an Aged-Care Setting▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Elise T.-V.; Rowena A. Bull; Kim, Mi-Jurng; McIver, Christopher J.; Heron, Leon; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus genogroup II excretion during an outbreak of gastroenteritis was investigated in an aged-care facility. Viral shedding peaked in the acute stage of illness and continued for an average of 28.7 days. The viral decay rate was 0.76 per day, which corresponds to a viral half-life of 2.5 days.

  14. Norovirus genogroup II gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menon, V.K.; Sarkar, R.; Moses, P.D.; Agarwal, I.; Simon, A.; Kang, G.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of norovirus (NoV) genogroup II in children < 5 years of age admitted to a south Indian hospital with diarrhea was investigated. Viral RNA extracted from 282 stool samples were screened for NoV GII and positive amplicons sequenced. Twenty-eight (9.9%) had NoV GII infection with a

  15. Low-density microarray technologies for rapid human norovirus genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjuncti...

  16. Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheloud, J.F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infections are a serious problem for goat’s milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communication was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.

  17. Descripción de los tres primeros brotes de gripe A (H1N1 2009 notificados en prisiones de España Description of the first three notified outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1 2009 in Spanish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gómez-Pintado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: describir los tres primeros brotes de gripe A (H1N1 2009 notificados entre julio y septiembre de 2009 en las prisiones españolas. Metodología: Se definió brote como la aparición de tres o más casos con síntomas gripales y con vínculo epidemiológico en el mismo módulo de una prisión. Los brotes son notificados mediante cuestionario específico. El análisis realizado por las variables sexo, edad, fecha de notificación, duración de los brotes, factores de riesgo y características clínicas se presenta en forma de números absolutos, porcentajes y tasas de ataque y el estudio de la difusión de la enfermedad a través de las curvas epidémicas. Resultados: Se notifican tres brotes desde las prisiones de Alcalá-Meco con 85 varones afectados, Pamplona (18 varones afectados y Jaén (12 mujeres afectadas con una tasa de ataque global que varía entre el 7,1% y el 17,9%. La duración de los brotes varía entre 8 y 35 días, y la mediana de duración de la enfermedad es de 3 días. Sólo ingresaron 4 internos que fueron dados de alta por mejoría. Los hombres son mas jóvenes (pAim: This study describes three reported outbreaks of influenza H1N1 2009 in Spanish prisons between july and september 2009. Methods: An outbreak was defined as the appearance of three or more cases with influenza symptoms and with an epidemiological link in the same module of a prison. The outbreaks were reported using a specific questionnaire. The analysis, which used variables of gender, age, date of notification, duration of outbreak, risk factors and clinical features are presented as absolute numbers, percentages and attack rates, while study of the diffusion of the illness is expressed as epidemic curves. Results: Three outbreaks were reported at the prisons of Alcala-Meco (85 affected males, Pamplona (18 affected males and Jaen (12 affected females with an overall attack rate that ranged from 7.1% to 17.9%. Duration of the outbreaks was between 8

  18. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, William; Mauroy, Axel; Farnir, Frederic; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs. PMID:26445948

  19. Norovirus Genotypes in Hospital Settings - Differences between Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane;

    2015-01-01

    positive for norovirus in Denmark, 2002-2010, and to study the distribution of norovirus genotypes among inpatients with nosocomial and community-acquired norovirus infections, respectively. METHODS:  Admission and stool sampling dates from 3656 NoV infected patients were used to estimate the proportion of...... among the smaller group of inpatients with community-acquired infections, 12 capsid and 9 polymerase genotypes were detected. Nosocomial norovirus infections were associated with age ≥60 years and infections with genotype GII.4. CONCLUSION:  The majority of norovirus infections in hospitalized patients...... were nosocomial. Nosocomial infection was mainly associated with older age but also with the specific genotype GII.4. The genotypes in community-acquired norovirus infections were more heterogeneous than in nosocomial infections....

  20. Tracing of Norovirus Outbreak Strains in Mussels Collected near Sewage Effluents▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nenonen, Nancy P.; Hannoun, Charles; Horal, Peter; Hernroth, Bodil; Bergström, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses from mussels collected near sewage effluents were compared with local patient outbreak strains. Sequence analyses of RNA polymerase-capsid-poly(A)-3′ (3.1-kilobase) regions confirmed the 99.9% similarity between genotype I.1 strains from mussels and patient strains from recreational-bathing outbreaks, indicating the potential usefulness of sentinel norovirus mussel studies in tracing human norovirus contamination of coastal waters.

  1. Evaluation eines Norovirus-spezifischen Bedside-Tests bei Patienten mit Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Elisabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses belong to the most common causes of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Norovirus infections are characterized by outbreaks with rapid spreading. The disease is usually self-limited, but prolonged symptoms in vulnerable patients have been described. Treatment consists in supportive care, so early recognition with infection control measures is important. Norovirus infections may be diagnosed by clinical criteria, but these exhibit limited sensitivity and specificity. In contras...

  2. Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Caddy, Sarah ,; Breiman, Adrien; Le Pendu, Jacques; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with s...

  3. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  4. Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Lindesmith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. Primarily organized by sequence homology into two major human genogroups defined by multiple genoclusters, the majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by viruses from the GII.4 genocluster, which was first recognized as the major epidemic strain in the mid-1990s. Previous studies by our laboratory and others indicate that some noroviruses readily infect individuals who carry a gene encoding a functional alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT2 and are designated "secretor-positive" to indicate that they express ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, a highly heterogeneous group of related carbohydrates on mucosal surfaces. Individuals with defects in the FUT2 gene are termed secretor-negative, do not express the appropriate HBGA necessary for docking, and are resistant to Norwalk infection. These data argue that FUT2 and other genes encoding enzymes that regulate processing of the HBGA carbohydrates function as susceptibility alleles. However, secretor-negative individuals can be infected with other norovirus strains, and reinfection with the GII.4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analyses of the GII.4 capsid sequences suggested an epochal evolution over the last 20 y with periods of stasis followed by rapid evolution of novel epidemic strains. The epidemic strains show a linear relationship in time, whereby serial replacements emerge from the previous cluster. Five major evolutionary clusters were identified, and representative ORF2 capsid

  5. Estudio de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a brotes comunitarios de legionelosis Study of refrigeration towers associated with community outbreaks of legionellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Pérez Lleonart; Susana Chacón Villanueva; Fernando Parrilla Valero

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a un brote comunitario de legionelosis según sus características de mantenimiento y la calidad del agua. Método: Comparar los datos recogidos entre los 4 tipos de torres de refrigeración: control 1, control 2, probable y confirmada. Se han estudiado un total de 184 torres de refrigeración asociadas a 17 brotes comunitarios de legionelosis de la provincia de Barcelona durante el año 2004, de las cuales 112 son co...

  6. Resolution of diarrhea in an immunocompromised patient with chronic norovirus gastroenteritis correlates with constitution of specific antibody blockade titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Bettina M; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Yount, Boyd L; Baric, Ralph S; Marty, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    Norovirus gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts can result in a serious and prolonged diarrheal illness. We present a case of chronic norovirus disease during rituximab-bendamustine chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We show for the first time a correlation between norovirus strain-specific antibody blockade titers and symptom improvement in an immunocompromised host. PMID:26825307

  7. Serosurvey of veterinary conference participants for evidence of zoonotic exposure to canine norovirus – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita João

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses have emerged as the leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Person-to-person contact and consumption of contaminated food are considered the most important ways of transmission of noroviruses however zoonotic transmission has been suggested. Recently, noroviruses have been found in dogs which, unlike bovine and swine noroviruses, may present a higher risk of zoonotic transfer, given to the often close contacts between humans and pet dogs in many societies across the world. The present paper describes a seroepidemiologic study aiming to provide information on the exposure level of humans to canine norovirus. Methods/Design A case–control study was designed to address the potential exposure to canine norovirus based on the presence of antibodies against canine norovirus. Sera from veterinarians (a population repeatedly in close contact with dogs will be collected in an annual Veterinary Sciences Congress in Portugal. In addition, sera from general population will be obtained and used as controls for comparative purposes. All sera will be tested for the presence of canine norovirus antibodies using a virus-like particle-based enzyme immune assay. Risk factors for canine norovirus antibodies presence in veterinarians will be investigated through the delivery of an anonymized questionnaire to the participants. Discussion The present study aims to identify seropositive individuals to canine norovirus and to assess risk profiles among veterinary professionals with occupational exposure to dogs. To our knowledge this is the first study providing information on the potential zoonotic risk of canine norovirus, thus allowing the development of preventive measures and ascertaining potential risks for Public Health resulting from contact to dogs.

  8. Evaluation of Xpert® Norovirus Assay performance in comparison with real-time RT-PCR in hospitalized adult patients with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Francesca; Premoli, Marta; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto

    2016-08-01

    Xpert® Norovirus Assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) was compared with a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Norovirus GI and GII in hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis. The two assays showed a high level of concordance but Xpert® Norovirus Assay allowed faster detection of Norovirus and a simpler sample handling. PMID:27233425

  9. Human norovirus transmission due to contaminated fresh fruit and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radin Dragoslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost any ready-to-eat fruit or vegetable that has been contaminated with pathogens, either from the environment, human or animal feces or through storage, processing and handling, could potentially cause disease. This problem is particularly associated with the occurrence of human intestinal viruses, especially noroviruses, which are of major epidemiological significance as a common cause of both epidemic and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Many outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis associated with fresh fruit and vegetables have been described. The rise in incidence of human norovirus outbreaks may be the result of increased consumption of fresh produce, availability of new commodities, export/import and transport around the globe, changes in production practices, improved reporting and detection methods. [PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  10. Molecular Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Characterization of Human Noroviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, HaiFeng; Hu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a group of viral agents that afflict people of all age groups. The viruses are now recognized as the most common causative agent of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis and foodborne viral illness worldwide. However, they have been considered to play insignificant roles in the disease burden of acute gastroenteritis for the past decades until the recent advent of new and more sensitive molecular diagnostic methods. The availability and application of the molecular diagnost...

  11. In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin A.; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia A.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-30

    Human noroviruses (NoV) cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24 - 48 hours. The true nature of NoV pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models. Here we show, for the first time, that NoV can infect and replicate in an organoid, three-dimensional (3-D) model of human small intestinal epithelium (INT-407). Cellular differentiation for this model was achieved by growing the cells in 3-D on porous collagen I-coated microcarrier beads under conditions of physiological fluid shear in rotating wall vessel bioreactors. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization were employed to provide evidence of NoV infection. CPE and norovirus RNA was detected at each of the five cell passages for both genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts using differentiated monolayer cultures failed.

  12. Cysteine protease activation and apoptosis in Murine norovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettayebi Khalil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine norovirus (MNV serves as a model system for the study of norovirus infection. Recently it was shown that infection of RAW 264.7 cells involved a novel apoptotic pathway involving survivin. Results Using a different set of approaches, the up-regulation of caspases, DNA condensation/fragmentation, and membrane blebbing, all of which are markers of apoptosis, were confirmed. Live cell imaging and activity-based protein profiling showed that activation of caspase-like proteases occurred within two hours of infection, followed by morphological changes to the cells. MNV infection in the presence of caspase inhibitors proceeded via a distinct pathway of rapid cellular necrosis and reduced viral production. Affinity purification of activity-based protein profiling targets and identification by peptide mass fingerprinting showed that the cysteine protease cathepsin B was activated early in infection, establishing this protein as an upstream activator of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conclusion This work adds cathepsin B to the noncanonical programmed cell death induced by MNV, and provides data suggesting that the virus may induce apoptosis to expand the window of time for viral replication. This work also highlights the significant power of activity-based protein profiling in the study of viral pathogenesis.

  13. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for detection of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human noroviruses are the most common non-bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and are responsible for as much as 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus (NoV), a single stranded RNA virus, is highly contagious with an infectious dose of less than 100 viral particles. While techn...

  14. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  15. Standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh SeHwan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus epidemiology and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. Therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. Currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among norovirus strains in clinical and environmental samples is reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Standardized positive controls used in RT-PCR assays to detect norovirus are designed to overcome the problem of false-negative results due to PCR inhibitors and suboptimal reaction conditions. Results In the current study, four types of RNA transcripts were produced from plasmids: norovirus GI-5 and GII-4 capsid regions with human rotavirus (VP7 gene derived fragment insertions, and norovirus GI-6 and GII-4 capsid regions with hepatitis A virus (VP1/P2A gene derived fragment insertions. These size-distinguishable products were used as positive controls under the RT-PCR assay conditions used to detect NoV in stool and groundwater samples. Their reliability and reproducibility was confirmed by multiple sets of experiments. Conclusions These standardized products may contribute to the reliable and accurate diagnosis by RT-PCR of norovirus outbreaks, when conducted by laboratories located in different regions.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of a Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis Outbreak, from the Environment to the Consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guyader, Soizick; Krol, Joanna; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Ruvoen-Clouet, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Benedicte; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ponge, Agnes; Pothier, Pierre; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses have been recognized to be the predominant agents of nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans, and their transmission via contaminated shellfish consumption has been demonstrated. Norovirus laboratory experiments, volunteer challenge studies, and community gastroenteritis outbreak investigations have identified human genetic susceptibility factors related to histo-blood group antigen expression. Following a banquet in Brittany, France, in February 2008, gastroenteritis cas...

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of a Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis Outbreak, from the Environment to the Consumer▿

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Krol, Joanna; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Ruvoen-Clouet, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Benedicte; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ponge, Agnès; Pothier, Pierre; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses have been recognized to be the predominant agents of nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans, and their transmission via contaminated shellfish consumption has been demonstrated. Norovirus laboratory experiments, volunteer challenge studies, and community gastroenteritis outbreak investigations have identified human genetic susceptibility factors related to histo-blood group antigen expression. Following a banquet in Brittany, France, in February 2008, gastroenteritis cas...

  18. Critical review of norovirus surrogates in food safety research: rationale for considering volunteer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inability to propagate human norovirus (NoV) or to clearly differentiate infectious from noninfectious virus particles have led to the use of surrogate viruses, like feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV), which are propagatable in cell culture. The use of surrogates is predicate...

  19. High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Norovirus Mixed Infections Among Children 12-24 Months of Age Living in the Suburban Areas of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambruni, Mara; Luna, Giannina; Silva, Maria; Bausch, Daniel G; Rivera, Fulton P; Velapatino, Grace; Campos, Miguel; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-09-01

    In an active diarrhea surveillance study of children aged 12-24 months in Lima, Peru, norovirus was the most common pathogen identified. The percentage of mixed (bacterial and noroviral) infections was significantly higher among norovirus-positive samples (53%) than among norovirus-negative samples (12%). The combination of norovirus with the most common bacterial pathogens was associated with increased clinical severity over that of either single-pathogen norovirus or single-pathogen bacterial infections. PMID:27534674

  20. Prevalence and Molecular Genotyping of Noroviruses in Market Oysters, Mussels, and Cockles in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittigul, Leera; Thamjaroen, Anyarat; Chiawchan, Suwat; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Pombubpa, Kannika; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis associated with bivalve shellfish consumption. This study aimed to detect and characterize noroviruses in three bivalve shellfish species: oysters (Saccostrea forskali), cockles (Anadara nodifera), and mussels (Perna viridis). The virus concentration procedure (adsorption-twice elution-extraction) and a molecular method were employed to identify noroviruses in shellfish. RT-nested PCR was able to detect known norovirus GII.4 of 8.8 × 10(-2) genome copies/g of digestive tissues from oyster and cockle concentrates, whereas in mussel concentrates, the positive result was seen at 8.8 × 10(2) copies/g of digestive tissues. From August 2011 to July 2012, a total of 300 shellfish samples, including each of 100 samples from oysters, cockles, and mussels were collected and tested for noroviruses. Norovirus RNA was detected in 12.3 % of shellfish samples. Of the noroviruses, 7.7 % were of the genogroup (G) I, 2.6 % GII, and 2.0 % were mixed GI and GII. The detection rate of norovirus GI was 2.1 times higher than GII. With regards to the different shellfish species, 17 % of the oyster samples were positive, while 14.0 and 6.0 % were positive for noroviruses found in mussels and cockles, respectively. Norovirus contamination in the shellfish occurred throughout the year with the highest peak in September. Seventeen norovirus-positive PCR products were characterized upon a partial sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Based on phylogenetic analysis, five different genotypes of norovirus GI (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, and GI.9) and four different genotypes of GII (GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, and GII.4) were identified. These findings indicate the prevalence and distribution of noroviruses in three shellfish species. The high prevalence of noroviruses in oysters contributes to the optimization of monitoring plans to improve the preventive strategies of acute gastroenteritis. PMID:26872638

  1. Características clínicas y moleculares de un brote de influenza en dos bases militares, Tumbes- Perú, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Saldarriaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir un brote de Influenza en dos bases militares en Tumbes, Perú. Material y métodos. Se utilizó la definición de caso de síndrome gripal del Ministerio de Salud en casos con menos de cinco días de inicio de síntomas. Se tomó hisopado nasal para la prueba rápida de Influenza (PRI e hisopado faríngeo para aislamiento viral en tres líneas celulares (MDCK, VERO, LLCMK2. Para la genotipificación de Influenza B se usó un secuenciamiento parcial de la región de hemaglutinina de 898 pares de bases teniendo como base la cepa de la vacuna del 2007 (B/Florida/4/2006 y para el tipo A se analizó 958 pares de bases teniendo como referencia la cepa vacunal del 2007 (A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2. Resultados. Se tomó 124 hisopados, 20 de la base militar (BM # 1 y 104 de la BM # 2. La PRI identificó a 41 casos positivos: Flu B: 27, Flu A: 02, Flu: 12, con 62% de sensibilidad y 100% de especificidad. Finalmente, 66 casos fueron confirmados por cultivo celular, 54 Flu B y 12 Flu A. Los aislamientos de Tumbes fueron genéticamente similares con la cepa B/Texas/4/ 2006 (n=34 y A/Texas/91/2007 (H3N2/ (n=7. Los síntomas más comunes fueron fiebre, cefalea, malestar general, tos, dolor de garganta, mialgias y rinorrea. Las medidas de control consistieron en el aislamiento de los casos identificados y el uso de mascarillas. Conclusiones. Se confirmó 66 casos de Influenza por cultivo celular. Los aislamientos tuvieron la mayor similitud genética con las cepas denominadas B/Texas/4/2006 y A/Texas/91/2007 (H3N2.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VARIANT GII.b/HILVERSUM OF NOROVIRUS IN RETAIL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

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    G.M. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections world-wide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled and screened by an hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 10% of the samples, with the lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8% rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (16% and 12%, respectively, suggesting more efficient systems of purification and control being enacted by shellfish producers and suppliers of large retail chains. By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variant GII.b/Hilversum.

  3. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bishal K; Leuthold, Mila M; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  4. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bishal K.; Leuthold, Mila M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  5. Brote de histoplasmosis en la Escuela de Cadetes de la Base Aérea de Morón, Provincia de Buenos Aires, República Argentina Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

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    R. Negroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de histoplasmosis que afectó a 6 cadetes de la Fuerza Aérea Argentina, sin antecedentes patológicos previos. Todos consultaron por problemas respiratorios después de haber limpiado un hangar. En ese recinto se encontraron abundantes deyecciones de animales, presuntamente de palomas y murciélagos. Los pacientes sufrieron fiebre, mialgias, taquipnea y tos no productiva. Las radiografías y tomografías de tórax mostraron imágenes pulmonares micronodulares, engrosamiento de los tabiques interalveolares y adenopatías hiliares. Todos tuvieron una evolución favorable y no requirieron tratamiento antifúngico. Las pruebas de inmunodifusión y contrainmunoelectroforesis con antígenos de Histoplasma capsulatum fueron positivas, al igual que las intradermorreacciones con histoplasmina. Se recogieron 5 muestras de tierra del lugar, las que fueron inoculadas por vía intraperitoneal a 20 hámsteres. De los cultivos de hígado y bazo de dichos animales se consiguió aislar la fase micelial de H. capsulatum. La cepa aislada se comparó con las obtenidas de 12 pacientes argentinos utilizando perfiles genéticos y se observó un clado único con más de 96% de similitud, lo que confirma la homogeneidad de las cepas argentinas. Si bien la histoplasmosis es endémica en la Pampa húmeda, este es el primer brote totalmente documentado al sur del paralelo 34°.An histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies

  6. Case Study: Norovirus Outbreak in Pardis Town in January 2014

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    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In the outbreak of infectious diseases, the on time epidemiological, environmental, and laboratorial investigations result in rapid diagnosis of cause and source of the outbreaks and decrease the diseases spread and public health loss. Following the outbreak of gastroenteritis in Pardis Town in January 2014, this research was conducted to identify the cause, source, and route of transmission of the outbreak. Materials and methods: First, the descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using checklist and the stool samples were prepared and analyzed. The drinking water quality in Pardis during and before the outbreak was obtained from National Environmental Health Network. The community water supply system consisting of watershed, water resources, pipelines, storage reservoirs, disinfection systems, and distribution network were inspected and sampling and detection of thermotolerant coliforms and norovirus in water samples were performed according to the Standard Methods. Results: There were 6,027 patients with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, cramps, mild diarrhea, and mild fever. The distribution of the disease in all age groups, gender, ethnicity, and location was uniform. Out of nine stool specimens, molecular testing of norovirus in six samples was positive. Hazards identified in the water supply system consisted of a water pipe fracture occurred two days before the outbreak, illegal connection of landscape irrigation system to the drinking water supply network, the use of unprotected Fellman wells as the resource of water supply, and discharge of domestic wastewater into the water resource upstream of the Fellman wells. The water samples taken from the Fellman wells had fecal contamination (11 out of 12 samples, but because of weakness and limited experience in identifying norovirus in water samples, norovirus was not detected in the raw water samples. Conclusion: This study showed that the pathogen came from a

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Decontamination in a Patient Room Using Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus as Surrogate Markers for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmdahl, Torsten; Walder, Mats; Uzcátegui, Nathalie; Odenholt, Inga; Lanbeck, Peter; Medstrand, Patrik; Widell, Anders

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) could be used to decontaminate caliciviruses from surfaces in a patient room. DESIGN Feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) were used as surrogate viability markers to mimic the noncultivable human norovirus. Cell culture supernatants of FCV and MNV were dried in triplicate 35-mm wells of 6-well plastic plates. These plates were placed in various positions in a nonoccupied patient room that was subsequently exposed to HPV. Control plates were positioned in a similar room but were never exposed to HPV. METHODS Virucidal activity was measured in cell culture by reduction in 50% tissue culture infective dose titer for FCV and by both 50% tissue culture infective dose titer and plaque reduction for MNV. RESULTS Neither viable FCV nor viable MNV could be detected in the test room after HPV treatment. At least 3.65 log reduction for FCV and at least 3.67 log reduction for MNV were found by 50% tissue culture infective dose. With plaque assay, measurable reduction for MNV was at least 2.85 log units. CONCLUSIONS The successful inactivation of both surrogate viruses indicates that HPV could be a useful tool for surface decontamination of a patient room contaminated by norovirus. Hence nosocomial spread to subsequent patients can be avoided. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:561-566. PMID:26861195

  8. Enhanced detection and study of murine norovirus-1 using a more efficient microglial cell line

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    Lu Yuanan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, as well as human CHME-5, were tested comparatively for their sensitivity to murine norovirus-1. Results Except for CHME-5, all three murine-derived cell lines were susceptible to MNV infection. Viral infection of these cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using both viral plaque and replication assays, BV-2 and RAW 264.7 cells were determined to have comparable sensitivities to MNV-1 infection. Comparisons of cell growth characteristics, general laboratory handling and potential in-field applications suggest the use of BV-2 to be more advantageous. Conclusion Results obtained from these studies demonstrate that an immortalized microglial cell line can support MNV-1 replication and provides a more efficient method to detect and study murine noroviruses, facilitating future investigations using MNV-1 as a model to study, detect, and control Human Norovirus.

  9. Evaluation of a new commercial assay for the detection of norovirus in stool samples

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    Maria Cristina Arcangeletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are important human pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis; they can hardly be propagated in any cell culture system and are often difficult to visualize by using electron microscopy (ME. These aspects, as well as the need of an accurate diagnosis justify the development of a number of rapid diagnostic methods aimed at improving the identification of noroviruses and based on the research of viral genomic sequences or, alternatively, of norovirus specific proteins. In this study 60 stool samples were analyzed by traditional techniques, such as cell culture (MT, and by rapid methods like ME and nested reverse transcriptase-polimerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR.A third rapid test, the immunochromatographic assay RIDA ®QUICK Norovirus (R-Biopharm for the research of norovirus proteins (belonging to genogroups I and II, was used retrospectively on the same samples stored at -80°C. The results obtained by using nRT-PCR (i.e. the most sensitive method and the immunochromatographic assay were compared, showing that 39 samples were positive and 21 negative in nRT-PCR, while only 28 (71.8% were positive with the immunochromatographic assay; among the negative samples, one resulted positive with RIDA ®QUICK Norovirus. The latter test proved to be appreciably sensitive, even if nRT-PCR still remains the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of norovirus. Nevertheless, the easy-to-use and cheaper immunochromatographic assay can be usefully applied as a screening test.

  10. Norovirus diarrhea in Bangladesh, 2010-2014: prevalence, clinical features, and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Rajibur; Nahar, Shamsun; Hossain, Shakhaowat; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Golam Faruque, Abu Syed; Azim, Tasnim

    2016-10-01

    Norovirus infections in diarrhea patients attending an urban and a rural hospital in Bangladesh were investigated. A total of 953 fecal specimens from both children and adults collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of norovirus using real time PCR. One fourth (25%) of the specimens were positive for norovirus RNA which was identified both in children and adults. Norovirus was associated with short duration of diarrhea, high abdominal pain, and more moderate to severe dehydration when compared with rotavirus infections. Norovirus GII (69%) was the most prevalent genogroup followed by GI (18%), mixed GI/GII/GIV (11%), and GIV (2%). Among GII genogroup, GII.4 (42%) was the most prevalent genotype followed by GII.3 (21%), GII.6 (7%), GII.7 (6%), and GII.21 (6%). GII.4 and GII.3 strains were frequently identified (82% and 75%, respectively) in children <2 years of age and less commonly (16% and 15%) in adults more than 18 years of age. The present study reinforces the importance of norovirus-associated hospitalizations both in children and adults. The dynamic molecular epidemiology of norovirus requires routine strain surveillance to identify changes in prevailing strains. J. Med. Virol. 88:1742-1750, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27003679

  11. Carlow Virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland

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    Menton John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million. Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002–2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. Results Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3 which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1, in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu/NoV/GII/Carlow/2002/Ire genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. Conclusion Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  12. Carlow virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Karen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million). Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002-2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. RESULTS: Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3) which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1), in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A) were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu\\/NoV\\/GII\\/Carlow\\/2002\\/Ire) genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. CONCLUSION: Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  13. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

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    Godoy Pere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV; the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03 the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03 in bacterial outbreaks (8.6% than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%. Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions.

  14. Quantification of Human Norovirus GII on Hands of Mothers with Children under the Age of Five Years in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Mia Catharine M.; Davis, Jennifer; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide and one of the leading causes of viral diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years. Hands have been shown to play an important role in norovirus transmission. Norovirus outbreaks tend to exhibit strong seasonality, most often occurring during cold, dry months, but recently have also been documented during hot, dry winter months in the southern hemisphere. Other research suggests that rainfall is an important factor in norovirus outbreaks. This study examines the prevalence and concentration of human norovirus GII on the hands of mothers in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, during the rainy and dry seasons. Norovirus GII was detected in approximately 5% of hand rinse samples during both the rainy and dry seasons. Fecal indicator bacteria levels, Escherichia coli and enterococci, in hand rinse samples were not associated with norovirus hand contamination. Turbidity of the hand rinses was found to be associated with norovirus presence on mothers' hands; however, this relationship was only observed during the rainy season. The results suggest mothers' hands serve as a source of norovirus exposure for young children in Tanzanian households, and further work is needed to determine better indicators of norovirus contamination in these environments. PMID:26149861

  15. Protective role of murine norovirus against Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thépaut, Marion; Grandjean, Teddy; Hober, Didier; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bortolotti, Perrine; Faure, Karine; Dessein, Rodrigue; Kipnis, Eric; Guery, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered mouse pathogen, representing the most common contaminant in laboratory mouse colonies. Nevertheless, the effects of MNV infection on biomedical research are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MNV infection could alter immune response in mice with acute lung infection. Here we report that co-infection with MNV increases survival of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute lung injury and decreases in vivo production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that MNV infection can deeply modify the parameters studied in conventional models of infection and lead to false conclusions in experimental models. PMID:26338794

  16. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Shen Quan; Zhang Wen; Yang Shixing; Yang Zhibiao; Chen Yan; Cui Li(University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, P. R. China); Zhu Jianguo; Hua Xiuguo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs) are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the ot...

  17. Prevalence of norovirus GII-4 antibodies in Finnish children

    OpenAIRE

    Nurminen, Kirsi; Blazevic, Vesna; Huhti, Leena; Räsänen, Sirpa; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P; Vesikari, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Noroviruses (NoVs) are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. NoV genotype GII-4 has emerged as the major type not only in outbreaks of NoV gastroenteritis but also endemic gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. Using baculovirus-insect cell system virus-like particles (VLPs) of NoV genotype GII-4 and an uncommon genotype GII-12 were produced. These VLPs were used in ELISA for detection of NoV-specific IgG an...

  18. Galler-induced reduction of shoot growth and fruit production in the shrub Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae Insectos cecidómidos reducen el crecimiento de brotes y la producción de frutos en el arbusto Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFREDO L. GONZÁLES

    2005-09-01

    huevos depositados por el cecidómido y el número de cecidias entre arbustos. La producción de frutos se relacionó inversamente con el número de cecidias, pero no presentó asociación significativa con la altura del arbusto, su cobertura ni con el número de brotes. Brotes sin cecidias fueron más largos que los con cecidias. El tratamiento químico produjo un efecto positivo retrasado sobre la reproducción de la planta. Una vez transcurridos 24 meses de iniciado el experimento químico, el número de frutos fue mayor en las ramas experimentales que en las ramas control (con cecidias. De igual manera, la remoción mecánica de cecidias aumentó la producción de frutos en comparación a las ramas control en la siguiente estación reproductiva del arbusto. Estos resultados indican que el cecidómido reduce el crecimiento de los brotes y tiene un efecto negativo retardado sobre la producción de frutos de C. integerrima. Como la probabilidad de detectar cecidias nuevas fue mayor en los arbustos previamente infectados, es posible que el proceso de reinfección de cuenta de los efectos negativos acumulativos del insecto sobre el desempeño de la planta

  19. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

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    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  20. Strain-Dependent Norovirus Bioaccumulation in Oysters ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Haifa; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Pendu, Jacques; Atmar, Robert L.; Crawford, Sue E.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main agents of gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Some NoV strains bind to shellfish tissues by using carbohydrate structures similar to their human ligands, leading to the hypothesis that such ligands may influence bioaccumulation. This study compares the bioaccumulation efficiencies and tissue distributions in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) of three strains from the two principal human norovirus genogroups. Clear differences between strains were observed. The GI.1 strain was the most efficiently concentrated strain. Bioaccumulation specifically occurred in digestive tissues in a dose-dependent manner, and its efficiency paralleled ligand expression, which was highest during the cold months. In comparison, the GII.4 strain was very poorly bioaccumulated and was recovered in almost all tissues without seasonal influence. The GII.3 strain presented an intermediate behavior, without seasonal effect and with less bioaccumulation efficiency than that of the GI.1 strain during the cold months. In addition, the GII.3 strain was transiently concentrated in gills and mantle before being almost specifically accumulated in digestive tissues. Carbohydrate ligand specificities of the strains at least partly explain the strain-dependent bioaccumulation characteristics. In particular, binding to the digestive-tube-specific ligand should contribute to bioaccumulation, whereas we hypothesize that binding to the sialic acid-containing ligand present in all tissues would contribute to retain virus particles in the gills or mantle and lead to rapid destruction. PMID:21441327

  1. Norovirus and other human enteric viruses in moroccan shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabbes, Laila; Ollivier, Joanna; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Rhaissi, Houria; Nourlil, Jalal; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Coast of Morocco. A total of 77 samples were collected from areas potentially contaminated by human sewage. Noroviruses were detected in 30 % of samples, with an equal representation of GI and GII strains, but were much more frequently found in cockles or clams than in oysters. The method used, including extraction efficiency controls, allowed the quantification of virus concentration. As in previous reports, results showed levels of contamination between 100 and 1,000 copies/g of digestive tissues. Sapoviruses were detected in 13 % of samples mainly in oyster and clam samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in two samples, with concentrations around 100 RNA copies/g of digestive tissues. Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus. This study highlights the interest of studying shellfish samples from different countries and different production areas. A better knowledge of shellfish contamination helps us to understand virus levels in shellfish and to improve shellfish safety, thus protecting consumers. PMID:23412717

  2. Ozone inactivation of norovirus surrogates on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirneisen, K A; Markland, S M; Kniel, K E

    2011-05-01

    Preharvest contamination of produce by foodborne viruses can occur through a variety of agents, including animal feces/manures, soil, irrigation water, animals, and human handling. Problems of contamination are magnified by potential countrywide distribution. Postharvest processing of produce can involve spraying, washing, or immersion into water with disinfectants; however, disinfectants, including chlorine, have varying effects on viruses and harmful by-products pose a concern. The use of ozone as a disinfectant in produce washes has shown great promise for bacterial pathogens, but limited research exists on its efficacy on viruses. This study compares ozone inactivation of human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus [FCV] and murine norovirus [MNV]) on produce (green onions and lettuce) and in sterile water. Green onions and lettuce inoculated with FCV or MNV were treated with ozone (6.25 ppm) for 0.5- to 10-min time intervals. Infectivity was determined by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50)) and plaque assay for FCV and MNV, respectively. After 5 min of ozone treatment, >6 log TCID(50)/ml of FCV was inactivated in water and ∼2-log TCID(50)/ml on lettuce and green onions. MNV inoculated onto green onions and lettuce showed a >2-log reduction after 1 min of ozone treatment. The food matrix played the largest role in protection against ozone inactivation. These results indicate that ozone is an alternative method to reduce viral contamination on the surface of fresh produce. PMID:21549058

  3. A norovirus outbreak associated with consumption of NSW oysters: implications for quality assurance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppatz, Clare; Munnoch, Sally A; Worgan, Tory; Merritt, Tony D; Dalton, Craig; Kelly, Paul M; Durrheim, David N

    2008-03-01

    Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with raw shellfish consumption. In Australia there have been several reports of norovirus outbreaks associated with oysters despite the application of regulatory measures recommended by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. This study describes an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis following the consumption of New South Wales oysters. In September 2007, OzFoodNet conducted a cohort study of a gastroenteritis outbreak amongst people that had dined at a Port Macquarie restaurant. Illness was strongly associated with oyster consumption, with all cases having eaten oysters from the same lease (RR undefined, p quality assurance programs do not routinely test oysters for viral contamination that pose a risk to human health. It is recommended that the feasibility of testing oysters for norovirus, particularly after known faecal contamination of oyster leases, be assessed. PMID:18522310

  4. Molecular evolution of the capsid gene in human norovirus genogroup II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miho; Matsushima, Yuki; Motoya, Takumi; Sakon, Naomi; Shigemoto, Naoki; Okamoto-Nakagawa, Reiko; Nishimura, Koichi; Yamashita, Yasutaka; Kuroda, Makoto; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Ryo, Akihide; Saraya, Takeshi; Morita, Yukio; Shirabe, Komei; Ishikawa, Mariko; Takahashi, Tomoko; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Nagasawa, Koo; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Capsid protein of norovirus genogroup II (GII) plays crucial roles in host infection. Although studies on capsid gene evolution have been conducted for a few genotypes of norovirus, the molecular evolution of norovirus GII is not well understood. Here we report the molecular evolution of all GII genotypes, using various bioinformatics techniques. The time-scaled phylogenetic tree showed that the present GII strains diverged from GIV around 1630CE at a high evolutionary rate (around 10−3 substitutions/site/year), resulting in three lineages. The GII capsid gene had large pairwise distances (maximum > 0.39). The effective population sizes of the present GII strains were large (>102) for about 400 years. Positive (20) and negative (over 450) selection sites were estimated. Moreover, some linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were found in the deduced GII capsid protein. These results suggested that norovirus GII strains rapidly evolved with high divergence and adaptation to humans. PMID:27384324

  5. Boerhaave's syndrome and tension pneumothorax secondary to Norovirus induced forceful emesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Søren; Eckardt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome or spontaneous esophageal perforation is a rare condition, with high mortality. We describe a case of Boerhaave's syndrome presenting with tension pneumothorax. The patient was infected with Norovirus and developed Boerhaave's syndrome, initially thought to be gastroenteritis...

  6. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by GII.17 norovirus in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Feng, Wei-Hong; Shi, Ping; Ai, Jing; Guan, Hong-Xia; Sha, Dan; Geng, Qian; Mei, Jun; Chen, Shan-Hui; Xiao, Yong; Qian, Yan-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Noroviruses are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world; however, reports of outbreaks caused by GII.17 norovirus are rare. An outbreak caused by GII.17 norovirus in a senior high school in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China is reported here. An epidemiological investigation, pathogen detection, and case-control study were performed. Epidemiological data combined with the epidemic curve indicated that this outbreak was a point source type initially, followed by secondary transmission. The first case was identified as most likely the source of the outbreak. Risk analysis showed exposure to patients and sharing a communal water cooler to be associated with the spread of infection. Sequence analysis of GII-positive samples confirmed that the norovirus GII.17 variant was the etiological agent of this outbreak. PMID:27224012

  7. Comprehensive analysis of a norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreak, from the environment to the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyader, Françoise S; Krol, Joanna; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Ruvoen-Clouet, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Benedicte; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ponge, Agnès; Pothier, Pierre; Atmar, Robert L; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Noroviruses have been recognized to be the predominant agents of nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans, and their transmission via contaminated shellfish consumption has been demonstrated. Norovirus laboratory experiments, volunteer challenge studies, and community gastroenteritis outbreak investigations have identified human genetic susceptibility factors related to histo-blood group antigen expression. Following a banquet in Brittany, France, in February 2008, gastroenteritis cases were linked to oyster consumption. This study identified an association of the norovirus illnesses with histo-blood group expression, and oyster contamination with norovirus was confirmed by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The secretor phenotype was associated with illness, especially for the non-A subgroup. The study showed that, in addition to accidental climatic events that may lead to oyster contamination, illegal shellfish collection and trading are also risk factors associated with outbreaks. PMID:20053852

  8. Brote de varicela en el Servicio de Oncología de hombres del Hospital San Juan de Dios, febrero-abril de 2004, San José, Costa Rica Chicken pox outbreak in the male Oncology Ward at he Hospital San Juan de Dios Hospital, febrero-abril de 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sócrates Vargas-Naranjo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo:La infección intrahospitalaria por varicela en adultos es infrecuente, a pesar de ser una enfermedad altamente contagiosa. Es reconocido que en adultos se presentan las tasas de letalidad más altas y por ello es importante analizar las características del presente brote y así determinar cuáles factores contribuyeron a que ocurriera, para recomendar acciones dirigidas a la prevención de un brote similar. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para identificar los factores asociados al brote por varicela en el hospital. La prueba de U de Mann-Whitney se utilizó para valorar diferencias entre casos y controles según edad, contacto entre pacientes, estancia hospitalaria y grupo de cama. El cálculo de los Odds Ratio ayudó a determinar la posible asociación entre las variables y la presentación de la enfermedad. Se recomendó la cuarentena del Servicio. Resultados:El primer caso de varicela ocurrió en febrero, al tercer día de su ingreso al hospital. Posteriormente, se presentaron 5 casos más. Al analizar las variables estudiadas, la curva epidémica y el período de incubación, la variable contacto entre los pacientes fue la más importante para mantener la existencia del brote p Aim: Varicella ’s infection is not common in adults ’ hospital, in spite of being a highly contagious illness. Since in adults, death rates are higher, it is important to analyze the characteristics of the present outbreak. We tried to determine risk factors that contributed to its existence in order to recommend measures to prevent future varicella outbreaks. Methods:A case and contols study was designed to identify factors associated to a varicella outbreak in the hospital. The U test of Mann-Whitney valued differences between cases and controls according to age, contact among patients hospital stay and bed group. Odds Ratio determined the possible association between the variables and the presentation of the

  9. Tulane Virus as a Potential Surrogate To Mimic Norovirus Behavior in Oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Drouaz, Najoua; Schaeffer, Julien; Farkas, Tibor; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise ,

    2015-01-01

    Oyster contamination by noroviruses is an important health and economic problem. The present study aimed to compare the behaviors of Norwalk virus (the prototype genogroup I norovirus) and two culturable viruses: Tulane virus and mengovirus. After bioaccumulation, tissue distributions were quite similar for Norwalk virus and Tulane virus, with the majority of viral particles detected in digestive tissues, while mengovirus was detected in large amounts in the gills and mantle as well as in dig...

  10. Distribution in Tissue and Seasonal Variation of Norovirus Genogroup I and II Ligands in Oysters▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maalouf, Haifa; Zakhour, Maha; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2010-01-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, filter large volumes of water as part of their feeding activities and are able to accumulate and concentrate different types of pathogens, particularly noroviruses, from fecal human pollution. Based on our previous observation of a specific binding of the Norwalk strain (prototype norovirus genogroup I) to the oyster digestive tract through an A-like carbohydrate structure indistinguishable from human blood group A antigen and on the large diversi...

  11. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lopman, Benjamin A.; Duncan Steele; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associate...

  12. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Lopman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from

  13. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Benjamin A; Steele, Duncan; Kirkwood, Carl D; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-04-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from their current state of

  14. Concentration of Norovirus during Wastewater Treatment and Its Impact on Oyster Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Flannery, John; Keaveney, Sinéad; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; O’Flaherty, Vincent; Doré, William

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of Escherichia coli, F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNA bacteriophage), and norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI) and norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) in wastewater were monitored weekly over a 1-year period at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) providing secondary wastewater treatment. A total of 49 samples of influent wastewater and wastewater that had been treated by primary and secondary wastewater treatment processes (primary and secondary treated wastewater) were analyzed. ...

  15. Treatment of norovirus infections: Moving antivirals from the bench to the bedside

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Stuart S.; Green, Kim Y.; Korba, Brent E.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NV) are the most common cause of acute gastrointestinal illness in the United States and worldwide. The development of specific antiviral countermeasures has lagged behind that of other viral pathogens, primarily because norovirus disease has been perceived as brief and self-limiting and robust assays suitable for drug discovery have been lacking. The increasing recognition that NV illness can be life-threatening, especially in immunocompromised patients who often require prolong...

  16. Brote de dengue en San Jose de Guaribe, Venezuela: reporte preliminar Outbreak of dengue in San José of Guaribe, Venezuela: preliminary report

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    Alajandro Caraballo

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos nuestra experiencia de un brote de dengue en el Municipio San José de Guaribe, Estado Guárico a mediados de Septiembre y comienzo de Octubre de 1990. Un total de 97 casos sin muertes y el estudio serológico en una muestra problacional mostró virus tipo 2. La pronta intervención y la efectividad de las medidas de control, una atención médica oportuna y un diagnóstico scrológico temprano contribuyeron al control del brote. Esta es la primera descripción de un brote de dengue en el Estado Guárico, Venezuela.An outbreak of dengue in the Municipality San Jose of Guaribe, Guarico State about the middle of September and to beginning October 1990 is reported. A total 97 cases without death and the Serologic study in a population sample showed type 2 virus. The quick intervention, the effectiveness of the measures of control, one attention medical opportune and the early Serologic diagnostic to contribute of the outbreak control. This is the first description of a dengue outbreak in the Guarico State, Venezuela.

  17. Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Munalula Munjita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%. The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2% than asymptomatic children (9.2%. Genogroup II (GII was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7% and GI/GII (1.9%. The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%, GI.7 (33.3%, and GI.3 (21.3%. These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Natural infection of murine norovirus in conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF laboratory mice

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    Takeo eOhsugi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses cause most cases of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a cell culture infection model for human norovirus necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict norovirus inactivation. Murine norovirus (MNV may be used to construct a small animal model for studying the biology and pathogenesis of noroviruses because MNV is the only norovirus that replicates in cell culture and a small animal model. However, recent studies have shown that natural MNV infection is widespread in laboratory mouse colonies. We investigated MNV infection in both conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF genetically modified mice from Japan and the US, and commercial mice from several animal breeders in Japan, using serological and molecular techniques. MNV antibodies were detected in 67.3% of conventional mice and 39.1% of SPF mice from Japan and 62.5% of conventional mice from the US. MNV antibodies were also found in 20% of commercial SPF C57BL/6 mice from one of three breeders. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that the isolates were homologous to reported MNV sequences. These results suggest that both conventional and SPF laboratory mice, including commercial mice, are widely infected with MNV, which might require considerable attention as an animal model of human disease.

  19. Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation.

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    Lisa C Lindesmith

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the principal cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide with GII.4 strains accounting for 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic strains with altered antigenic potentials. To test if antigenic drift may contribute to GII.4 persistence, human memory B cells were immortalized and the resulting human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs characterized for reactivity to a panel of time-ordered GII.4 virus-like particles (VLPs. Reflecting the complex exposure history of the volunteer, human anti-GII.4 mAbs grouped into three VLP reactivity patterns; ancestral (1987-1997, contemporary (2004-2009, and broad (1987-2009. NVB 114 reacted exclusively to the earliest GII.4 VLPs by EIA and blockade. NVB 97 specifically bound and blocked only contemporary GII.4 VLPs, while NBV 111 and 43.9 exclusively reacted with and blocked variants of the GII.4.2006 Minerva strain. Three mAbs had broad GII.4 reactivity. Two, NVB 37.10 and 61.3, also detected other genogroup II VLPs by EIA but did not block any VLP interactions with carbohydrate ligands. NVB 71.4 cross-neutralized the panel of time-ordered GII.4 VLPs, as measured by VLP-carbohydrate blockade assays. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, two evolving, GII.4-specific, blockade epitopes were mapped. Amino acids 294-298 and 368-372 were required for binding NVB 114, 111 and 43.9 mAbs. Amino acids 393-395 were essential for binding NVB 97, supporting earlier correlations between antibody blockade escape and carbohydrate binding variation. These data inform VLP vaccine design, provide a strategy for expanding the cross-blockade potential of chimeric VLP vaccines, and identify an antibody with broadly neutralizing therapeutic potential for the treatment of human disease. Moreover, these data support the hypothesis that GII.4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing

  20. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y microbiológica del brote de diarrea asociado a Clostridium difficile, ocurrido en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, 2008-2009

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    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la enfermedad diarreica asociada a Clostridium difficile (EDACD es la causa más importante de diarrea nosocomial en el mundo. En Costa Rica, se presentó recientemente un brote de EDACD en el Hospital San Juan de Dios de San José, hospital de tercer nivel con 700 camas. En el estudio se analizan las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con EDACD atendidos entre noviembre de 2008 y junio de 2009. Pacientes y métodos: se definió como caso de EDACD un paciente con cuadro diarréico con detección de ELISA positiva por toxina A de C. difficile en heces. Se realizó un análisis de la incidencia anual desde 2004 de EDACD, y de la incidencia mensual de EDACD en 2009 en el HSJD, así como un estudio observacional y retrospectivo de 112 expedientes médicos correspondientes a pacientes con el diagnóstico de EDACD atendidos en el Hospital, en el periodo comprendido entre el 15 de noviembre de 2008 y el 15 de junio de 2009. El análisis de los datos se efectuó mediante pruebas estadísticas descriptivas y medidas de asociación. Resultados: la incidencia de EDACD aumentó desde finales de 2008, y alcanzó su pico máximo en abril de 2009, cuando se implementaron medidas sanitarias que disminuyeron en un 75% el número de pacientes en 8 meses. De los 112 expedientes médicos revisados, 63 (56% fueron hombres. La edad promedio fue de 65,33 años; 103 (92% pacientes desarrollaron su enfermedad mientras estuvieron hospitalizados; el tiempo promedio de internamiento fue de 18,6 días. Solo el 9% no presentó ninguna comorbilidad. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron: HTA y DM tipo 2, con un 57,5% y un 39,8%, respectivamente, y enfermedad neuropsiquiátrica en un 29,2%. El 96% (107 pacientes había recibido tres o más antibióticos antes del inicio de la diarrea. La duración promedio de la antibióticoterapia fue de 32 días por paciente. En promedio, la duración de la diarrea fue de 10,2 d

  1. Norovirus vaccines: Correlates of protection, challenges and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nada M

    2016-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. NoVs are classified into 6 different genogroups (GGI- GGVI) based on the viral capsid protein with NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) being the predominant strain causing human diseases. Supportive therapy involving reversal of dehydration and electrolyte deficiency is the main treatment of NoV gastroenteritis. However, the worldwide increased recognition of NoV as an important agent of diarrheal gastroenteritis prompted researchers to focus on establishing preventive strategies conferring long-lasting immunity. This review describes the current status of animal and human vaccine models/studies targeting NoV and addresses the factors hampering the development of a broadly effective vaccine. PMID:26836766

  2. Environmental persistence of Tulane virus - a surrogate for human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Sabastine Eugene; Gibson, Kristen Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The persistence of HuNoV in the environment contributes significantly to its transmission to humans. Surrogate viruses are used to study HuNoV owing to the lack of a cell culture system for this virus. Here, the persistence of Tulane virus (TV) - a novel HuNoV surrogate - in surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) as well as on acrylic-based solid (ABS) and stainless steel (SS) surfaces was investigated. After 28 days, TV remained stable in SW (ABS, with corresponding D values of 18.5 ± 0.34 and 13.1 ± 0.36 days, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate the persistence of TV in environmental waters and on fomite surfaces. PMID:26825139

  3. Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis. PMID:26267898

  4. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Warnes

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS determined that Cu(II and especially Cu(I ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked, which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  5. Challenges of culturing human norovirus in three-dimensional organoid intestinal cell culture models.

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    Efstathia Papafragkou

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, cell culture systems have been described using either human embryonic intestinal epithelial cells (Int-407 or human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 growing on collagen-I porous micro carrier beads in a rotating bioreactor under conditions of physiological fluid shear. Here, we describe the efforts from two independent laboratories to implement this three dimensional (3D cell culture system for the replication of norovirus. Int-407 and Caco-2 were grown in a rotating bioreactor for up to 28 days. Prior to infection, cells were screened for the presence of microvilli by electron microscopy and stained for junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and β-catenin. Differentiated 3D cells were transferred to 24-well plates and infected with bacteria-free filtrates of various norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.8, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.8. At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h post inoculation, viral RNA from both cells and supernatants were collected and analyzed for norovirus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Despite observations of high expression of junction proteins and microvilli development in stained thin sections, our data suggest no significant increase in viral titer based on norovirus RNA copy number during the first 48 h after inoculation for the different samples and virus culture conditions tested. Our combined efforts demonstrate that 3D cell culture models using Int-407 or Caco-2 cells do not support norovirus replication and highlight the complexity and difficulty of developing a reproducible in vitro cell culture system for human norovirus.

  6. Manifestaciones del sistema osteomioarticular en pacientes con toxiinfección alimentaria por Salmonella D Clinical osteomyoarticular manifestations in patients with Salmonella D food poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Fernández Ermus; Joaquín Roberto Hing León; Glenda Pérez Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    La Salmonella ha sido el principal agente causal de brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde en el bienio 2007-2008 se aisló la especie de ese germen clasificada como D en 49 pacientes (32,2 %) con toxiinfección alimentaria por huevo, quienes presentaron manifestaciones clínicas osteomioarticulares no descritas antes, tales como artralgia y mialgia. Los datos extraídos de las encuestas epidemiológicas y validados con la prueba de Ji al cuadr...

  7. EVALUATION OF MURINE NOROVIRUS, FELINE CALICIVIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, AND MS2 AS SURROGATES FOR HUMAN NOROVIRUS IN a Model of Viral Persistence in SURFACE Water AND GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are a significant cause of non bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate mod...

  8. Brote de dengue autóctono en el área metropolitana Buenos Aires: Experiencia del Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz Outbreak of indigenous dengue in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Experience of the F.J. Muñiz Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la epidemia de dengue que afectó a la República de Bolivia y provincias del norte argentino, se produjo por primera vez un brote de dengue autóctono en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires. A partir de enero de 2009 asistimos casos de dengue importado hasta la tercera semana de marzo, cuando aparecieron los primeros casos por transmisión local, tendencia que se mantuvo hasta mediados de mayo. La mayor concentración de casos autóctonos atendidos residía en la región oeste de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y en localidades de los partidos de 3 de Febrero y La Matanza, que limitan con ella. Existieron factores concurrentes para que se produjera este brote: alta densidad vectorial, viajeros provenientes de regiones epidémicas concentrados por su domicilio en las áreas donde luego se produjo la transmisión local. El 95% ingresaron en los primeros días de viremia y en un período climático caracterizado por temperaturas medias elevadas que se mantuvieron hasta mediados de otoño. De los nueve pacientes con signos de alarma para el desarrollo de dengue grave, siete fueron casos autóctonos que no tenían antecedentes de haber padecido previamente dengue. Se comunican los hallazgos clínicos y epidemiológicos y se analizan los factores que regularon la transmisión.As a consequence of the dengue epidemic in the Bolivian Republic and the northern provinces of Argentina, an outbreak of indigenous dengue occurred for the first time in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. Since January 2009 we assisted imported dengue cases coming from epidemic regions; later, around the end of March, and until middle autumn, indigenous cases appeared. The major concentration of these indigenous cases was in the west area of Buenos Aires City and in the neighboring localities 3 de Febrero and La Matanza. There were several factors that made the local transmission possible: a high vector density, people traveling from epidemic areas and clustering

  9. Conservation of carbohydrate binding interfaces: evidence of human HBGA selection in norovirus evolution.

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    Ming Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses are the major viral pathogens of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. These genetically diverse viruses comprise two major genogroups (GI and GII and approximately 30 genotypes. Noroviruses recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs in a diverse, strain-specific manner. Recently the crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the GI Norwalk virus and the GII VA387 have been determined, which allows us to examine the genetic and structural relationships of the HBGA-binding interfaces of noroviruses with variable HBGA-binding patterns. Our hypothesis is that, if HBGAs are the viral receptors necessary for norovirus infection and spread, their binding interfaces should be under a selection pressure in the evolution of noroviruses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Structural comparison of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the two noroviruses has revealed shared features but significant differences in the location, sequence composition, and HBGA-binding modes. On the other hand, the primary sequences of the HBGA-binding interfaces are highly conserved among strains within each genogroup. The roles of critical residues within the binding sites have been verified by site-directed mutagenesis followed by functional analysis of strains with variable HBGA-binding patterns. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that the human HBGAs are an important factor in norovirus evolution. Each of the two major genogroups represents an evolutionary lineage characterized by distinct genetic traits. Functional convergence of strains with the same HBGA targets subsequently resulted in acquisition of analogous HBGA binding interfaces in the two genogroups that share an overall structural similarity, despite their distinct locations and amino acid compositions. On the other hand, divergent evolution may have contributed to the observed overall differences between and within the two lineages. Thus, both divergent and convergent

  10. Structure-based design and synthesis of triazole-based macrocyclic inhibitors of norovirus protease: Structural, biochemical, spectroscopic, and antiviral studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerawarna, Pathum M; Kim, Yunjeong; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C; Damalanka, Vishnu C; Lushington, Gerald H; Alliston, Kevin R; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P; Lovell, Scott; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Groutas, William C

    2016-08-25

    Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis caused by noroviruses constitute a public health concern worldwide. To date, there are no approved drugs or vaccines for the management and prophylaxis of norovirus infections. A potentially effective strategy for the development of norovirus therapeutics entails the discovery of inhibitors of norovirus 3CL protease, an enzyme essential for noroviral replication. We describe herein the structure-based design of the first class of permeable, triazole-based macrocyclic inhibitors of norovirus 3C-like protease, as well as pertinent X-ray crystallographic, biochemical, spectroscopic, and antiviral studies. PMID:27235842

  11. Characterization and inhibition of norovirus proteases of genogroups I and II using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kyeong-Ok [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States); Takahashi, Daisuke; Prakash, Om [Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kim, Yunjeong, E-mail: ykim@vet.ksu.edu [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Noroviruses are the major cause of food- or water-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. The norovirus protease that cleaves a large viral polyprotein to nonstructural proteins is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Noroviruses show high genetic diversity with at least five genogroups, GI-GV, of which GI and GII are responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in humans. We cloned and expressed proteases of Norwalk virus (GI) and MD145 virus (GII) and characterized the enzymatic activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates. We demonstrated that the GI and GII proteases cleaved the substrates derived from the naturally occurring cleavage site in the open reading frame (ORF) 1 of G1 norovirus with similar efficiency, and that enzymatic activity of both proteases was inhibited by commercial protease inhibitors including chymostatin. The interaction of chymostatin to Norwalk virus protease was validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  12. Characterization and inhibition of norovirus proteases of genogroups I and II using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noroviruses are the major cause of food- or water-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. The norovirus protease that cleaves a large viral polyprotein to nonstructural proteins is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Noroviruses show high genetic diversity with at least five genogroups, GI–GV, of which GI and GII are responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in humans. We cloned and expressed proteases of Norwalk virus (GI) and MD145 virus (GII) and characterized the enzymatic activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates. We demonstrated that the GI and GII proteases cleaved the substrates derived from the naturally occurring cleavage site in the open reading frame (ORF) 1 of G1 norovirus with similar efficiency, and that enzymatic activity of both proteases was inhibited by commercial protease inhibitors including chymostatin. The interaction of chymostatin to Norwalk virus protease was validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  13. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

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    Ji-Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4 was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp, ORF2 (1,623 bp, and ORF3 (807 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  14. Brote intrahospitalario de escabiasis, a partir de un caso de sarna noruega Nosocomial outbreak of scabies from a Norwegian scabies case

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    Ramón Fajardo-Velázquez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote intrahospitalario de escabiasis ocurrido en la Ciudad de México, en agosto de 1999, como resultado de exposición a un caso de sarna noruega no diagnosticado oportunamente. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Después de revisar el caso índice, instituimos aislamiento del paciente e identificamos casos secundarios de escabiasis entre pacientes hospitalizados, empleados que laboraban en el área afectada y sus familiares. Sólo individuos que padecían lesiones dérmicas y prurito fueron incluidos como casos infestados. Se establecieron medidas de control, como aislamiento de contacto, manejo apropiado de ropas contaminadas y tratamiento tópico. RESULTADOS: Un paciente con SIDA (caso índice de sarna noruega que cursaba con desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico severo fue admitido en el Hospital de Infectología, del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, del 19 de julio al 20 de agosto de 1999, en la Ciudad de México. Veintiocho días después de su admisión emergieron casos de escabiasis entre los trabajadores de la salud; entonces, se sospechó de escabiasis noruega, lo que se confirmó por evidencia microscópica de los parásitos en una preparación de escamas del caso pista. Identificamos 48 casos secundarios con sarna clínica: 71% trabajadores de la salud, principalmente enfermeras (79%, 23% familiares de trabajadores y 6% pacientes. El periodo de incubación promedio fue de 15 días (intervalo 12 a 27. Aunque con mayor frecuencia las lesiones involucraron extremidades superiores (60%, las manos fueron respetadas. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo demuestra no sólo las dificultades para diagnosticar la escabiasis noruega en el hospedero inmunosuprimido, sino también la importancia de estar seguros de que los trabajadores de la salud cumplan con las precauciones estándar en todo momentoOBJECTIVE: To describe a nosocomial outbreak of scabies occurred in August 1999, resulting from exposure to

  15. Análisis de un brote epidémico de brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero

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    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La notificación mediante el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de un número inusual de casos de Brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero a finales de 1996 hizo sospechar la existencia de un brote epidémico entre dicho colectivo profesional. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló la información disponible respecto a: 1 animales sacrificados en el matadero diagnosticados de brucelosis; 2 bajas laborales producidas y 3 datos de la mutualidad laboral relativos a los empleados del matadero con la enfermedad. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica a los trabajadores sobre los antecedentes de enfermedad, actividad laboral y riesgos no laborales (ingesta de leche o derivados sin higienizar. Las dependencias y actividades del matadero fueron inspeccionadas. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se estudió cada puesto de trabajo tomando como controles a los restantes empleados del matadero. Para su verificación se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. RESULTADOS: El brote epidémico de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores comenzó durante el mes de septiembre y duró hasta febrero del siguiente año. Las encuestas epidemiológicas descubrieron 28 trabajadores con síntomas sugestivos de la enfermedad, siendo los operarios del área de sacrificio del matadero quienes presentan la tasa de ataque más alta: 56%. En el estudio de casos y controles el riesgo más elevado se observó en dicho colectivo de trabajadores con una OR de 4,27 (IC 95%: 1,6-15 y p<0.01. Del mismo modo en el estudio de cohortes apreciamos que estos trabajadores presentan un RR de 2,5 (IC 95%: 1,5-4,3 cuando son comparados con el resto de trabajadores de la cohorte y de 8 (IC 95%: 2-30 si los comparamos con el colectivo de menor exposición. Los RR de los operarios de la limpieza y de la sala de despiece fueron de 6,56 (IC 95%: 1,6-27 para los primeros y de 4,77 (IC 95%: 1,1-21 para los segundos. Las fracciones etiológicas fueron del 87% para los de la zona de

  16. Análisis espacial de un brote de leishmaniasis en el sur del Área metropolitana de la Comunidad de Madrid. 2009-2013

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    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad zoonótica endémica en España. El objetivo de este estudio es realizar un análisis espacial de los elementos claves del ciclo de la enfermedad, vectores, reservorios y casos humanos, en un brote comunitario declarado en cuatro municipios del sur del Área metropolitana de Madrid: Fuenlabrada, Getafe, Humanes de Madrid y Leganés.Se analizaron 485 casos de leishmaniasis, declarados en el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Comunidad de Madrid, con fecha de inicio de síntomas entre el 1 de julio de 2009 y el 30 de junio de 2013.La mayor parte de los casos se localizaron en el norte de Fuenlabrada. Los resultados del análisis espacial pusieron de manifiesto que, durante el periodo de estudio, la zona con mayor concentración de casos coincidió espacialmente con áreas residenciales periféricas inmediatas a espacios verdes con alta densidad de flebotomos y prevalencia relativamente elevada de leishmaniasis en lagomorfos. Esto informa de que la exposición principal ocurre en su entorno domiciliario o peridomiciliario.El estudio parece indicar que las infraestructuras viarias podrían haber tenido un papel decisivo en la distribución espacial del brote comportándose de diferentes maneras: barreras territoriales que aíslan en cierta medida a varios núcleos urbanos de la exposición al patógeno, vías de penetración del vector en el interior de otros núcleos o generadores de un entorno de hábitats idóneos para reservorios y vectores.El análisis espacial ha permitido orientar las actuaciones de prevención y control del brote y continúa siendo de gran utilidad en la evolución del mismo. Los sistemas de información geográfica son herramientas que ayudan a la comprensión de la génesis y evolución de los brotes de enfermedades infecciosas, así como al diseño de las intervenciones ambientales.

  17. Sensitive detection of norovirus using phage nanoparticle reporters in lateral-flow assay.

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    Anna E V Hagström

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are recognized worldwide as the principal cause of acute, non-bacterial gastroenteritis, resulting in 19-21 million cases of disease every year in the United States. Noroviruses have a very low infectious dose, a short incubation period, high resistance to traditional disinfection techniques and multiple modes of transmission, making early, point-of-care detection essential for controlling the spread of the disease. The traditional diagnostic tools, electron microscopy, RT-PCR and ELISA require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and are considered too laborious and slow to be useful during severe outbreaks. In this paper we describe the development of a new, rapid and sensitive lateral-flow assay using labeled phage particles for the detection of the prototypical norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk, with a limit of detection of 107 virus-like particles per mL, one hundred-fold lower than a conventional gold nanoparticle lateral-flow assay using the same antibody pair.

  18. Tulane Virus as a Potential Surrogate To Mimic Norovirus Behavior in Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouaz, Najoua; Schaeffer, Julien; Farkas, Tibor; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2015-08-01

    Oyster contamination by noroviruses is an important health and economic problem. The present study aimed to compare the behaviors of Norwalk virus (the prototype genogroup I norovirus) and two culturable viruses: Tulane virus and mengovirus. After bioaccumulation, tissue distributions were quite similar for Norwalk virus and Tulane virus, with the majority of viral particles detected in digestive tissues, while mengovirus was detected in large amounts in the gills and mantle as well as in digestive tissues. The levels of persistence of all three viruses over 8 days were comparable, but clear differences were observed over longer periods, with Norwalk and Tulane viruses displaying rather similar half-lives, unlike mengovirus, which was cleared more rapidly. These results indicate that Tulane virus may be a good surrogate for studying norovirus behavior in oysters, and they confirm the prolonged persistence of Norwalk virus in oyster tissues. PMID:26025893

  19. Emergence of GII.Pg norovirus in gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Dunbar, Natalie L; Marshall, John A

    2016-09-01

    The ORF 1 GII.Pg genotype represents an obligatory recombinant comprising the ORF 1 GII.Pg genotype and a number of ORF 2 genotypes. The emergence, incidence, and molecular features of GII.Pg norovirus have never been considered in detail and are the subject of the current study. Over the period 2002-2013, GII.Pg norovirus was detected in 16 outbreaks in Victoria, Australia. It was first identified in 2009 and thereafter was detected at low level in each year of the study. GII.Pg norovirus outbreaks occurred in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings and could be found in individuals with a broad range of ages. The seasonality of GII.Pg norovirus outbreaks was significantly different from that of all other (non-GII.Pg) norovirus outbreaks. For the 15 GII.Pg norovirus outbreaks where ORF 2 sequencing data were available, two ORF 2 recombinant genotypes were found: GII.1 in 5 (33%) outbreaks and GII.12 in 10 (67%) outbreaks. The ORF 1 phylogenetic tree shows that the GII.Pg ORF 1 genotype fell into two distinct groups. The ORF 2 phylogenetic tree indicates that the GII.1 and GII.12 clusters each corresponded to one of the groups in the ORF 1 tree. This indicates the two recombinant forms were evolving in parallel and not one from the other. Analysis of age data indicates the GII.1 and GII.12 recombinant forms circulated in different ways in the community. J. Med. Virol. 88:1521-1528, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946515

  20. Epidemiological evaluation of sporadic cases of Norovirus infection in comunitary and hospitalized patients

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    Sara Giordana Rimoldi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillace of viral gastoenteritis infections is very poor in Italy, even if starting from 2004 Norovirus became one of the most causative agent of infections in all the seasons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the isolation of Norovirus both in hospitalizes patients and communitary patients. From October 2006 to March 2008 we examined 400 samples. Our results showed only 15 sporadic cases in pediatric, HIV comunitary patients. These cases were analyzed by using an ELISA screening (Biopharm and the results were confirmed with real time PCT (Argene.

  1. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya.

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    Kayoko Shioda

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries.Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR.Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25% and 159 (30% were positive for norovirus, 13 (4% and 31 (6% for sapovirus, and 28 (8% and 18 (3% for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87% in Lwak and 140 (88% in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116, followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440 and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879. For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera compared to cases aged ≥5 years.Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8-3.3 million, 0.45-0.54 million, and 0.77-0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in Kenya.

  2. Detection of human norovirus from frozen raspberries in a cluster of gastroenteritis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunula, L; Roivainen, M; Keränen, M; Mäkela, S; Söderberg, K; Summa, M; von Bonsdorff, C H; Lappalainen, M; Korhonen, T; Kuusi, M; Niskanen, T

    2009-01-01

    We describe a cluster of norovirus outbreaks affecting about 200 people in Southern Finland in September and October 2009. All outbreaks occurred after consumption of imported raspberries from the same batch intended for the catering sector. Human norovirus genotype GI.4 was found in frozen raspberries. The berries were served in toppings of cakes in separate catering settings or mixed in curd cheese as a snack for children in a daycare center. The relative risk for consumption of the berry dish was 3.0 (p frozen raspberries was the source of all outbreaks. PMID:20003905

  3. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  4. Occurrence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus in shellfish

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    VALENTINA TERIO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV and hepatitis A virus (HAV are a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of NoV infections worldwide are due to geno group II NoVs. The predominant HAV strains belong to sub-genotype IB. A total of 369 bivalve molluscs (294 mussels, 42 clams and 33 oysters from several retail points and harvesting class-A areas of the Adriatic basin in South Italy, North Italy and Albania (Butrinti Lagoon were sampled between 2008-2013. All the samples were screened by a hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for NoV geno group II and by a nested RT-PCR for the VP1/2A region of HAV. NoV RNA was detected in 10,5% of samples and ranged from 3% in 2008 to 85% in 2013. HAV RNA was detected in 32,5% of samples and ranged from 90% in 2008 to 3,1% in 2013. The marked decrease in HAV prevalence may be the related to the vaccine-induced immunity, able to interrupt the ecological cycle of HAV. Monitoring the epidemiology of the virus strains circulating in the fieldis pivotal to develop and assess the efficacy of new control strategies to reduce the risks for public health.

  5. Development and maturation of norovirus antibodies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Honkanen, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki; Vesikari, Timo

    2016-04-01

    The burden of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis is substantial in young children. Maternal antibodies are thought to protect a child from NoV infection in early infancy but subsequent development of NoV-specific protective immunity in children is still largely unexplored. We have determined NoV-specific antibody seroconversion to GII.4 virus-like particles as an indicator of NoV infection in two children prospectively followed from birth to eight years of age. Blocking activity and affinity maturation of maternal and serum IgG antibodies were evaluated. Our results show that multiple infections occur in children up to eight years of age. The titer, blocking activity and avidity of maternal antibodies determined susceptibility of an infant to NoV infection. NoV GII.4-specific antibodies with high blocking potential and avidity were developed at two to three years of age and were retained throughout the follow-up. Subsequent NoV infections may have contributed to the duration of protective NoV-specific immune responses that lasted for several years. This study adds to current understanding of the duration of passive protection by maternal antibodies and the duration and quality of acquired immunity following primary and subsequent NoV infections in infants and young children, who are the main target group for NoV vaccine development. PMID:26724451

  6. The Prevalence of Norovirus in returning international travelers with diarrhea

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    Löscher Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high incidence of diarrhea in traveling populations. Norovirus (NV infection is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with 7% of all diarrhea related deaths in the US. However, data on the overall prevalence of NV infection in traveling populations is limited. Furthermore, the prevalence of NV amongst travelers returning to Europe has not been reported. This study determined the prevalence of NV among international travelers returning to Germany from over 50 destinations in and outside Europe. Methods Stool samples of a total of 104 patients with a recent ( Results In our cohort, NV infection was detected in 15.7% of returning travelers with diarrhea. The closer to the date of return symptoms appeared, the higher the incidence of NV, ranging as high as 21.2% within the first four days after return. Conclusions In our cohort, NV infection was shown to be frequent among returning travelers especially in those with diarrhea, with over 1/5 of diarrhea patients tested positive for NV within the first four days after their return to Germany. Due to this prevalence, routine testing for NV infection and hygienic precautions may be warranted in this group. This is especially applicable to patients at an increased risk of spreading the disease, such as healthcare workers, teachers or food-handlers.

  7. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

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    Shen Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the other was coinfected with porcine circovirus and PoNoV. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed that the PoNoV positive alone strain was a recombinant new genotype strain. Experimental infection of miniature pigs with fecal suspensions confirmed that this strain can cause gastroenteritis in piglets. Conclusion This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV.

  8. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  9. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and quantification of GI, GII and GIV noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Tibor; Singh, Amy; Le Guyader, Françoise S; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Saif, Linda; McNeal, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis and are classified into six genogroups with GI, GII and GIV containing human pathogens. This high genetic diversity represents a significant challenge for diagnostic assay development. Genogroup specific monoplex and multiplex real time RT-PCR assays are widely used for the detection of GI and GII noroviruses. On the other hand, GIV norovirus detection is not part of routine laboratory diagnosis. This study describes the development and evaluation of a one tube, real time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of GI, GII and GIV noroviruses, including both GIV.1 (human) and GIV.2 (animal) strains. Assay performance was evaluated on a panel of norovirus positive clinical samples by comparison of monoplex and multiplex standard curves and Ct values. The multiplex assay demonstrated equal sensitivity and specificity to the monoplex assays and was able to detect all GI, GII and GIV noroviruses with Ct values equal to that of the monoplex assays. The multiplex assay described in this study will be instrumental for the better understanding of GIV norovirus epidemiology, including their possible zoonotic nature. PMID:26248055

  10. Identification of environmental determinants for spatio-temporal patterns of norovirus outbreaks in Korea using a geographic information system and binary response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Dong Hoon; Joo, Yongsung; Zoh, Kyung Duk; Ko, Gwangpyo; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-11-01

    Although norovirus outbreaks are well-recognized to have strong winter seasonality relevant to low temperature and humidity, the role of artificial human-made features within geographical areas in norovirus outbreaks has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to assess the natural and human-made environmental factors favoring the occurrence of norovirus outbreaks using nationwide surveillance data. We used a geographic information system and binary response models to examine whether the norovirus outbreaks are spatially patterned and whether these patterns are associated with specific environmental variables including service levels of water supply and sanitation systems and land-use types. The results showed that small-scale low-tech local sewage treatment plants and winter sports areas were statistically significant factors favoring norovirus outbreaks. Compactness of the land development also affected the occurrence of norovirus outbreaks; transportation, water, and forest land-uses were less favored for effective transmission of norovirus, while commercial areas were associated with an increased rate of norovirus outbreaks. We observed associations of norovirus outbreaks with various outcomes of human activities, including discharge of poorly treated sewage, overcrowding of people during winter season, and compactness of land development, which might help prioritize target regions and strategies for the management of norovirus outbreaks. PMID:27343948

  11. Structure-Guided Design and Optimization of Dipeptidyl Inhibitors of Norovirus 3CL Protease. Structure-Activity Relationships and Biochemical, X-ray Crystallographic, Cell-Based, and In Vivo Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankanamalage, Anushka C.Galasiti; Kim, Yunjeong; Weerawarna, Pathum M.; Uy, Roxanne Adeline Z.; Damalanka, Vishnu C.; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Alliston, Kevin R.; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Groutas, William C. (Wichita); (Kansas); (KSU)

    2015-04-09

    Norovirus infection constitutes the primary cause of acute viral gastroenteritis. There are currently no vaccines or norovirus-specific antiviral therapeutics available for the management of norovirus infection. Norovirus 3C-like protease is essential for viral replication, consequently, inhibition of this enzyme is a fruitful avenue of investigation that may lead to the emergence of antinorovirus therapeutics. We describe herein the optimization of dipeptidyl inhibitors of norovirus 3C-like protease using iterative SAR, X-ray crystallographic, and enzyme and cell-based studies. We also demonstrate herein in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor using the murine model of norovirus infection.

  12. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.Objective. To evaluate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents against 47 group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS strains, and to determine the presence of genes encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA and the M--protein serotypes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana, during a scarlet fever outbreak occurring between December 1999 and January 2000, among 137 children at Colegio Espíritu de América. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs were obtained by the semiautomated microdilution method. Automated DNA sequencing was used for analysis of sequence variation in genes encoding the M protein, and SpeA. Results. All strains were sensitive to

  13. Norovirus outbreak associated with a hotel in the west of Ireland, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A; Fitzgerald, R; Whyte, D; Fitzgerald, A; Beggan, E; O'Connell, N; Greally, T

    2007-07-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal disease (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea) occurred among a party of wedding guests, staff and other guests in a hotel in the west of Ireland, in October 2006. Upon notification, a multi-disciplinary outbreak control team was convened to investigate and control the outbreak. In all, 98 people were ascertained ill. The median duration of illness was 48 hours. The attack rate ranged between 48 and 85%. The hotel voluntarily notified health authorities and co-operated fully with investigation and control measures. Strict prevention and control measures were instituted promptly, including air ventilation, enhanced hand hygiene, isolation of cases, temporary "cooked food only", temporary alternative accommodation and specialised cleaning. Three cases of norovirus infection were laboratory-confirmed. There was no evidence of food- or water-borne transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings indicated person-to-person transmission of norovirus. This report highlights the potential for large social gatherings to facilitate the spread of viral gastroenteritis by person-to-person transmission and via contaminated environment. Effective community management of this outbreak appears to have prevented its having an impact on local acute hospital services. The authors conclude that in addition to the existing national guidelines on the management of outbreaks of norovirus in healthcare settings, agreed guidelines for the management of norovirus outbreaks in the hotel and tourism industry are needed in Ireland. PMID:17991406

  14. Rapid detection of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus in hemocytes of contaminated oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human enteric pathogens, hepatitis A virus and human norovirus, have been shown to contaminate molluscan shellfish and cause foodborne disease in consumers. Rapid viral extraction methods are needed to replace current time consuming methods, which use whole oysters or dissected tissues. In our ...

  15. A gnotobiotic pig model for determining human norovirus inactivation by high-pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for over 90 percent of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and accounts for 60 percent of foodborne illness in the US. Currently, the infectivity of human NoVs is poorly understood due to the lack of a cell culture system. In this study, w...

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Southwest Germany from 2001 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Anthony C.; Brockmann, Stefan O.; Hartelt, Kathrin; Marschang, Rachel E.; Contzen, Matthias; Oehme, Rainer M.

    2006-01-01

    The identification and molecular epidemiology of norovirus in outbreaks of gastroenteritis were studied during a 3-year period in Germany. Specimens (n = 316) from 159 nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks from March 2001 to June 2004 were analyzed for the presence of noroviruses by reverse transcriptase PCR. Outbreaks were most frequent in elderly people's homes and care centers (43%), followed by hospitals (24%). Molecular analyses of strains from 148 outbreaks showed that there were up to 12 genotypes involved in the outbreaks. Genogroup II noroviruses were responsible for 95% of the outbreaks. Cocirculation of more than one strain in the same outbreak and cocirculation of genogroup I and II strains in the same place were observed. Genogroup II4 (Grimsby-like) was the most prevalent strain, accounting for 48% and 67% of the outbreaks in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The genogroup IIb (Castell/Suria) genotype was observed in all the years of the study. Epidemiological and molecular data indicated that there was a major shift of the predominant strain that coincided with the appearance of a new variant of genogroup II4 in 2002. By the application of reverse transcriptase PCR, this study has demonstrated the importance and dynamism of noroviruses in Germany. PMID:16597849

  17. Inactivation of human norovirus in contaminated oysters and clams by high-hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the most frequent causative agent of foodborne disease associated with shellfish consumption. In this study, the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of NoV was determined. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) NoV were inoculated into oyster ho...

  18. Efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants at inactivating murine norovirus on ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Maryline; Mattison, Kirsten; Fliss, Ismail; Jean, Julie

    2016-02-16

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness, and ready-to-eat foods are frequent vehicles of their transmission. Studies of the disinfection of fruits and vegetables are becoming numerous. It has been shown that strong oxidizing agents are more effective than other chemical disinfectants for inactivating enteric viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, chloride dioxide and peracetic acid) at inactivating noroviruses on fruits and vegetables, using a norovirus surrogate, namely murine norovirus 3, which replicates in cell culture. Based on plaque assay, solutions of peracetic acid (85 ppm) and chlorine dioxide (20 ppm) reduced the infectivity of the virus in suspension by at least 3 log10 units after 1 min, while sodium hypochlorite at 50 ppm produced a 2-log reduction. On the surface of blueberries, strawberries and lettuce, chlorine dioxide was less effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite, which reduced viral titers by approximately 4 logs. A surprising increase in the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite on surfaces fouled with artificial feces was noted. PMID:26686597

  19. Seasonal Tracking of Histo-blood Group Antigen Expression and Norovirus Binding in Oyster Gastrointestinal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and the illnesses are sometimes described as “highly seasonal syndrome” or "winter vomiting disease”. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters or other bivalves and generally occur betw...

  20. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  1. A norovirus GII.P21 outbreak in a boarding school, Austria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ching Lin

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The kebab prepared by norovirus-positive restaurant workers was the most likely source of the outbreak. It is recommended that food handlers comply strictly with hand hygiene and avoid bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food to minimize the risk of food-borne infection.

  2. Detection, quantification and genotyping of noroviruses in oysters implicated in disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefeli, Deborah; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Böttiger, Blenda;

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Transmission of NoV is commonly linked to the consumption of oysters as they accumulate viruses through filter feeding in faecal-contaminated water. The NoV genogroups (G)I, GII and GIV infect humans...

  3. Norovirus epidemiology in community and health care settings and association with patient age, denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T; Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K;

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general...

  4. Unrecognized norovirus infections in health care institutions and their clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); F.H.A. Sukhrie (Faizel); J. Bogerman (Jolanda); L. Verhoef; M.M. de Melo (Mariana ); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNoroviruses (NoVs) have emerged as the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis (GE) in humans. Although diagnostic facilities have greatly improved, significant underdiagnosis of NoV in hospitals may still occur, thereby increasing clinical burden and nosocomial spread. We evaluated

  5. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  6. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  7. A norovirus oyster-related outbreak in a nursing home in France, January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loury, P; Le Guyader, F S; Le Saux, J C; Ambert-Balay, K; Parrot, P; Hubert, B

    2015-09-01

    The presence of norovirus in shellfish is a public health concern in Europe. Here, we report the results of an investigation into a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak following a festive lunch which affected 84 (57%) residents and staff members of a nursing home in January 2012 in France. Individuals who had eaten oysters had a significantly higher risk of developing symptoms in the following 2·5 days than those who had not, the risk increasing with the amount eaten [relative risk 2·2 (1·0-4·6) and 3·3 (1·6-6·6) for 3-4 and 5-12 oysters, respectively]. In healthy individuals during those days, 29 (32%) subsequently became ill, most of whom were staff members performing activities in close contact with residents. Genogroup II noroviruses were detected in faecal samples, in a sample of uneaten oysters and in oysters from the production area. Identifying a norovirus's infectious dose may facilitate the health-related management of contaminated shellfish. PMID:25567093

  8. Use of Low-Density DNA Microarrays and Photopolymerization for Genotyping Foodborne-Associated Noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjunct...

  9. Inactivation conditions for human Norovirus measured by an in situ capture-qRT-PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoVs, it has been a challenge to determine their infectivity. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used in detecting HuNoVs. However, qRT-PCR only detects the...

  10. Evaluación morfológica de brotes regenerados de callos de arroz (variedad IACuba-28 resistentes a higromicina Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Díaz Carlos Alberto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un sistema de evaluación de brotes de arroz regenerados de callos resistentes a higromicina, que permitió relacionar las características morfológicas de dichos brotes con su resistencia al antibiótico. Callos embriogénicos de arroz se transformaron con Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, con el gen de la higromicina-fosfotransferasa como marcador de selección. Después de dos semanas en medio de cultivo con higromicina, los callos resistentes fueron transferidos a regeneración. Durante 30 días se realizaron extracciones sucesivas de brotes emitidos de los callos, en seis intervalos de cinco días cada uno. Estos brotes se clasificaron según su morfología en: clase I – brote vigoroso con una estructura bipolar típica, de ápice y raíz con longitudes proporcionales; clase II – brote con raíz pequeña respecto al ápice, o sin raíz; clase III – brote con alteraciones fenotípicas, albinismo, hojas muy anchas o enrolladas. Los brotes clasificados se transfirieron a medio MS con higromicina para evaluar su viabilidad. Los de clase I, que predominaron en las primeras extracciones, presentaron la mayor viabilidad durante el enraizamiento y crecimiento del follaje. En las últimas dos extracciones ocurrió una drástica reducción de los brotes clase I, y aumentaron los de clases II y III, simultáneamente disminuyó la viabilidad de estos últimos en MS con higromicina. Este resultado puede aplicarse para mejorar la eficiencia de obtención de plantas transgénicas de arroz en estas condiciones, debido a que precisa el momento óptimo para lograr brotes con características morfológicas normales y que sean resistentes a higromicina.An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  11. Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: cytokines and viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K L; Moe, C L; Kirby, A E; Flanders, W D; Parkos, C A; Leon, J S

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis world-wide. NoV infections are often asymptomatic, although individuals still shed large amounts of NoV in their stool. Understanding the differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals would help in elucidating mechanisms of NoV pathogenesis. Our goal was to compare the serum cytokine responses and faecal viral RNA titres of asymptomatic and symptomatic NoV-infected individuals. We tested serum samples from infected subjects (n = 26; 19 symptomatic, seven asymptomatic) from two human challenge studies of GI.1 NoV for 16 cytokines. Samples from prechallenge and days 1-4 post-challenge were tested for these cytokines. Cytokine levels were compared to stool NoV RNA titres quantified previously by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). While both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups had similar patterns of cytokine responses, the symptomatic group generally exhibited a greater elevation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines and IL-8 post-challenge compared to the asymptomatic group (all P viral RNA titre was associated positively with daily IL-6 concentration and negatively with daily IL-12p40 concentration (all P viral RNA titre, duration of viral shedding or cumulative shedding. Symptomatic individuals, compared to asymptomatic, have greater immune system activation, as measured by serum cytokines, but they do not have greater viral burden, as measured by titre and shedding, suggesting that symptoms may be immune-mediated in NoV infection. PMID:26822517

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human noroviruses and sapoviruses in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Njahira, Moses N; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, very limited studies have been done on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic viruses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) from acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n = 213) in five different health centers in Addis Ababa during June-September 2013. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the sequences of the PCR products. Of the clinical samples, 25.3 % and 4.2 % were positive for NoV and SaV RNA, respectively. Among the norovirus positives, 22 were sequenced further, and diverse norovirus strains were identified: GI (n = 4), GII (n = 17) and GIV (n = 1). Most strains were GII (n = 17/22: 77.2 %), which were further divided into three different genotypes (GII.4, GII.12/GII.g recombinant-like and GII.17), with GII.17 being the dominant (7/17) strain detected. GI noroviruses, in particular GI.4 (n = 1), GI.5 (n = 2) and GI.8 (n = 1), were also detected and characterized. The GIV strain detected is the first from East Africa. The sapoviruses sequenced were also the first reported from Ethiopia. Collectively, this study showed the high burden and diversity of noroviruses and circulation of sapoviruses in diarrheic patients in Ethiopia. Continued surveillance to assess their association with diarrhea is needed to define their epidemiology, disease burden, and impact on public health. PMID:27193022

  13. Intoxicación alimentaria por clostridium perfringens en el centro penitenciario cocori, cartago, costa rica, del 4 al 5 de septiembre del 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, A.; H Arguedas; Asenjo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Introducción El 5 de setiembre del 2002 el Centro Penitenciario Cocorí en Cartago, notificó al Sistema de Vigilancia del Ministerio de Salud, la presencia de 133 casos de diarrea. Ante esta situación, las autoridades de salud plantearon la investigación, para identificar los factores asociados a la presencia del brote. Material y métodos Mediante la revisión de los expedientes de los casos atendidos por diarrea en el Centro Penitenciario, se identificaron los que cumplieran con la siguiente d...

  14. The Application of New Molecular Methods in the Investigation of a Waterborne Outbreak of Norovirus in Denmark, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Alphen, Lieke B.; Dorleans, Frederique; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Fonager, Jannik; Ethelberg, Steen; Dalgaard, Camilla; Adelhardt, Marianne; Engberg, Jørgen; Kølsen Fischer, Thea

    2014-01-01

    .6–22) and a dose-response relation for the mean glasses of tap-water consumed was observed. Environmental investigations suggested contamination from a sewage pipe to the drinking water due to fall in pressure during water supply system renovations. The combined microbiological, epidemiological and...... order to control the outbreak. Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans 2009 variant was detected in 15 of 17 individual stool samples from 14 households. Norovirus genomic material from water samples was detected and quantified and sequencing of longer parts of the viral capsid region (>1000 nt) were applied to...... patient and water samples. All five purposely selected water samples tested positive for norovirus GII in levels up to 1.8×104 genomic units per 200 ml. Identical norovirus sequences were found in all 5 sequenced stool samples and 1 sequenced water sample, a second sequenced water sample showed 1 nt (<0...

  15. Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Version 1.1 - Enteroviruses and noroviruses that may be present in environmental or finished drinking waters are concentrated by passage through electropositive filters. Viruses are eluted from the filters with a beef extract reagent and concentrated using organic flocculation....

  16. Characterisation of a GII-4 norovirus variant-specific surface-exposed site involved in antibody binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Jim J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human noroviruses are a highly diverse group of viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome encoding a single major structural protein (VP1, which has a hypervariable domain (P2 domain as the most exposed part of the virion. The noroviruses are classified on the basis of nucleotide sequence diversity in the VP1-encoding ORF2 gene, which divides the majority of human noroviruses into two genogroups (GI and GII. GII-4 noroviruses are the major aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world. During a winter season the diversity among the GII-4 noroviruses has been shown to fluctuate, driving the appearance of new virus variants in the population. We have previously shown that sequence data and in silico modelling experiments suggest there are two surface-exposed sites (site A and site B in the hypervariable P2 domain. We predict these sites may form a functional variant-specific epitope that evolves under selective pressure from the host immune response and gives rise to antibody escape mutants. Results In this paper, we describe the construction of recombinant baculoviruses to express VLPs representing one pre-epidemic and one epidemic variant of GII-4 noroviruses, and the production of monoclonal antibodies against them. We use these novel reagents to provide evidence that site A and site B form a conformational, variant-specific, surface-exposed site on the GII-4 norovirus capsid that is involved in antibody binding. Conclusion As predicted by our earlier study, significant amino acid changes at site A and site B give rise to GII-4 norovirus epidemic variants that are antibody escape mutants.

  17. Food-borne norovirus-outbreak at a military base, Germany, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehne Marina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission through an analytical epidemiological study. During 7-9 January, 2009, 36 persons at a military base in Germany fell ill with acute gastroenteritis. Food from the military base's canteen was suspected as vehicle of infection, norovirus as the pathogen causing the illnesses. An investigation was initiated to describe the outbreak's extent, to verify the pathogen, and to identify modes of transmission and source of infection to prevent further cases. Methods For descriptive analysis, ill persons were defined as members of the military base with acute onset of diarrhoea or vomiting between 24 December 2008, and 3 February 2009, without detection of a pathogen other than norovirus in stools. We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the headquarters company. Cases were military base members with onset of diarrhoea or vomiting during 5-9 January. We collected information on demographics, food items eaten at the canteen and contact to ill persons or vomit, using a self-administered questionnaire. We compared attack rates (AR in exposed and unexposed persons, using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Stool specimens of ill persons and canteen employees, canteen food served during 5-7 January and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. Results Overall, 101/815 (AR 12.4% persons fell ill between 24 December 2008 and 3 February 2009. None were canteen employees. Most persons (n = 49 had disease onset during 7-9 January. Ill persons were a median of 22 years old, 92.9% were male. The response for the cohort study was 178/274 (72.1%. Of 27 cases (AR 15.2%, 25 had eaten at the canteen and 21 had consumed salad. Salad consumption on 6 January (aOR: 8.1; 95%CI: 1.5-45.4 and 7

  18. Evaluación de la definición de caso probable de dengue clásico durante el brote de dengue en Lima, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juárez S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de la definición de caso probable de dengue clásico (DCPDC para la identificación de casos definitivos, durante el brote en el distrito de Comas, abril - mayo 2005. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico, no controlado de corte transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes procedentes de Comas que en el periodo de estudio presentaron sospecha de dengue y con resultados de aislamiento viral o ELISA IgM, según el tiempo de enfermedad (4 ó e5 días respectivamente realizados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se determinó la sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y negativo (VPN de la DCPDC y de los síntomas que la conforman, tomando como prueba de oro al aislamiento viral o ELISA IgM. Resultados:Se incluyeron 316 pacientes, de los cuales se confirmaron 137 (43,4% casos de dengue. Se detectaron 60 pacientes mediante aislamiento viral, la DCPDC en pacientes con cuatro o menos días de enfermedad presentó una S=85%, E=13,40%, VPP=13,18%, VPN= 74,29%. Se detectaron 77 pacientes con cinco o más días de enfermedad con IgM ELISA, la DCPDC en este grupo presentó S= 68,42, E= 16,28, VPP= 68,42, VPN= 46,67. Conclusiones: La DCPDC aplicada en el brote de dengue en Comas, al igual que los síntomas individuales que la conforman es sensible, pero poco específico.

  19. El complejo de parasitoides de la polilla del brote del pino en Chile: pasado, presente y posible escenario futuro The parasitoid complex of the pine shoot moth: past, present and probable future scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Ramos Sanz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El control biológico clásico o la introducción y liberación de biocontroladores exóticos es una de las técnicas más utilizadas en la actualidad para reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga introducidas. En Chile, el uso de esta técnica fue una decisión pionera para controlar la polilla del brote del pino, Rhyacionia buoliana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, que supuso la ejecución de medidas de manejo forestal y la generación de investigación que permitió implementar planes de acción. A veinte años de la introducción de Orgilus obscurator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae como parasitoide principal de esta plaga, el escenario es más complejo de lo esperado, con la aparición de nuevos parasitoides nativos e hiperparasitoides introducidos. En este trabajo se analiza la evolución que el control biológico de R. buoliana ha tenido en Chile desde el momento de su detección en 1985, el comienzo del control biológico ejercido por O. obscurator, y el presente y posible futuro de dicho control.The classical biological control, or the introduction and release of different exotic biocontrol agents to control introduced insect pests, is one of the most currently used methods for decreasing insect pest populations. In Chile the use of these methods for “the European pine shoot moth”, Rhyacionia buoliana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, was a pioneer decision that supposed the accomplishment of forest management and the implementation of research that permitted the generation of action plans. Today, twenty years after the introduction of Orgilus obscurator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae as the main parasitoid for control of this pest, the current situation is more complex than expected, with the presence of other native parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. In this work the evolution of the pine shoot moth control in Chile since the detection of the pest in 1985, the beginning of the biological control exerted by O. obscurator, and the present and probable future

  20. Engineering bacterial surface displayed human norovirus capsid proteins: A novel system to explore interaction between norovirus and ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengya eNiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2 and the protruding domain (P domain encoding gene (3’ terminal fragment of ORF2 of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5’ terminal fragment of ice nucleation protein encoding gene (inaQn. The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an

  1. Norovirus outbreak at a wildland fire base camp ignites investigation of restaurant inspection policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Carla L; Guzzle, Patrick L; Hahn, Christine G; Carter, Kris K

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus outbreaks occur worldwide and have been associated with congregate settings (e.g., military and recreational camps). Investigation of a norovirus outbreak at a wildland fire base camp identified 49 (27%) illnesses among approximately 180 responders. Epidemiologic evidence implicated a restaurant as the infection source. Eight (89%) of nine wildland fire responder groups who ate at the restaurant had ill members; no groups who ate elsewhere reported ill members. An environmental health specialist restaurant inspection identified lack of managerial knowledge to protect against foodborne disease one year after the restaurant's opening; earlier inspection after opening might have led to earlier intervention. States were surveyed to determine existence of any policy or rule for food establishment inspection after opening and inspection timing. Among 18 states, five had no state rule or policy; nine had a policy in place; and four required postopening inspection by rule. Further research is needed to evaluate post-opening inspection efficacy and timing. PMID:25185322

  2. Geographical and temporal variation of E. coli and norovirus in mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbia, S; Lyons, B P; Lee, R J

    2016-06-15

    Bivalve shellfish may accumulate contaminants of public health concern including pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Microbiological monitoring of production areas is based on faecal coliforms in water in the USA and Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs in the European Union. E. coli is known to reflect contamination with Salmonella enterica but not necessarily with other human pathogens such as enteric viruses. A structured field study was undertaken at three locations in order to investigate the geographical and temporal variability of E. coli and norovirus (NoV). Total norovirus concentration differed significantly by both sampling site and sampling date. A significant correlation was found between total NoV concentration and E. coli concentration by sample, but not with E. coli in seawater. The results have implications for the establishment of sampling plans for NoV in harvesting areas and potentially also for the approach taken to classification based on faecal indicator bacteria. PMID:27114089

  3. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit;

    2012-01-01

    treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts...... time (0 to 3 s) resulted in negligible reductions of viral genome titers of MS2, FCV, and MNV on plastic surfaces as well as of MS2 inoculated on raspberries. Steam-ultrasound treatment in its current format does not appear to be an appropriate method to achieve sufficient decontamination of No......Human disease outbreaks caused by norovirus (NoV) following consumption of contaminated raspberries are an increasing problem. An efficient method to decontaminate the fragile raspberries and the equipment used for processing would be an important step in ensuring food safety. A potential surface...

  4. Inactivation Kinetics and Mechanism of a Human Norovirus Surrogate on Stainless Steel Coupons via Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Jia Wei; Kaur, Simran; Lou, Fangfei; DiCaprio, Erin; Morgan, Mark; Linton, Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis caused by human norovirus is a significant public health issue. Fresh produce and seafood are examples of high-risk foods associated with norovirus outbreaks. Food contact surfaces also have the potential to harbor noroviruses if exposed to fecal contamination, aerosolized vomitus, or infected food handlers. Currently, there is no effective measure to decontaminate norovirus on food contact surfaces. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is a strong oxidizer and is used as a decontaminating agent in food processing plants. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and mechanism of ClO2 gas inactivation of a norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), on stainless steel (SS) coupons. MNV-1 was inoculated on SS coupons at the concentration of 10(7) PFU/coupon. The samples were treated with ClO2 gas at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 4 mg/liter for up to 5 min at 25°C and a relative humidity of 85%, and virus survival was determined by plaque assay. Treatment of the SS coupons with ClO2 gas at 2 mg/liter for 5 min and 2.5 mg/liter for 2 min resulted in at least a 3-log reduction in MNV-1, while no infectious virus was recovered at a concentration of 4 mg/liter even within 1 min of treatment. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanism of ClO2 gas inactivation included degradation of viral protein, disruption of viral structure, and degradation of viral genomic RNA. In conclusion, treatment with ClO2 gas can serve as an effective method to inactivate a human norovirus surrogate on SS contact surfaces. PMID:26475110

  5. Noroviruses in children seen in a hospital for acute gastroenteritis in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Sirpa; Lappalainen, Suvi; Salminen, Marjo; Huhti, Leena; Vesikari, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are second only to rotaviruses (RVs) as causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. The proportional role of NoVs is likely to increase after control of RV by vaccination. We investigated NoVs in children seen in Tampere University Hospital either treated as outpatients or hospitalized because of AGE before universal RV vaccination was implemented in Finland. This prospective study was conducted from September 2006 to August 2008. A total of 1,128 children

  6. Resilience of norovirus GII.4 to freezing and thawing:implications for virus infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genogroup II.4 norovirus (NoV) remains the predominant NoV strain in food- and water-borne outbreaks. Capsid integrity as well as viral RNA persistence were determined for GII.4 NoV by real-time RT-PCR after 1-14 freeze/thaw (F/T) cycles (-80 deg C/+22 deg C) or after -80 deg C storage for up to 12...

  7. Risk Factors for Norovirus, Sapporo-like Virus, and Group A Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Matty AS; Koopmans, Marion PG; van Duynhoven, Yvonne THP

    2003-01-01

    Viral pathogens are the most common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. To identify modes of transmission and opportunities for prevention, a case-control study was conducted and risk factors for gastroenteritis attributable to norovirus (NV), Sapporo-like virus (SLV), and rotavirus were studied. For NV gastroenteritis, having a household member with gastroenteritis, contact with a person with gastroenteritis outside the household, and poor food-handling hygiene were associated with i...

  8. Viral Gastroenteritis Associated with Genogroup II Norovirus among U.S. Military Personnel in Turkey, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salwa F.; John D. Klena; Manal Mostafa; Jessica Dogantemur; Tracy Middleton; James Hanson; Sebeny, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV) is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients...

  9. TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF NOROVIRUSES, EMERGING HUMAN PATHOGENS IN FOOD “NORISK”

    OpenAIRE

    Mathijs, E.; Stals, A; Denayer, S; Baert, L.; Bottledoorn, N; Vancoillie, E; Daube, Georges; Dierick, K; Herman, Lieve; Thiry, Etienne; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    A. Context Noroviruses are pathogens causing gastroenteritis and infections result in typical symptoms such as abdominal cramps, fever, watery diarrhea and other symptoms such as headaches, chills and general myalgias, which usually last for 2 to 3 days. The illness is self-limiting in most cases. The NV genus contains 5 genogroups whereby genogroup I and II (GI and GII) comprise most of the human infective NV genotypes. Bovine and murine NV are classified respectively in genogroup III (GI...

  10. Recombinant norovirus-specific scFv inhibit virus-like particle binding to cellular ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Michele E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses cause epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in all age-groups. The rapid onset and ease of person-to-person transmission suggest that inhibitors of the initial steps of virus binding to susceptible cells have value in limiting spread and outbreak persistence. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb 54.6 that blocks binding of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibits VLP-mediated hemagglutination. In this study, we engineered the antigen binding domains of mAb 54.6 into a single chain variable fragment (scFv and tested whether these scFv could function as cell binding inhibitors, similar to the parent mAb. Results The scFv54.6 construct was engineered to encode the light (VL and heavy (VH variable domains of mAb 54.6 separated by a flexible peptide linker, and this recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified scFv54.6 recognized native VLPs by immunoblot, inhibited VLP-mediated hemagglutination, and blocked VLP binding to H carbohydrate antigen expressed on the surface of a CHO cell line stably transfected to express α 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Conclusion scFv54.6 retained the functional properties of the parent mAb with respect to inhibiting norovirus particle interactions with cells. With further engineering into a form deliverable to the gut mucosa, norovirus neutralizing antibodies represent a prophylactic strategy that would be valuable in outbreak settings.

  11. Epidemiological and virological investigation of a Norovirus outbreak in a resort in Puglia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Coscia Maria; Santantonio Marilina; Di Bartolo Ilaria; Rizzo Caterina; Monno Rosa; De Vito Danila; Ruggeri Franco; Rizzo Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes the third large outbreak of Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis reported in the Southern Italy region of Puglia. Methods A matched case control study was conducted, on 19 July 2005, for investigating risk factors, using a structured questionnaire on food consumption. A multivariate analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted Odds Ratios. Laboratory and environmental investigation were also performed. Results On the day of the study 41 cases were identi...

  12. The Norovirus epidemic…or just a stone? Revising the diagnosis with an abdominal radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    K Wagner, Siegfried; Remoundos, Dionysios D; Abdulla, Muaad

    2013-01-01

    During an acute outbreak of Norovirus in the local area, a 77-year-old woman was admitted with a short history of diarrhoea and vomiting. A working diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis complicated by acute renal failure, secondary to dehydration, was made. Despite judicious fluid resuscitation and regular antiemetics, the patient's symptoms persisted with only mild improvement in her renal function. An abdominal radiograph revealed evidence of significant small bowel obstruction and subsequent ...

  13. Virucidal Effect of Cold Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma on Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; Williams, Paul; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M.; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A. A.; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal food-processing methods are not effective against foodborne viruses, such as human norovirus (NV). It is important, therefore, to explore novel nonthermal technologies for decontamination of foods eaten fresh, minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods, and food contact surfaces. We studied the in vitro virucidal activity of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma (CGP) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of NV. Factors affecting the virucidal activity of CGP (a so-called radio freq...

  14. por valores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

  15. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  16. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

  17. Detection and molecular characterization of norovirus from oysters implicated in outbreaks in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jacquelina W; Calci, Kevin R; Marchant-Tambone, Joey G; Burkhardt, William

    2016-10-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of non-bacterial shellfish associated gastroenteritis. Here we report on the detection and characterization of norovirus (NoV) in shellfish associated outbreaks. Requests were received from state and federal officials for technical assistance in the analysis of shellfish for NoV and male specific coliphage (MSC; an enteric virus surrogate) during the years 2009 thru 2014. In outbreaks where NoV was detected, genogroup II (GII) levels ranged from 2.4 to 82.0 RT-qPCR U/g of digestive diverticula (DD) while NoV genogroup I (GI) levels ranged from 1.5 to 29.8 RT-qPCR U/g of DD. Murine norovirus extraction efficiencies ranged between 50 and 85%. MSC levels ranged from analysis of the outbreak sequences revealed strains clustering with GI.8, GI.4, GII.3, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.21. There was 100% homology between the shellfish and clinical strains occurring in 2 of 8 outbreaks. Known shellfish consumption data demonstrated probable infectious particles ingested as low as 12. These investigations demonstrate effective detection, quantification, and characterization of NoV in shellfish associated with illness. PMID:27375246

  18. The efficacy of X-ray does on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi, and tuna salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation, we determined the efficacy of X-ray doses on reducing a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate [murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1)] in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad. The pure culture (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4), half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna ...

  19. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. The viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates is extracted and tested for enterovirus and norovirus RNA using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). V...

  20. Descripción de un brote de dermatofitosis en bovinos en el trópico mexicano - Report of a dermatophytosis outbreak in cattle in the mexican tropic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge, García Márquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este informe se describen los hallazgos clínicos y patológicos de un brote de dermatofitosis en bovinos (Suizo/Cebú en la zona tropical de Tomatlán, Jalisco, México.AbstractThis report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a dermatophytosis outbreak in bovines (Swizz/Zebu in the tropical zone of Tomatlan, Jalisco, Mexico.

  1. Validation of a norovirus multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of norovirus GI and GII from faeces samples.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, S

    2011-01-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis. The virus is highly contagious and has multiple modes of transmission, presenting a growing challenge to hospital-based healthcare. In this study, a total of 120 stool samples are tested for the presence of norovirus GI and GII by the Roche two-step Lightcycler 2.0 assay incorporating primers and probes produced by TIB Molbiol, and the results are compared with results from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. The Roche\\/TIB Molbiol assay produced 51 positive results and 69 negative results. Discrepancy analysis was performed for six conflicting results using a second real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (Roche\\/TIB Molbiol) and this confirmed that four of the five discrepant positive results were true positives. A single discrepant negative result generated by the Roche assay remained negative using the second assay. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to be 98%, 98.6%, 98.0% and 98.6%, respectively. Melting curve analysis was used to differentiate genogroups I and II and this showed that 92% of strains belonged to genogroup II.

  2. Evolutionary phylodynamics of Korean noroviruses reveals a novel GII.2/GII.10 recombination event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoi Cong Truong

    Full Text Available Viral gastroenteritis is the most common causal agent of public health problems worldwide. Noroviruses cause nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans of all ages. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of norovirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to university hospitals in South Korea. We also analyzed the genetic diversity of the viruses and identified novel recombination events among the identified viral strains. Of 502 children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to our three hospitals between January 2011 and March 2012, genotyping of human noroviruses was performed in 171 (34% norovirus-positive samples. Of these samples, 170 (99.5% were in genogroup II (GII, while only one (0.5% was in genogroup I (GI. The most common GII strain was the GII.4-2006b variant (n = 96, 56.5%, followed by GII.6 (n = 23, 13.5%, GII.12 (n = 22, 12.9%, GII.3 (n = 20, 11.8%, GII.2 (n = 6, 3.5%, GII.b (n = 2, 1.2%, and GII.10 (n = 1, 0.6%. Potential recombination events (polymerase/capsid were detected in 39 GII strains (22.9%, and the most frequent genotypes were GII.4/GII.12 (n = 12, 30.8%, GII.4/GII.6 (n = 12, 30.8%, GII.4/GII.3 (n = 8, 20.5%, GII.b/GII.3 (n = 3, 7.7%, GII.16/GII.2 (n = 2, 5.1%, GII.4/GII.2 (n = 1, 2.6%, and GII.2/GII.10 (n = 1, 2.6%. For the first time, a novel GII.2/GII.10 recombination was detected; we also identified the GII.16/GII.2 strain for the first time in South Korea. Our data provided important insights into new recombination events, which may prove valuable for predicting the emergence of circulating norovirus strains with global epidemic potential.

  3. Research progress of norovirus%诺如病毒的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 何玉林

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Norovirus infection in human and animals can cause acute viral gastroenteritis .With molecular biology ,cell culture and animal models of development ,the different groups of norovirus genome sequenced ,the virus capsid protein ex‐pressed in vitro in eukaryotic ,prokaryotic and plant systems ,and thus the characteristics of the virus with some new under‐standing and perspective .Recently ,an increasing number of studies were focused on the norovirus and related topics along with the research progress all around the world .Here we systematically expound the latest advances in norovirus research from dif‐ferent aspects ,such as genome structure and function ,cell culture ,tissue tropism ,epidemiology ,virus infection mechanism , detection methods and vaccine development .Furthermore ,different viewpoints for norovirus molecular evolution ,detection technology and transmission route will be discussed as well .%诺如病毒(Norovirus)可感染人和动物引起急性病毒性胃肠炎。随着分子生物学、病毒细胞培养和动物模型研究方面的发展,不同类群诺如病毒全基因组测序完成、病毒体外增殖和衣壳蛋白分别获得真核、原核和植物系统体外表达,从而对该病毒的特性有了一些新的认识和观点。本文从诺如病毒的基因组结构与功能、细胞培养、组织嗜性、流行病学、病毒的感染机制、检测方法和疫苗发展7个方面入手,系统介绍了该病毒国内外的研究现状以及其中存在的问题;其中,对该病毒的细胞培养、组织嗜性及其疫苗的研究已成为热点。本文还对诺如病毒分子进化、检测技术和病毒的传播扩散等提出了不同的观点。

  4. Local epidemiological surveillance of Norovirus infections in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of the Norovirus (NoVs infections, from October 2007 to April 2008, in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. From October 2007 to April 2008 faecal specimens were obtained from 220 infants and children (130 males, 90 males of whom 58 under 1, 60 between 1 and 2, 28 between 2 and 3, 74 between 3 and 12 years old, admitted for gastroenteritis to the Department of Paediatrics at the Campo di Marte’s Hospital in Lucca, Italy. All the specimens were examined both for the presence of bacteria (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Yersinia spp, Aeromonas spp and enteropathogenic E. coli and for the presence of rotaviruses (HRVs and adenoviruses (AdVs. Sixty-eight frozen stool samples negative for bacteria and viruses were examined for NoVs. HRVs and AdVs were detected by the immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combi test (R-Biopharm, Germany. NoVs detection was carried out by the enzyme immunoassay RIDASCREEN Norovirus 3rd Generation EIA (R-Biopharm, Germany. In the RIDASCREEN Norovirus test, specific monoclonal antibodies against antigens of several different genotypes are used in a sandwich type method. In a validation study of the RIDASCREEN Norovirus ELISA 3rd Generation at the Institute of Virology of the University of Dresden, the test correlation with the RT PCR showed the following performance, sensitivity (83.0%, specificity (100.0%, PPV (100.0%, NPV (83.0%. Results. HRVs were detected in 41.8% (89/220, AdVs in 4.1% (9/220 and Enteropathogenic bacteria were detected only in 7 (3.2% patient. NoVs were detected in 18 of 68 studied cases (26.5%. Eighty-three of the NoVs and 49% of the HRVs infections occurred in children up two years old. Conclusions. The present results point out the importance of NoVs infections in childhood hospitalization, mainly in the first two years of life.The study shows the need

  5. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte II: Medidas clínicas y preventivas Outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part II: Clinical and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Base de Camp "Arena" en Herat (Afganistán presentó durante los pasados meses de julio y agosto de 2009 un total de 121 casos de gripe A H1N1, 22 de ellos casos confirmados y el resto diagnosticados por "vínculo epidemiológico". Presentamos en el presente artículo las medidas clínicas y preventivas que fueron tomadas en la Base, en el intento de controlar el número de casos y asegurar la operatividad de la Base y el cumplimiento de la misión encomendada al contingente. Se revisan las características de la Base, las medidas tomadas con los pacientes, las medidas tomadas con los contactos, reflejando las dos distintas organizaciones que se realizaron al inicio del brote y posteriormente, las medidas generales tomadas en la Base y las medidas especiales características por tratarse de una unidad militar en una Zona de Operaciones. Finalmente realizamos una reflexión sobre algunas de las medidas tomadas.The Base Camp "Arena" in Herat (Afghanistan presented during the months of July and August 2009 a total of 121 cases of Flu A H1N1 (22 confirmed cases and the rest were diagnosed by epidemiological link. We present in this article the clinical and preventive measures taken at the base in an attempt to control the number of cases and ensure the operability of the base and fulfilling the mission entrusted to the quota. We review the characteristics of the Base, measures taken with patients, the measures taken with the contacts reflecting the two different organizations taken initially and during the second period that conducted at the outset of the outbreak, the general measures taken on the base and special measures because it features of a military unit in an area of operations. Finally we perform a reflection of some taken actions.

  6. Prevención y control de la infección ante sujetos sospechosos de infección por el nuevo coronavirus MERS-CoV en Unidades militares

    OpenAIRE

    MªE. Mayo Montero; A. Cique Moya; J. Cascante Burgos; J.R. Méndez Montesinos

    2015-01-01

    Los primeros casos del nuevo coronavirus MERS-CoV surgieron en Arabia Saudí en el año 2012. Hasta la fecha el virus se ha extendido a países vecinos, notificándose casos importados en Europa, América del Norte, África y Asia. En mayo de 2015 se declara a la OMS el primer caso confirmado por laboratorio de un brote en Corea del Sur, donde se ha producido hasta transmisión cuaternaria. El agente se transmite por vía aérea, por contacto directo con secreciones infectadas y por fómites, presenta ...

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protease from Southampton norovirus complexed with a Michael acceptor inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization of the recombinant protease from Southampton norovirus is described. Whilst the native crystals were found to diffract only to medium resolution (2.9 Å), cocrystals with a designed covalently bound inhibitor diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution. Noroviruses are the predominant cause of human epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a cysteine protease that cleaves a 200 kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional parts. Here, the crystallization of the recombinant protease from the Southampton norovirus is described. Whilst the native crystals were found to diffract only to medium resolution (2.9 Å), cocrystals of an inhibitor complex diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution. The polypeptide inhibitor (Ac-EFQLQ-propenyl ethyl ester) possesses an amino-acid sequence designed to match the substrate specificity of the enzyme, but was synthesized with a reactive Michael acceptor group at the C-terminal end

  8. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646) encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602

  9. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rha

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking.Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998-June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations.The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326 and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105 encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646 encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others.Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries.

  10. Rapid emergence and predominance of a broadly recognizing and fast-evolving norovirus GII.17 variant in late 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Martin C W Chan; Lee, Nelson; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Cheung, Kelton; Tin, Edith K. Y.; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Ting F. Leung; Chan, Paul K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) has been the predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis since 1996. Here we show that during the winter of 2014–2015, an emergent variant of a previously rare norovirus GII.17 genotype, Kawasaki 2014, predominated in Hong Kong and outcompeted contemporary GII.4 Sydney 2012 in hospitalized cases. GII.17 cases were significantly older than GII.4 cases. Root-to-tip and Bayesian BEAST analyses estimate GII.17 viral protein 1 (VP1) evolves one order of mag...

  11. ISO TS/15216; an international standard method for the detection and quantification of norovirus in high risk foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowther, James; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    Norovirus is one of the principal agents of food-related gastroenteritis. Outbreaks have been associated with a number of different food vehicles, most notably bivalve molluscan shellfish and soft fruit. Contamination of prepared food through contact with infected food handlers also presents a...... standardised methods, however in March 2013 the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and European Committee for Standardization (CEN) published a joint technical specification for detection and quantification of viruses including norovirus GI and GII in foods using real-time RT-PCR (ISO/TS 15216). This...

  12. Acute myositis associated with concurrent infection of rotavirus and norovirus in a 2-year-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and norovirus are common pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in children. Although rotavirus occasionally induces central nervous system disease, only 3 cases with rotavirus-induced acute myositis have been reported in the English literature. We recently treated a female patient with acute myositis associated with gastroenteritis induced by concurrent infection with rotavirus and norovirus. Having suffered from gastroenteritis for 3 days, she suddenly developed myositis affecting her lower extremities with concomitant creatine kinase elevation. Herein, we present our patient and review the previous cases including those reported in the Japanese literature.

  13. Brote de leptospirosis en terneros en recría en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Leptospirosis outbreak in calves from Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Draghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis es una enfermedad infecciosa que produce importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción ganadera. Los signos característicos de la enfermedad son aborto, muerte embrionaria, muerte de terneros de pocos días de vida y mastitis. Se describe un brote de leptospirosis en terneros en actividad de recría. Se realizaron estudios histopatológicos, de hemoparásitos, inmunofluorescencia y cultivos bacterianos. Se aisló Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona a partir de muestras de los terneros muertos.Leptospirosis is an infectious disease resulting in significant economic losses in livestock production. This disease causes abortion, embryo death, death of calves within the first few days of life and mastitis. We report a leptospirosis outbreak in calf growing and fattening. Histopathological and hemoparasite studies, immunofluorescence, and bacterial cultures were performed. A strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona was isolated from samples collected from dead calves.

  14. Enfermedad por el virus Ébola medidas de bioseguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Bucknor Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus Ébola representa el patógeno prototipo de fiebre hemorrágica viral, causando una enfermedad severa de alta tasa de mortalidad. Esta alta mortalidad, combinada con la ausencia de vacunación y de un tratamiento específico, hace que el virus Ébola sea un patógeno importante para la salud pública. La fiebre hemorrágica de Ébola se cree es una zoonosis con persistencia del virus en especies de reservorios encontrados en áreas endémicas. A pesar de todos los esfuerzos realizados en cada brote para identificar los reservorios naturales no se conocen los huéspedes potenciales ni los artrópodos vectores. El manejo de los casos está basado en el aislamiento de los pacientes y en el uso de barreras de aislamiento, tales como ropa e implementos de protección como respiradores. Debido a su rápida propagación la OMS declaró que la enfermedad por el virus Ébola representa una emergencia de salud pública más allá de las fronteras y exhortó a la comunidad internacional a tomar las acciones necesarias para detener la epidemia.

  15. Intoxicación alimentaria por Clostridium perfringens en el Centro Penitenciario de Atención Institucional de San José: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo

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    Roy Wong-Mc Clure

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos se presentan anualmente en Costa Rica y por lo general se estudian hasta identificar el agente etiológico, pero no hasta determinar su fuente de contaminación. No se ha documentado la importancia de fortalecer la inocuidad de alimentos, lo cual produce eventos que comprometen la salud pública cada año, por lo que fue importante estudiar el presente brote. En este estudio se analiza el brote diarreico de un centro penitenciario de San José, en 2003, procurando determinar el probable alimento contaminado. Materiales y métodos: El presente estudio corresponde a una cohorte retrospectiva que identifica exposición a los alimentos preparados dentro del Centro, en las 72 horas previas al pico epidémico. La descripción de la cohorte y el cálculo del (RR se realizó posteriormente para determinar la posible\tasociación causal. Las muestras de heces fueron procesadas en el laboratorio de referencia del INCIENSA. Resultados: La totalidad de los individuos pertenecían al sexo masculino, todos privados de libertad, con un promedio de edad de 31.1años (IC95%=28.9-33.4. La sintomatología más frecuente fue la diarrea (92.3% Y dolor abdominal tipo cólico (84.6%. El resultado de laboratorio aisló como agente etiológico el Clostridium perfringens enterotoxigénico (CPE. Al analizar los alimentos suministrados, pico epidémico y período de incubación, se tiene que el salchichón (RR=1.1;IC95%0.5-2.7 y la preparación con carne molida (RR=2.1,IC95%:0.6-7.4 mostraron ser los únicos alimentos capaces de transmitir el CPE. Discusión: El brote del Centro evidencia que la sintomatología descrita corresponde con lo documentado para la intoxicación por CPE y que, tomando en cuenta las condiciones necesarias para la transmisión, solo el salchichón y la preparación con carne molida cuentan con esta plausibilidad biológica. Al considerar el periodo de incubación, los valores de riesgo relativo

  16. Phylodynamic reconstruction reveals norovirus GII.4 epidemic expansions and their molecular determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Joukje Siebenga

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis. An increase in the number of globally reported norovirus outbreaks was seen the past decade, especially for outbreaks caused by successive genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. Whether this observed increase was due to an upswing in the number of infections, or to a surveillance artifact caused by heightened awareness and concomitant improved reporting, remained unclear. Therefore, we set out to study the population structure and changes thereof of GII.4 strains detected through systematic outbreak surveillance since the early 1990s. We collected 1383 partial polymerase and 194 full capsid GII.4 sequences. A Bayesian MCMC coalescent analysis revealed an increase in the number of GII.4 infections during the last decade. The GII.4 strains included in our analyses evolved at a rate of 4.3-9.0x10(-3 mutations per site per year, and share a most recent common ancestor in the early 1980s. Determinants of adaptation in the capsid protein were studied using different maximum likelihood approaches to identify sites subject to diversifying or directional selection and sites that co-evolved. While a number of the computationally determined adaptively evolving sites were on the surface of the capsid and possible subject to immune selection, we also detected sites that were subject to constrained or compensatory evolution due to secondary RNA structures, relevant in virus-replication. We highlight codons that may prove useful in identifying emerging novel variants, and, using these, indicate that the novel 2008 variant is more likely to cause a future epidemic than the 2007 variant. While norovirus infections are generally mild and self-limiting, more severe outcomes of infection frequently occur in elderly and immunocompromized people, and no treatment is available. The observed pattern of continually emerging novel variants of GII.4, causing elevated numbers of infections, is therefore a

  17. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Gervais, Patrick; Belliot, Gaël

    2014-12-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. PMID:25217015

  18. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgren, Johan; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Matussek, Andreas; Svensson, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic disease was as likely to develop in nonsecretors as in secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-4.36 vs. OR 0.71, 95%...

  19. Seroprevalence of Norovirus Genogroup IV Antibodies among Humans, Italy, 2010–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Ceci, Chiara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Kim Y Green; Bok, Karin; De Grazia, Simona; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Massirio, Ivano; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio; Marsilio, Fulvio; Martella, Vito

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup IV (GIV) (Alphatron-like) cause infections in humans and in carnivorous animals such as dogs and cats. We screened an age-stratified collection of serum samples from 535 humans in Italy, using virus-like particles of genotypes GIV.1, circulating in humans, and GIV.2, identified in animals, in ELISA, in order to investigate the prevalence of GIV NoV-specific IgG antibodies. Antibodies specific for both genotypes were detected, ranging from a prevalence of 6.6% t...

  20. Development and evaluation of methods for recovery of Noroviruses from food, water and air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the principal cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. NoVs are extremely infectious with an estimated infectious dose 50% (ID50) of 18 viral particles. Transmission of NoVs occurs via the faecal-oral route directly through person-to-person contact or indirectly via...... contaminated fomites, water and food. In recent years, numerous outbreak of NoV-associated gastroenteritis have been linked to the consumption of contaminated drinking water, shellfish and fresh produce. In addition, indications of transmission occurring though aerosol formation, especially following...

  1. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage. PMID:26280526

  2. Structural Basis for the Recognition of Lewis Antigens by Genogroup I Norovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Tomomi; Kumagai, Akiko; Ito, Hiromi; Furukawa, Sanae; Someya, Yuichi; Takeda, Naokazu; ISHII, Koji; Wakita, Takaji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Shirato, Haruko

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) bind to histo-blood group antigens, namely, ABH antigens and Lewis antigens. We previously showed the NoVs GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, and GI/8 were able to strongly bind to Lewis a (Lea) antigen, which is expressed by individuals who are nonsecretors. In this study, to investigate how Lewis antigens interact with GI NoV virion protein 1 (VP1), we determined the crystal structures of the P domain of the VP1 protein from the Funabashi 258 (FUV258) strain (GI/2) in complexes with Lea, ...

  3. Development and evaluation of methods for recovery of Noroviruses from food, water and air

    OpenAIRE

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof; Myrmel, Mette; Christensen, Laurids Siig

    2012-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) er den primære årsag til viral gastroenteritis på verdensplan. Med en estimeret infektiv dosis (ID50) på 18 virus partikler er NoV ekstremt infektiøse. NoV smitter via den fækalorale rute enten direkte via person-til-person kontakt eller indirekte gennem kontaminerede genstande, vand eller fødevarer. I de senere år er utallige udbrud af gastroenteritis blevet forbundet med indtagelse af NoV kontamineret drikkevand, skaldyr, grøntsager og bær. Endelig er der set indikationer på...

  4. Updates on the genetic variations of Norovirus in sporadic gastroenteritis in Chungnam Korea, 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park KwiSung; Yeo SangGu; Jeong HyeSook; Baek KyoungAh; Kim DongUk; Shin MyoungHee; Song JaeHyoung; Lee SooJin; Choi YoungJin; Park JoonSoo; Cho SungChan; Cheon DooSung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previously, we explored the epidemic pattern and molecular characterization of noroviruses (NoVs) isolated in Chungnam, Korea in 2008, and the present study extended these observations to 2009 and 2010. In Korea, NoVs showed the seasonal prevalence from late fall to spring, and widely detected in preschool children and peoples over 60 years of age. Epidemiological pattern of NoV was similar in 2008 and in 2010, but pattern in 2009 was affected by pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus....

  5. Brote de legionelosis en Murcia en julio de 2001. La óptica de sanidad ambiental Outbreak of Legionella disease in Murcia, at July 2001. The environmental health point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sintas Lozano

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las medidas de intervención adoptadas para el estudio y control del brote. Se encontraron 126 instalaciones con riesgo (45 de ellas de alto: 70 torres de refrigeración y similares, 35 fuentes ornamentales, 1 obra con movimiento de tierra y 20 sistemas con circuito cerrado aire-agua, que se distribuyeron por categorías de riesgo.De forma inmediata se clausuraron: las fuentes ornamentales, el baldeo de calles y riegos por aspersión de parques y la obra.Se realizaron un total de 486 inspecciones y 1040 toma de muestras, ordenando la limpieza y desinfección de torres de refrigeración y similares y su clausura en caso necesario. Posteriormente, se cambio de relleno en torres de refrigeración positivas a Lp.Del total de instalaciones investigadas (339, en 57 (16’9% se encontró un cultivo positivo a Lp. Distribución por tipo de instalación con cultivo positivo a Lp: en torres de refrigeración 23 (6’8%, en fuentes ornamentales 3 (7,32% y en agua sanitaria 31 (9’1%.Distribución por serogrupos: LpS1 (62’3%, serogrupos 2-14 (36’68%.LpS1Olda Olda (21’74% fue la mas abundante seguida de LpS1 Pontiac Filadelfia Lugano (18’84% frente a LpS1 Pontiac Filadelfia Glasgow (en 1 ocasión, 1’45%, esta ultima fue la aislada en las 18 muestras de enfermos.En 355 ocasiones se dispone de cultivo y PCR, encontrándose una sensibilidad de 30,8% (Intervalo de confianza al 95%, de 25,1 y una especificidad del 99,4±0,8. Hay que considerar la eventual influencia en los resultados aportada por la posible aparición de dos falsos negativos en el cultivo.Se encuentra un elevado porcentaje de muestras correspondientes a Legionella pneumophilla serogrupo 1, dentro de estas prevalecen las tipo Pontiac Philadelphia, y dentro de estas las tipo Lugano.La primera desinfección no erradicó la contaminación en su totalidad. Abundando en lo anterior, el hallazgo de un número considerable de torres de refrigeración positivas a Lp tras limpieza y

  6. Identifying Sources and Transmission Routes of Norovirus Outbreaks : Molecular epidemiological methods as the basis for targeted prevention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.A. Sukhrie (Faizel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus was first recognized as a cause of gastroenteritis in 1972 by means of electron microscopy (EM) on stool samples. Norwalk virus was identified by visualization of small round virus particles in stool samples from infected students

  7. Evaluation of a rapid method for recovery of norovirus and hepatitis A virus from oysters and blue mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Myrmel, Mette; Maunula, Leena;

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish. The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate virus recovery method for real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR detection and subsequently to...

  8. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Colquhoun, David R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-04-01

    Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences. PMID:25603302

  9. Correlation between lack of norovirus replication and histo-blood group antigen expression in 3D-intestinal epithelial cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. One publication utilizing a 3-dimensional (3D) intestinal model derived from Int407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathi...

  10. Antiviral Activity of Gold/Copper Sulfide Core/Shell Nanoparticles against Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jenkins Broglie

    Full Text Available Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks, and inactivation via nanoparticles (NPs is a more universal and attractive alternative to other physical and chemical approaches. Using norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk virus-like particles (VLPs as a model viral system, this study characterized the antiviral activity of Au/CuS core/shell nanoparticles (NPs against GI.1 VLPs for the rapid inactivation of HuNoV. Inactivation of VLPs (GI.1 by Au/CuS NPs evaluated using an absorbance-based ELISA indicated that treatment with 0.083 μM NPs for 10 min inactivated ~50% VLPs in a 0.37 μg/ml VLP solution and 0.83 μM NPs for 10 min completely inactivated the VLPs. Increasing nanoparticle concentration and/or VLP-NP contact time significantly increased the virucidal efficacy of Au/CuS NPs. Changes to the VLP particle morphology, size, and capsid protein were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. The strategy reported here provides the first reported proof-of-concept Au/CuS NPs-based virucide for rapidly inactivating human norovirus.

  11. Development of rapid hemocyte-based extraction methods for detection of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus in contaminated oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human enteric pathogens, hepatitis A virus and human norovirus, have been shown to contaminate molluscan shellfish and cause foodborne disease in consumers. Rapid viral extraction methods are needed to replace current time consuming methods, which use whole oysters or dissected tissues. In our ...

  12. Vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, 1993-2001 Surveillance of foodborne diseases in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina, 1993 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Di Pietro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 39 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos que afectaron a 958 personas en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, en el período 1993- 2001. Se identifican los agentes causales, los alimentos involucrados, los sitios de ocurrencia, los factores de riesgo involucrados y los mecanismos de notificación empleados. Salmonella spp (38%, Trichinella spiralis (15%, Escherichia coli (13% y Staphylococcus aureus (15% resultaron los agentes más frecuentes en los brotes. Salmonella spp. también produjo el mayor número de casos (52%. Los principales alimentos involucrados resultaron cárneos (36%, quesos (10%, fiambres y sándwiches (10%, postres (10% y helados (8%. El mayor número de casos, por su parte, fue causado por la ingestión de helados (37%. Con relación al origen de los alimentos, 41% de los brotes fueron causados por comidas elaboradas en los domicilios, 23% en establecimientos comerciales, 13% en fiestas familiares, 8% en fiestas comunitarias y 8% en restaurantes de hoteles. En el 28% de los brotes fue identificado el agente etiológico por análisis epidemiológico exclusivamente, en el 64% se logró el aislamiento del agente, mientras que en el 8% de los casos no se logró el diagnóstico definitivo. Se analiza el valor de la encuesta epidemiológica en los estudios de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, la necesidad de fortalecer el sistema de notificación médica de casos y brotes y la importancia de las buenas prácticas en la manipulación de alimentos.A total of 39 outbreaks of foodborne diseases affecting 958 people in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina between 1993 and 2001 are described and evaluated. The main causal agents were identified involving food, sites of occurrence, risk factors and notification system used. Salmonella spp (38%, Trichinella spiralis (15%, Escherichia coli (13% and Staphylococcus aureus (15% were the most frequent agents present in outbreaks. Salmonella spp produced the

  13. - Bacillus anthracis, utilización de un Sistema de Información Geográfico (SIG, para el análisis espacio temporal de 54 brotes de carbunclo rural en el partido de Azul, Bs. As., Argentina (Bacillus anthracis, use of a Geographical infoormation Service (GIS, for the temporary space analysis of 54 outbreaks of rural anthax in the county of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez P.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El objeto de este trabajo es utilizar un Sistema de Información Geográfico (SIG para el análisis epidemiológico del Carbunclo Rural aplicado a un ecosistema ganadero, integrado por 618.000 bovinos, distribuidos en 1.350 establecimientos del partido de Azul, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esto permitió estudiar hechos epidemiológicos de una enfermedad de antigua data como es el Carbunclo Rural. Su agente causal el Bacillus anthracis, posee la característica de formar esporos que permite mantenerse durante decenas de años en el ambiente com capacidad de transmitir la enfermedad a otrois animales susceptibles. Se describe la metodología para su diagnóstico y los distintos elementos que integran el Sistema de Información Geográfico. Los 54 brotes identificados entre los años 1989 / 2005 fueron georreferenciados para posteriormente relacionarlos con las vías de avenamiento de aguas del partido de Azul, lãs características de sus suelos y la ubicación de las poblaciones de las poblaciones rurales que comparten la zona de isorriesgo. Se plantea un sistema de alerta epidemiológico temprano para establecimientos ganaderos que comparten vías de avenamiento de agua en común con el brote de Carbunclo diagnosticado. El 93 % de los brotes ocurrieron en establecimientos que comparten vías de avenamiento, mientras que el 7 % restante en establecimientos ganaderos ubicados fuera del área de influencia de estas vías Summary. The objjective of this study was the use of a Geographical Information Service (GIS for the epidemiologiacal analysis of rural Anthrax applied to a catle ecosystem, which includes 618.000 cattle, distributed on 1.350 farms in the county of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This allowed studying long past epidemiological occurrences of a disease such as rural carbuncle Its causing egent is Bacillus anthracis, which has the property of forming spores That permit being maintained dozens of years in

  14. Viral Gastroenteritis Associated with Genogroup II Norovirus among U.S. Military Personnel in Turkey, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salwa F.; Klena, John D.; Mostafa, Manal; Dogantemur, Jessica; Middleton, Tracy; Hanson, James; Sebeny, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV) is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII) was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37) stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks. PMID:22606235

  15. Human health implications of norovirus acute gastroenteritis as a result of hydric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation, in Ciudad Quesada of Costa Rica, has been carried out to explore and characterize the outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in the area. Surveillance data and medical records of the patients were analyzed to develop a descriptive study between July 8 and July 14, 2010 in the canton of San Carlos. A fact sheet was applied to obtain information from patients. ELISA test was performed to the stool samples to detect the presence of enteropathogens. Water samples were analyzed for bacteria and fecal coliform in the distribution system. A total of 352 cases were confirmed in the studied region. The most frequent symptoms among confirmed cases were: diarrhea (94,2%), nausea (92,7%) and vomiting (91,7%). The average age of patients is 29 years (15,8%) and (50,8%) has been female. The age group that has been most affected are infants of 1-4 years (attack rate 18,2/1,000 population). The area that has been most affected is the central area of Ciudad Quesada. In five out of six stool tests has been possible to isolate the norovirus. In water Escherichia coli has been witnessed by what has been suggested that the norovirus has been transmitted by water contaminated with fecal matter. Water quality monitoring has been recommended and promote the use of potable water as well as the sensitization of rural communities about hygiene and disease prevention. (author)

  16. A non-foodborne norovirus outbreak among school children during a skiing holiday, Austria, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Wei; Schmid, Daniela; Schwarz, Karin; Pichler, Anna-Margaretha; Klein, Heidelinde; König, Christoph; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of outbreaks of foodborne disease. We report on an outbreak in Austria that reached a total of 176 cases, affecting pupils and teachers from four schools on a skiing holiday in a youth hostel in the province of Salzburg in December 2007. A questionnaire was sent to the four schools in order to obtain data from persons attending the school trip on disease status, clinical onset, duration of illness and hospitalization. A cohort study was undertaken to identify the sources of infection. The school trip attendees were interviewed by questionnaire or face-to-face on their exposure to food items from the menu provided by the hostel owner. Of the 284 school holiday-makers, 176 fitted the definition of an outbreak case (attack rate 61.9%). A total of 264 persons on the ski holiday participated in the cohort study (response rate 93%). The day-by-day food-specific analyses did not find any food items served on any of five days (December 8-12) of the holiday to be associated with infection risk. The day-specific risk analyses revealed Monday December 10 (RR: 9.04; 95% CI: 6.02-13.6; P Tourism is one of the primary industries in Austria. Timely involvement of the relevant public health authorities is essential in any outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis, irrespective of its genesis. PMID:19280137

  17. An Outbreak of Norovirus Infections Among Lunch Customers at a Restaurant, Tampere, Finland, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Okasha, Omar; Al-Hello, Haider; Polkowska, Aleksandra; Räsänen, Sirpa; Bojang, Merja; Nuorti, J Pekka; Jalava, Katri

    2016-09-01

    On January 29, 2015, the city of Tampere environmental health officers were informed of a possible foodborne outbreak among customers who had eaten lunch in restaurant X. Employees of electric companies A and B had a sudden onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify the vehicle, source, and causative agent of the outbreak. A case was defined as an employee of companies A or B with diarrhea and/or vomiting who ate lunch at Restaurant X on January 26, 2015. All employees of the companies attending the implicated lunch were invited to participate in the cohort study. Environmental investigation was conducted. Twenty-one responders were included in statistical analysis, of which 11 met with the case definition. Of the 15 food items consumed by participants, four food items were associated with gastroenteritis. Of four kitchen staff, three tested positive for norovirus GIP7, the strain was found earlier in the community. No patient samples were obtained. Level of hygiene in the kitchen was inadequate. Infected kitchen staff probably transmitted norovirus by inadequate hygiene practices. No new cases associated with Restaurant X were reported after the hygiene practices were improved. PMID:27074943

  18. Viral gastroenteritis associated with genogroup II norovirus among U.S. military personnel in Turkey, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F Ahmed

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37 stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks.

  19. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Erica M. [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  20. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences

  1. High-Resolution X-Ray Structure and Functional Analysis of the Murine Norovirus 1 Capsid Protein Protruding Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taube, Stefan; Rubin, John R.; Katpally, Umesh; Smith, Thomas J.; Kendall, Ann; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wobus, Christiane E. (Michigan); (Danforth)

    2010-07-23

    Murine noroviruses (MNV) are closely related to the human noroviruses (HuNoV), which cause the majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Unlike HuNoV, MNV grow in culture and in a small-animal model that represents a tractable model to study norovirus biology. To begin a detailed investigation of molecular events that occur during norovirus binding to cells, the crystallographic structure of the murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) capsid protein protruding (P) domain has been determined. Crystallization of the bacterially expressed protein yielded two different crystal forms (Protein Data Bank identifiers [PDB ID], 3LQ6 and 3LQE). Comparison of the structures indicated a large degree of structural mobility in loops on the surface of the P2 subdomain. Specifically, the A{prime}-B{prime} and E{prime}-F{prime} loops were found in open and closed conformations. These regions of high mobility include the known escape mutation site for the neutralizing antibody A6.2 and an attenuation mutation site, which arose after serial passaging in culture and led to a loss in lethality in STAT1{sup -/-} mice, respectively. Modeling of a Fab fragment and crystal structures of the P dimer into the cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction of the A6.2/MNV-1 complex indicated that the closed conformation is most likely bound to the Fab fragment and that the antibody contact is localized to the A{prime}-B{prime} and E{prime}-F{prime} loops. Therefore, we hypothesize that these loop regions and the flexibility of the P domains play important roles during MNV-1 binding to the cell surface.

  2. Brote de intoxicación alimentaria asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada en la República del Paraguay Foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of ultrapasteurized milk in the Republic of Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Weiler; Gerardo A Leotta; Mirian N. Zárate; Eduardo Manfredi; Mercedes E. Álvarez; Marta Rivas

    2011-01-01

    Durante marzo de 2007 ocurrió un brote epidémico asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada que afectó a las ciudades de San Lorenzo, Ciudad del Este y Asunción, de la República del Paraguay. Las personas afectadas fueron 400, de las cuales 60 requirieron hospitalización. Se aisló S. aureus subespecie aureus de 5 pacientes, 3 operarios y 3 muestras de leche. Todas las cepas fueron productoras de enterotoxinas. Las aislamientos de 3 pacientes, de un operario y de las muestras de leche port...

  3. Epidemiología clínica y microbiológica de la infección/colonización por Acinetobacter baumannii en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital General La Mancha Centro durante los años 2007 /2009

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas Vaquero, María

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii (ABA) es una bacteria oportunista con gran capacidad de diseminación en el ambiente hospitalario y una elevada facilidad para desarrollar resistencia a los antimicrobianos. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio observacional analítico retrospectivo de casos y controles, llevado a cabo en la UCI del Hospital La Mancha Centro durante un brote por ABA transcurrido entre febrero de 2008 y abril de 2009. En el periodo de estudio se detectaron 40 casos de pacientes infe...

  4. Real-Time Detection of Noroviruses in Surface Water by Use of a Broadly Reactive Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rutjes, Saskia A.; van den Berg, Harold H. J. L.; Lodder, Willemijn J.; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common agents causing outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis. Outbreaks originating from contaminated drinking water and from recreational waters have been described. Due to a lack of cell culture systems, noroviruses are detected mostly by molecular methods. Molecular detection assays for viruses in water are often repressed by inhibitory factors present in the environment, like humic acids and heavy metals. To study the effect of environmental inhibitors on the performa...

  5. Real-time detection of noroviruses in surface water by use of a broadly reactive nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Rutjes, Saskia A.; Berg, Harold H J L van den; Lodder, Willemijn J.; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common agents causing outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis. Outbreaks originating from contaminated drinking water and from recreational waters have been described. Due to a lack of cell culture systems, noroviruses are detected mostly by molecular methods. Molecular detection assays for viruses in water are often repressed by inhibitory factors present in the environment, like humic acids and heavy metals. To study the effect of environmental inhibitors on the performa...

  6. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  7. Norovirus infections in children under 5 years of age hospitalized due to the acute viral gastroenteritis in northeastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oldak, E.; Sulik, A.; Rozkiewicz, D.; Liwoch-Nienartowicz, N.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and seasonality of norovirus infection in hospitalized Polish children under 5 years of age, and a secondary aim was to compare the clinical severity of norovirus and rotavirus disease. The prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2009 through June 2010. Stool samples from 242 children hospitalized due to acute viral gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus group A and adenovirus with commercial immunochromatographic...

  8. Post-exposure antiviral treatment of norovirus infections effectively protects against diarrhea and reduces virus shedding in the stool in a mortality mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Pereira, Joana; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Verbeken, Eric; Wobus, Christiane E; Neyts, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis across the world in all age groups and are linked to increased hospitalization and mortality in children, the elderly and immunocompromised. The development of specific antiviral treatment for norovirus gastroenteritis is urgently needed. We explored in a mouse model whether an inhibitor of norovirus replication could be used therapeutically post murine norovirus (MNV)-infection of mice. Using the MNV, we previously discovered that the viral polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine (2CMC) is able to protect against diarrhea and mortality in mice when used prophylactically and to block the transmission of MNV between mice. Here, we investigated whether 2CMC could be used therapeutically, starting treatment between 12 h and 3 days post-infection with 2CMC. Post-exposure treatment of MNV-infected mice with 2CMC was efficient up to 2 days after infection, preventing norovirus-induced diarrhea, delaying and reducing MNV shedding in stool of treated mice. Rehydration of 2CMC-treated animals did not result in a further improvement of the disease evolution compared to antiviral treatment only. The presence of MNV antigens and inflammation in the small intestine of infected mice inversely correlated with the effectiveness of delayed antiviral treatment. Anti-MNV IgGs were detected in re-challenged mice 10 weeks after the first contact, these protected the mice from re-infection. We here demonstrate the benefit of antiviral treatment in ongoing norovirus infections. PMID:27252124

  9. Perspectivas de salud ambiental en la investigación de brotes epidémicos asociados con una zona de abastecimiento de aguas de consumo humano Perspectives of environmental health in outbreaks research associated with a zone of consumption water supply human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lara Villegas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar la magnitud, posibles causas y factores ambientales contribuyentes en la aparición de brotes de origen hídrico, en el ámbito de actuación de la localidad de Benaoján (Serranía de Ronda, Málaga.Material y métodos. Análisis de la potabilidad del agua y controles de desinfección. Evaluación del cumplimiento de la calidad del agua potable y requisitos técnico sanitarios de abastecimientos de aguas, conforme a la normativa española sobre aguas de consumo público.Resultados. Se han realizado 110 análisis de potabilidad, comprobando que el 13,4% de las muestras no cumplen con los criterios de potabilidad del agua. Se practicaron 647 controles de desinfección, de los que el 53% resultaron no conformes. El diseño de la red de abastecimiento es del tipo ramificada y al menos presenta 30 ramales ciegos, puntos donde el agua queda estancada. El servicio municipal de aguas no realiza autocontroles de la calidad del agua ni tiene implantados planes generales de higiene de las instalaciones del abastecimiento.Discusión. La investigación ambiental sugiere que la red pública de abastecimiento de aguas es una fuente de infección, problema relacionado con la aparición de brotes epidémicos. Por ello el consumo de agua no tratada debe ser evitado.Introduction. The purpose of this work was studied the magnitude, possible causes and contributing environmental factors in the waterbourne outbreaks appearance, in the performance area of the locality of Benaoján (Town of Málaga, Spain.Material/Methods. Analysis of the potability of the water and disinfection controls. Evaluation of the fulfillment of the quality of the drinking water and sanitary technical requirements of water supplies, pursuant to the Spanish regulation on public consumption waters.Results. We have been accomplished 110 potability analysis, proving that 13,4% of the samples do not comply with the potability criteria of

  10. Conformación de grupos regionales para la investigación y manejo de enfermedades transmisibles por alimentos (ETA’s en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Montero Campos

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto constituyó el fruto del esfuerzo conjunto de tres instituciones comprometidas con el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de la población costarricense, en el marco de los módulos del programa interamericano de “Liderazgo en Inocuidad de Alimentos” del Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA, con el financiamiento del Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA y la Agencia de Inspección de Alimentos de Canadá (CFIA.Las instituciones involucradas en el desarrollo de este proyecto fueron el Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, por medio del Laboratorio de Servicios Químicos y Microbiológicos (CEQIATEC, el Centro de Referencia en Bacteriología del Instituto de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud (INCIENSA. La iniciativa del proyecto se basa en que, en los últimos años se ha documentado en nuestro país, la aparición de brotes de diarrea de gran magnitud, asociados al consumo de aguas y/o alimentos contaminados, lo que se ha denominado “Enfermedades Transmisibles por Alimentos” (ETA’s. Durante estos brotes, frecuentemente se ha observado que la capacidad de resolución de los niveles locales en el manejo e investigación de estos es limitada, por lo que en algunas ocasiones no se logra concluir con éxito la investigación relacionada con dicha situación.

  11. A Membrane-Based Electro-Separation Method (MBES for Sample Clean-Up and Norovirus Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illnesses in the United States. Enhanced methods for detecting noroviruses in food matrices are needed as current methods are complex, labor intensive and insensitive, often resulting in inhibition of downstream molecular detection and inefficient recovery. Membrane-based electro-separation (MBES is a technique to exchange charged particles through a size-specific dialysis membrane from one solution to another using electric current as the driving force. Norovirus has a net negative surface charge in a neutrally buffered environment, so when placed in an electric field, it moves towards the anode. It can then be separated from the cathodic compartment where the sample is placed and then collected in the anodic compartment for downstream detection. In this study, a MBES-based system was designed, developed and evaluated for concentrating and recovering murine norovirus (MNV-1 from phosphate buffer. As high as 30.8% MNV-1 migrated from the 3.5 ml sample chamber to the 1.5 ml collection chamber across a 1 μm separation membrane when 20 V was applied for 30 min using 20 mM sodium phosphate with 0.01% SDS (pH 7.5 as the electrolyte. In optimization of the method, weak applied voltage (20 V, moderate duration (30 min, and low ionic strength electrolytes with SDS addition were needed to increase virus movement efficacy. The electric field strength of the system was the key factor to enhance virus movement, which could only be improved by shortening the electrodes distance, instead of increasing system applied voltage because of virus stability. This study successfully demonstrated the norovirus mobility in an electric field and migration across a size-specific membrane barrier in sodium phosphate electrolyte. With further modification and validation in food matrixes, a novel, quick, and cost-effective sample clean-up technique might be developed to separate norovirus particles

  12. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  13. Pre-existing immunity to norovirus GII-4 virus-like particles does not impair de novo immune responses to norovirus GII-12 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Kirsi; Huhti, Leena; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2013-04-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans of all ages. In the 1990s, NoV genotype GII-4 became responsible for the majority of NoV sporadic gastroenteritis cases and outbreaks worldwide. Vaccine development against NoV GII-4 is underway. At the same time, there is concern of new emerging NoV genotypes, such as GII-12, which has been recently associated with increasing numbers of NoV outbreaks worldwide. The specific question is whether type-specific pre-existing immunity to NoV GII-4 might impair cognate immune response induced by new viral infections or vaccines. Using GII-4 and GII-12 virus-like particles, we tested the impact of the immunity generated against NoV GII-4 on de novo antibody responses to GII-12 in mice. We found that pre-existing immunity to NoV GII-4 did not impair de novo immune response to the novel antigen, therefore suggesting lack of original antigenic sin (OAS). PMID:23438469

  14. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

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    Scott P Grytdal

    Full Text Available Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE. However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years. Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested. In addition, 22 (2% of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2% were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1% were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children 65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person-years. Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person

  15. Brote de shigellosis con 146 casos relacionado con una feria Shigellosis outbreak with 146 cases related to a fair

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    Juan Castell Monsalve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El 3 de septiembre de 2005, el Servicio de Salud Pública de Ciudad Real conoció la existencia de 20 casos de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Daimiel. Se inició una investigación, con los objetivos de determinar las causas y establecer medidas de control. La mayor parte de los afectados eran jóvenes que habían visitado la feria de la localidad. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y otro analítico de casos y controles. En el descriptivo se incluyeron todas las variables de interés disponibles en las historias clínicas de los pacientes. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles apareado por edad (más o menos 5 años, sexo y asistencia a la feria, que incluyó a 65 casos y a 65 controles. Se llevaron a cabo inspecciones de establecimientos y toma de muestras clínicas y de alimentos. Resultados: Se notificaron 196 casos, de los cuales 146 fueron confirmados. La curva epidémica sugiere una fuente común de corta duración. El estudio de casos y controles apareado muestra una asociación con el consumo de patatas con salsa en uno de los chiringuitos (odds ratio [OR] = 20,56; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 6,15-75,93; p Background: On September 3, 2005, the Ciudad Real Public Health Service (Spain received a report of 20 cases of gastroenteritis in the municipality of Daimiel. We conducted an investigation to determine the cause or causes of the outbreak and to implement control measures. Most of the cases involved young people who visited the municipality's fair. Methods: We carried out a descriptive study and an analytic case-control study. In the descriptive study, all variables of interest available in the medical records were included. In the case-control study, each case was matched with a control by age (plus or minus 5 years, gender, and attendance at the fair. Sixty-five cases and 65 controls were finally included in the study. Samples of foods and stools from food handlers were taken. Results

  16. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda; Haefeli, Deborah; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, raspberries have emerged as high risk foods for norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. However, the lack of robust and standardized methods has limited our understanding of the level of NoV contamination of raspberries correlated to public health risk. We present an optimized and quality...... controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred in...... mengovirus recoveries. A 100% identical GI.6 sequence was detected in both raspberries and patient stool samples associated to one outbreak. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating quantified virus levels of contaminated raspberries linked to illness. These data can contribute to the...

  17. The Norovirus epidemic...or just a stone? Revising the diagnosis with an abdominal radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Siegfried K; Remoundos, Dionysios D; Abdulla, Muaad

    2013-01-01

    During an acute outbreak of Norovirus in the local area, a 77-year-old woman was admitted with a short history of diarrhoea and vomiting. A working diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis complicated by acute renal failure, secondary to dehydration, was made. Despite judicious fluid resuscitation and regular antiemetics, the patient's symptoms persisted with only mild improvement in her renal function. An abdominal radiograph revealed evidence of significant small bowel obstruction and subsequent CT of the abdomen and pelvis identified a 1.5 cm intraluminal density at a transition point raising the suspicion of gallstone ileus. An urgent laparotomy with stone removal was carried out without complications. The patient recovered well postoperatively and was discharged home after 3 days. PMID:23771969

  18. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseili, Malak A; Saif, Linda J; Farkas, Tibor; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  19. Molecular characterization of new emerging GII.17 norovirus strains from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Wu, Qingping; Cai, Weicheng; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are still the primary cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, a novel GII.17 norovirus variant emerged and caused an infection peak in the cold season of 2014/2015 in some Asian countries, including China. In this study, in order to understand the evolutionary advantage of the novel variant, complete genomic sequences of GII.17 NoV strains from South China were comprehensively analyzed. Pairwise alignments of new GII.17 genomes with representative sequences of each GII genotype were performed. Inconsistent homology was observed between different protein-encoding regions, of which VPg (NS5) and P2 were found to be the most conserved and variable ones, respectively. The differences between new sequences and other reported GII.17 genomes were also compared, and 84 mismatched nucleotides were found, resulting in 15 amino acid changes. Then, all capsid sequences of different GII.17 NoV variants were collected for multiple alignments, and a total of 87 spots were identified during their evolution process. Homology modeling of capsid proteins of four GII.17 variants was carried out based on comparison with GII.4 VA387 strain, and structural differences were mainly embodied in five extended loops. Furthermore, positions of potential conformational epitope regions of new GII.17 variants were found more similar or adjacent to those of GII.4 rather than those of the former GII.17 variants. In summary, nine GII.17 strains from South China were extensively characterized based on their complete genomes, and a different distribution pattern of epitope residues was predicted on the new GII.17 variant capsid from that of the former ones. PMID:26923075

  20. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia. PMID:27424025

  1. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte I: Características clínicas y reducción de la duración de la fiebre con el uso de oseltamivir Outbreak of new influenza a H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part I: Clinical features and reducing the duration of fever with the use of oseltamivir during the outbreak of new influenza A H1N1 in Spanish forces in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde la declaración de alerta fase 6 por la OMS se han presentado brotes de gripe A H1N1 en todo el mundo. Presentamos los resultados del estudio realizado en el brote de nueva gripe A H1N1 en la Base Militar de Camp Arena en Herat (Afganistán. Método: Estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, de pacientes controlados por el Servicio de Sanidad del Role 2, valorando la edad, síntomas al ingreso, duración de la fiebre, test de despistaje rápido, complicaciones, intolerancia al oseltamivir. En el grupo inicial de paciente se valoró RT-PCR. Se compararon los grupos con y sin tratamiento con oseltamivir para la duración de la fiebre. Resultados: Estudio de 106 pacientes, con edad media 27,17 años, los síntomas más frecuentes fueron la tos seca y mal estado general. Los pacientes tratados sin oseltamivir presentaron una duración media de la fiebre de 3,71 días, y con oseltamivir de 2,54 días (pIntroduction: Since the warning statement of Phase 6 by WHO, the world has presented Influenza A H1N1 outbreaks. We present the results of the study of a new Influenza A H1N1 outbreak in the Military Base Camp Arena, in Heart (Afghanistan. Methods: Prospective case series of patients monitored by the Health Service of the Role 2, assessing the age, symptoms at admission, duration of fever, rapid screening test, complications, intolerance to oseltamivir. The initial group of patients was evaluated RT-PCR. We compared groups with and without treatment with oseltamivir for the duration of fever. Results: Study of 106 patients, mean age 27.17 years, the most common symptoms were dry cough and general disrepair. Patients without oseltamivir showed an average of 3.71 days of fever and with oseltamivir of 2.54 days (p <0.001. There were a total of 13 complications, the most frequent bronchitis. Intolerance to oseltamivir was presented in 11.29% of patients. Conclusions: Oseltamivir reduces the duration of fever significantly, with onset of

  2. 诺如病毒:“完美的人类病原”%Norovirus:a perfect human pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 甄珊珊; 汪萱怡

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the pathogen causing recent outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis in Beijing , Shanghai , Zhejiang and Guangdong in China . This short review introduces the biological and epidemiological characteristics of Norovirus and the current development of vaccine against its infection .%诺如病毒是近来在我国北京、上海、浙江、广东等地导致病毒性胃肠炎暴发的病原体。本文对该病毒的生物学特征与流行病学进行简短综述,并对正在研发的疫苗作介绍。

  3. Crystallography of a Lewis-binding norovirus, elucidation of strain-specificity to the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as host susceptible factors in a strain-specific manner. The crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of two A/B/H-binding noroviruses, the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1 and a predominant GII.4 strain (VA387, have been elucidated. In this study we determined the crystal structures of the P domain protein of the first Lewis-binding norovirus (VA207, GII.9 that has a distinct binding property from those of Norwalk virus and VA387. Co-crystallization of the VA207 P dimer with Le(y or sialyl Le(x tetrasaccharides showed that VA207 interacts with these antigens through a common site found on the VA387 P protein which is highly conserved among most GII noroviruses. However, the HBGA-binding site of VA207 targeted at the Lewis antigens through the α-1, 3 fucose (the Lewis epitope as major and the β-N-acetyl glucosamine of the precursor as minor interacting sites. This completely differs from the binding mode of VA387 and Norwalk virus that target at the secretor epitopes. Binding pocket of VA207 is formed by seven amino acids, of which five residues build up the core structure that is essential for the basic binding function, while the other two are involved in strain-specificity. Our results elucidate for the first time the genetic and structural basis of strain-specificity by a direct comparison of two genetically related noroviruses in their interaction with different HBGAs. The results provide insight into the complex interaction between the diverse noroviruses and the polymorphic HBGAs and highlight the role of human HBGA as a critical factor in norovirus evolution.

  4. Immunomagnetic Separation Combined with Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assays for Detection of Norovirus in Contaminated Food▿

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngbin; Cho, You-Hee; Jee, Youngmee; Ko, GwangPyo

    2008-01-01

    We developed an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique combined with real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), which allowed detection of norovirus at a level as low as 3 to 7 RT-PCR units from artificially contaminated strawberries. The inoculum recovery rate ranged from 14 to 30%. The data demonstrate that IMS combined with real-time RT-PCR will be useful as a rapid and sensitive method for detecting food-borne microbial contaminants.

  5. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane. PMID:27095709

  6. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Damascena da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

  7. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

    OpenAIRE

    Donà, D.; Mozzo, E.; A. Scamarcia; Picelli, G.; Villa, M.; Cantarutti, L.; C. Giaquinto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV) and Norovirus (NV). Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP) visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observ...

  8. A Food Handler-Associated, Foodborne Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012-Outbreak Following a Wedding Dinner, Austria, October 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Maritschnik, Sabine; Kanitz, Elisabeth Eva; Simons, Erica; Höhne, Marina; Neumann, Heidelinde; Allerberger, Franz; Schmid, Daniela; Lederer, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    On October 12, 2012, the provincial public health directorate of Salzburg reported a suspected norovirus (NV) outbreak among guests of a wedding–reception. The investigation aimed to confirm the causative agent, to identify the mode of transmission and to implement appropriate preventive measures. A probable outbreak case was defined as a wedding guest with diarrhoea or vomiting with disease onset from 7 to 10 October 2012 and who consumed food at the wedding dinner prepared by a hotel in the...

  9. Control of human norovirus surrogates in fresh foods by gaseous ozone and a proposed mechanism of inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Ashley; Sanglay, Gabe; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Fresh produce is a major concern for transmission of foodborne enteric viruses as it is normally consumed with no heat treatments and minimal other processing to ensure safety. Commonly used sanitizers are ineffective at removing foodborne viruses from fresh produce. Thus the use of gaseous ozone for viral inactivation was investigated. Ozone has great potential for improved food safety because of four benefits: It is a potent sanitizer, it is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, it is permitted for food use as regulated by the U.S. FDA and several other nations, and it spontaneously decomposes to oxygen leaving no residue. This study determined the effectiveness of gaseous ozone for the sanitization of two norovirus surrogates (MNV-1 and TV) from both liquid media and popular fresh foods where viral contamination is common-lettuce and strawberries. Foods were treated with gaseous ozone at 6% wt/wt ozone in oxygen for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, and surviving viruses were quantified by viral plaque assay. Our results showed that gaseous ozone inactivated norovirus in both liquid media and fresh produce in a dose-dependent manner. These results are promising because ozone treatment significantly reduced two important norovirus surrogates in both liquid and food matrices. Viruses are generally more resistant to sanitation treatments than bacteria, thus gaseous ozone is an effective means to improve fresh produce safety. PMID:25998824

  10. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Foodborne Diseases National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus Foodsafety.gov ​​ Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. ...

  11. Brote de intoxicación alimentaria asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada en la República del Paraguay Foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of ultrapasteurized milk in the Republic of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Weiler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante marzo de 2007 ocurrió un brote epidémico asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada que afectó a las ciudades de San Lorenzo, Ciudad del Este y Asunción, de la República del Paraguay. Las personas afectadas fueron 400, de las cuales 60 requirieron hospitalización. Se aisló S. aureus subespecie aureus de 5 pacientes, 3 operarios y 3 muestras de leche. Todas las cepas fueron productoras de enterotoxinas. Las aislamientos de 3 pacientes, de un operario y de las muestras de leche portaron los genes que codifican las enterotoxinas C (sec y D (sed, y presentaron un patrón único de macrorrestricción (SmaI-PFGE. Se identificó a la leche como fuente de intoxicación y a un operario de la línea de producción como origen de la contaminación. Este es el primer brote de ETA denunciado en Paraguay en el cual se pudo aislar, caracterizar y subtipificar el agente etiológico en la planta de elaboración, en el alimento y en las personas afectadas.During March 2007 there was an epidemic outbreak associated with the consumption of ultrapasteurized milk. Four hundred people were affected and 60 required hospitalization. S. aureus subspecies aureus was isolated from 5 patients, 3 operators and 3 milk samples. All strains produced enterotoxins. Strains isolated from 3 patients, one operator and all the milk samples carried the genes encoding enterotoxins C (sec and D (sed, and showed an indistinguishable macrorestriction pattern (SmaI-PFGE. Milk was identified as the source of intoxication and a production line operator as the source of contamination. This is the first foodborne outbreak reported in Paraguay whose agent was isolated, characterized and subtypified in the production plant, the food and the affected people.

  12. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission. PMID:26143492

  13. Miocarditis por dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Amador García Hernández; Fidel Espinosa Rivera; Lianet Rivero Seriel

    2013-01-01

    El dengue es un arbovirus transmitido por el Aedes aegypti, produce los cuadros clínicos de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico y síndrome de choque por dengue, aisladamente se reportan casos de miocarditis. Se presentó un paciente con antecedentes de dengue clásico que manifestó dolor precordial asociado a cambios electrocardiográficos y fue ingresado en este hospital por síndrome coronario agudo probable, al cual se le diagnosticó clínicamente miocarditis por dengue.

  14. MULTIPLICACIÓN In Vitro DE BROTES DE GUAYABA (Psidium guajava L.) VAR. ENANA ROJA CUBANA EEA 18-40 OBTENIDOS A PARTIR DE SEMILLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora T. Pérez; Lelurlys Nápoles; O. Concepción; R. Trujillo

    2002-01-01

    La guayaba se considera como una de las frutas tropicales más valiosas. La propagación de esta especie se lleva a cabo mediante el uso de estacas; sin embargo, es un método de baja eficiencia, debido a que una alta fenolización impide el buen enraizamiento y, por otro lado, la existencia limitada de plantas donadoras en algunos cultivares. El injerto y acodo se afectan severamente por la contaminación ambiental, por lo que se emplean con poco éxito para obtener grandes cantidades de plantas. ...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in berry production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although it is not known if in these outbreaks contamination occurred at minimal processing or during primary production. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU-wide Norovirus Hygiene Criterion at primary production for raspberries and strawberries. Microbiological criteria for Norovirus in berries are useful for validation and verification of food safety management systems, including HACCP-based processes and procedures, and can be used to communicate to food business operators and other stakeholders what is acceptable or unacceptable, however there is insufficient data to provide a risk base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk

  16. Crystallisation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protease from Southampton norovirus complexed with a Michael-acceptor inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Cooper, Jon [University of Southampton, England; Hussey, Robert [University of Southampton, England

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses are the predominant cause of human epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a cysteine protease that cleaves a 200 kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional parts. Here, the crystallization of the recombinant protease from the Southampton norovirus is described. While the native crystals were found to diffract only to medium resolution (2.9 {angstrom}), cocrystals of an inhibitor complex diffracted X-rays to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The polypeptide inhibitor (Ac-EFQLQ-propenyl ethyl ester) possesses an amino-acid sequence designed to match the substrate specificity of the enzyme, but was synthesized with a reactive Michael acceptor group at the C-terminal end.

  17. Presence of human noroviruses on bathroom surfaces: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Cortney M; Tang, Chaoyi; Sharp, Julia; Jiang, Xiuping; Fraser, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Enteric viruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide with most cases of illness attributed to caliciviruses, such as human noroviruses (HuNoV). While environmental transmission of HuNoV is reported to be low, environmental surfaces could be a source of secondary transmission. As many vomiting/fecal episodes occur in bathrooms, bathroom surfaces could be an important vehicle for transmitting HuNoV. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the presence of HuNoV on bathroom surfaces. Our review included 22 eligible studies conducted in commercial and institutional settings. Under outbreak conditions, 11 studies reported detection rates of 20-100 %. Six studies implicated bathroom surfaces as primary sources of HuNoV infection while three reported HuNoV present on bathroom surfaces but indicated different primary sources. Under non-outbreak conditions, five studies reported detection rates of 2-17 %. Factors associated with HuNoV presence in bathrooms included population density, setting type, employee numbers, food handler knowledge, awareness, and behaviours, and cleaning/disinfecting procedures. Our review suggests bathrooms could be vehicles that transmit HuNoV under both outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. PMID:26786956

  18. Development of a Practical Method to Detect Noroviruses Contamination in Composite Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroyuki; Toho, Miho; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru

    2015-09-01

    Various methods to detect foodborne viruses including norovirus (NoV) in contaminated food have been developed. However, a practical method suitable for routine examination that can be applied for the detection of NoVs in oily, fatty, or emulsive food has not been established. In this study, we developed a new extraction and concentration method for detecting NoVs in contaminated composite meals. We spiked NoV-GI.4 or -GII.4 stool suspension into potato salad and stir-fried noodles. The food samples were suspended in homogenizing buffer and centrifuged to obtain a food emulsion. Then, anti-NoV-GI.4 or anti-NoV-GII.4 rabbit serum raised against recombinant virus-like particles or commercially available human gamma globulin and Staphylococcus aureus fixed with formalin as a source of protein A were added to the food emulsion. NoV-IgG-protein A-containing bacterial complexes were collected by centrifugation, and viral RNA was extracted. The detection limits of NoV RNA were 10-35 copies/g food for spiked NoVs in potato salad and stir-fried noodles. Human gamma globulin could also concentrate other NoV genotypes as well as other foodborne viruses, including sapovirus, hepatitis A virus, and adenovirus. This newly developed method can be used as to identify NoV contamination in composite foods and is also possibly applicable to other foodborne viruses. PMID:25796206

  19. Antiviral activity of Ecasol against feline calicivirus, a surrogate of human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Yogesh; Johnson, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Russell, R J

    2012-12-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels and cruise ships. The virus survives on inanimate surfaces for extended periods of time, and environmental contamination has been implicated in its transmission. The disinfection of contaminated areas is important in controlling the spread of NoV infections. Neutral solutions of electrochemically activated (ECA)-anolyte have been shown to be powerful disinfectants against a broad range of bacterial pathogens. The active chemical ingredient is hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is registered as an approved food contact surface sanitizer in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency, pursuant to 40 CFR 180.940. We evaluated the antiviral activity of Ecasol (an ECA-anolyte) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of NoV. FCV dried on plastic surfaces was exposed to Ecasol for 1, 2, or 5min. After exposure to Ecasol, the virus titers were compared with untreated controls to determine the virus inactivation efficacy after different contact times. Ecasol was found to decrease the FCV titer by >5log(10) within 1min of contact, indicating its suitability for inactivation of NoV on surfaces. PMID:23287613

  20. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  1. A Waterborne Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Norovirus GII.17 in a Hotel, Hebei, China, December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Dong, Xiao-Gen; Jing, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiu-Xia; Wang, Zhao-E; Feng, Hui-Ru; Yu, Hong; Li, Jin-Song; Li, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for an estimated 90 % of all epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Waterborne outbreaks of NoV are commonly reported. A novel GII.17 NoV strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China during the winter of 2014/2015. During this time, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a hotel in a ski park in Hebei Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that one water well, which had only recently been in use, was the probable source. GII.17 NoV was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from samples taken from cases, from concentrated water samples from water well, and from the nearby sewage settling tank. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from clinical and water specimens were genetically identical and had 99 % homology with Beijing/CHN/2015. All epidemiological data indicated that GII.17 NoV was responsible for this outbreak. This is the first reported laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.17 NoV genotype in China. Strengthening management of well drinking water and systematica monitoring of NoV is essential for preventing future outbreaks. PMID:27084118

  2. Seroprevalence of norovirus genogroup IV antibodies among humans, Italy, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Ceci, Chiara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; De Grazia, Simona; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Massirio, Ivano; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio; Marsilio, Fulvio; Martella, Vito

    2014-11-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup IV (GIV) (Alphatron-like) cause infections in humans and in carnivorous animals such as dogs and cats. We screened an age-stratified collection of serum samples from 535 humans in Italy, using virus-like particles of genotypes GIV.1, circulating in humans, and GIV.2, identified in animals, in ELISA, in order to investigate the prevalence of GIV NoV-specific IgG antibodies. Antibodies specific for both genotypes were detected, ranging from a prevalence of 6.6% to 44.8% for GIV.1 and from 6.8% to 15.1% for GIV.2 among different age groups. These data are consistent with a higher prevalence of GIV.1 strains in the human population. Analysis of antibodies against GIV.2 suggests zoonotic transmission of animal NoVs, likely attributable to interaction between humans and domestic pets. This finding, and recent documentation of human transmission of NoVs to dogs, indicate the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between human and animal NoVs. PMID:25340375

  3. Report of recombinant norovirus GII.g/GII.12 in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Sang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV has been recognized as the most important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis affecting all age group people in the world. Genetic recombination is a common occurance in RNA viruses and many recombinant NoV strains have been described since it was first reported in 1997. However, the knowledge of recombinant NoV in China is extremely limited. METHODS: A total of 685 stool specimens were tested for NoV infection from the acute gastroenteritis patients who visited one general hospital in Beijing from April 2009 to November 2011. The virus recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of two genes, further SimPlot and the maximum chi-square analysis. RESULTS: The overall positive rate was 9.6% (66/685. GII.4 New Orleans 2009 and GII.4 2006b variants were the dominant genotype. Four GII.g/GII.12 and one GII.12/GII.3 recombinant strains were confirmed, and all derived from adult outpatients. The predictive recombination point occurred at the open reading frame (ORF1/ORF2 overlap. CONCLUSIONS: The GII.g ORF1/GII.12ORF2 recombinant has been reported in several countries and it was the first report of this recombinant in China.

  4. Human norovirus hyper-mutation revealed by ultra-deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, José M; Combe, Marine; Torres-Puente, Manoli; Garijo, Raquel; Guix, Susana; Buesa, Javier; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. It is thought that, similar to other RNA viruses, high mutation rates allow NoVs to evolve fast and to undergo rapid immune escape at the population level. However, the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations of human NoVs have not been quantified previously. Here, we analyzed the intra-patient diversity of the NoV capsid by carrying out RT-PCR and ultra-deep sequencing with 100,000-fold coverage of 16 stool samples from symptomatic patients. This revealed the presence of low-frequency sequences carrying large numbers of U-to-C or A-to-G base transitions, suggesting a role for hyper-mutation in NoV diversity. To more directly test for hyper-mutation, we performed transfection assays in which the production of mutations was restricted to a single cell infection cycle. This confirmed the presence of sequences with multiple U-to-C/A-to-G transitions, and suggested that hyper-mutation contributed a large fraction of the total NoV spontaneous mutation rate. The type of changes produced and their sequence context are compatible with ADAR-mediated editing of the viral RNA. PMID:27094861

  5. Molecular epidemiology of canine norovirus in dogs from Portugal, 2007–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita João

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine noroviruses (NoVs have been recently described in south European countries and associated with outbreaks of diarrhea in kennels. Unlike human NoV which are known as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis, little is known about the role of canine NoV as pathogens in dogs as well as its epidemiological features. Results From 2007–2011, 256 stool samples were collected from dogs across Portugal and tested by RT-PCR for canine NoV. Viral fecal shedding was found to be 23% (60/256. All sequences contained the GLPSG amino acid motif characteristic of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase gene of NoVs and had a high nucleotide identity (range 98%–100% to the canine NoV first described in Portugal. The highest shedding rate was detected during the winter months. Conclusions This study shows that canine NoV infection is endemic in the dog population of Portugal. Peak shedding was detected in the winter months, a well-known epidemiologic feature of human NoV infections.

  6. Infectivity of GI and GII noroviruses established from oyster related outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Anne; Teunis, Peter F M; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Denis, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the major cause of acute epidemic gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Outbreak strains are predominantly genogroup II (GII) NoV, but genogroup I (GI) strains are regularly found in oyster related outbreaks. The prototype Norwalk virus (GI), has been shown to have high infectivity in a human challenge study. Whether other NoVs are equally infectious via natural exposure remains to be established. Human susceptibility to NoV is partly determined by the secretor status (Se+/-). Data from five published oyster related outbreaks were analyzed in a Bayesian framework. Infectivity estimates where high and consistent with NV(GI) infectivity, for both GII and GI strains. The median and CI95 probability of infection and illness, in Se+ subjects, associated with exposure to a mean of one single NoV genome copy were around 0.29[0.015-0.61] for GI and 0.4[0.04-0.61] for GII, and for illness 0.13[0.007-0.39] for GI and 0.18[0.017-0.42] for GII. Se- subjects were strongly protected against infection. The high infectivity estimates for Norwalk virus GI and GII, makes NoVs critical target for food safety regulations. PMID:23746803

  7. Neutral Red Assay for Murine Norovirus Replication and Detection in a Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Mariam Bernadette; Perry, Jeffrey William; Wobus, Christiane E.

    2016-01-01

    Neutral red (NR) is a dye that must be actively imported into the cell, and, therefore, the dye has been used for decades to selectively stain living cells. In addition, NR can also be incorporated into virus particles, although the mechanism behind this is poorly understood. Once encapsulated into the virion, NR, a light sensitive dye, can be photoactivated to inactivate the virus. The proposed mechanism explaining this observation is that activation of NR allows the dye to cross-link viral genome to viral capsid and thus preventing viral uncoating and infection. To study the early events of murine norovirus (MNV)-host interaction, light-sensitive NR-containing MNV is used to distinguish between input virus (i.e., NR-containing virus) and replicated virus (i.e., NR-free virus). This protocol describes the incorporation of NR into MNV capsids and the use of these virions for detection of viral replication in a mouse and in tissue culture by standard plaque assay. The same technique is also used for study of poliovirus replication (1–3). Thus, there is the potential that this technique can be used for additional non-enveloped viruses. However, this has to be tested on a case-by-case basis as unpublished data on feline calicivirus suggests not all viruses may be able to stably incorporate NR into their capsid (J. Parker, personal communication).

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of norovirus in são paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, Simone Guadagnucci; Cilli, Audrey; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Norovirus (NoV), previously called Norwalk-like virus, represents an important group of human pathogens associated with outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Epidemiological surveys of outbreaks have shown that the most important routes of transmission are person-to-person contacts and contaminated food and water, with the virus affecting adults and children. NoV is classified into genogroups, being genogroups GI, GII and GIV found in humans. In view of the high genetic diversity of NoV and the lack of information about this virus in Brazil, the aim of the present study was the molecular characterization of NoV isolated from diarrheic stool samples of patients from São Paulo State. In this study, 204 stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks were analyzed by RT-PCR, and 12 were sequenced for genogroup confirmation. One-step PCR was performed in order to amplify the B region of ORF 1 using the MON 431, 432, 433 and 434 primer pool. From total, 32 (15.7%) stool specimens were positive for NoV genogroup GII. Comparison of the sequences of the PCR products to GenBank sequences showed 88.8% to 98.8% identity, suggesting the presence of genogroup GII in gastroenteritis outbreaks in São Paulo State. PMID:24031277

  9. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjé, Jan; Vennema, Harry; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Hoehne, Marina; Schreier, Eckart; Richards, Alison; Green, Jon; Brown, David; Beard, Suzanne S; Monroe, Stephan S; de Bruin, Erwin; Svensson, Lennart; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2003-04-01

    To allow more rapid and internationally standardized assessment of the spread of noroviruses (previously called Norwalk-like viruses [NLVs]) as important food-borne pathogens, harmonization of methods for their detection is needed. Diagnosis of NLVs in clinical diagnostic laboratories is usually performed by reverse transciptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In the present study, the performance of five different RT-PCR assays for the detection of NLVs was evaluated in an international collaborative study by five laboratories in five countries with a coded panel of 91 fecal specimens. The assays were tested for their sensitivity, detection limit, and ease of standardization. In total, NLVs could be detected by at least one RT-PCR assay in 69 (84%) of the samples that originally tested positive. Sensitivity ranged from 52 to 73% overall and from 54 to 100% and 58 to 85% for genogroup I and II viruses, respectively. In all, 64% of the false-negative results were obtained with a set of diluted stools (n = 20) that may have lost quality upon storage. Sensitivity was improved when these samples were excluded from analysis. No one single assay stood out as the best, although the p1 assay demonstrated the most satisfactory overall performance. To promote comparability of data, this assay will be recommended for newly starting groups in future collaborative studies. PMID:12682125

  10. Persistence and Elimination of Human Norovirus in Food and on Food Contact Surfaces: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel; Knight, Angus; Richards, Gary P

    2016-07-01

    This critical review addresses the persistence of human norovirus (NoV) in water, shellfish, and processed meats; on berries, herbs, vegetables, fruits, and salads; and on food contact surfaces. The review focuses on studies using NoV; information from studies involving only surrogates is not included. It also addresses NoV elimination or inactivation by various chemical, physical, or processing treatments. In most studies, persistence or elimination was determined by detection and quantification of the viral genome, although improved methods for determining infectivity have been proposed. NoV persisted for 60 to 728 days in water, depending on water source. It also persisted on berries, vegetables, and fruit, often showing foods or food contact surfaces using chlorine, calcium or sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, high hydrostatic pressure, high temperatures, pH values >8.0, freeze-drying, and UV radiation. Ineffective disinfectants included hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, most ethanol-based disinfectants, and antiseptics at normally used concentrations. Thorough washing of herbs and produce was effective in reducing, but not eliminating, NoV in most products. Washing hands with soap generally reduced NoV by <2 log. Recommendations for future research needs are provided. PMID:27357051

  11. Angioedema por rellenos faciales: Descripción de cinco casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela A. Cosatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha incrementado la utilización de sustancias de relleno facial con fines estéticos. Estos productos, originalmente considerados inertes, se asocian con diversos efectos adversos localizados alrededor del sitio de la aplicación. Describimos a 5 mujeres con antecedentes de inyecciones de sustancia de relleno facial que presentaron como síntoma inicial angioedema facial duro y persistente seguido por la aparición de nódulos subcutáneos. Todas las pacientes fueron derivadas al servicio de alergia por sospecha de angioedema de causa alérgica sin respuesta al tratamiento con antihistamínicos. El angioedema inició 27.6 meses (1 a 48 luego de la inyección del producto, y las pacientes evolucionaron con brotes y remisiones que fueron tratados con corticoides orales y en 2 oportunidades con inyecciones locales. El tiempo medio desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta la remisión del angioedema fue 8.75 meses (1 a 24. A octubre de 2009 cuatro pacientes se mantuvieron en remisión persistente, luego de un seguimiento clínico de 24.5 meses (7 a 36. Una paciente continúa con exacerbaciones luego de 11 meses de iniciados los síntomas. Las sustancias de relleno facial pueden producir angioedema como evento adverso y deben ser consideradas en el diagnóstico diferencial del angioedema persistente. Sólo responden al tratamiento con esteroides y en algunos casos esteroides dependientes, con ciclosporina. La frecuencia de angioedema por rellenos faciales entre pacientes con angioedema asistidos en la Unidad de Asma, Alergia e Inmunología Clínica fue del 0.5%.

  12. Lack of transmission of murine norovirus to mice via in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Marcello; Mahabir, Esther; Fray, Martin; Volland, Ruth; Scavizzi, Ferdinando

    2016-07-15

    Since its discovery in 2003, murine norovirus (MNV) is still endemic in many rodent animal facilities. Our aim was to determine the risk of transmission of MNV (91% homology to MNV3) to embryo recipients and pups via assisted reproductive technologies, especially those which compromise the integrity of the zona pellucida. In vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted in vitro fertilization (AIVF) with reduced glutathione, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation were performed. Murine norovirus was detected by qualitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After natural infection of immunocompetent C57BL/6NTacCnrm and immunodeficient athymic nude mice with MNV, the mesenteric lymph nodes, small intestine, spleen, liver, lung, brain, ovary, and testis were infected at specific intervals for more than a 1-year period. At Week 12, the number of viral genomes per milligram of gonad from both strains was 20 to 50. Murine norovirus strictly adhered to spermatozoa collected from infected mice because three washes did not remove MNV from the sperm. After using MNV-positive sperm for IVF, AIVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 27 to 30 genomes were detected in IVF (n = 100) and AIVF (n = 100) embryos from both mouse strains. Approximately 87% of MNV detected in these embryos was found in the zona pellucida. However, all embryo transfer recipients, pups, and ovary recipients were MNV-negative. The results indicate that manipulation of the germplasm through assisted reproductive technologies did not lead to transmission of MNV to mice. This may be because of the absence of an infectious dose or failure of the MNV strain to replicate effectively in developing embryos and the reproductive tract. PMID:26972226

  13. Identificación de agentes etiológicos aislados de muestras biológicas en brote por intoxicación alimentaria en el departamento de Atlántico. Colombia. 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra-Sarmiento Marlene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: foodborne diseases constitute a worldwide problem of public health and generate a negative socio-economic impact. Objective: to identify the causal agent of an outbreak of food poisoning in a school cafeteria. Methods: Study carried out in people affected by a food poisoning in the municipality of Santo Tomas, Atlántico, Colombia, in the first semester of 2008. Phenotypic identification of 24 families of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from vomiting, fecal material, gastric juices, secretion of injury in finger and nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal secretion in schoolchildren and food handlers was carried out. Of these families, 15 were analyzed by means of PCR-RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The products of PCR were visualized in agarose gels and analyzed by means of a dendogram. The similarity coefficient of Jaccard was calculated. Results: Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 16 samples of fecal material and Salmonella spp was recognized in two samples. In vomiting, 6 samples were positive for Coagulase-positive S. aureus and one sample for Salmonella spp. Also, Coagulase-positive S. aureus was isolated in a sample of secretion of nail and in nasopharyngeal secretion. Conclusion: Families of S. aureus with wide molecular diversity were identified. It constitutes the possible causal agent of an outbreak by food poisoing in a school cafeteria. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(2:233-241

  14. Diversity of murine norovirus strains isolated from asymptomatic mice of different genetic backgrounds within a single U.S. research institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elyssa L; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Prikhodko, Victor; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Rhodes, Crystal R; Hasenkrug, Kim; Carmody, Aaron B; Ward, Jerrold M; Perdue, Kathy; Green, Kim Y

    2011-01-01

    Antibody prevalence studies in laboratory mice indicate that murine norovirus (MNV) infections are common, but the natural history of these viruses has not been fully established. This study examined the extent of genetic diversity of murine noroviruses isolated from healthy laboratory mice housed in multiple animal facilities within a single, large research institute- the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIAID-NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, U.S. Ten distinct murine norovirus strains were isolated from various tissues and feces of asymptomatic wild type sentinel mice as well as asymptomatic immunodeficient (RAG 2(-/-)) mice. The NIH MNV isolates showed little cytopathic effect in permissive RAW264.7 cells in early passages, but all isolates examined could be adapted to efficient growth in cell culture by serial passage. The viruses, although closely related in genome sequence, were distinguishable from each other according to facility location, likely due to the introduction of new viruses into each facility from separate sources or vendors at different times. Our study indicates that the murine noroviruses are widespread in these animal facilities, despite rigorous guidelines for animal care and maintenance. PMID:21738664

  15. Detection of human Norovirus in cherry tomatoes, blueberries and vegetable salad by using a receptor binding based capture and magnetic sequestration(RBCMS) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated produce related norovirus (NoV) outbreak is a major public health concern. The establishment of a simple assay for concentrating and detecting NoV contamination in fresh produce that can be performed in a single day would be of great benefit to the producers and regulators of produce pr...

  16. The influence of temperature pH and water immersion on the high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of GI.1 and GII.4 human noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of human norovirus (HuNoV) usually relies on molecular biology techniques, such as qRT PCR. Since histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are the functional receptors for HuNoV, HuNoV can bind to porcine gastric mucin (PGM), which contains HBGA-like antigens. In this study, PGM conjugated magn...

  17. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation.

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    Eoin N Leen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652-1132. Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy.

  18. Unrecognized Norovirus Infections in Health Care Institutions and Their Clinical Impact

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    Sukhrie, Faizel H. A.; Bogerman, Jolanda; Verhoef, Linda; Mde Melo, Mariana; Vonk, Alieke G.; Koopmans, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) have emerged as the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis (GE) in humans. Although diagnostic facilities have greatly improved, significant underdiagnosis of NoV in hospitals may still occur, thereby increasing clinical burden and nosocomial spread. We evaluated the underdiagnosis of sporadic NoV infections in a tertiary care hospital and estimated its clinical impact. From December 2008 until July 2009, fecal samples specifically referred for bacterial but not viral examination were retrospectively tested for NoV by real-time PCR. The clinical and virological data from patients with undiagnosed NoV infection (missed patients) were evaluated and compared with those from patients with recognized NoV. During the study period, 45 patients with undiagnosed NoV were detected, whereas 50 patients were regularly diagnosed. The missed NoV cases were more frequently adults than children (80% versus 46%; P < 0.001). The viral load levels did not differ between the diagnosed and missed patients, but missed patients more frequently presented without diarrhea (20% versus 4%; P < 0.07). The newly admitted missed NoV cases with GE underwent more diagnostic imaging (24% versus 4%; P < 0.01) and tended to be hospitalized longer. When missed-NoV patients were included, the number of nosocomial clusters doubled and missed patients were index cases in 5 of the 6 clusters. These data indicate that NoV infections are frequently missed despite routine laboratory testing and demonstrate that underdiagnosis of NoV patients is associated with costly abdominal imaging and nosocomial clustering. Awareness of NoV infection in adult patients and education about the importance of viral GE should be increased. PMID:22785184

  19. Genetic analysis and homology modeling of capsid protein of norovirus GII.14.

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    Chan-It, Wisoot; Thongprachum, Aksara; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a more detailed genetic characterization of the VP1 capsid protein of uncommon norovirus (NoV) GII.14 strains reported previously in Japan and China was performed using sequence analyses and homology modeling technique. The result of genetic comparison with the M7 prototype strain of GII.14 revealed that 10 amino acid mutations were observed at the same positions across the P2 and P1-2 subdomains in both Japanese and Chinese strains. By the homology modeling of the P domain, 7 out of these 10 mutations were predicted to be located on the surface-exposed P2 and P1-2 subdomains. All GII.14 strains had an altered RGD-like motif (RGT → KGT). While the Chinese strains contained 5 random amino acid changes in the S domain and the P2 subdomain, these changes were not detected in the Japanese strains. In addition, the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-binding interfaces remain identical to those of the previously determined GII.4 structure (VA387), suggesting the conservation of HBGA binding profile within the GII genogroup. Taken together, this report provides supportive structural data that antigenic drifts that occurred mostly in the P2 and P1-2 subdomains might be sufficient to generate new mutants, thus permitting the GII.14 virus to escape the host pre-existing immunity. These results also suggest the need for comparing the evolutionary profiles and structural models of rare NoV genotypes to an insight into NoV evolution. PMID:24009213

  20. The need for harmonization in detection of human noroviruses in food.

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    Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Van Coillie, Els

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) have been recognized worldwide as a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis over the last decade. A broad range of foods- shellfish, fresh produce, and ready-to-eat/catered foods-has been implicated in NoV foodborne outbreaks. The recognition of NoV as an important food pathogen has been aided by the development of sensitive molecular methods for detection of the NoV genome. However, despite advances, NoV detection is still hampered by several limitations. First, NoV detection can often only be implemented by expert laboratories due to the complexity of the virus extraction step, which in most protocols is cumbersome and labor-intensive. Moreover, a very wide selection of automated methods for virus extraction from foods is available, so selection of an adequate method is not straightforward. On the other hand, automated systems have been made available or the RNA purification and real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is considered the gold standard for detection of NoV. Second, correct interpretation of real-time PCR results is often difficult. From a technical point of view, the interpretation of the often nonsigmoidal amplification curves remains difficult, even for experts. From a food safety perspective, interpretation of very high Cq (or Ct) values-and thus, of low viral genomic copy numbers-is not straightforward, as RT-(q)PCR merely detects the presence of viral genomic material that is not necessarily linked to the presence of infectious viral particles. Despite efforts, both limitations have not completely resolved thus far. Harmonization may be a first step to comprehend and deal with these limitations. The current review provides an overview of a number of validated methods that have been published by food safety and other authorities. PMID:24282938

  1. Virucidal effect of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma on feline calicivirus, a surrogate for human norovirus.

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    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Williams, Paul; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Bruggeman, Peter J; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-06-01

    Minimal food-processing methods are not effective against foodborne viruses, such as human norovirus (NV). It is important, therefore, to explore novel nonthermal technologies for decontamination of foods eaten fresh, minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods, and food contact surfaces. We studied the in vitro virucidal activity of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma (CGP) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of NV. Factors affecting the virucidal activity of CGP (a so-called radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet) were the plasma generation power, the exposure time and distance, the plasma feed gas mixture, and the virus suspension medium. Exposure to 2.5-W argon (Ar) plasma caused a 5.55 log10 unit reduction in the FCV titer within 120 s. The reduction in the virus titer increased with increasing exposure time and decreasing exposure distance. Of the four plasma gas mixtures studied (Ar, Ar plus 1% O2, Ar plus 1% dry air, and Ar plus 0.27% water), Ar plus 1% O2 plasma treatment had the highest virucidal effect: more than 6.0 log10 units of the virus after 15 s of exposure. The lowest virus reduction was observed with Ar plus 0.27% water plasma treatment (5 log10 unit reduction after 120 s). The highest reduction in titer was observed when the virus was suspended in distilled water. Changes in temperature and pH and formation of H2O2 were not responsible for the virucidal effect of plasma. The oxidation of viral capsid proteins by plasma-produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the solution was thought to be responsible for the virucidal effect. In conclusion, CGP exhibits virucidal activity in vitro and has the potential to combat viral contamination in foods and on food preparation surfaces. PMID:25795667

  2. Norovirus Outbreak Caused by a New Septic System in a Dolomite Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, M. A.; Bradbury, K.R.; Alexander, E.C.; Kolberg, R.J.; Alexander, S.C.; Archer, J.R.; Braatz, L.A.; Forest, B.M.; Green, J.A.; Spencer, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Septic systems that are built in compliance with regulations are generally not expected to be the cause of groundwater borne disease outbreaks, especially in areas with thick vadose zones. However, this case study demonstrates that a disease outbreak can occur in such a setting and outlines the combination of epidemiological, microbiological, and hydrogeological methods used to confirm the source of the outbreak. In early June 2007, 229 patrons and employees of a new restaurant in northeastern Wisconsin were affected by acute gastroenteritis; 6 people were hospitalized. Epidemiological case-control analysis indicated that drinking the restaurant's well water was associated with illness (odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 0.9 to 11.4, P = 0.06). Microbiological analysis (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) measured 50 genomic copies per liter of norovirus genogroup I in the well water. Nucleotide sequencing determined the genotype as GI.2 and further showed the identical virus was present in patrons' stool specimens and in the septic tank. Tracer tests using dyes injected at two points in the septic system showed that effluent was traveling from the tanks (through a leaking fitting) and infiltration field to the well in 6 and 15 d, respectively. The restaurant septic system and well (85-m deep, in a fractured dolomite aquifer) both conformed to state building codes. The early arrival of dye in the well, which was 188 m from the septic field and located beneath a 35-m thick vadose zone, demonstrates that in highly vulnerable hydrogeological settings, compliance with regulations may not provide adequate protection from fecal pathogens. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Expression of the VP2 protein of murine norovirus by a translation termination-reinitiation strategy.

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    Sawsan Napthine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of the minor virion structural protein VP2 of the calicivirus murine norovirus (MNV is believed to occur by the unusual mechanism of termination codon-dependent reinitiation of translation. In this process, following translation of an upstream open reading frame (ORF and termination at the stop codon, a proportion of 40S subunits remain associated with the mRNA and reinitiate at the AUG of a downstream ORF, which is typically in close proximity. Consistent with this, the VP2 start codon (AUG of MNV overlaps the stop codon of the upstream VP1 ORF (UAA in the pentanucleotide UAAUG. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we confirm that MNV VP2 expression is regulated by termination-reinitiation and define the mRNA sequence requirements. Efficient reintiation is dependent upon 43 nt of RNA immediately upstream of the UAAUG site. Chemical and enzymatic probing revealed that the RNA in this region is not highly structured and includes an essential stretch of bases complementary to 18S rRNA helix 26 (Motif 1. The relative position of Motif 1 with respect to the UAAUG site impacts upon the efficiency of the process. Termination-reinitiation in MNV was also found to be relatively insensitive to the initiation inhibitor edeine. CONCLUSIONS: The termination-reinitiation signal of MNV most closely resembles that of influenza BM2. Similar to other viruses that use this strategy, base-pairing between mRNA and rRNA is likely to play a role in tethering the 40S subunit to the mRNA following termination at the VP1 stop codon. Our data also indicate that accurate recognition of the VP2 ORF AUG is not a pre-requisite for efficient reinitiation of translation in this system.

  4. Linking healthcare associated norovirus outbreaks: a molecular epidemiologic method for investigating transmission

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    Andrews Nick

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause gastroenteritis in the community and in semi-closed institutions such as hospitals. During outbreaks, multiple units within a hospital are often affected, and a major question for control programs is: are the affected units part of the same outbreak or are they unrelated transmission events? In practice, investigators often assume a transmission link based on epidemiological observations, rather than a systematic approach to tracing transmission. Here, we present a combined molecular and statistical method for assessing: 1 whether observed clusters provide evidence of local transmission and 2 the probability that anecdotally|linked outbreaks truly shared a transmission event. Methods 76 healthcare associated outbreaks were observed in an active and prospective surveillance scheme of 15 hospitals in the county of Avon, England from April 2002 to March 2003. Viral RNA from 64 out of 76 specimens from distinct outbreaks was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and was sequenced in the polymerase (ORF 1 and capsid (ORF 2 regions. The genetic diversity, at the nucleotide level, was analysed in relation to the epidemiological patterns. Results Two out of four genetic and epidemiological clusters of outbreaks were unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, thus suggesting local transmission. There was anecdotal epidemiological evidence of a transmission link among 5 outbreaks pairs. By combining this epidemiological observation with viral sequence data, the evidence of a link remained convincing in 3 of these pairs. These results are sensitive to prior beliefs of the strength of epidemiological evidence especially when the outbreak strains are common in the background population. Conclusion The evidence suggests that transmission between hospitals units does occur. Using the proposed criteria, certain hypothesized transmission links between outbreaks were supported while

  5. Aerosolization of a Human Norovirus Surrogate, Bacteriophage MS2, during Simulated Vomiting.

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    Grace Tung-Thompson

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (NoV are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks have suggested that vomiting facilitates transmission of human NoV, but there have been no laboratory-based studies characterizing the degree of NoV release during a vomiting event. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that virus aerosolization occurs in a simulated vomiting event, and to estimate the amount of virus that is released in those aerosols. A simulated vomiting device was constructed at one-quarter scale of the human body following similitude principles. Simulated vomitus matrices at low (6.24 mPa*s and high (177.5 mPa*s viscosities were inoculated with low (108 PFU/mL and high (1010 PFU/mL concentrations of bacteriophage MS2 and placed in the artificial "stomach" of the device, which was then subjected to scaled physiologically relevant pressures associated with vomiting. Bio aerosols were captured using an SKC Biosampler. In low viscosity artificial vomitus, there were notable differences between recovered aerosolized MS2 as a function of pressure (i.e., greater aerosolization with increased pressure, although this was not always statistically significant. This relationship disappeared when using high viscosity simulated vomitus. The amount of MS2 aerosolized as a percent of total virus "vomited" ranged from 7.2 x 10-5 to 2.67 x 10-2 (which corresponded to a range of 36 to 13,350 PFU total. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document and measure aerosolization of a NoV surrogate in a similitude-based physical model. This has implications for better understanding the transmission dynamics of human NoV and for risk modeling purposes, both of which can help in designing effective infection control measures.

  6. Updates on the genetic variations of Norovirus in sporadic gastroenteritis in Chungnam Korea, 2009-2010

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    Park KwiSung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, we explored the epidemic pattern and molecular characterization of noroviruses (NoVs isolated in Chungnam, Korea in 2008, and the present study extended these observations to 2009 and 2010. In Korea, NoVs showed the seasonal prevalence from late fall to spring, and widely detected in preschool children and peoples over 60 years of age. Epidemiological pattern of NoV was similar in 2008 and in 2010, but pattern in 2009 was affected by pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus. NoV-positive samples were subjected to sequence determination of the capsid gene region, which resolved the isolated NoVs into five GI (2, 6, 7, 9 and 10 and eleven GII genotypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 16 and 17. The most prevalent genotype was GII.4 and occupied 130 out of 211 NoV isolates (61.6%. Comparison of NoV GII.4 of prevalent genotype in these periods with reference strains of the same genotype was conducted to genetic analysis by a phylogenetic tree. The NoV GII.4 strains were segregated into seven distinct genetic groups, which are supported by high bootstrap values and previously reported clusters. All Korean NoV GII.4 strains belonged to either VI cluster or VII cluster. The divergence of nucleotide sequences within VI and VII intra-clusters was > 3.9% and > 3.5%, respectively. The "Chungnam(06-117/2010" strain which was isolated in June 2010 was a variant that did not belong to cluster VI or VII and showed 5.8-8.2%, 6.2-8.1% nucleotide divergence with cluster VI and VII, respectively.

  7. Predominance of norovirus and sapovirus in Nicaragua after implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination.

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    Filemón Bucardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. METHODS: We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV and sapovirus (SV infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. RESULTS: We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330 of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330 and RV (8%, 25/330. The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82% for NV, GI (46% for SV and G1P[8] (64% in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination.

  8. Trivalent combination vaccine induces broad heterologous immune responses to norovirus and rotavirus in mice.

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    Kirsi Tamminen

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV and norovirus (NoV are the two major causes of viral gastroenteritis (GE in children worldwide. We have developed an injectable vaccine design to prevent infection or GE induced with these enteric viruses. The trivalent combination vaccine consists of NoV capsid (VP1 derived virus-like particles (VLPs of GI-3 and GII-4 representing the two major NoV genogroups and tubular RV recombinant VP6 (rVP6, the most conserved and abundant RV protein. Each component was produced in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus expression system and combined in vitro. The vaccine components were administered intramuscularly to BALB/c mice either separately or in the trivalent combination. High levels of NoV and RV type specific serum IgGs with high avidity (>50% as well as intestinal IgGs were detected in the immunized mice. Cross-reactive IgG antibodies were also elicited against heterologous NoV VLPs not used for immunization (GII-4 NO, GII-12 and GI-1 VLPs and to different RVs from cell cultures. NoV-specific serum antibodies blocked binding of homologous and heterologous VLPs to the putative receptors, histo-blood group antigens, suggesting broad NoV neutralizing activity of the sera. Mucosal antibodies of mice immunized with the trivalent combination vaccine inhibited RV infection in vitro. In addition, cross-reactive T cell immune responses to NoV and RV-specific antigens were detected. All the responses were sustained for up to six months. No mutual inhibition of the components in the trivalent vaccine combination was observed. In conclusion, the NoV GI and GII VLPs combination induced broader cross-reactive and potentially neutralizing immune responses than either of the VLPs alone. Therefore, trivalent vaccine might induce protective immune responses to the vast majority of circulating NoV and RV genotypes.

  9. Murine Norovirus Infection Variably Alters Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charlie C; Paik, Jisun; Brabb, Thea L; O'Brien, Kevin D; Kim, Jinkyu; Sullivan, Brittany G; Hudkins, Kelly L; Seamons, Audrey; Finley, Jennifer C; Meeker, Stacey M; Maggio-Price, Lillian

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in MNV4-infected ApoE -/- bone marrow-derived macrophages and consisted of increased CD36 and decreased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) mice at 12 wk of age (during the development of atherosclerosis) had a variable effect on atherosclerotic lesion size. In one study, MNV4 significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque area whereas in a second study, no effect was observed. Compared with controls, MNV4-infected mice had higher circulating Ly6C-positive monocytes, and viral RNA was detected in the aortas of some mice, suggesting potential mechanisms by which MNV4 alters disease progression. Plaque size did not differ when ApoE -/- mice were infected at 4 wk of age (early during disease development) or in ApoE -/- mice maintained on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these data show that MNV4 has the potential to exert a variable and unpredictable effect on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. We therefore propose that performing experiments in MNV-free mouse colonies is warranted. PMID:26473341

  10. Fast detection of Noroviruses using a real-time PCR assay and automated sample preparation

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    Schmid Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoV have become one of the most commonly reported causative agents of large outbreaks of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide as well as sporadic gastroenteritis in the community. Currently, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays have been implemented in NoV diagnosis, but improvements that simplify and standardize sample preparation, amplification, and detection will be further needed. The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR offers such refinements. Methods We have designed a new real-time RT-PCR assay on the LightCycler (LC with SYBR Green detection and melting curve analysis (Tm to detect NoV RNA in patient stool samples. The performance of the real-time PCR assay was compared with that obtained in parallel with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA for antigen detection by testing a panel of 52 stool samples. Additionally, in a collaborative study with the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Health office, Stuttgart (Germany the real-time PCR results were blindly assessed using a previously well-established nested PCR (nPCR as the reference method, since PCR-based techniques are now considered as the "gold standard" for NoV detection in stool specimens. Results Analysis of 52 clinical stool samples by real-time PCR yielded results that were consistent with reference nPCR results, while marked differences between the two PCR-based methods and antigen ELISA were observed. Our results indicate that PCR-based procedures are more sensitive and specific than antigen ELISA for detecting NoV in stool specimens. Conclusions The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR provided reliable diagnostic results in less time than conventional RT-PCR assays. These benefits make it a valuable tool for routine laboratory practice especially in terms of rapid and appropriate outbreak-control measures in health-care facilities and other settings.

  11. Protein-RNA linkage and posttranslational modifications of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus VPg proteins

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    Olspert, Allan; Hosmillo, Myra; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Peil, Lauri; Truve, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Caliciviridae family of positive sense RNA viruses cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals. The detailed characterization of the calicivirus life cycle had been hampered due to the lack of robust cell culture systems and experimental tools for many of the members of the family. However, a number of caliciviruses replicate efficiently in cell culture and have robust reverse genetics systems available, most notably feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV). These are therefore widely used as representative members with which to examine the mechanistic details of calicivirus genome translation and replication. The replication of the calicivirus RNA genome occurs via a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is then used as a template for the production of new positive sense viral RNA, which is covalently linked to the virus-encoded protein VPg. The covalent linkage to VPg occurs during genome replication via the nucleotidylylation activity of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Using FCV and MNV, we used mass spectrometry-based approach to identify the specific amino acid linked to the 5′ end of the viral nucleic acid. We observed that both VPg proteins are covalently linked to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) moieties via tyrosine positions 24 and 26 for FCV and MNV respectively. These data fit with previous observations indicating that mutations introduced into these specific amino acids are deleterious for viral replication and fail to produce infectious virus. In addition, we also detected serine phosphorylation sites within the FCV VPg protein with positions 80 and 107 found consistently phosphorylated on VPg-linked viral RNA isolated from infected cells. This work provides the first direct experimental characterization of the linkage of infectious calicivirus viral RNA to the VPg protein and highlights that post-translational modifications of VPg may also occur during the viral life cycle. PMID:27375966

  12. A bivalent virus-like particle based vaccine induces a balanced antibody response against both enterovirus 71 and norovirus in mice.

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    Wang, Xiaoli; Ku, Zhiqiang; Dai, Wenlong; Chen, Tan; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yingyi; Liu, Qingwei; Jin, Xia; Huang, Zhong

    2015-10-26

    Noroviruses are the main cause of severe viral gastroenteritis, which results in estimated 200,000 deaths each year, primarily in children in the developing world. Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) strains are responsible for the majority of norovirus outbreaks. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the leading causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, has recently been prevalent in Asia-Pacific regions, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in young children. However, no vaccine is commercially available for either norovirus GII.4 or EV71. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from either GII.4 or EV71 have been shown to be promising monovalent vaccine candidates. In this study, we investigate the possibility to formulate a VLP-based bivalent vaccine for both norovirus GII.4 and EV71. The GII.4- and EV71-VLPs were produced in a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. A bivalent combination vaccine comprised of GII.4 and EV71 VLPs was formulated and compared with monovalent GII.4- and EV71-VLPs for their immunogenicity in mice. We found that the bivalent vaccine elicited durable antibody responses toward both GII.4 and EV71, and the antibody titers were comparable to that induced by the monovalent vaccines, indicating there is no immunological interference between the two antigens in the combination vaccine. More significantly, the bivalent vaccine-immunized mouse sera could efficiently neutralize EV71 infection and block GII.4-VLP binding to mucin. Together, our results demonstrate that the experimental combination vaccine comprised of GII.4 and EV71-VLPs is able to induce a balanced protective antibody response, and therefore strongly support further preclinical and clinical development of such a bivalent VLP vaccine targeting both norovirus GII.4 and EV71. PMID:26424606

  13. Prevención y control de la infección ante sujetos sospechosos de infección por el nuevo coronavirus MERS-CoV en Unidades militares

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    MªE. Mayo Montero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros casos del nuevo coronavirus MERS-CoV surgieron en Arabia Saudí en el año 2012. Hasta la fecha el virus se ha extendido a países vecinos, notificándose casos importados en Europa, América del Norte, África y Asia. En mayo de 2015 se declara a la OMS el primer caso confirmado por laboratorio de un brote en Corea del Sur, donde se ha producido hasta transmisión cuaternaria. El agente se transmite por vía aérea, por contacto directo con secreciones infectadas y por fómites, presenta una letalidad en torno al 37%. Por lo que en el manejo de pacientes se adoptarán precauciones estándar, de contacto y de transmisión aérea cuando se apliquen técnicas que generen aerosoles. Debido a la gravedad de la enfermedad y al desconocimiento de los mecanismos de transmisión, resulta prioritario establecer en las unidades militares donde se sospeche la aparición de un caso las medidas de prevención y control de la infección para: detectar rápida y precozmente un caso sospechoso, proteger al personal sanitario, a otros pacientes y al resto del personal, así como implementar las medidas de aislamiento apropiadas.

  14. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belem, Northern Brazil.

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    Glicélia Cruz Aragão

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.

  15. Epidemiological and virological investigation of a Norovirus outbreak in a resort in Puglia, Italy

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    Coscia Maria

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the third large outbreak of Norovirus (NoV gastroenteritis reported in the Southern Italy region of Puglia. Methods A matched case control study was conducted, on 19 July 2005, for investigating risk factors, using a structured questionnaire on food consumption. A multivariate analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted Odds Ratios. Laboratory and environmental investigation were also performed. Results On the day of the study 41 cases were identified and 41 controls were enrolled. Controls were matched for age and gender. The mean age of the cases was 26 years old, and 58% were female. The clinical pattern of the disease was characterised by the presence of diarrhoea (95%, vomiting (70%, abdominal pain (51% and fever (32%. Of the 41 cases included in the study, the majority (65% were residents of Northern Italian regions. No food samples were available for testing. The matched univariate analysis revealed that cases were more likely to have consumed raw mussels, eggs or ice cubes made of tap water than controls. In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, having eaten raw mussels or ice became more strongly associated with illness. All of the 20 faecal samples collected were tested for NoVs. Eighteen stools (90% of total examined were positive by RT-PCR, and sequence analysis performed onto 3 samples confirmed the presence of a GGII NoV. No test specific for NoV was performed on water or food samples. Conclusion The most likely hypothesis supported by the findings of the epidemiological investigation was that illness was associated with raw mussels and ice, made with tap water. These hypothesis could not be confirmed by specific microbiologic testing for NoV in food or ice. The lack of clear knowledge of NoV as a major causative agent of epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Italy is due to the absence of timely reporting of the cases to the local public health offices and the

  16. MULTIPLICACIÓN In Vitro DE BROTES DE GUAYABA (Psidium guajava L. VAR. ENANA ROJA CUBANA EEA 18-40 OBTENIDOS A PARTIR DE SEMILLAS

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    Aurora T. Pérez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La guayaba se considera como una de las frutas tropicales más valiosas. La propagación de esta especie se lleva a cabo mediante el uso de estacas; sin embargo, es un método de baja eficiencia, debido a que una alta fenolización impide el buen enraizamiento y, por otro lado, la existencia limitada de plantas donadoras en algunos cultivares. El injerto y acodo se afectan severamente por la contaminación ambiental, por lo que se emplean con poco éxito para obtener grandes cantidades de plantas. La semilla constituye otro método de propagación convencional. La micropropagación de esta especie surge como alternativa superior de la propagación rápida, que permite realizar estudios fisiológicos de rejuvenecimiento y envejecimiento para la obtención de plantas productivas en un plazo de tiempo corto. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo optimizar la fase de multiplicación de Psidium guajava L. var. Enana Roja Cubana EEA 18-40 a partir de ápices y segmentos nodales de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Los mejores resultados se alcanzaron cuando se utilizaron como explantes los segmentos apicales y se colocaron en medio MS con el suplemento de 0.5 mg.L-1 de BAP durante 30 días, lográndose un coeficiente de multiplicación de 4.03.

  17. EL APOCALIPSIS EN MANOS DE LOS MEDIOS MASIVOS DE COMUNICACIÓN: COBERTURA DEL BROTE DE GRIPE A EN BUENOS AIRES 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2010-01-01

    El fin y principio de un nuevo milenio han traído consigo sentimientos encontrados, una necesidad de purificación junto a una ola de terror secularizado ante la inevitable destrucción del mundo. En parte, todo Apocalipsis implica una conflagración final entre las fuerzas del bien y las del mal. Luego de ello, sobrevendrá un reino de mil años caracterizado por la confraternidad, la cooperación, la justicia y la igualdad (utopía). El deterioro de las costumbres humanas ¿y otros signos¿, y la fi...

  18. Sequence Analysis of the Capsid Gene during a Genotype II.4 Dominated Norovirus Season in One University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft;

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and genotype II.4 (GII.4) is responsible for the majority of nosocomial NoV infections. Our objective was to examine whether sequencing of the capsid gene might be a useful tool for the hospital outbreak investigation to define possible....... Sequences of the capsid gene (1412 nucleotides) were obtained from the first available sample from 55 patients. From six immunocompromised patients with persistent infections a second sample was also included. As a control for a point-source outbreak, five samples from a foodborne outbreak caused by the...... same GII.4 variant were analyzed. Forty-seven of the inpatients (85%) were infected with the GII.4 variant Den Haag 2006b. Phylogenetic analysis of the Den Haag 2006b sequences identified four distinct outbreaks in different departments and a fifth outbreak with possible inter-department spread. In...

  19. Group A rotavirus and norovirus display sharply distinct seasonal profiles in Belém, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE, and group A rotavirus (RVA and nor-ovirus (NoV are the most prevalent. This study aimed to assess their prevalence among children hospitalised for diarrhoea during a three-year surveillance study. From May 2008-April 2011, overall positivity rates of 21.6% (628/2904 and 35.4% (171/483 were observed for RVA and NoV, respectively. The seasonality observed indicated distinct patterns when both viruses were compared. This finding may explain why hospitalisation for AGE remains constant throughout the year. Continuous AGE monitoring is needed to better assess the patterns of infection.

  20. Osteomielitis por salmonella

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  1. Reprogramación celular de embriones de Anthurium andraeanum por fitohormonas para micropropagación masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Mireles-Ordaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Anthurium incluye alrededor de 800 especies, las cuales son originarias de diversos países tropicales y subtropicales de América. Numerosos cultivos de estas especies de Anthurium son crecidos y comercializados debido a su gran popularidad como plantas ornamentales alrededor de todo el mundo, de las cuales la más popular es Anthurium andreanum. La reproducción sexual de estas plantas en invernaderos es difícil y toma mucho tiempo, lo cual representa una desventaja para su producción masiva y comercialización. La micropropagación in vitro ha emergido como una opción para sobrellevar dicha desventaja, hasta la fecha se han logrado avances parcialmente exitosos en la micropropagación en especies de Anthurium usando varios tejidos como explantes iniciales, incluyendo hojas, pecíolo, espádice, espata, brote lateral, meristemo apical y embriones somáticos, estos últimos previamente inducidos a partir de tejido diferenciado. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no hay reportes del uso de embriones cigóticos como tejido madre para la propagación masiva de estas plantas. En el presente estudio reportamos la formación de callos organogénicos a partir de embriones cigóticos inmaduros crecidos en medio MS suplementado con la combinación de 2 mg/l de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D y 0.5 mg/l de 6-benzilamino-purina (BAP. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los embriones en proceso de desarrollo son altamente eficientes como explantes de origen para inducir la formación de tejido calloso de una manera rápida y fácil, dando en promedio 9 brotes por callo y logrando una taza de sobrevivencia de las plantas del 90% en la fase de aclimatación.

  2. tirados por tractores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro E. Iglesias Coronel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se brinda la metodología de realización y evaluación de los principales indicadores energéticos de los agregados de transporte agrícola, formados por tractores y remolques con el uso de la tensometría como herramienta para la toma de los datos experimentales de campo.

  3. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Clove and Ginger Aqueous Extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Nauertz, Andrew; Luong, Nhungoc T; Agrawal, Shivani; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Youssef, Mohammed M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus, are a concern for public health, especially in fresh vegetables and other minimally processed foods that may not undergo sufficient decontamination. It is necessary to explore novel nonthermal techniques for preventing foodborne viral contamination. In this study, aqueous extracts of six raw food materials (flower buds of clove, fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion bulbs, ginger rhizomes, and jalapeño peppers) were tested for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus. The antiviral assay was performed using dilutions of the extracts below the maximum nontoxic concentrations of the extracts to the host cells of FCV, Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No antiviral effect was seen when the host cells were pretreated with any of the extracts. However, pretreatment of FCV with nondiluted clove and ginger extracts inactivated 6.0 and 2.7 log of the initial titer of the virus, respectively. Also, significant dosedependent inactivation of FCV was seen when host cells were treated with clove and ginger extracts at the time of infection or postinfection at concentrations equal to or lower than the maximum nontoxic concentrations. By comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, eugenol (29.5%) and R-(-)-1,2-propanediol (10.7%) were identified as the major components of clove and ginger extracts, respectively. The antiviral effect of the pure eugenol itself was tested; it showed antiviral activity similar to that of clove extract, albeit at a lower level, which indicates that some other clove extract constituents, along with eugenol, are responsible for inactivation of FCV. These results showed that the aqueous extracts of clove and ginger hold promise for prevention of foodborne viral contamination. PMID:27296605

  4. In vivo comparison of two human norovirus surrogates for testing ethanol-based handrubs: the mouse chasing the cat!

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    Syed A Sattar

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoV, a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, cannot be readily cultured in the lab. Therefore, a feline calicivirus (FCV is often used as its surrogate to, among other things, test alcohol-based handrubs (ABHR. The more recent laboratory culture of a mouse norovirus (MNV provides an alternative. While MNV is closer to HuNoV in several respects, to date, no comparative testing of FCV and MNV survival and inactivation on human hands has been performed. This study was designed to address the knowledge gap. The rates of loss in viability during drying on hands were -1.91 and -1.65% per minute for FCV and MNV, respectively. When the contaminated skin was exposed for 20 s to either a commercial ABHR with 62% (v/v ethanol or to 75% (v/v ethanol in water, FCV infectivity was reduced by 3.5 log₁₀ by the commercial ABHR while 75% ethanol did not show any noticeable improvement in activity as compared to the 20 s contact. An 80% (v/v aqueous solution of ethanol gave only a 1.75 log₁₀ reduction in MNV activity after 20 s. The results show significant differences in the ethanol susceptibility of FCV and MNV in contact times relevant to field use of ABHR and also that 62% ethanol was a more effective virucide than either 75% or 80% ethanol. These findings indicate the need for a review of the continuing use of FCV as a surrogate for HuNoV.

  5. Norovirus regulation of the innate immune response and apoptosis occurs via the product of the alternative open reading frame 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora McFadden

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Small RNA viruses have evolved many mechanisms to increase the capacity of their short genomes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel open reading frame (ORF4 encoded by the murine norovirus (MNV subgenomic RNA, in an alternative reading frame overlapping the VP1 coding region. ORF4 is translated during virus infection and the resultant protein localizes predominantly to the mitochondria. Using reverse genetics we demonstrated that expression of ORF4 is not required for virus replication in tissue culture but its loss results in a fitness cost since viruses lacking the ability to express ORF4 restore expression upon repeated passage in tissue culture. Functional analysis indicated that the protein produced from ORF4 antagonizes the innate immune response to infection by delaying the upregulation of a number of cellular genes activated by the innate pathway, including IFN-Beta. Apoptosis in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was also increased during virus infection in the absence of ORF4 expression. In vivo analysis of the WT and mutant virus lacking the ability to express ORF4 demonstrated an important role for ORF4 expression in infection and virulence. STAT1-/- mice infected with a virus lacking the ability to express ORF4 showed a delay in the onset of clinical signs when compared to mice infected with WT virus. Quantitative PCR and histopathological analysis of samples from these infected mice demonstrated that infection with a virus not expressing ORF4 results in a delayed infection in this system. In light of these findings we propose the name virulence factor 1, VF1 for this protein. The identification of VF1 represents the first characterization of an alternative open reading frame protein for the calicivirus family. The immune regulatory function of the MNV VF1 protein provide important perspectives for future research into norovirus biology and pathogenesis.

  6. Of gastro and the gold standard: evaluation and policy implications of norovirus test performance for outbreak detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The norovirus group (NVG of caliciviruses are the etiological agents of most institutional outbreaks of gastroenteritis in North America and Europe. Identification of NVG is complicated by the non-culturable nature of this virus, and the absence of a diagnostic gold standard makes traditional evaluation of test characteristics problematic. Methods We evaluated 189 specimens derived from 440 acute gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated in Ontario in 2006–07. Parallel testing for NVG was performed with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT2-PCR, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and electron microscopy (EM. Test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity were estimated using latent class models and composite reference standard methods. The practical implications of test characteristics were evaluated using binomial probability models. Results Latent class modelling estimated sensitivities of RT2-PCR, EIA, and EM as 100%, 86%, and 17% respectively; specificities were 84%, 92%, and 100%; estimates obtained using a composite reference standard were similar. If all specimens contained norovirus, RT2-PCR or EIA would be associated with > 99.9% likelihood of at least one test being positive after three specimens tested. Testing of more than 5 true negative specimens with RT2-PCR would be associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of a false positive test. Conclusion Our findings support the characterization of EM as lacking sensitivity for NVG outbreaks. The high sensitivity of RT2-PCR and EIA permit identification of NVG outbreaks with testing of limited numbers of clinical specimens. Given risks of false positive test results, it is reasonable to limit the number of specimens tested when RT2-PCR or EIA are available.

  7. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

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    Sudhakar S Agnihothram

    Full Text Available Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV. We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together.

  8. A rigid lanthanide binding tag to aid NMR studies of a 70 kDa homodimeric coat protein of human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallagaray, Alvaro; Domínguez, Gema; Peters, Thomas; Pérez-Castells, Javier

    2016-01-11

    Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens is thought to be essential for infection of host cells. Molecular details of the attachment process can be studied in vitro using a variety of NMR experiments. The use of protein NMR based experiments requires assignments of backbone NMR signals. Using uniformly (2)H,(15)N-labeled protruding domains (P-dimers) of a prevalent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 Saga) we have studied the potential of α-l-fucose covalently linked to a rigid lanthanide binding tag to aid backbone assignments using the paramagnetic properties of lanthanide ions. The synthesis of tagged α-l-fucose is reported. Notably, the metal chelating unit connects to the carbohydrate via a triazole linker constructed using click chemistry. PMID:26553572

  9. Prevalence of group a rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in al-qassim, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus among Saudi children with gastroenteritis. This study was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratories, Qassim University during the winter seasons of the years 2004 and 2005. A total of 284 diarrhoeal fecal specimens collected from children were tested for the gastroenteritis causing viruses using enzyme immunoassay. Of the 284 specimens, 142 (50%) were found to be positive for viruses causing gastroenteritis. Rotavirus (66.2%) was the most frequently detected, followed by adenovirus (15.5%), norovirus and astrovirus each with 9.2%. All of rotavirus detected belonged to group A. Eight specimens were found positive by two viruses. The introduction of simple and rapid tests for diagnosis of viruses causing gastroenteritis in our pediatric hospitals will improve patient care by reducing unnecessary treatments and hospital stay for patients. (author)

  10. X-ray structure at 1.75 resolution of a norovirus 3C protease linked to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Jon [University of Southampton, England; Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Hussey, Robert [University of Southampton, England

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized universally as the most important cause of human epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a 3C cysteine protease that cleaves a 200kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional proteins. Here we describe the X-ray structure of the Southampton norovirus 3C protease (SV3CP) bound to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor (MAPI) which has been refined at 1.75 resolution, following initial MAD phasing with a selenomethionine derivative. The inhibitor, acetyl-Glu-Phe-Gln-Leu-Gln-X, based on a 3C protease cleavage recognition sequences in the 200kDa polyprotein substrate, reacts covalently through its propenylethylester group (X) with the active site nucleophile, Cys 139. The 3C protease-inhibitor structure permits, for the first time, the identification of substrate recognition and binding groups and provides important new information for the development of antiviral prophylactics.

  11. APPLICATION OF A ONE-STEP REAL TIME RT-PCR PROTOCOL FOR NOROVIRUS DETECTION IN SHELLFISH HARVERSTED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    T Pepe; I. Ventrone; Suffredini, E.; Ceruso, M.; L. Croci; Anastasio, A

    2010-01-01

    Shellfish are recognized as a potential vehicle of viral diseases. However, according to European Regulations, only bacteriological parameters (Salmonella and E. coli) are used to establish their microbiological quality. Because of the lack of a standard reference method for the detection of viruses, data on the incidence of enteric viruses in European production areas are still limited. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the Norovirus (NoV) contamination in shellfish from differe...

  12. Environmental detection of genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses by using a generic real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takayuki; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Grodzki, Marco; Okabe, Satoshi; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-11-01

    Norovirus is the most common agent implicated in food-borne outbreaks and is frequently detected in environmental samples. These viruses are highly diverse, and three genogroups (genogroup I [GI], GII, and GIV) infect humans. Being noncultivable viruses, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the only sensitive method available for their detection in food or environmental samples. Selection of consensus sequences for the design of sensitive assays has been challenging due to sequence diversity and has led to the development of specific real-time RT-PCR assays for each genogroup. Thus, sample screening can require several replicates for amplification of each genogroup (without considering positive and negative controls or standard curves). This study reports the development of a generic assay that detects all three human norovirus genogroups on a qualitative basis using a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay. The generic assay achieved good specificity and sensitivity for all three genogroups, detected separately or in combination. At variance with multiplex assays, the choice of the same fluorescent dye for all three probes specific to each genogroup allows the levels of fluorescence to be added and may increase assay sensitivity when multiple strains from different genogroups are present. When it was applied to sewage sample extracts, this generic assay successfully detected norovirus in all samples found to be positive by the genogroup-specific RT-PCRs. The generic assay also identified all norovirus-positive samples among 157 archived nucleic acid shellfish extracts, including samples contaminated by all three genogroups. PMID:23956397

  13. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. I. Collection of Virus Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fout, G. Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.; Grimm, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 was developed with a goal of providing a standard method for measuring enteroviruses and noroviruses in environmental and drinking waters. The standardized sampling component of the method concentrates viruses that may be present in water by passage of a minimum specified volume of water through an electropositive cartridge filter. The minimum specified volumes for surface and finished/ground water are 300 L and 1,500 L, respectively. A major method limitation is the tendency ...

  14. Application of next-generation sequencing to investigation of norovirus diversity in shellfish collected from two coastal sites in Japan from 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Saiki; Haruna, Mika; Goshima, Tomoko; Kanezashi, Hiromi; Okada, Tsukasa; Akimoto, Keiko

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding of the role played by shellfish regarding the manner of pathogen contamination, persistence, and selection may help considering epidemiology of noroviruses. Thus, norovirus genotype profiles in shellfish (Crassostrea gigas and Mitilus galloprovincialis) were investigated by using Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. In genogroup I (GI), 7 genotypes (abbreviated as GI.2 to GI.7, and GI.9) were detected from C. gigas, whereas 9 genotypes (GI.1 to GI.9) were detected from M. galloprovincialis. The genotype with the highest proportion found in both C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis was GI.4, and the second highest was GI.3. In genogroup II (GII), 17 genotypes (GII.1 to GII.9, GII.11 to GII.17, GII.21 and GI.22) were detected from C. gigas, whereas 16 genotypes (GII.1 to GII.8, GII.11 to GII.17, GII.21 and GI.22) were detected from M. galloprovincialis. The genotype with the highest proportion in both C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis was GII.4, the next highest differed between C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis. To our knowledge, this study may be the first trial to utilize the latest technology in this field, and reveal the diversity of norovirus genotypes present in shellfish. PMID:27506085

  15. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  16. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaliere Maria J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.

  17. Nucleotomia por laser

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, oão José Lobato Guimarães Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    A hérnia de disco intervertebral com compressão nervosa que não cede ao tratamento médico, tradicionalmente, é indicação para tratamento cirúrgico. No entanto, técnicas minimamente invasivas e os procedimentos percutâneos têm sido usados e desenvolvidos nas últimas duas décadas, tanto como procedimentos alternativos, bem como possibilidades terapêuticas que antecedem o tratamento cirúrgico convencional, podendo adiar o mesmo por tempo indeterminado. De entre estas opções técnicas, surge a Nuc...

  18. Por mil devaluados pesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA AL FALSO OROBANCHE CAUSADO POR Nocardia sp. EN Nicotiana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunior M. Morán Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El falso Orobanche afecta a la producción tabacalera de Cuba. Las plantas afectadas desarrollan abundante proliferación de brotes y tumores en las raíces, muestran enanismo y raquitismo. Los cultivares de tabaco Negro cubano son susceptibles a Nocardia sp., agente causal de esta enfermedad. L a incorporación de genes de resistencia a este agente fitopatógeno en los cultivares cubanos, mediante el mejoramiento genético tradicional, constituirá un elemento de peso en la estrategia de manejo integrado de esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, no se conocen fuentes de resistencia a la enfermedad dentro de Nicotiana spp., ni se dispone de un procedimiento para la búsqueda de estas fuentes en la amplia diversidad de accesiones presentes en el banco de germoplasma de tabaco de Cuba. El objetivo de esta investigación es desarrollar un procedimiento de evaluación del nivel de resistencia frente al agente causal del falso Orobanche de las accesiones del banco de germoplasma de tabaco de Cuba. Catorce accesiones de diferentes especies y tipos de tabaco fueron inoculadas con la cepa T42 de Nocardia sp. A partir de la manifestación de los síntomas se elaboró una escala visual empírica que permite calcular el grado de afectación de las plantas. En correspondencia con el grado de afectación se ubicaron las accesiones en cuatro niveles de reacción (resistente, moderadamente resistente, moderadamente susceptible y susceptible. Se identificaron accesiones resistentes a la enfermedad dentro del banco de germoplasma de tabaco de Cuba. También dentro de cultivares evaluados de susceptibles se encontraron plantas portadoras de genes de resistencia con las que se pudiera comenzar de inmediato un programa de mejoramiento genético por selección de líneas puras.

  20. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  1. Ojo por ojo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  2. A vida por segundos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Miguel Paiva da

    2010-01-01

    A Enfermagem regista evolução a vários níveis, o que torna imperioso reconhecer como de significativo valor o papel do enfermeiro. A Especialização em Enfermagem Médico-Cirúrgica visa o desenvolvimento de competências para a assistência de Enfermagem avançada ao doente adulto e idoso em estado crítico, revelando uma maior apropriação, por parte dos enfermeiros especialistas de uma concepção de cuidados sustentada numa conceptualização científica dos cuidados, daí infere-se o contributo num...

  3. Ojo por ojo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  4. Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos

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    Ingrid Salas-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las uñas producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en uñas, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección.

  5. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

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    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  6. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  7. Evaluation of viability PCR performance for assessing norovirus infectivity in fresh-cut vegetables and irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, W; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-07-16

    Norovirus (NoV) detection in food and water is mainly carried out by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The inability to differentiate between infectious and inactivated viruses and the resulting overestimation of viral targets is considered a major disadvantage of RT-qPCR. Initially, conventional photoactivatable dyes (i.e. propidium monoazide, PMA and ethidium monoazide, EMA) and newly developed ones (i.e. PMAxx and PEMAX) were evaluated for the discrimination between infectious and thermally inactivated NoV genogroup I (GI) and II (GII) suspensions. Results showed that PMAxx was the best photoactivatable dye to assess NoV infectivity. This procedure was further optimized in artificially inoculated lettuce. Pretreatment with 50μM PMAxx and 0.5% Triton X-100 (Triton) for 10min reduced the signal of thermally inactivated NoV by ca. 1.8 logs for both genogroups in lettuce concentrates. Additionally, this pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally inactivated NoV GI between 1.4 and 1.9 logs in spinach and romaine and lamb's lettuces and by >2 logs for NoV GII in romaine and lamb's lettuce samples. Moreover this pretreatment was satisfactorily applied to naturally-contaminated water samples with NoV GI and GII. Based on the obtained results this pretreatment has the potential to be integrated in routine diagnoses to improve the interpretation of positive NoV results obtained by RT-qPCR. PMID:27085970

  8. Mucosal Antibodies Induced by Intranasal but Not Intramuscular Immunization Block Norovirus GII.4 Virus-Like Particle Receptor Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Kirsi; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) account for the majority of diagnosed cases of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines against NoV are currently under development. Serum antibodies that block the binding of NoV VLPs to histo-blood group antigens, the putative receptors for NoV, correlate with protection against NoV infection. The role of functional mucosal antibodies in protection is largely unknown, even though the intestinal mucosa is the entry port for NoV. Balb/c mice were immunized intramuscularly (IM) or intranasally (IN) with NoV GII.4 VLPs, and systemic and mucosal blocking antibody responses were studied. IN immunization elicited NoV-specific serum and mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas IM immunized animals completely lacked IgA. Both immunization routes induced similar blocking activity in serum but only IN route generated blocking antibodies in mucosa. The level of IgA in the mucosal (nasal) lavages strongly correlated (r = 0.841) with the blocking activity, suggesting that IgA, but not IgG, is the major NoV blocking antibody on mucosal surfaces. The results indicate that only mucosal immunization route induces the development of functional anti-NoV IgA on mucosal surface. PMID:27135874

  9. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Donà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rotavirus (RV is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV and Norovirus (NV. Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observational, prospective, FP-based study has been carried out using Pedianet database. Results. RVGE incidence was 1.04 per 100 person-years with the highest incidence in the first 2 years of life. Incidences of AVGEs (1.74 and NVGEs (1.51 were slightly higher with similar characteristics regarding age distribution and symptoms. Risk of hospitalisation, access to emergency room (ER, and workdays lost from parents were not significantly different in RVGEs compared to the other viral infections. Conclusions. Features of RVGE in terms of hospitalisation length and indirect cost are lower than those reported in previous studies. Results of the present study reflect the large variability of data present in the literature. This observation underlines the utility of primary care networks for AGE surveillance and further studies on community-acquired gastroenteritis in children.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads

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    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of leafy green producers. The relevance of microbiological criteria applicable to production, processing and at retail/catering were considered. The current legal framework does not include microbiological criteria applicable at primary production which will validate and verify GAP and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose. A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered and will also give an indication of the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programs have been implemented. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in leafy greens could be used as a tool to communicate to producers and processors that Salmonella should not be present in the product. Studies on the prevalence and infectivity of Norovirus are limited, and quantitative data on viral load are scarce making establishment of microbiological criteria for Norovirus on

  11. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

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    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  12. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigens conjugated magnetic beads re-circulating immunomagnetic separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. Although NoV outbreaks are generally associated with raw shellfish, particularly oysters, outbreaks have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles such as lettuce, frozen...

  13. The South to north variation of norovirus epidemics from 2006-07 to 2008-09 in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinako Inaida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV is a major cause of gastroenteritis during the autumn and winter seasons in Japan as well as in other temperate climate regions. Most outbreaks are thought to occur by secondary attacks through person-to-person infection by fecal-oral route. Severe cases are found in young children or patients with chronic diseases. Clarifying the patterns of epidemic diffusion is important for considering effective monitoring and surveillance as well as possible prevention. METHODS: We considered the predominant viral genotype from the laboratory result obtained from Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR of National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID. We investigated the increase of NoV cases nationwide for the 2006-07 to 2008-09 seasons using sentinel gastroenteritis data collected from about 3000 pediatric clinics on National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID acquired from the kriging method in the geographic information system (GIS. RESULTS: During these three seasons, the majority of the detected virus was GII.4, which ranged from 60.4 to 88.9%. The number of cases (per sentinel site at the peak week was 22.81 in the 2006-07 season and it decreased in the following seasons. NoV cases began to increase earlier in the southern areas and gradually extended into the northern areas, similarly, over the seasons. The average period from when the increase of cases was detected in the southern area to when it reached the northern area was 12.7 weeks. CONCLUSION: The decrease of the number of sentinel cases at the peak week may suggest the development of herd immunity after a period of high prevalence. Although the NoV epidemic is thought to be associated with cold weather, its cases first increased in the southern area with relatively warm temperature, indicating there are other climate factors involved. Geographic study using the sentinel data could enhance the monitoring and surveillance of and

  14. Inactivation of human norovirus and Tulane virus in simple media and fresh whole strawberries by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCaprio, Erin; Phantkankum, Nuttapong; Culbertson, Doug; Ma, Yuanmei; Hughes, John H; Kingsley, David; Uribe, Roberto M; Li, Jianrong

    2016-09-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of fresh produce-associated outbreaks and human NoV in irrigation water can potentially lead to viral internalization in fresh produce. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel intervention strategies to target internalized viral pathogens while maintaining fresh produce quality. In this study electron beam (E-beam) and gamma radiation were evaluated for efficacy against a human NoV GII.4 strain and Tulane virus (TV). Virus survival following ionizing radiation treatments was determined using direct quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR), the porcine gastric mucin magnetic bead (PGM-MB) binding assay followed by RT-qPCR, and plaque assay. In simple media, a high dose of E-beam treatment was required to completely abolish the receptor binding ability of human NoV (35.3kGy) and TV (19.5-24.1kGy), as assessed using the PGM-MB binding assay. Both human NoV and TV were more susceptible to gamma irradiation than E-beam, requiring 22.4kGy to achieve complete inactivation. In whole strawberries, no human NoV or TV RNA was detected following 28.7kGy of E-beam treatment using the PGM-MB binding assay. Overall, human NoV and TV are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and therefore the technology may not be suitable to eliminate viruses in fresh produce at the currently approved levels. In addition, the PGM-MB binding assay is an improved method to detect viral infectivity compared to direct RT-qPCR. PMID:27240219

  15. APPLICATION OF A ONE-STEP REAL TIME RT-PCR PROTOCOL FOR NOROVIRUS DETECTION IN SHELLFISH HARVERSTED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pepe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish are recognized as a potential vehicle of viral diseases. However, according to European Regulations, only bacteriological parameters (Salmonella and E. coli are used to establish their microbiological quality. Because of the lack of a standard reference method for the detection of viruses, data on the incidence of enteric viruses in European production areas are still limited. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the Norovirus (NoV contamination in shellfish from different harvesting areas (both class A and B and from registered and not- registered retails of the Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. Seventy shellfish (Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from 15 harvesting areas, one authorized and two not authorized retails and were examined for virus presence (NoV genogroups I and II by Real Time PCR. Ten harvesting areas (66% showed presence of viral contamination, with three of them belonging to A areas and seven to B areas. The shellfish collected from the registered retail tested positive for Norovirus presence, whereas the shellfish collected from not-authorized retails didn’t show viral contamination. Twenty-nine samples were positive for genogroup II, ten of which tested positive also for NoV genogroup I.

  16. A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liping; Fan, Rongjun; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; Su, Weiheng; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), as the main agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), have become a serious public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 were identified as targets for promising vaccine candidates. Structural studies of Picornaviridae indicated that potent immunodominant epitopes typically lie in the hypervariable loop of capsid surfaces. However, cross-neutralizing antibodies and cross-protection between EV71 and CVA16 have not been observed. Therefore, we speculated that divergent sequences of the two viruses are key epitopes for inducing protective neutralizing responses. In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can provide a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71. PMID:26529072

  17. Estudio comparativo del crecimiento y la ramificación de brotes anuales en dos especies de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae y en híbridos inter-específicos Comparative study of annual shoot growth and branching in two species of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae and inter-specific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ramas principales y secundarias se diferencian en mayor o menor medida según las especies, lo cual puede observarse en base al crecimiento primario de los brotes que las originan. En ejemplares de vivero juveniles-adultos de Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa e híbridos entre ambas especies, se compararon la dinámica de alargamiento, el tamaño y la morfología de dos brotes distales de ramas principales: uno que continúa el alargamiento de la rama principal y el otro que inicia una rama secundaria. En N. alpina y en híbridos, los dos brotes más distales se diferencian más que en N. obliqua. A pesar de la homogeneidad ambiental en el vivero y el origen geográfico común para los ejemplares de N. nervosa y los híbridos, hubieron diferencias fenológicas y morfológicas entre estas entidades. La duración y tasa de alargamiento y la longitud final de los brotes fueron altamente variables en cada entidad. Las variaciones entre entidades en la diferenciación de ejes podrían indicar diferencias en sus capacidades de uso del espacio circundante. La diferenciación entre ramas principales y secundarias se iniciaría en el estado de yema. La variación intra-específica fenológica y morfológica es útil para programas de selección artificial de individuos.Main and secondary branches are more or less differentiated according to the species and this could be observed during the primary growth of the shoots that produce them. In young-adult trees of Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa and hybrids between them growing in a common garden, growth dynamics, size and morphology were compared between two distal shoots produced by main branches: one of these shoots continued the extension of the main branch whereas the other initiated a secondary branch. The two distal shoots differed from each other more notably in N. nervosa and in the hybrids than in N. obliqua. Despite the environmental homogeneities at the nursery and the common geographic origin of

  18. Manifestaciones del sistema osteomioarticular en pacientes con toxiinfección alimentaria por Salmonella D Clinical osteomyoarticular manifestations in patients with Salmonella D food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Fernández Ermus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La Salmonella ha sido el principal agente causal de brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en el municipio de Santiago de Cuba, donde en el bienio 2007-2008 se aisló la especie de ese germen clasificada como D en 49 pacientes (32,2 % con toxiinfección alimentaria por huevo, quienes presentaron manifestaciones clínicas osteomioarticulares no descritas antes, tales como artralgia y mialgia. Los datos extraídos de las encuestas epidemiológicas y validados con la prueba de Ji al cuadrado, revelaron que 69,4 % de las personas afectadas requirieron ingreso hospitalario (28,6 % de ellas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, que 91,8 % llegaron a los diferentes centros asistenciales con algún grado de deshidratación y que, una vez hospitalizadas, 73,5 % no necesitaron antibioticoterapia.Salmonella has been the main causative agent of disease outbreaks transmitted by foods in Santiago de Cuba municipality, where in 2007-2008 the species classified as D was isolated in 49 patients (32,2% with egg food poisoning, who had clinical osteomyoarticular manifestations not previously described, such as arthralgia and myalgia. Data obtained from epidemiological surveys and validated by the chi-square test revealed that 69,4% of affected individuals required hospital admission (28,6% of them at the intensive care unit; 91,8% went to the different care centers with some level of dehydration, and once they were hospitalized 73,5% did not require antibiotic therapy.

  19. La Transversal Cafetera por Caldas

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Dada la necesidad de una transversal férrea para resolver las falencias estructurales del transporte de carga colombiano, con la construcción del nuevo Túnel Cumanday bimodal y doble cruzando la Cordillera Central por Caldas, la nueva Transversal Cafetera podría diseñarse con pendiente máxima del 6% y velocidad de 80 km/h, y convertirse en complemento al paso por la Línea, y en el soporte de un corredor logístico que integraría la región andina de Colombia, al detonar con el ferrocarril senda...

  20. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

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    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  1. Se los por se lo

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-01-01

    El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966) en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre refle...

  2. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

    OpenAIRE

    Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam; Beristain Rementeria Xabier; Cilla Eguiluz Gustavo; Tuneu Valls Anna; Zubizarreta Salvador José

    2001-01-01

    El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas) cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ...

  3. Diverticulitis yeyunal perforada por enterolito.

    OpenAIRE

    Marenco De la Cuadra, Beatriz; Gomez-Rosado, Juan Carlos; Capitan-Morales, Luis-Cristobal; Valdés Hernández, Javier; Reyes-lopera, N.J. De los

    2012-01-01

    La diverticulosis yeyunal es una enfermedad adquirida rara. Casi el 60-70% keeps asymptomátic or Con síntomas crónicos inespecíficos, aunque puede presentarse como un abdomen agudo. La perforación debida a enterolitos es una causa extremadamente rara do complicación, y puede producirse por la impactación de ésta contra la pared intestinal. Presentamos caso de un varón de 82 años que acude a urgencias por un dolor súbito abdominal, difuso, con irritación peritoneal, leucocitosis con neutro...

  4. A Multi-Site Study of Norovirus Molecular Epidemiology in Australia and New Zealand, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kun Lee; Hewitt, Joanne; Sitabkhan, Alefiya; Eden, John-Sebastian; Lun, Jennifer; Levy, Avram; Merif, Juan; Smith, David; Rawlinson, William D.; White, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis across all age groups. In particular, variants of genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) have been associated with epidemics globally, occurring approximately every three years. The pandemic GII.4 variant, Sydney 2012, was first reported in early 2012 and soon became the predominant circulating NoV strain globally. Despite its broad impact, both clinically and economically, our understanding of the fundamental diversity and mechanisms by which new NoV strains emerge remains limited. In this study, we describe the molecular epidemiological trends of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis in Australia and New Zealand between January 2013 and June 2014. Methodology Overall, 647 NoV-positive clinical faecal samples from 409 outbreaks and 238 unlinked cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined by RT-PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to identify NoV capsid genotypes and to establish the temporal dominance of circulating pandemic GII.4 variants. Recombinant viruses were also identified based on analysis of the ORF1/2 overlapping region. Findings Peaks in NoV activity were observed, however the timing of these epidemics varied between different regions. Overall, GII.4 NoVs were the dominant cause of both outbreaks and cases of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis (63.1%, n = 408/647), with Sydney 2012 being the most common GII.4 variant identified (98.8%, n = 403/408). Of the 409 reported NoV outbreaks, aged-care facilities were the most common setting in both Western Australia (87%, n = 20/23) and New Zealand (58.1%, n = 200/344) while most of the NoV outbreaks were reported from hospitals (38%, n = 16/42) in New South Wales, Australia. An analysis of a subset of non-GII.4 viruses from all locations (125/239) showed the majority (56.8%, n = 71/125) were inter-genotype recombinants. These recombinants were surprisingly diverse and could be classified into 18 distinct recombinant

  5. Gastroduodenal Perforation and Ulcer Associated With Rotavirus and Norovirus Infections in Japanese Children: A Case Report and Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norishi

    2016-01-01

    Background.  There is no literature review on gastroduodenal perforation or ulcer (GDPU) with rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis. Methods.  Pediatric cases of GDPU or upper gastrointestinal bleeding with RV and NoV gastroenteritis were searched from September 1974 until October 2015 using PubMed, Google for English, other-language-publications, and Ichushi (http://www.jamas.or.jp) for Japanese-language publications. All reports confirming GDPU or upper gastrointestinal bleeding with RV and NoV gastroenteritis were eligible for inclusion in the study. In addition, clinical characteristics were reviewed. Results.  A boy with duodenal ulcer (DU) and NoV gastroenteritis was described. There were 32 GDPU cases (23 RVs and 9 NoVs cases), including our case; with the exception of 1 case, all were Japanese. Mean age, male/female ratio, and symptoms' duration before admission were 21.6 months, 2.2, and 4.0 days, respectively. Vomiting was the most common symptom, followed by diarrhea, lethargy, fever, abdominal distension, and convulsion. Dehydration, hematemesis, melena, drowsiness or unconsciousness, shock, metabolic acidosis, leukocytosis, anemia, positive C-reactive protein, high blood urea nitrogen, and hyponatremia commonly occurred. Helicobacter pylori was a minor cause of GDPU. Duodenal (DP) or gastric perforation (GP) developed in 14 cases (10 DP/RVs, 1 GP/RV, and 3 DP/NoVs). Duodenal ulcer or gastric ulcer (GU) developed in 18 cases (10 DU/RVs, 4 DU/NoVs, 1 GU/RV, 1 GU + DU/NoV, and 2 upper gastrointestinal bleeding/RVs). The predominant perforation or ulcer site was in the duodenum. With the exception of 2 deaths from DU, all cases recovered. Conclusions.  Race, young age, male, severe dehydration, metabolic acidosis, drowsiness and unconsciousness, and shock may be potential risk factors of GDPU associated with RV and NoV gastroenteritis. Limitation of this descriptive study warrants further investigations to determine the risk factors in

  6. DESAJUSTE EDUCATIVO POR REGIONES EN COLOMBIA: ¿COMPETENCIA POR SALARIOS O POR PUESTOS DE TRABAJO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Castillo Caicedo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación, entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  7. (phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

  8. [Frozen berries as a risk factor for outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis. Results of an outbreak investigation in the summer of 2005 in Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Gerhard; Boyens, M; Baumgarte, S

    2007-02-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in Hamburg among guests of a canteen in August 2005. A total of 241 persons were found ill. In stool samples of 16 of them Norovirus Genogroup I was identified. Neither bacterial nor viral pathogens could be detected in food samples. Among 162 guests enrolled in a cohort study, 69 (42.6 %) met the case definition. A desert dish made from blackberries and yoghurt showed a significant association with the disease (RR 6.9; 95% CI 3.36-14.16). In addition, a protective effect of the decision for the alternative desert dish ice cream was observed (RR 0.9; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). The desert, which was prepared in the canteen kitchen from yoghurt and frozen blackberries, was the most likely source of the outbreak. Frozen berries should be included in the HACCP concepts for canteen kitchens. PMID:17238056

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- isolates associated with an outbreak of food-borne disease in Paz de Rio, Boyacá, Colombia, in 2010 = Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Salmonella Typhimurium variante 5- asociada a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el municipio de Paz de Río, Boyacá, 2010 = Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Salmonella Typhimurium variante 5- asociada a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el municipio de Paz de Río, Boyacá, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Osorio, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimuri-um variant 5- is a pathogen closely related to animals, especially pigeons, which has been also associ- ated in rare cases with sporadic infections in humans. However, epidemiological surveillance systems have enabled the detection of this variant in human out- breaks. Objective: To characterize by means of phenotypic and genotypic techniques the isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- associated with an outbreak of food-borne disease in Paz de Rio, Boyacá, Colombia (2010, in order to establish their molecular relationships. Materials and methods: Twelve isolates of Salmonella -spp., were analyzed by biochemical, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE with Xball Blnl enzymes was used to establish their molecular relationships Results: All isolates were confirmed as Salmonella spp. They were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin and sensitive to the rest of antibiotics tested. Eleven isolates were identified as Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- and grouped in COIN10.JPX.X01.0168 pattern using the enzyme Xball two isolates in this group were confirmed using the enzyme Blnl with the COIN10.JPX.A26.0002 pattern. One isolate was identified as Salmonella Typhimurium with COIN10.JPX.X01.0221 pattern with the enzyme Xbal Conclusion: This is the first outbreak in Colombia of foodborne illness epidemiologically associated with isolates of Typhimurium variant 5 -, which Epidemiologic Sur were phenotypically and genetically related.

  10. Intoxicación alimentaria por Clostridium perfringens en el Centro Penitenciario de Atención Institucional de San José: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong-Mc Clure

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos se presentan anualmente en Costa Rica y por lo general se estudian hasta identificar el agente etiológico, pero no hasta determinar su fuente de contaminación. No se ha documentado la importancia de fortalecer la inocuidad de alimentos, lo cual produce eventos que comprometen la salud pública cada año, por lo que fue importante estudiar el presente brote. En este estudio se analiza el brote diarreico de un centro penitenciario de San José, en 2003, procurando determinar el probable alimento contaminado. Materiales y métodos: El presente estudio corresponde a una cohorte retrospectiva que identifica exposición a los alimentos preparados dentro del Centro, en las 72 horas previas al pico epidémico. La descripción de la cohorte y el cálculo del (RR se realizó posteriormente para determinar la posible\tasociación causal. Las muestras de heces fueron procesadas en el laboratorio de referencia del INCIENSA. Resultados: La totalidad de los individuos pertenecían al sexo masculino, todos privados de libertad, con un promedio de edad de 31.1años (IC95%=28.9-33.4. La sintomatología más frecuente fue la diarrea (92.3% Y dolor abdominal tipo cólico (84.6%. El resultado de laboratorio aisló como agente etiológico el Clostridium perfringens enterotoxigénico (CPE. Al analizar los alimentos suministrados, pico epidémico y período de incubación, se tiene que el salchichón (RR=1.1;IC95%0.5-2.7 y la preparación con carne molida (RR=2.1,IC95%:0.6-7.4 mostraron ser los únicos alimentos capaces de transmitir el CPE. Discusión: El brote del Centro evidencia que la sintomatología descrita corresponde con lo documentado para la intoxicación por CPE y que, tomando en cuenta las condiciones necesarias para la transmisión, solo el salchichón y la preparación con carne molida cuentan con esta plausibilidad biológica. Al considerar el periodo de incubación, los valores de riesgo relativo

  11. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Preliminary study on Norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Escherichia coli and their potential seasonality in shellfish from different growing and harvesting areas in Sardinia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bazzardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible lamellibranch molluscs can be involved in foodborne disease and infections of varying severity. They are filter feeding animals able to retain and concentrate in their organism bacteria, parasites, viruses and biotoxins marine algae present in their external environment. Major shellfish harvesting and relaying areas from different areas in Sardinia region were defined and studied by analysing different physicochemical parameters in the water and the levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli, Norovirus (NoVs genogroup I (NoVGI, NoVs genogroup II (NoVGII and hepatitis A virus (HAV in the shellfish harvested and farmed from 2009 to 2011. During that period the identification of the viral agents was carried out by one step real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Escherichia coli according to ISO TS 16649- 3:2005 standard method. A total of 1266 shellfish samples were tested for NoVGI, NoVGII, HAV and faecal indicators. Norovirus contamination was found in 337 samples (26.6%; only one sample of mussels was positive for HAV (0.08%; while E. coli prevalence was 3.8% in shellfish. The probability of observing shellfish samples positive for NoVs, HAV and E. coli presence was associated with harvesting, growing and relaying areas, period of sampling, environmental parameters, animal species (P<0.05. Although the higher prevalence rate of human enteropathogenic viruses was found in the winter period, we did not observe a significant relationship between the effect of seawater temperature (seasonality and NoVs presence all over the study period; in fact, according to statistical analysis, the presence of human enteric viruses does not appear to be related to water temperature.

  13. Se los por se lo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  14. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo β-hemolνtico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reciιn nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal varνa desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.

  15. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ha efectuado una revisión de los casos de miasis cutáneas forunculoides importadas publicados en España, así como de la biología, patología, tratamiento y prevención de la miasis humana por Cordylobia anthropophaga. El caso referido, se caracterizó por la infestación con un número inusualmente elevado de larvas, no sospechándose su etiología hasta la fase final de la enfermedad. La emergencia continuada de larvas (se recogieron 91 generó en la paciente un estado de ansiedad importante. Finalmente, la eliminación de las larvas provocó una rápida mejoría de la paciente. Aunque los casos de miasis cutánea no tienen la gravedad de otras enfermedades importadas, su conocimiento es necesario desde el punto de vista preventivo, diagnóstico y terapeútico. Es importante proceder a la identificación morfológica de las larvas diferenciándolas de otro tipo de miasis con implicaciones terapéuticas diferentes.

  16. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk......Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus...... were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment...

  17. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    Bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, cutting, packaging and storage. Risk factors for the contamination of bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots with Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of their occurrence in these vegetables were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to...

  18. Agujeros negros vistos por fuera y por dentro

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    La Relatividad General es la teoría moderna de la gravedad, que corrige los problemas que surgen con la gravedad descrita por Newton. Explicaremos porque la gravedad newtoniana es incompatible con la Relatividad Especial y cual es la solución que propone Einstein: la gravedad como una manifestación del espacio curvo. Hablaremos brevemente de los fenómenos que surgen de la Relatividad General, como los agujeros negros, las ondas gravitacionales y la cosmología.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Binding of GII.4 Norovirus Variants onto Human Blood Group Antigens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rougemont, A.; Ruvoen-Clouet, N.; Simon, B.; Estienney, M.; Elie-Caille, C.; Aho, S.; Pothier, P.; Le Pendu, J.; Boireau, W.; Belliot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children and adults. For the last 2 decades, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) NoVs have been circulating worldwide. GII.4 NoVs can be divided into variants, and since 2002 they have circulated in the population before being replaced every 2 or 3 years, which raises questions about the role of their histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) ligands in their evolution. To shed light on these questions, we performed an analysis of the interaction between representative GII.4 variants and HBGAs, and we determined the role of selected amino acids in the binding profiles. By mutagenesis, we showed that there was a strict structural requirement for the amino acids, directly implicated in interactions with HBGAs. However, the ablation of the threonine residue at position 395 (ΔT395), an epidemiological feature of the post-2002 variants, was not deleterious to the binding of the virus-like particle (VLP) to the H antigen, while binding to A and B antigens was severely hampered. Nevertheless, the ΔT395 VLPs gained the capacity to bind to the Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in comparison with the wild-type VLP, demonstrating that amino acid residues outside the HBGA binding site can modify the binding properties of NoVs. We also analyzed the attachment of baculovirus-expressed VLPs from six variants (Bristol, US95/96, Hunter, Yerseke, Den Haag, and Osaka) that were isolated from 1987 to 2007 to phenotyped saliva samples and synthetic HBGAs. We showed that the six variants could all attach to saliva of secretors irrespective of the ABO phenotype and to oligosaccharides characteristic of the secretor phenotype. Interestingly, Den Haag and Osaka variants additionally bound to carbohydrates present in the saliva of Lewis-positive nonsecretors. The carbohydrate binding profile and the genetic and mutagenesis analysis suggested that GII.4 binding to Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens might be a by-product of the

  20. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Caicedo Maribel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
    entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
    por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
    desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
    puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
    contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
    examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
    educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
    nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
    para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
    del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  1. A Vida por Outros Lados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Berenice da Costa Machado

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Diálogo entre a imagem e o slogan do anúncio publicitário “A vida por todos os lados”, do jornal Zero Hora (ZH, com as características da Modernidade e da Pós-modernidade. A intenção é a refletir sobre a complexidade da comunicação institucional deste diário e sua ligação com as tendências contemporâneas.

  2. Once mil metros por segundo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esta exposición es una ventana hacia el mundo de la Ciencia Ficción. Los sueños de escritores extraordinarios, personajes, lugares, máquinas y robots que cada día están más cerca de nuestra cotidianidad gracias a los avances de la ciencia y la tecnología hacen parte de la muestra itinerante por las sedes de la Universidad Nacional. El visitante puede recorrer los diferentes géneros que constituyen este género literario, además de conocer sus principales representantes. Así mismo se explor...

  3. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  4. Por la puerta del fondo

    OpenAIRE

    Tossi, Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Como aconteciera en el pasado, las mujeres de estos siglos participaban de diversas actividades científicas y técnicas, en las cuales la tradicional habilidad manual, destreza, sentido de la observación, inteligencia, imaginación y capacidad de trabajo, de los que siempre dieron pruebas, fueron ampliamente aprovechados. No obstante, salvo contadas excepciones, sólo pudieron entrar en la fortaleza del saber por la puerta del fondo. Algunas de esas mujeres, pertenecientes a las clases nobles y ...

  5. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera; Cinthya Ramírez-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respir...

  6. toxicidad neuroendocrina inducida por cadmio

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    A Romero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cadmio es un agente químico tóxico importante debido a su creciente nivel en el medio ambiente como resultado de prácticas industriales y agrícolas. Como perturbador endocrino, el cadmio modifica la secreción de hormonas hipofisarias. Los efectos indirectos del cadmio provocan la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno y reducen la actividad de las proteínas implicadas en las defensas antioxidantes. La melatonina es conocida como un potente antioxidante, scavenger de radicales libres y quelante de metales sintetizada en la glándula pineal. De esta manera, las acciones antioxidantes de esta indolamina protegen frente a la peroxidación lipídica y el daño oxidativo de los radicales y de sus productos tóxicos. Los trabajos recopilados en esta revisión ponen de manifiesto la capacidad antioxidante de la melatonina y, por lo tanto, su posible papel protector frente a la toxicidad del cadmio en lo que se refiere al estrés oxidativo y peroxidación lipídica inducidos por la exposición a este metal.

  7. Hipoglucemia inducida por carcinoma adrenal

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    Jimena Soutelo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma suprarrenal es una neoplasia maligna infrecuente y de mal pronóstico. La presentación clínica más común es originada por la producción hormonal excesiva, mientras que el desarrollo de hipoglucemia sintomática es excepcional. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años que ingresó al hospital por síntomas de hipoglucemias graves, hipertensión arterial, hipopotasemia y amenorrea secundaria. En el laboratorio se halló hipoglucemia con insulina inhibida y niveles de andrógenos en rango tumoral. La tomografía computarizada (TC de abdomen y pelvis mostró voluminosa formación heterogénea de aspecto sólido sin plano de clivaje con respecto al parénquima hepático e intenso realce con contraste. Luego de la extirpación de la masa retroperitoneal, evolucionó con valores de glucemia y potasemia normales, estabilizó la presión arterial y recuperó los ciclos menstruales.

  8. Ictiotoxismo por consumo de barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda y morena manchada (Gymnothorax moringa en la comunidad de pescadores artesanales de Tasajera, caribe colombiano

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    Juan Diego Gaitán Espitia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe estudió un evento de ictiotoxismo en la comunidad de pescadores de la población de Tasajera, departamento del Magdalena. La intoxicación por ciguatera fue diagnosticada a 7 individuos cuyas edades oscilaban entre los 17 y 53 años (63,4% de rango de edades de los pescadores del sector, con síntomas de vómito (100%, dolor muscular en miembros inferiores (71,4%, espasmos abdominales (85,7%, diarrea (100%, entumecimiento y hormigueo de cara, manos, pies (85,7%, mareo (100%, y brote cutáneo (14,2%, los síntomas en la mayoría de los casos desaparecieron en un lapso de 8 a 12 días. Se determinó como causa principal del evento de ciguatera el consumo de carne de barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda y morena (Gymnothorax moringa. (Duazary 2007; 2: 160 - 167AbstractAn icthyotoxism event was studied in the Tasajera fishermen’s community, department of Magdalena. The ciguatera intoxication was diagnosed to 7 individuals whose ages were ranging between 17 and 53 years (63,4 %, with symptoms of vomit (100 %, muscular pain in low members (71,4 %, abdominal spasms (85,7 %, diarrhea (100 %, numbness and tingling of face, hands, feet (85,7 %, sickness (100 %, and cutaneous outbreak (14,2 %, the symptoms in the majority of the cases disappeared in a space from 8 to 12 days. The consumption of the barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda spotted moray (Gymnothorax moringa meat was determined as principal source of the ciguatera event.Key words: Icthyotoxism; Ciguatera; Intoxication; Colombian Caribbean.

  9. Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Marcelo Corti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, brainstem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

  10. The molecular characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis in Baoan district, Shenzhen, 2010-2011%2010-2011年深圳市宝安区诺如病毒的分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海龙; 李苑; 姚相杰; 冼慧霞; 杨洪; 罗敏; 何雅青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular characteristics of noroviruses among viral diarrhea cases in Baoan district,Shenzhen.Methods From January 2010 to December 2011,486 stool samples were collected from suspected viral diarrhea patients in Baoan district,Shenzhen.Nucleic acid of GⅡ noroviruses were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR).The positive samples for GⅡ norovirus were randomly selected to perform reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) with the primers COG2F/G2-SKR,while all the negative samples for GⅡ norovirus were performed RT-PCR with the primers GI-SKF/GI-SKR.Positive PCR products were purified and sequenced,and the sequences were analyzed by Clustal W and MEGA 5.0 programs,then phylogenetic tree was constructed and genotype was identified.Results Among 48 positive samples for GⅡ norovirus,the numbers of G Ⅱ.4/ 2006b,G Ⅱ.4/2008 and GⅡ.5 were 36,3,and 9 respectively; No GⅠ norovirus was found.Conclusions From January 2010 to December 2011,G Ⅱ was the most important genotype of norovirus,and G Ⅱ.4/2006b variant was identified as the predominant strain in Baoan district,Shenzhen.%目的 了解深圳市宝安区诺如病毒腹泻的分子流行病学特点.方法 采集深圳市宝安区2010年1月至2011年12月486例疑似病毒性腹泻患者粪便标本,使用商品化的GⅡ型诺如病毒荧光PCR试剂盒检测GⅡ型诺如病毒核酸.随机挑选若干GⅡ型诺如病毒阳性标本,用GⅡ型诺如病毒特异性引物COG2F/G2-SKR进行RT-PCR扩增,其他所有阴性标本用GⅠ型诺如病毒特异性引物GI-SKF/GI-SKR进行RT-PCR扩增.阳性产物回收纯化并测序,用Clustal W和MEGA 5.0生物软件对诺如病毒序列进行序列比对和系统进化分析.结果 48份随机挑选的GⅡ型诺如病毒阳性标本中检出GⅡ.4/2006b型36株,GⅡ.4/2008型3株,GⅡ.5型9株;无诺如病毒GⅠ型检出.结论 GⅡ 型是2010年1月至2011年12月深圳市宝安区

  11. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

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    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  12. 小儿诺如病毒性肠炎的临床特征%Prevalence and Characterization of Norovirus in Children and Infants with Sporadic Acute Gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏嘉陵; 万朝敏; 朱渝

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of hu-man noroviruses among children with symptoms of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Methods Stool samples and clinical data were collected between June 2005 and December 2006 from sporadic symptomatic children. All of the specimens were detected by RT-PCR. Results With 46 HuNVs infections were identified in the 149 specimens, the prevalence of human noroviruses causing sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in young children was 30. 9%. The average age of children infected HuNVs was 13. 59 ± 9. 66 months. And the epidemic period of HuNVs was September-December. Conclusion Besides rotavirus, HuNVs were the second common causative viral agent in acute sporadic gastroenteritis of infant and children.%目的 了解散发性、急性婴幼儿HuNVs性肠炎临床特征和流行病学资料. 方法 采用横断面调查的研究方法,收集我院门、急诊就诊和住院婴幼儿中急性非细菌性肠炎的大便标本,通过问卷调查采集临床、流行病学资料. 检测A组轮状病毒抗原,阴性者纳入研究;对纳入标本提取病毒RNA,RT-PCR方法检测HuNVs. 分析检出率、发病年龄、发病时间、主要临床表现. 结果 婴幼儿急性非细菌性肠炎并且A组轮状病毒抗原检测为阴性的病例149份,RT-PCR方法检测有46例扩增出HuNVs条带,检出率30. 9%. HuNVs感染患儿年龄(13. 59 ± 9. 66)个月;发病时间集中在每年9~11月份,临床表现主要包括腹泻、呕吐、发热、不同程度脱水. 结论 HuNVs仅次于轮状病毒,是引起散发性、急性婴幼儿肠炎的第二位的病毒.

  13. Intoxicación alimentaria por clostridium perfringens en el centro penitenciario cocori, cartago, costa rica, del 4 al 5 de septiembre del 2002

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    A Espinoza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción El 5 de setiembre del 2002 el Centro Penitenciario Cocorí en Cartago, notificó al Sistema de Vigilancia del Ministerio de Salud, la presencia de 133 casos de diarrea. Ante esta situación, las autoridades de salud plantearon la investigación, para identificar los factores asociados a la presencia del brote. Material y métodos Mediante la revisión de los expedientes de los casos atendidos por diarrea en el Centro Penitenciario, se identificaron los que cumplieran con la siguiente definición: persona con deposiciones líquidas que podían acompañarse de náuseas, vómitos, dolor de cabeza, dolor abdominal, tenesmo y meteorismo, y que consumieron alimentos en el Centro Penitenciario el 4 de setiembre del 2002. Para determinar el mecanismo de transmisión, comparamos la exposición de los alimentos servidos durante el desayuno, almuerzo y cena del 4 de setiembre, de los casos con 41 prisioneros no enfermos. Se aislaron enteropatógenos, de muestras del pollo servidos y de heces de los casos seleccionados al azar. Resultados Se identificaron 133 casos ocurridos en el centro penitenciario. El primer caso ocurrió 4:30 horas después de servido el almuerzo. El 100% presentó diarrea, ninguno tuvo fiebre, ni recibió antibióticos. Las personas que consumieron pollo en salsa presentaron un RR = 2,92 (95% CI: 1,217,04. El laboratorio aisló Cl. perfringens en una concentración de 10 5 u.f.c. por gramo de heces y 10 4 u.f.c. por gramo de carne de pollo. Conclusiones La presencia de CI. perfringes en el pollo y heces de los casos demuestran la transmisión del agente en la población del Centro Penitenciario (fuente común.

  14. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE NITRÓGENO EN EL METABOLISMO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS EN BROTES DE Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. CULTIVADOS EN BIORREACTOR DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Pérez, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (“hierba del cáncer”) es recomendada por la medicina tradicional Mexicana para tratar síntomas asociados con el cáncer, que podrían deberse a que acumula compuestos fenólicos como flavonoides y feniletanoides. El nitrógeno (N) es un elemento fundamental para el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas y, su deficiencia provoca el incremento en la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y de la actividad de enzimas claves de su biosíntesis como es la fenilalanina amon...

  15. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados Organophosphate myotoxicity

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    Maria J. Cavaliere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.Organophosphates comprise a group of chemical compounds extensively used in farming as insecticides, which cause accidental poisoning in animals and men and are also used in suicide attempts. The toxicity of these compounds is due especially to the cardiac and respiratory impairment in consequence of autonomic nervous system disorders. However, it is known that some of these products induce a myopathy in experimental animals and humans. This myopathy is characterized by muscle cell degeneration, involving above all the respiratory muscles. Based on the fact that this involvement certainly enhances the

  16. The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon

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    Maria Sandra Costa Amaral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus (NoV, adenovirus (AdV and astrovirus (AstV from February 2010-February 2012. Specimens were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and viruses were found in 10.7% (63/591 of the cases. NoV, AdV and AstV were detected in 7.8%, 2% and 0.8% of the samples, respectively. NoV infection was observed at all ages and was most prevalent in zero-18-month-old children (84.7%; p = 0.002. A higher incidence of NoV was detected from February-April 2010, when it was found in 52.2% of the cases. Co-infections involving these viruses, rotavirus and enteropathogenic bacteria were detected in 44.4% (28/63 of the children with viral diarrhoea. Nosocomial infections were demonstrated in 28.6% (18/63 of the cases in which viruses were detected. The present paper reports, for the first time, the circulation of NoV and AstV among the paediatric population of Porto Velho and it contributes to our understanding of the roles of these pathogens in gastrointestinal infections.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II norovirus infection among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Suzhou (Jiangsu, China) from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-Guang; Ai, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qing-Bin; Qi, Xian; Ji, Hong; Jin, Miao; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Shan, Jun; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Zhu, Ye-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in both sporadic and outbreak cases. Genotyping and recombination analyses were performed in order to help getting more knowledge of the distribution and genetic diversity of NoVs in Suzhou, located in Jiangsu province of China. All stool samples were collected from hospitalized children younger than 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were partially amplified and sequenced. 26.9% of stool samples were positive for genogroup II NoVs. The most common genotype was GII.4 and its variants included Den Haag-2006b, New Orleans-2009, and Sydney-2012. The Den Haag-2006b variants predominated during 2010-2012. In 2013, it was replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant. The second most common genotype was GII.12/GII.3. NoVs could be detected throughout the year, with GII.4 and GII.12/GII.3 coexisting during the cold months, and GII.4 was the main genotype during the warm months. The highest prevalence of NoV was detected in young children aged viral gastroenteritis among children in Suzhou. Analyses of NoV circulating between 2010 and 2013 revealed a change of predominant variant of NoV GII.4 in each epidemic season and intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part. PMID:26547266

  18. The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Sandra Costa; Estevam, Grecy Kelli; Penatti, Marilene; Lafontaine, Roger; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Spada, Paula Katharine Pontes; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Matos, Najla Benevides

    2015-01-01

    Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus (NoV), adenovirus (AdV) and astrovirus (AstV) from February 2010-February 2012. Specimens were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and viruses were found in 10.7% (63/591) of the cases. NoV, AdV and AstV were detected in 7.8%, 2% and 0.8% of the samples, respectively. NoV infection was observed at all ages and was most prevalent in zero-18-month-old children (84.7%; p = 0.002). A higher incidence of NoV was detected from February-April 2010, when it was found in 52.2% of the cases. Co-infections involving these viruses, rotavirus and enteropathogenic bacteria were detected in 44.4% (28/63) of the children with viral diarrhoea. Nosocomial infections were demonstrated in 28.6% (18/63) of the cases in which viruses were detected. The present paper reports, for the first time, the circulation of NoV and AstV among the paediatric population of Porto Velho and it contributes to our understanding of the roles of these pathogens in gastrointestinal infections. PMID:25946245

  19. Removal characteristics and fluctuation of norovirus in a pilot-plant by an ultrafiltration membrane for the reclamation of treated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Nobuhito; Suwa, Mamoru; Sakurai, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Takabatake, Hiroo; Lee, Sun Tae; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    When ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes that are able to effectively reduce viruses are installed in a waste water reclamation system, the security of sanitation safety for water-borne diseases is essential. It is important to understand the behaviour of enteric viruses such as Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Norovirus (NV), the detection rate of which is relatively high in sewage. This study focused on the UF membrane process for the reclaimed water treatment process, and investigated the removal performance in NV type GI and GII in the UF membrane process by performing coagulation and sedimentation as the pre-treatment process in a pilot-plant by considering the concentration fluctuation of the influent. The removal ratio of GI and GII by the UF membrane process alone was 3.3 ± 0.7 Log in GI and 3.6 ± 1.0 Log in GII, and no clear difference in the removal ratio by NV species type was observed. The removal ratio of NV GII was increased by about 0.6 Log on average (4.2 ± 1.1 Log) compared with the UF membrane process only when the coagulation and sedimentation process were conducted as pre-treatment. However, there was no significant difference in the removal of NV GI by conducting the coagulation and sedimentation process. PMID:26979931

  20. Development of a real-time RT-PCR and Reverse Line probe Hybridisation assay for the routine detection and genotyping of Noroviruses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Improved detection methods have seen a large increase in the number of human NoV genotypes in the last ten years. The objective of this study was to develop a fast method to detect, quantify and genotype positive NoV samples from Irish hospitals. RESULTS: A real-time RT-PCR assay and a Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation assay were developed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region. The sensitivity and reactivity of the two assays used was validated using a reference stool panel containing 14 NoV genotypes. The assays were then used to investigate two outbreaks of gastroenteritis in two Irish hospitals. 56 samples were screened for NoV using a real-time RT-PCR assay and 26 samples were found to be positive. Genotyping of these positive samples found that all positives belonged to the GII\\/4 variant of NoV. CONCLUSION: The combination of the Real-time assay and the reverse line blot hybridisation assay provided a fast and accurate method to investigate a NoV associated outbreak. It was concluded that the predominant genotype circulating in these Irish hospitals was GII\\/4 which has been associated with the majority of NoV outbreaks worldwide. The assays developed in this study are useful tools for investigating NoV infection.

  1. Influencia de los determinantes conductuales en la transmisión de la hepatitis aguda por virus A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador R. Mora González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles en una institución cerrada afectada por un brote epidémico de hepatitis aguda por virus A, con el objetivo de comprobar el mecanismo de transmisión predominante, así como la existencia de asociación causal entre algunos determinantes conductuales presentes en la población diana y la morbilidad epidémica. Se realizó la estimación de riesgo de las variables estudiadas, las cuales fueron: el hábito de fumar (OR=6,77, no realizar un adecuado lavado de manos (OR=5,98, el número de convivientes por dormitorios (OR=5,67, prácticas de fecalismo (OR=3,35, tiempo de permanencia en la institución (OR=3,20, uso común de cubiertos (OR=2,31 y contacto físico con enfermos (OR=2,0. Estas variables mostraron asociación significativa con la ocurrencia de la hepatitis. La fracción atribuible poblacional porcentual estimó el impacto de estos riesgos entre el 50 y el 85 % de la población diana. Las deficiencias nutricionales por defecto (OR=1,68 y el nivel escolar (OR=0,82 no presentaron fuerza de asociación causal. En general, se demostró la función predominante de la transmisión persona a persona y la necesidad del método educativo para la modificación de tales hábitos y estilos de vida nocivos como requerimiento de la formación cultural, ética y profesional de nuestra población.A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an enclosed institution affected by an outbreak of acute hepatitis A to find out the predominant transmission mechanism as well as the causal association between some behavioral determinants present in the target population and epidermal morbidity. The risk assessment of the studied variables was made; the variables were the following: smoking (OR=6,77, poor hand washing (OR=5,98, number of people per dormitory (OR=5,67, contact with heces in dirty places (OR=3,35, length of stay at the institution (OR=3,20, collective use of cutlery (OR=2,31 and

  2. Investigación de un brote respiratorio agudo por exposición a cloro gas en una piscina pública Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Almagro Nievas; Rafael Acuña Castillo; Antonio Hernández Jerez; Alberto Robles Montes

    2008-01-01

    Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para investigar el accidente químico ocurrido en una piscina pública en el verano de 2005 y describir los factores ambientales responsables, analizar el efecto del cloro gas y valorar la evolución clínica y funcional del aparato respiratorio. Las intervenciones fueron las siguientes: inspecciones ambientales, encuesta epidemiológica (variables sociodemográficas), ubicación en el momento del accidente, olor percibido y seguimiento clínico y espirométri...

  3. Investigación de un brote respiratorio agudo por exposición a cloro gas en una piscina pública Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para investigar el accidente químico ocurrido en una piscina pública en el verano de 2005 y describir los factores ambientales responsables, analizar el efecto del cloro gas y valorar la evolución clínica y funcional del aparato respiratorio. Las intervenciones fueron las siguientes: inspecciones ambientales, encuesta epidemiológica (variables sociodemográficas, ubicación en el momento del accidente, olor percibido y seguimiento clínico y espirométrico de la función respiratoria. Se encuestaron 65 casos y 48 controles. El suceso se produjo al mezclar accidentalmente ácido clorhídrico e hipoclorito sódico, lo que generó cloro gas. Los síntomas predominantes fueron tos y disnea. El riesgo de enfermar en niños era 10 veces mayor si tenían una enfermedad respiratoria previa y 4 veces superior si estaban a una distancia inferior a 40 m del lugar del accidente. Todos los casos evolucionaron hacia la curación, excepto uno que tenía antecedentes asmáticos.A case-control study was designed to investigate a chemical accident that occurred in a swimming-pool in the summer of 2005. The aim was to describe the environmental factors involved in the accident, to assess the effect of chlorine gas on the respiratory system, and to perform a clinical and spirometric follow-up. The following interventions were carried out: environmental inspection, epidemiologic survey (including sociodemographic variables, location at the time of the accident, perception of an abnormal smell, and clinical and spirometric outcomes to assess respiratory function. Sixty-five cases and 48 controls were identified and interviewed. The accident was produced by accidental admixture of hydrochloric acid with sodium hypochlorite resulting in chlorine gas release. The main clinical symptoms were dyspnea and cough. The risk of becoming ill was 10-fold higher in children with a previous lung disease and was 4-fold higher when the distance from the chlorine source was less than 40 m. All cases recovered completely, except one who had a history of asthma.

  4. 扬州地区急性散发性诺如病毒感染性腹泻的临床特点分析%Clinical Characteristics of Norovirus infection with Acute Viral Diarrhea of Yangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有江; 程明; 侯建国; 张晋; 徐勤

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析55例急性散发性诺如病毒性腹泻患者的流行病学特征和临床特点,为该病的防治提供科学依据。方法收集扬州市三家哨点医院2013年1月~12月门诊腹泻患者大便标本513份,分析临床资料,同时用 RT-PCR方法检测诺如病毒。结果诺如病毒阳性者55例,阳性率10.7%。感染者的年龄与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.27,P<0.05),而性别、职业、是否为食源性疾病与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.086~3.21,P值均>0.05)。临床症状的发生诺如病毒感染者更易出现发热(χ2=4.6,P<0.05),而其他症状如腹泻次数(≥5次/天)、腹痛、恶心、呕吐等与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.139~3.636,P值均>0.05)。结论诺如病毒是急性腹泻的常见病原体,发病率较高,单凭临床症状很难与其他腹泻相鉴别,需通过病原学诊断确诊。%Objective To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in 55 patients with Acute Viral Diarrhea caused by Norovirus.And provide basis for preventing and controlling the spread of the disease.Methods A total of 5 1 3 fe-cal samples of diarrhea cases from 3 surveillance hospitals in 2013 from January to December were collected,analyzed the clinical date and detected Norovirus useing RT-PCR.Results The number of Norovirus positive was 55,positive rate was 10.7%.There were significant differences between Norovirus infection and not infected patients for age (χ2=4.27,P0.05).The clinical symptoms of acute gastroenteritis pa-tients caused by Norovirus infection was fever (χ2=4.6,P0.05).Conclusion Norovirus is common pathogens of a-cute diarrhoea,which incidence is higher.Clinical symptoms alone is difficult to differentiate with other diarrheaphases.The confirmed diagnosis is depended on the etiology.

  5. Riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle a Chile por la importación de avestruces Risk of introduction of Newcastle disease in Chile through import of ostriches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Burbano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile ha estado libre de de la enfermedad de Newcastle del tipo PMV-1 desde 1977; por consiguiente, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle asociado a la importación de avestruces. Se utilizó un modelo de simulación de tipo estocástico, para lo cual se consideraron los siguientes procesos: los relacionados previos a la importación en el país de origen, aquellos que corresponden al proceso mismo de importación y los realizados en la cuarentena en el país de destino. De acuerdo a los reportes de enfermedad en cada uno de los países exportadores de avestruces, se categorizó a los países en dos niveles: aquel donde la enfermedad de Newcastle no ha sido reportada y el de un país endémico. Las probabilidades de las entradas del modelo de simulación fueron obtenidas de fuentes bibliográficas e información sanitaria publicada por organismos de sanidad animal. Se ejecutó un análisis de sensibilidad, para lo cual se usó el coeficiente de correlación de rango a fin de identificar las variables que ejercen mayor influencia en el modelo, siendo éstas: la probabilidad de brote y la cantidad de avestruces importadas. Esta información sirvió para el diseño de cuatro escenarios que incluyeron valores extremos de la presentación de la enfermedad basados en la situación endémica, así como el uso de una mejor prueba diagnóstica. El número de avestruces positivos que ingresarían a Chile resultó fuertemente relacionado al número de brotes en el país endémico y al número de avestruces importadas del país endémico; el valor fue de 2.2 x 10-5, con un límite de confianza superior del 90% de 8.5*10-5 por año. El riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle a Chile asociado a la importación de avestruces fue muy bajo, incluso en los peores escenarios.Chile has been free of Newcastle disease (ND of type PMV- 1 since 1977. The objective of this study was to

  6. Verdad por definición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Garrido, Julián

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La verdad por definición es un tipo peculiar de verdad científica, distinguible de las verdades lógicas, matemáticas y empíricas. La definición, por su parte, designa diversos procedimientos de asignación de significado, cuyas diferencias exigen una adjetivación cuidadosa: definiciones ostensivas y operacionales, definiciones de diccionario y definiciones teóricas. Pero sólo las del último tipo son verdaderas por definición. En el presente artículo se precisa el concepto formal de definición teórica, se delimita la estructura de esos enunciados, se analiza la verdad por definición, y se comparan, por último, las definiciones teóricas con los otros tipos de definición.

  7. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas;

    2016-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to ...

  8. Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por el virus de la influenza a H1N1 en el Hospital General de San Cristóbal de las Casas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen de la Torre Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A principios del mes de Abril de 2009 en México se detectaron los primeros casos de un brote de gripe porcina en humanos, causada por una nueva cepa de virus que contiene material genético combinado de una cepa de gripe humana, una cepa de gripe aviaria y dos cepas separadas de virus de gripe porcina, denominado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS como Influenza A H1N1 (virus de la Influenza A subtipos Hemaglutinina 1, Neuraminidasa1 con la finalidad de clasificarlo. Estudio transversal. La población estudiada se tomo de los estudios de casos de pacientes con diagnóstico de Enfermedad Tipo Influenza (ETI confirmados por PCR. Se incluyeron diagnósticos de ETI en el periodo comprendido entre el 4/Abril/09 y 4/Marzo/2010. Variables estudiadas edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución, características clínicas, tratamiento. De 3676 consultas 157 (4.2% fueron positivas a VIA H1N1. El 51.5 % fueron del sexo masculino. El 6.7% correspondió a los escolares y adolescentes la manifestación clínica más frecuente fue tos seca 96.1%, cefalea 86%, ataque al estado general 85%.Los casos positivos fueron locales 75.1% y el 15.2% de comunidades aledañas. El 100% fue tratado con oseltamivir. Las características clínicas encontradas fueron tos seca, cefalea y ataque al estado general, no hubo diferencia significativa de presentación de acuerdo al sexo, en relación a la edad predomina en escolares y adolescentes. La población afectada fue la local.

  9. La responsabilidad civil medioambiental por productos defectuosos

    OpenAIRE

    Siaka, Danny Clovis

    2014-01-01

    La tesis cuestiona por una parte la exhaustividad del marco regulador de la responsabilidad Civil por productos defectuosos y, por la otra, la singularidad de los daños medioambientales. Así, pretende, entre otros objetivos, contribuir en la construcción del Derecho Civil medioambiental, buscando, dentro del ámbito de protección de la legislación sobre productos defectuosos, el posible anclaje de los daños medioambientales. Gira en torno a la cuestión del régimen aplicable a supuesto...

  10. Verdad por definición

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Garrido, Julián

    1997-01-01

    Not available.La verdad por definición es un tipo peculiar de verdad científica, distinguible de las verdades lógicas, matemáticas y empíricas. La definición, por su parte, designa diversos procedimientos de asignación de significado, cuyas diferencias exigen una adjetivación cuidadosa: definiciones ostensivas y operacionales, definiciones de diccionario y definiciones teóricas. Pero sólo las del último tipo son verdaderas por definición. En el presente artículo se precisa el concepto formal ...

  11. Low prevalence of rotavirus and high prevalence of norovirus in hospital and community wastewater after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemón Bucardo

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV and norovirus (NoV are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these data with pre-vaccination data. The major finding was the low prevalence of RV compared to NoV in all sampling points (11% vs 44%, p<0.05, and that RV concentration was lower as compared to NoV. RV was observed mainly during the rainy season (July-September, and the majority of all RV detected (6/9 belonged to subgroup (SG I. The partial VP7-gene obtained from one RV positive sample was similar (99% nt identity to a G6 VP7-gene of bovine origin and similar to the corresponding gene of the vaccine strain (98%. Furthermore RV G-types 2 and 4 were found in the incoming wastewater. NoV strains were detected throughout the year, of which a majority (20/21 were of genotype GII.4. We conclude that the introduction of RV vaccination reduced the transmission of RV in the community in Nicaragua. However, the burden of diarrhea in the country remains high, and the high prevalence of NoVs in hospital and municipal wastewater is noteworthy. This study highlights the need for further assessment of NoV following RV vaccine introduction.

  12. Epidemiology of Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Human Calicivirus (Norovirus and Sapovirus in Catalonia: A Two Year Prospective Study, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE of viral etiology is a relevant public health issue. Due to underreporting, the study of outbreaks is an accepted approach to investigate their epidemiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of AGE outbreaks due to norovirus (NoV and sapovirus (SV in Catalonia.Prospective study of AGE outbreaks of possible viral etiology notified during two years in Catalonia. NoV and SV were detected by real time reverse transcription polymerase (RT-PCR.A total of 101 outbreaks were registered affecting a total of 2756 persons and 12 hospitalizations (hospitalization rate: 0.8x1,000,000 persons-year; 49.5% of outbreaks were foodborne, 45.5% person to person and 5% waterborne. The distribution of outbreaks according to the setting showed a predominance of catering services (39.6%, nursing homes and long term care facilities (26.8% and schools (11.9%. The median number of cases per outbreak was 17 (range 2-191. The total Incidence rate (IR was 18.3 per 100,000 persons-years (95%CI: 17.6-19.0. The highest IR was in persons aged ≥65 years (43.6x100,000 (95% CI: 41.0-46.2 (p<0.001. A total of 1065 samples were analyzed with a positivity rate of 60.8%. 98% of positive samples were NoV (GII 56.3%; GI 4.2%; GII+GI 4.2%; non- typable 33.0%. SV was identified in two person-to-person transmission outbreaks in children.These results confirm the relevance of viral AGE outbreaks, both foodborne and person-to-person, especially in institutionalized persons. SV should be taken into account when investigating viral AGE outbreaks.

  13. Incidence of and factors associated with false positives in laboratory diagnosis of norovirus infection by amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ru Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene remains a used method for the rapid detection of norovirus (NV in clinical laboratories. The incidence of and factors associated with false positives in this assay have not been previously evaluated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After an NV outbreak caused by the GII.4 Sydney strain in 2012, we reanalysed 250 stool samples positive for NV by RdRp gene detection. True positives were confirmed in 154 (61.6% samples by successful amplification and sequencing confirmation of the viral protein 1 gene. Of the remaining 96 samples that underwent RT-PCR for the RdRp gene, 34 samples yielded PCR products of the expected length. However, the sequences of the amplicons belonged to the human genome, with 91-97% matched nucleotide sequences, indicating false positives. Multivariate analysis of the clinical features of the patients identified a positive stool culture for bacteria (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.07, 95% adjusted confidence interval [aCI] 2.17-37.92, P = .003 and the use of parenteral antibiotics (aOR 5.55, 95% aCI 1.21-24.73, P = .027 as significant and independent factors associated with false positives. CONCLUSION: Conventional RT-PCR targeting the RdRp gene of NV can lead to false positives in patients with bacterial enterocolitis by incidental amplification of DNA from a human source.

  14. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective effects of a trivalent chimeric norovirus P particle immunogen displaying influenza HA2 from subtypes H1, H3 and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Yin, He; Shi, Yuhua; He, Xiaoqiu; Yu, Yongjiao; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Haji, Nasteha M; Haji, Nafisa M; Kong, Wei; Shan, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    The ectodomain of the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) stem is highly conserved across strains and has shown promise as a universal influenza vaccine in a mouse model. In this study, potential B-cell epitopes were found through sequence alignment and epitope prediction in a stem fragment, HA2:90-105, which is highly conserved among virus subtypes H1, H3 and B. A norovirus (NoV) P particle platform was used to express the HA2:90-105 sequences from subtypes H1, H3 and B in loops 1, 2 and 3 of the protrusion (P) domain, respectively. Through mouse immunization and microneutralization assays, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the chimeric NoV P particle (trivalent HA2-PP) were tested against infection with three subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and B) of IAV in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. The protective efficacy of the trivalent HA2-PP was also evaluated preliminarily in vivo by virus challenge in the mouse model. The trivalent HA2-PP immunogen induced significant IgG antibody responses, which could be enhanced by a virus booster vaccination. Moreover, the trivalent HA2-PP immunogen also demonstrated in vitro neutralization of the H3 and B viruses, and in vivo protection against the H3 virus. Our results support the notion that a broadly protective vaccine approach using an HA2-based NoV P particle platform can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses of different IAV subtypes. The efficacy of the immunogen should be further enhanced for practicality, and a better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of HA2-based multivalent vaccines. PMID:27222326

  15. Molecular characteristics of norovirus in 3 outbreak-episodes of gastroenteritis in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2009%浙江省2008-2009年三起诺如病毒胃肠炎暴发的病原分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚黎明; 葛琼; 陈寅; 卢亦愚; 张严峻; 严菊英; 周敏; 史雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析浙江省3起病毒性胃肠炎暴发疫情的诺如病毒分子特征.方法 收集监测期间病毒性胃肠炎暴发疫情患者的粪便标本,采用荧光定量RT-PCR方法检测诺如病毒,并选择部分阳性标本扩增部分多聚酶区(RdRp)和衣壳蛋白区,同时采用3′RACE(rapidamplification of cDNA 3′ends)扩增诺如病毒基因组3′末端,获得完整的开放读码框架(ORF)2和ORF3序列.结果 3起暴发疫情共检测标本62份,诺如病毒阳性41份,其中诺如病毒Ⅰ(G Ⅰ)基因组阳性27例,Ⅱ基因组(GⅡ)阳性9例,G Ⅰ+GⅡ阳性5例.结果 显示,引起浙江省2008-2009年3起病毒性胃肠炎暴发疫情的诺如病毒具有病毒基因型的多样性,包括G Ⅰ.8、GⅡ.b、GⅠ.2与GⅠ.6重组株、GⅠ.8和GⅡ-b混合感染.结论 诺如病毒是浙江省病毒性腹泻暴发疫情的重要病原体,呈现出病毒基因型的多样性,并在省内首次检测到诺如病毒的重组和混合感染毒株.%Objective To study the molecular characteristic of norovirus in 3 outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Zhejiang province. Methods During January 2008 and December 2009, fecal specimens of patients were collected from 3 outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis. Noroviruses were detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Part of the positive samples were randomly selected and detected by RT-PCR. PCR products were sequenced. Sequence analysis was undertaken based on partial sequence of RNA dependent RNA polymerase(RdRp)and capsid protein gene. Some positive samples were amplified by 3' RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA 3' ends), 3200 bp in length. The exact whole ORF2, ORF3 and 3' untranslation regions(UTR)gene of norovims were identified. Results There were in total 3 outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis caused by norovirus being reported. A total of 62 stools were obtained from cases with acute gastroentefitis. Noroviruses were detected in 41 cases including 27 strains of genogroup Ⅰ norovirus and 9 strains of

  16. 14 Nobel, preocupados por el CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rivera, A

    2003-01-01

    "E l presidente del Consejo del CERN (Laboratorio Europeo de Fisica de Particulas, junto a Ginebra), Maurice Bourquin, ha recibido una carta firmada por un grupo de cientificos muy especiales: 14 premios Nobel de Fisica" (1 page).

  17. Intoxicación por Paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Viales López

    2014-01-01

    El paraquat es un herbicida bipiridílico que actúa por contacto, se presenta en forma líquida en concentraciones del 20% para uso agrícola. Su nombre químico es eI 1-1´-dimetil-4-4- bipiridilo, con el nombre comercial de Gramoxone. La intoxicación por paraquat tiene una tasa de mortalidad elevada. La intoxicación grave se caracteriza por la afectación de múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones, los riñones y el hígado. El pulmón es el órgano diana en la intoxicación por paraquat y la i...

  18. Intoxicación por Paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Viales López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El paraquat es un herbicida bipiridílico que actúa por contacto, se presenta en forma líquida en concentraciones del 20% para uso agrícola. Su nombre químico es eI 1-1´-dimetil-4-4- bipiridilo, con el nombre comercial de Gramoxone. La intoxicación por paraquat tiene una tasa de mortalidad elevada. La intoxicación grave se caracteriza por la afectación de múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones, los riñones y el hígado. El pulmón es el órgano diana en la intoxicación por paraquat y la insuficiencia respiratoria con fibrosis pulmonar aguda es la causa más común de muerte.

  19. La pintura vista por un pintor joven

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    Fuentes Pozo, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El pintor se define a lo largo del tiempo como un artista en mutación influenciado por la sociedad de su momento y por su propio mundo interior Esto ha contribuido a la creación de distintos estilos pictóricos y a una evolución que conlleva la despreocupación por el aspecto formal en aras de una introspección al mundo interior En el cambio constante se refleja la búsqueda del artista que valida la intemporalidad del arte. Así, el verdadero artista sobrevive al aplauso o rechazo de la crítica, convirtiéndose en un verdadero hombre renancentista preocupado por el hallazgo del conocimiento universal.

  20. Intoxicación por paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Norma A. Hernández Hernández; Martínez, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    En el periodo comprendido de 1996 a 1999, se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de enfermos intoxicados por biperidilos (Paraquat), para determinar las principales manifestaciones, complicaciones, tratamiento y pronóstico del tóxico. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, transversal, descriptivo y observacional, en el área de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Dr. Gustavo A. Rovirosa Pérez. Se estudiaron 18 pacientes con intoxicación por paraquat, dos se excluyeron p...