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Sample records for brotes por norovirus

  1. Brote de infección por norovirus del Grupo II en un centro de entrenamiento militar, Perú 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos

    Full Text Available Reportamos un brote de norovirus (NoV ocurrido en un centro de entrenamiento militar peruano. Trece muestras de heces tomadas de casos iniciales resultaron positivas a NoV GII por RT-PCR. Se realizó un estudio caso-control para determinar factoresasociados a la infección. Se identificó 164 casos probables(tasa de ataqueclínica: 45,2%. El único factor asociado a la infecciónfue el "haber compartido habitación con un caso" (ORa=1,7; IC95% 1,1 a 2,7. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos sugieren que el virus fue propagado persona a persona. Futuras investigaciones de brotes de diarrea en el Perú deberían considerar al NoV como un agente etiológico

  2. Brote de norovirus en Mallorca asociado al consumo de ostras Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain associated with oyster consumption

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    Antònia Galmés Truyols

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la investigación de un brote de gastroenteritis por norovirus asociado al consumo de ostras. Se encuestaron 346 expuestos (266 afectados. Solamente se enviaron 14 muestras de heces de pacientes al Centro Nacional de Microbiología. Se mandaron ostras recogidas en el lugar de producción al Centro Nacional de Alimentación. Las ostras cumplían los parámetros microbiológicos de calidad aplicables antes de la comercialización, que no incluyen investigación de virus. El análisis epidemiológico asoció la aparición de la enfermedad al consumo de ostras (odds ratio [OR]=60,4; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 26,2-139,3 y de navajas (OR=3,13; IC95%: 1,4-6,9. Los análisis microbiológicos identificaron norovirus en los afectados, pero no en las ostras que habían estado sometidas a un tiempo mayor de depuración que las consumidas. Es necesario un control riguroso de los alimentos de especial riesgo para la transmisión de norovirus y disponer de recursos de laboratorio para investigar brotes alimentarios por norovirus.We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR=60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3 and razor shells (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9. Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the

  3. BROTE POR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS

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    Yáñez Ortega Jose Luis; Carramiñana Martínez Isabel; Bayona Ponte Mercedes

    2001-01-01

    Fundamento: Se describe un brote de gastroenteritis por Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipo 1, declarado en una residencia de ancianos de Burgos el 15 de noviembre de 1999. El objetivo de la investigación del brote ha sido determinar la fuente de infección, el mecanismo de transmisión y proponer las medidas adecuadas para evitar la recurrencia del problema. Métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo encuestando a 106 de un total de 119 reside...

  4. BROTE POR SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS

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    José Luis Yáñez Ortega

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de gastroenteritis por Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipo 1, declarado en una residencia de ancianos de Burgos el 15 de noviembre de 1999. El objetivo de la investigación del brote ha sido determinar la fuente de infección, el mecanismo de transmisión y proponer las medidas adecuadas para evitar la recurrencia del problema. Métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo encuestando a 106 de un total de 119 residentes y a 9 trabajadores del centro. Se ha estimado el Riesgo Relativo de enfermar en función del consumo de diversos alimentos. Se ha utilizado la Regresión Logística para calcular las odds ratio ajustadas por edad, sexo y por el consumo de alimentos y vino. Se ha estudiado la concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico por coprocultivo mediante el índice de concordancia Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: Un total de 42 personas refirieron sintomatología (37 residentes y 5 empleados. La tasa de ataque clínico fue de 36,5 %. De 91 coprocultivos realizados (82 en residentes y 9 en empleados 45 resultaron positivos (41 en residentes y 4 en empleados. La Tasa de ataque de casos confirmados por coprocultivo fue de 49,5% en los investigados. La leche frita ha sido el alimento implicado epidemiológicamente con la aparición del brote: RR: 3,25 (IC95% 1,10-9,59. El efecto protector del vino (Odds Ratio: 0,68 no alcanzó significación estadística (p=0,36. El índice Kappa resultó 0,43 (p < 0,001, lo que demuestra la escasa concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico mediante coprocultivo. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica de que el consumo de leche frita ha sido el mecanismo de transmisión de la infección, y la conservación a temperatura inadecuada del alimento ha sido el factor contribuyente determinante en la eclosión del brote. Esto demuestra que lo más idóneo para prevenir este tipo de brotes son las prácticas y h

  5. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en una residencia de ancianos

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    Yáñez Ortega Jose Luis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de gastroenteritis por Salmonella Enteritidis, fagotipo 1, declarado en una residencia de ancianos de Burgos el 15 de noviembre de 1999. El objetivo de la investigación del brote ha sido determinar la fuente de infección, el mecanismo de transmisión y proponer las medidas adecuadas para evitar la recurrencia del problema. Métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo encuestando a 106 de un total de 119 residentes y a 9 trabajadores del centro. Se ha estimado el Riesgo Relativo de enfermar en función del consumo de diversos alimentos. Se ha utilizado la Regresión Logística para calcular las odds ratio ajustadas por edad, sexo y por el consumo de alimentos y vino. Se ha estudiado la concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico por coprocultivo mediante el índice de concordancia Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: Un total de 42 personas refirieron sintomatología (37 residentes y 5 empleados. La tasa de ataque clínico fue de 36,5 %. De 91 coprocultivos realizados (82 en residentes y 9 en empleados 45 resultaron positivos (41 en residentes y 4 en empleados. La Tasa de ataque de casos confirmados por coprocultivo fue de 49,5% en los investigados. La leche frita ha sido el alimento implicado epidemiológicamente con la aparición del brote: RR: 3,25 (IC95% 1,10-9,59. El efecto protector del vino (Odds Ratio: 0,68 no alcanzó significación estadística (p=0,36. El índice Kappa resultó 0,43 (p<0,001, lo que demuestra la escasa concordancia del diagnóstico clínico frente al diagnóstico mediante coprocultivo. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica de que el consumo de leche frita ha sido el mecanismo de transmisión de la infección, y la conservación a temperatura inadecuada del alimento ha sido el factor contribuyente determinante en la eclosión del brote. Esto demuestra que lo más idóneo para prevenir este tipo de brotes son las prácticas y h

  6. Brote causado por Escherichia coli en Chalco, México

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    Cortés-Ortiz Iliana Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el agente causal del brote de diarrea asociado con el desbordamiento del canal de aguas negras en Chalco. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y transversal, efectuado en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE, de la Secretaría de Salud, con 1 550 hisopos rectales para el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de V. cholerae y enterobacterias, obtenidos de la población del Valle de Chalco, que presentó diarrea y vómito durante el desastre natural acontecido el 31 de mayo de 2000. El análisis de los resultados se efectuó por la diferencia entre las proporciones de dos poblaciones (prueba de Ji cuadrada. Las cepas de E. coli se hibridaron por "colony blot" para los grupos ETEC, EIEC, EPEC y EHEC. Resultados. El 0.45% correspondió a Salmonella: S. agona, S. infantis, S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. typhimurium; 0.06% a Shigella flexneri 3a, y 76.6% a E. coli: 62.2% a ETEC (44.6 % con LT, 11.2% con ST, y 44.1% con ambas sondas, 0.84% a EIEC (sonda ial, 0.84% a EPEC (sonda bundle-forming pilus BFP, 0.08% a E. coli enterohemorrágica no-O157:H7 (sonda pCVD419, y 36.02% no hibridó. No se encontró asociación entre E. coli patógena con la edad y género. Conclusiones. Escherichia coli podría ser responsable del brote de diarrea. Es importante conocer el agente etiológico del brote para encaminar las estrategias en el estudio y control sanitario del mismo.

  7. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

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    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  8. Brote intrahospitalario de salmonelosis por salmonella enteritidis serotipo agona

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    Miguel Guzmán

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una epidemia de salmonelosis ocurrida en el servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Militar, la cual afectó a quince pacientes. Se concluye que fue una infección intrahospitalaria. Como agente etiológico fue plenamente identificado Salmonella enteritidis, serotipo agona con una gran multirresistencia a los antibióticos. Como origen posible del brote se demostró un portador sano, preparador de teteros en el servicio. Es, posiblemente, la primera vez que se informe Salmonella agona en nuestro país.

  9. Signos Vitales de los CDC Cómo prevenir los brotes de norovirus (Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los norovirus infectan cada año a cerca de 20 millones de personas en los Estados Unidos. Sepa cómo protegerse y proteger a su familia de esta enfermedad que es muy contagiosa y potencialmente grave.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  10. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

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    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  11. Brote de gastroenteritis por virus Norwalk en una residencia de ancianos de Granada

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    Almagro Nievas Diego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los brotes de gastroenteritis aguda de origen vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal-Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15-18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  12. Brote de faringoamigdalitis de origen alimentario por estreptococo betahemolítico A

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    Juan Nieto Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Aunque no son frecuentes, algunos autores han comunicado brotes de faringoamigdalitis de origen alimentario. El 11 de mayo de 2010 se notificó a la Red de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía (SVEA que había personas con cuadro de faringoamigdalitis que tenían en común haber asistido a una comunión celebrada el día 8. El objetivo de este trabajo es la caracterización epidemiológica del brote. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de casos notificados y análisis de casos control por exposición a los alimentos implicados. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, sintomatología y fecha de inicio de síntomas. Fuentes de información fueron los registros del SVEA e historia digital individual (DIRAYA. Se calcularon frecuencias, tasas de ataque, y análisis bayesiano de comparación de diferencia de proporciones de enfermar para un intervalo de probabilidad o credibilidad (IP del 95%. Resultados: De 130 asistentes a una celebración se detectaron 41 casos de faringoamigdalitis (tasa ataque 31,5% y se aisló en frotis Estreptococo betahemolítico A. El grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 25-44 años: 16 (39,0%;hubo más afectación de las mujeres 24 (68,6% mujeres. La ensaladilla de huevo presentó una probabilidad mayor del 80% P(Δ>0,10 y Δ>0,15 para un IP del 95% de enfermar tras su consumo y la probabilidad de tener menos riesgo de no enfermar. Conclusiones: Se trató de un brote por estreptococo betahemolítico A. El análisis epidemiológico evidenció exposición a fuente única y común, siendo plausible la hipótesis del origen alimentario, posiblemente por la ensaladilla de huevo contaminada por algún manipulador de alimentos. Como factores contribuyentes se identificaron inadecuadas medidas higiénico-sanitarias en la manipulación y conservación de los alimentos.

  13. BROTE DE GASTROENTERITIS POR VIRUS NORWALK EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS DE GRANADA

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    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal- Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15- 18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  14. Brotes por Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus y Listeria monocytogenes asociados al consumo de pollo

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    Marcela Mercado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos son un serio problema de salud pública y,el pollo, uno de los alimentos asociados con ellas. Objetivo. Determinar la distribución y frecuencia de brotes alimentarios asociados al consumo de pollocontaminado por Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococus aureus, mediante unarevisión sistemática de la literatura científica. Materiales y métodos. Se buscaron los estudios de brotes asociados a Salmonella spp., S. aureus y L.monocytogenes, en las bases de datos Medline, Pubmed, Science Direct, SciELO, Librería Cochrane(CCRT, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS, Highwire, HINARI y MedicLatina. Se obtuvieron los datospara el cálculo de odds ratios (OR mediante la elaboración de tablas de contingencia en el programaRevMan5™. Resultados. Siete artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y no se encontraron reportesde L. monocytogenes. El OR global fue de 3,01 (IC95% 2,37-3,81, lo que se interpreta como unaasociación significativa entre el consumo de pollo contaminado y la infección alimentaria. Se presentó heterogeneidad en los estudios incluidos (p=0,03, por lo que fue necesario un análisis por subgruposde microorganismos; para el caso de Salmonella spp., el OR fue de 2,67 (IC95% 2,09-3,41. No se hizoanálisis para S. aureus por reportarse un solo artículo. Conclusiones. Se encontró un OR de 2,61, lo que indica que hay una fuerte asociación entre el consumode pollo y la adquisición de salmonelosis. El principal factor de riesgo para adquirir salmonelosis es elconsumo de pollo de asadero en los restaurantes.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i3.697

  15. Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compartir Español: Norovirus Have You Ever Heard of Norovirus? View Low Resolution Video Have You Ever Heard ... children and older adults… More First Ever - Human norovirus successfully grown in a lab! CDC celebrates the ...

  16. Brote de faringo-amigdalítis por estreptococo ?-hemolítico grupo A

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    Dante R Culqui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue describir un brote de faringo-amigdalitis causado por estreptococos β-hemolíticos del grupo A (EGA en profesionales de la salud. El estudio que se transmite de persona-persona o por vía alimentaria. El estudio transversal descriptivo se realizó en 17 clientes, localizados en la misma mesa, que participaron de una cena en restaurante de Barcelona, España, en julio de 2012. Se analizaron, la frecuencia de síntomas de los afectados, el tiempo y la severidad de los síntomas, variables demográficas y alimentos ingeridos, entre otros factores. La tasa de ataque (TA en los comensales fue del 58,8% (10/17. El 60,0% (6/10 de los comensales fueron positivos para EGA. El 46,2% (6/13 de los manipuladores de alimentos suministrados en la cena presentaron síntomas. No se identificó asociación con los alimentos ingeridos. Existen evidencias epidemiológicas de la transmisión alimentaria del EGA, pero no podría descartarse la transmisión respiratoria.

  17. Brotes de rabia humana transmitida por vampiros en los municipios de Bajo y Alto Baudó, departamento del Chocó, Colombia 2004-2005

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    Jessika Valderrama

    2006-09-01

    Conclusiones. El brote de rabia humana en Bajo Baudó 2004 ha sido el de mayor magnitud reportado en Colombia. Este fue causado por vampiros, demostrando la amenaza que representa la rabia de especies silvestres para la salud pública, y la necesidad de implementar acciones para evitar su impacto en humanos. Se desconoce si existen vínculos entre este brote y el reportado en Alto Baudó seis meses después.

  18. Enfermedad diarreica por rotavirus en brotes epidémicos Diarrheal disease caused by rotavirus in epidemic outbreaks

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    Jesús Reyna-Figueroa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil epidemiológico de los brotes de enfermedad diarreica aguda por rotavirus (RV ocurridos en pacientes pediátricos, mediante una revisión crítica de la literatura publicada entre 2000 y 2010. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos publicados desde enero de 2000 hasta abril de 2010, recogidos por las bases de datos Artemisa, EBSCO, Embase, Imbiomed, Lilacs, Ovid, PubMed y Science Direct. En los estudios que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, se identificaron posibles factores de confusión y se atribuyeron riesgos de sesgo con base en el número de ítems considerados inadecuados en cada caso. Se describieron las características epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de los brotes. RESULTADOS: Solo 14 (10,8% de los 129 títulos identificados formaron parte de la muestra, los cuales sumaron 91 092 casos de diarrea aguda notificados. En 5 250 de estos casos se realizó la búsqueda de RV, la cual arrojó 1 711 (32,5% aislamientos positivos. Se observó que el RV del grupo A fue el agente causal en 100% de los brotes, mientras que el genotipo G9 fue documentado en 50% de los artículos. CONCLUSIONES: El RV, principalmente el serotipo G9, fue uno de los principales agentes responsables de los brotes de EDA en la última década. Un cuidadoso estudio de brote puede aportar información valiosa para el control y la prevención de la enfermedad por RV.OBJECTIVE: Determine the epidemiological profile of outbreaks of acute diarrheal disease caused by rotavirus (RV occurring in pediatric patients, based on a critical review of the literature published between 2000 and 2010. METHODS: A search was carried out for articles published from January 2000 to April 2010, collected by the Artemisa, EBSCO, Embase, Imbiomed, Lilacs, Ovid, PubMed, and Science Direct databases. In the studies that met the inclusion criteria, possible confounding factors were identified and risks of bias were attributed based on the

  19. Brote epidémico de neumonías por Legionella pneumophila en niños cubanos

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    Roberto Razón Behar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La Legionella pneumophila es uno de los patógenos responsable de neumonías atípicas, a través de la inhalación de aerosoles o aspiración de líquidos infectados. Se detectó un brote epidémico de neumonías por Legionella, originado por la aspiración de agua contaminada de una piscina en un grupo de niños cubanos. El agente causal se identificó en 5 de 9 pacientes, por la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta en muestras de sueros pareados. Los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron malestar general, anorexia, astenia, fiebre persistente de 39 °C a 40 °C (103 °F a 105 °F, mialgias, cefaleas, náuseas, vómitos, dolor abdominal, diarreas, tos húmeda, dolor torácico y polipnea. Durante el desarrollo de la enfermedad, el tratamiento antibiótico fue empírico (incluyendo los macrólidos, por no tener confirmado el diagnóstico. Todos los pacientes evolucionaron satisfactoriamente. Se reportó un brote epidémico de neumonías por Legionella en niños por primera vez en Cuba, lo cual tiene importancia clínica y epidemiológica.The legionella pneumophila is one of the pathogens responsible for atypic pneumonias by the inhalation of aerosols or aspiration of infected liquids. An epidemic outbreak of pneumonias caused by Legionella was detected among a group of Cuban children. It was originated by the aspiration of contaminated water in a swimming pool. The causal agent was identified in 5 of 9 patients by using the indirect immunofluorescence technique in samples of matched sera. The most frequent symptoms and signs were malaise, anorexia, asthenia, persistent fever from 39°C to 40°C (103° F to 105° F, myalgias, headache, nauseas, vomits, abdominal pain, diarrheas, moist cough, thoracic pain and polypnoea. The antibiotic treatment was empiric (including the macrolides during the development of the disease, since the diagnosis was not confirmed. The patients’ evolution was satisfactory. An epidemic outbreak of pneumonias

  20. BROTE DE GRIPE POR VIRUS PANDÉMICO (H1N1 2009 EN UNA RESIDENCIA PARA PERSONAS DISCAPACITADAS PSÍQUICAS EN LAS ISLAS BALEARES

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    Jaume Giménez Duran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La temporada gripal 2009-2010 ha sido más corta y benigna de lo esperado. Desde enero de 2010 los sistemas de vigilancia de gripe indicaban unas tasas de incidencia muy bajas sin detección de circulación del virus. En este contexto, un hospital comunicó una sospecha de brote de enfermedad respiratoria grave, cuya etiología resultó ser gripe (H1N1 2009. Describimos el brote y las actuaciones de Salud Pública para su control. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de un brote epidémico por virus gripal pandémico en una residencia para discapacitados mentales. Establecimiento de vigilancia activa. La definición de caso de gripe fue muy sensible para detectar los nuevos casos al inicio, tratarlos precozmente y minimizar la transmisión. Se adoptaron medidas de contención de la infección por virus gripal. Resultados: De 38 casos detectados 7 (todos con factores de riesgo sufrieron complicaciones graves. No hubo defunciones. La tasa global de ataque fue del 35,2%. Los primeros casos eran trabajadores. Los casos en residentes se acumularon en el pico del brote y entre trabajadores la presentación fue más dispersa. Ninguno de los trabajadores y sólo tres residentes habían sido vacunados. Conclusiones: El brote se inició en los trabajadores de la residencia, a partir de los cuales se difundió a las personas residentes. Destacamos la necesidad de cumplir las recomendaciones de vacunación, no sólo de las personas con factores de riesgo, sino también muy especialmente de los trabajadores en contacto con aquellos.

  1. Brote causado por Escherichia coli en Chalco, México Outbreak caused by Escherichia coli in Chalco, México

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    Iliana Alejandra Cortés-Ortiz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el agente causal del brote de diarrea asociado con el desbordamiento del canal de aguas negras en Chalco. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y transversal, efectuado en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE, de la Secretaría de Salud, con 1 550 hisopos rectales para el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de V. cholerae y enterobacterias, obtenidos de la población del Valle de Chalco, que presentó diarrea y vómito durante el desastre natural acontecido el 31 de mayo de 2000. El análisis de los resultados se efectuó por la diferencia entre las proporciones de dos poblaciones (prueba de Ji cuadrada. Las cepas de E. coli se hibridaron por "colony blot" para los grupos ETEC, EIEC, EPEC y EHEC. Resultados. El 0.45% correspondió a Salmonella: S. agona, S. infantis, S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. typhimurium; 0.06% a Shigella flexneri 3a, y 76.6% a E. coli: 62.2% a ETEC (44.6 % con LT, 11.2% con ST, y 44.1% con ambas sondas, 0.84% a EIEC (sonda ial, 0.84% a EPEC (sonda bundle-forming pilus BFP, 0.08% a E. coli enterohemorrágica no-O157:H7 (sonda pCVD419, y 36.02% no hibridó. No se encontró asociación entre E. coli patógena con la edad y género. Conclusiones. Escherichia coli podría ser responsable del brote de diarrea. Es importante conocer el agente etiológico del brote para encaminar las estrategias en el estudio y control sanitario del mismo.Objective. To identify the etiologic agent responsible for a disease outbreak following an overflow of sewage water in Valle de Chalco, Mexico. Material and Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out. Rectal samples were collected from the population of Chalco valley, who suffered from diarrhea and vomiting during a natural disaster that took place on May 31, 2000. The Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (Epidemic Reference and Diagnosis Institute, InDRE, Ministry of Health, received 1521 rectal

  2. Caracterización molecular de un brote por Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de CTX-M-12 en la unidad de cuidado intensivo neonatal de un hospital colombiano

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    José Ramón Mantilla

    2006-09-01

    Conclusión: Este es el primer informe en Colombia de un brote por Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de CTX-M-12, caracterizado molecularmente. Este estudio da evidencia adicional de la diseminación global de BLEE de tipo CTX-M y alerta sobre la necesidad de actividades especificas de prevención para cortar la cadena de transmisión y del seguimiento de tipo epidemiológico en nuestros centros hospitalarios.

  3. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among hospital workers

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    Ma. Eugenia Chávez-de la Peña

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  4. Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high mortality, Nicaragua, 2005 Brote de gastroenteritis por rotavirus con alta mortalidad, Nicaragua, 2005

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    Juan José Amador

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated a nationwide outbreak of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in children under 5 years old, leading to many consultations, hospitalizations, and deaths. We questioned whether a vaccine might have prevented these illnesses and deaths, sought to identify risk factors for death, and developed a clinical profile of children hospitalized with diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to determine whether children who died had access to routine immunizations, a proxy predicting access to a rotavirus vaccine. We identified risk factors for death among children who died in the outbreak compared with surviving age-matched controls with diarrhea. We collected stools, clinical data, and immunization data on children hospitalized for diarrhea to test for rotavirus, develop the profile, and forecast future access to a rotavirus vaccine. RESULTS: The outbreak from February to April 2005 caused 47 470 consultations and 52 deaths. Approximately 80% of cases and controls and 60% of children hospitalized with diarrhea had access to routine immunizations and would likely have had access to a rotavirus vaccine. With a vaccine efficacy of 85%, up to 51% of severe rotavirus cases and up to 68% of deaths could have been prevented if a rotavirus vaccine were available as part of routine child-hood immunizations. Study of 35 case-control pairs indicated that severe illnesses, malnutrition, and care by traditional healers were risk factors for death. Rotavirus was found in 42% of samples from hospitalized children and was associated with severe disease and dehydration. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the seasonal outbreaks of rotavirus disease could be diminished with a rotavirus vaccine, improvements in oral rehydration programs, and training of traditional healers in the proper management of children with acute diarrhea.OBJETIVOS: Se investigó un brote nacional de gastroenteritis grave por rotavirus en niños menores de 5 a

  5. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

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    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.

  6. Brote de toxiinfección alimentaria por salmonella entérica en un establecimiento de restauración colectiva

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    Rosa Ma. Carbó Malonda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de toxiinfección alimentaria por Salmonella enteritidis ocurrido en dos salones de banquetes con ocho grupos de comensales afectados. El objeto de la investigación fue determinar el alimento vehículo de transmisión de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se analizaron los procesos de elaboración de los alimentos susceptibles de haber causado el brote. La asociación de los alimentos con la enfermedad se analizó mediante un diseño de casos y controles. Se calcularon las Odds Ratio ajustadas (ORa y sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95% por regresión logística. Resultados: El número de comensales fue 1.771, distribuidos en 13 grupos durante tres días consecutivos. Se encuestó a 629 personas (36%. El número de casos probables fue de 250, 61 confirmados por salmonella enterica. El biscuit glasé (postre con huevo crudo sin tratamiento térmico presentó la Odds Ratio ajustada más alta (ORa = 20,40; IC95%:7,52-55,30 y fue positivo a Salmonella enterica serotipo enteritidis. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica y de laboratorio de que el biscuit glacé fue el alimento contaminado que causó el brote. La investigación destacó como factores contribuyentes la utilización de huevo crudo, la producción en grandes cantidades y con antelación al consumo del alimento.

  7. Estudio de un brote intrahospitalario por Salmonella typhimurium productora de beta-lactamasa de espectro extendido SHV-5

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    Liliana Del Pozo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Presencia de un brote intrahospitalario de Salmonella typhimurium productora de beta-lactamasas de espectro extendido ocurrido en el Hospital San Bartolome, entre el 17 de febrero y el 6 de marzo del año 2001. Objetivo: Identificar los mecanismos implicados en la transmisión de Salmonella typhimurium y caracterización de los genes asociados a la resistencia en beta-lactámicos. Diseño: Estudio clínico-bacteriológico retrospectivo. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Docente Madre Niño (Honadomani San Bartolomé. Materiales biológicos: Aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de pacientes lactantes. Intervenciones: Se determinó la diversidad genética de cinco aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de pacientes lactantes hospitalizados en la Unidad pediátrica del hospital, utilizando REP-PCR y fingerprint plasmídico. Previamente, se caracterizó la resistencia antimicrobiana, determinando la presencia de beta-lactamasa de espectro extendido mediante la prueba de sinergia de doble disco; la variante fue identificada por PCR-secuenciamiento del gen bla shv . Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de genotipos, plásmidos y beta-lactamasa de Salmonella typhimurium. Resultados: Se determinó la presencia de dos genotipos en los aislamientos de Salmonella typhimurium; el caso índice (sensible presentó un genotipo diferente al de otros aislamientos resistentes pertenecientes a pacientes hospitalizados. Se determinó la presencia en S. typhimurium de un plásmido de peso molecular elevado de tamaño distinto a los de K. pneumoniae, pero probablemente relacionado con una cepa de E. coli intrahospitalaria. Se encontró la beta-lactamasa de espectro extendido SHV-5 en los aislamientos de S. typhimurium y E. coli. Conclusiones: El estudio sugiere que la diseminación de estas bacterias en los lactantes puede haber sido favorecida por varios factores que habrían intervenido en la transferencia de elementos genéticos responsables de la

  8. Investigación de vectores y reservorios en brote de Chagas agudo por posible transmisión oral en Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia

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    Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Suárez, Diana Carolina; Torres, Mariela Torres; Arias, María Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con vivienda sin triatominos...

  9. Investigación de vectores y reservorios en brote de Chagas agudo por posible transmisión oral en Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Soto,Hugo; Tibaduiza,Tania; Montilla,Marleny; Triana,Omar; Suárez,Diana Carolina; Torres,Mariela Torres; Arias,María Teresa; Lugo,Ligia

    2014-01-01

    Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con...

  10. Implicaciones en la salud humana de la gastroenteritis aguda por norovirus como producto de la contaminación hídrica

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    Brenda Delgadillo Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En julio del 2010, un brote de gastroenteritis Aguda surgió entre los residentes de la ciudad principal de la Región Norte de Costa Rica: Ciudad Quesada. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para explorar y caracterizar el brote en esa zona rural. Los datos de vigilancia y los registros médicos de los pacientes fueron analizados para elaborar un estudio descriptivo entre el 08 de julio y 14 de julio del 2010 en el Cantón de San Carlos. Una hoja de datos (Ficha Colectiva de Investigación VE 0.2 fue aplicada para obtener información de los pacientes. Con el fin de detectar la presencia de enteropatógenos, una prueba de ELISA fue aplicada a las muestras de heces tomadas. Las muestras de agua también se analizaron para detectar bacterias y coliformes fecales en el sistema de distribución. Un total de 352 casos fueron confirmados en la región estudiada con la presencia de síntomas frecuentes entre los casos confirmados; estos síntomas fueron diarrea (94,2%, náuseas (92,7% y vómitos (91,7%. La edad media de los pacientes fue de 29 años (15,8 y el 50,8% correspondió a sujetos del sexo femenino. El grupo de edad más afectado es el representado por los lactantes de 1 a 4 años (tasa de ataque 18,2 / 1000 habitantes La zona con más afectación fue el área central de Ciudad Quesada. En cinco de cada seis pruebas de heces fue posible aislar el norovirus. Por otra parte, en las pruebas aplicadas al agua solo se identifica la presencia de Escherichia coli. Los resultados sugieren que el norovirus fue transmitido por agua contaminada con materia fecal. Este es el primer brote documentado que ha sido causado por este virus en la región norte del país. Se recomienda mejorar la vigilancia de la calidad del agua, promover el uso de agua potable entre los residentes, generar un plan de educación que fomente prácticas seguras de manejo y distribución de agua; así como campañas de sensibilización en comunidades rurales como ésta en temas

  11. Brote por pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas

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    Vilar-Compte Diana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del personal de salud. Se efectuó un análisis de casos y controles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 13 infecciones tardías del sitio quirúrgico por P aeruginosa. La Pseudomona se aisló de las narinas de la enfermera y de las gasas que ella misma colocaba sobre la mesa de mayo, pero no de los paquetes de gasas cerrados del área de curaciones ambulatoria de tumores mamarios. El 14 de abril de 2000 se transfirió a la enfermera a otra área y se instauraron medidas estrictas para el control de infecciones. Después de esta fecha se diagnosticaron cuatro casos más. La radioterapia fue el único factor de riesgo asociado con la infección (RM=5.1, IC 95%=1.1-28.4. CONCLUSIONES: El brote probablemente estuvo causado en un inicio por una fuente común y se extendió por infección cruzada entre las pacientes. Las prácticas deficientes detectadas en el manejo de heridas y drenajes condujo a instaurar medidas preventivas específicas.

  12. Aislamiento rápido del virus dengue 3 por el método de shell vial en el brote de dengue en Lima

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    Victoria Gutiérrez P

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento de virus dengue con los métodos tradicionales demora hasta un mes, en situaciones de emergencia como el brote de dengue clásico en el distrito de Comas-Lima entre abril y mayo de 2005, es necesario un diagnóstico precoz. Se procesaron 117 muestras de sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de dengue clásico en fase virémica procedentes la zona del brote, mediante el método de shell vial para el aislamiento del virus dengue en la línea celular C6-36, se identificó el serotipo del virus mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI empleando anticuerpos monoclonales. Se logró el aislamiento del virus DEN-3 al quinto día de cosecha en el 48,7% (57/117 de los sueros. Los resultados sugieren que el método de shell vial, por el menor tiempo de aislamiento que el método tradicional, puede ser implementado como método de diagnóstico y usado en la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus dengue.

  13. Investigación de vectores y reservorios en brote de Chagas agudo por posible transmisión oral en Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia

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    Hugo Soto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con vivienda sin triatominos domiciliados y, Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus y dos Didelphis marsupialis infectados con T. cruzi en palmas de Attalea butyracea y Elaeis oleifera del área urbana de Aguachica. Se analiza la participación del R. pallescens y el rol de las palmas en el ciclo silvestre de T. cruzi y para la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas. Incursiones esporádicas de R. pallescens, P. geniculatus y E. cuspidatus silvestres desde palmas cercanas al domicilio humano pueden provocar brotes cada vez más frecuentes de Chagas oral.

  14. Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

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    Micheloud, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones mamarias son un problema grave para la producción lechera en cabras a nivel mundial. Staphylococcus spp. es el patógeno más prevalente en las infecciones intramamarias de los pequeños rumiantes, sin embargo, es escasa la información acerca de mastitis caprinas en LA Argentina. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir un brote de mastitis clínica que afectó a 12 de 24 cabras lecheras. Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococus dysgalactiae fueron aislados en forma pura de las muestras de leche. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioquímicamente y sometidos a prueba de sensibilidad antibiótica.

  15. Brote de gastroenteritis aguda en una población rural por transmisión de persona a persona

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    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir un cuadro de gastroenteritis aguda de base poblacional ocurrido a durante los meses de junio y mediados de julio del año 2002.Diseño: Estudio descriptivo y de casos-control.Emplazamiento: Población rural de 1.323 habitantes (1-1-2001 de la provincia de Granada.Población y muestra: De unos 200 enfermos se recogieron 34 casos y los mismos controles.Intervenciones: Mediante encuesta epidemiológica se investiga la relación entre la enfermedad y distintas variables independientes: características personales (edad, sexo, consumo agua y antecedentes de enfermedad y tiempo. Se realizó tablas de contingencia y test de hipótesis χ2 y el cálculo de OR cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística.Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en la variable sexo y de consumo de cualquier tipo de agua (red y embotellada. La curva epidémica no refleja un comienzo explosivo. En el cálculo de la OR ajustada destaca la relación causal los antecedentes familiares de padecer la enfermedad (OR ajustada= 5,32; IC-95% 1,23- 22,93; p=0,025. La inspección de la red de agua estaba bien y no se remitieron muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis.Conclusiones: Se trata de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de base poblacional, de etiología desconocida y con mecanismo de transmisión de persona a persona.

  16. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply

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    P. Godoy

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.Introduction: The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of

  17. Reflexión sobre los modelos para el estudio de los brotes de rabia humana por murciélago Comments on models for studying human rabies outbreaks from bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una reflexión sobre cuál de los posibles modelos en salud pública contribuiría más para el entendimiento de la ocurrencia de brotes de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos. En un primer momento se hace una breve revisión sobre los modelos más utilizados para analizar nuestro objeto de estudio. Posteriormente se presenta la investigación de un brote de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos con base en el modelo epidemiológico social. Este mismo brote se analiza nuevamente utilizando como marco teórico la teoría de sistemas complejos, como forma de un ejercicio teórico-práctico para intentar una aproximación a esta teoría, como un posible modelo para estudiar el problema presentado.This paper analyzes which of the possible public health models could contribute to an understanding of human rabies outbreaks transmitted by bats. First, we present a short review of the most common pertinent models. Second, we present an investigation of a human rabies outbreak transmitted by bats based on the socio-epidemiological model. The same outbreak is analyzed again using the complex system theory as a theoretical framework, as both a theoretical-practical exercise seeking an approximation to this theory and a model to study this problem.

  18. Estudio de un brote de intoxicación por alcohol metílico en Santa Fe de Bogotá, 1994

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    Marcela Varona

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio de Toxicología del lnstituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses (INML y CF observó un incremento de muestras positivas para metanol en sangre, entre las necropsias medicolegales practicadas en junio de 1994. Por lo anterior, se llevó a cabo un estudio epidemiológico con el fin de establecer el diagnóstico, identificar los factores de riesgo y controlar y prevenir la presencia de nuevos brotes. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, se revisaron los protocolos de necropsia, los resultados de alcoholemia e historias clínicas de los casos y se aplicó un formulario de necropsia verbal. Se definió comocaso mortal de intoxicación metílica (ITM aquella defunción ocurrida durante junio de 1994, cuya necropsia se realizó en el INML y CF, con concentraciones de metanol superiores a 30 mg/dL y cuyo informe establecía intoxicación por metanol como causa básica de la defunción. Se identificaron 14 personas fallecidas por ITM, siendo la totalidad de los casos indigentes. La función estadística scan (p=0,004 indicó que el exceso de defunciones de junio era estadísticamente significativo en relación con los meses previos. Doce de los casos recibieron atención médica y a cuatro se les diagnosticó ITM antes de su muerte. Todos los casos presentaron concentraciones de metanol en sangre entre 43 y 190,4 mg/dL. Este es el primer conglomerado de intoxicación por metanol en indigentes que se describen en el país y plantea la necesidad de establecer políticas de salud pública dirigidas a la protección de indigentes y prevención de intoxicación por metanol.

  19. Brote de bacteriemia por Serratia marcescens en pacientes portadores de catéteres tunelizados en hemodiálisis secundario a colonización de la solución antiséptica. Experiencia en 4 centros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Merino

    2016-11-01

    Conclusiones: Las bacteriemias por gérmenes no convencionales deben ponernos sobre aviso para investigar posibles brotes. La aplicación de una solución contaminada por S. marcescens en los catéteres en hemodiálisis fue la vía de bacteriemia. El tratamiento antibiótico intravenoso y el sellado de los catéteres permitió una excelente supervivencia tanto de los pacientes como de los catéteres.

  20. Susceptibilidad de cerdos criados artesanalmente a infecciones por norovirus humanos en zonas rurales de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredman González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus es la mayor causa de gastroenteritis viral en el mundo, genética y antigénicamente las cepas humanas y porcinas se relacionan. La información se limita en zonas rurales donde los cerdos domésticos están expuestos a heces humana que facilitan la transmisión. La presencia de antígenos de grupos histo-sanguíneos (HBGAs se conocen como factores de susceptibilidad para NoV en seres humanos y para modelo de lechones libre de gérmenes, pero su papel en la susceptibilidad en ambientes domésticos es desconocido. La investigación estableció la seroprevalencia en cerdos domésticos de tres cepas de norovirus humano en formato VLP (partículas virales sintéticas; y la distribución de HBGAs en relación con los títulos de anticuerpos IgG y la caracterización adicional de la cepa GII.4-VLP de NoV por bloqueo de unión a mucinas gástricas de cerdo (PGM. La mayoría de cerdos fueron seropositivos a los tres VLPs (58-70%. La seropositividad y la reactividad cruzada aumentó significativamente con la edad; los sueros de cerdos no bloquearon la unión del NoV GII.4 VLP (Dijon a PGM lo que sugiere que no hay infección previa con este genotipo. La mayoría de cerdos fueron H-positivo (84%, un factor de susceptibilidad para infecciones humanas, pero los títulos de anticuerpos de IgG fueron mayores en H-negativo (GMT = 247 que en cerdos H-positivo (GMT = 57, esta diferencia en los títulos de anticuerpos sólo se observó en cerdos ≤ 1 mes. Los datos serológicos demuestran que la población porcina está expuesta a infecciones por NoV, y la asociación de HBGAs requiere otros estudios.

  1. Brote de enfermedad diarreica aguda causado por Shigella flexneri en una escuela de Madrid, Cundinamarca: caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de los aislamientos.

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    Marylin Hidalgo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La shigelosis es una enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA que causa alta morbimortalidad en países en vías de desarrollo. En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología inició un programa en red con los Laboratorios de Salud Pública (LSP del país para la vigilancia de los principales patógenos causantes de la EDA. Como actividad de este programa, en mayo de 2001, el LSP de Cundinamarca estudió e informó un brote de intoxicación alimentaria en una comunidad escolar en Madrid. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar con técnicas fenotípicas y genotípicas los aislamientos recuperados en el brote, con el fin de establecer la relación clonal entre ellos. Se realizaron coprocultivos en 22 de 195 individuos afectados; los aislamientos se identificaron bioquímica y serológicamente y se determinó el patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a cloranfenicol, trimetoprim-sulfametoxasol (SXT, tetraciclina, cefotaxima, gentamicina, ampicilina y ciprofloxacina. Se realizó electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE según la metodología descrita por los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC de Atlanta, con el empleo de la enzima de restricción XbaI y se utilizó como cepa control Shigella sonnei CDC F2353 y como marcador de peso molecular el fago lambda. En 15 (68,2% pacientes se identificó Shigella flexneri serotipo 6, biotipo Newcastle, con patrón de resistencia a cloranfenicol, SXT y tetraciclina. La PFGE reveló que 3 (20% aislamientos fueron idénticos (distancia genética de 100% y los 12 (80% restantes estuvieron estrechamente relacionados (distancia genética de 86 a 100%. El sistema de vigilancia en red con los LSP permitió recuperar los aislamientos y los estudios fenotípicos y genotípicos permitieron establecer la relación clonal de los aislamientos involucrados en el brote.

  2. Brote de psitacosis en Granada

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    Ma Teresa León Espinosa de los Monteros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La psitacosis se puede transmitir de pájaros infectados a seres humanos, siendo causa de neumonía atípica. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar origen de un brote de psitacosis, las características de los sujetos expuestos, y describir las medidas para controlarlo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo. Comunicación al Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Delegación de Agricultura, realizándose las actuaciones pertinentes (inspección, toma de muestras, desinfección e inmovilización cautelar de aves, clausura del establecimiento; definición de caso y encuesta epidemiológica. Análisis de frecuencias. Resultados: 17 personas tuvieron contacto con animales sospechosos (53% varones/47% mujeres, de ellos 9 (edad media: 30 presentaron síntomas (100% fiebre, cuadro pseudogripal 44,4%. Se realizó serología para C. psitacci a 11 de los 17 sujetos expuestos (68,75%, resultando positiva en dos de ellos (18,18%. En el estudio de tejido pulmonar del fallecido se comprobó la presencia de DNA de C. psitacci. La confirmación diagnóstica entre personas sintomáticas fue del 33% (3/9. La Delegación de Agricultura impuso cuarentena a 22 núcleos zoológicos. De las 70 muestras tomadas (60: cloacas de animales y 10 aves, presentaron antígeno positivo 7 (10%, siendo la detección de ácidos nucleicos por PCR positiva en una de ellas. Conclusiones: La exposición a aves enfermas en los establecimientos implicados originó el brote, siendo el foco común de contagio de carácter laboral. La adecuada coordinación/colaboración entre las Delegaciones de Salud y Agricultura permitió evitar la aparición de casos nuevos.

  3. Dental care associated with an outbreak of HIV infection among dialysis patients Atención dental asociada con un brote de infección por VIH en pacientes sometidos a diálisis

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    Leonelo E. Bautista

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of 14 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection was discovered by chance in May 1993 among hemodialysis patients at a university hospital in Bucaramanga, Colombia. The outbreak occurred in 1992. Stored sera were used to establish the probable period of infection (PPI for 10 of the 14 cases. A nested case-control study was carried out to evaluate possible transmission mechanisms. The health care experience of each HIV-positive patient during that patient’s PPI was compared to the experience of time-matched controls. Only invasive dental procedures were significantly associated with the risk of infection. Patients upon whom invasive dental procedures were performed during their PPIs had an average risk of HIV infection 8.15 times greater than comparable controls (P = 0.006, and seven out of nine cases of HIV infection with known PPIs in 1992 had an invasive dental procedure performed one to six months before seroconversion. None of the dental care personnel were found to be infected. Based on the available evidence, it seems most likely that the infection was transmitted from patient to patient by contaminated dental instruments.En mayo de 1993 se descubrió fortuitamente un brote de 14 casos de infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH en pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis en un hospital universitario de Bucaramanga, Colombia. El brote tuvo lugar en 1992. Se usaron sueros almacenados para determinar el período de infección probable (PI de 10 de los 14 casos y se llevó a cabo un estudio de casos y controles anidado a fin de evaluar los posibles mecanismos de transmisión. La atención de salud recibida por cada paciente positivo a VIH durante su PIP se comparó con la atención recibida por controles apareados con los casos en tiempo. Solamente los procedimientos odontológicos invasores mostraron una asociación significativa con el riesgo de infección. Los pacientes sometidos a procedimientos dentales

  4. Brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas Outbreak of postmastectomy wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ambulatory surgical care setting

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    Diana Vilar-Compte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del personal de salud. Se efectuó un análisis de casos y controles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 13 infecciones tardías del sitio quirúrgico por P aeruginosa. La Pseudomona se aisló de las narinas de la enfermera y de las gasas que ella misma colocaba sobre la mesa de mayo, pero no de los paquetes de gasas cerrados del área de curaciones ambulatoria de tumores mamarios. El 14 de abril de 2000 se transfirió a la enfermera a otra área y se instauraron medidas estrictas para el control de infecciones. Después de esta fecha se diagnosticaron cuatro casos más. La radioterapia fue el único factor de riesgo asociado con la infección (RM=5.1, IC 95%=1.1-28.4. CONCLUSIONES: El brote probablemente estuvo causado en un inicio por una fuente común y se extendió por infección cruzada entre las pacientes. Las prácticas deficientes detectadas en el manejo de heridas y drenajes condujo a instaurar medidas preventivas específicas.OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in postmastectomy wounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were patients with a surgical infection caused by P. aeruginosa resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin seen between March 13, 2000 and May 18, 2000, at Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City. Specimens for culturing were taken from faucets, antiseptics, and tap water, as well as from healthcare workers. A case-control analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Thirteen late surgical infections were caused

  5. Norovirus recombination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bull, Rowena A; Tanaka, Mark M; White, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    ...{at}unsw.edu.au RNA recombination is a significant driving force in viral evolution. Increased awareness of recombination within the genus Norovirus of the family Calicivirus has led to a rise in the identification of norovirus (NoV...

  6. Norovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get it if you touch a contaminated surface. Norovirus can be serious, especially for young children and older adults. The most common symptoms of norovirus infection are Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain ...

  7. Brote de influenza en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. 2002

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    Julio Mayca P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicar un brote de influenza basado en la notificación de un probable brote de infección respiratoria en diciembre de 2002 por el Centro de Salud Nueva Requena (Pucallpa. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó casos con fiebre no mayor de 72 horas, y por lo menos dos síntomas relacionados. Se tomó hisopado nasal-faríngeo, detectándose mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI: influenza A, B, adenovirus, parainfluenza y virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR. Se recolectaron 14 muestras, reportándose principalmente fiebre (92,8%, rinorrea (92,8% y tos (42,8% Se encontró influenza B y parainfluenza 2 en 05 casos. Los diagnósticos encontrados coinciden con la literatura nacional. Es necesario implementar un sistema de vigilancia, descentralizando el diagnóstico laboratorial y las campañas educativas poblacionales.

  8. Caso clínico: Brote agudo de Psoriasis en un infectado por el VIH Clinical case: severe attack of psoriasis in an HIV infected patient

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    J.M. Sobrón

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La Psoriasis, que parece no tener una mayor prevalencia en infectados por el VIH, sí que presenta en su evolución en estos casos diferencias significativas ligadas no solo a la inmunodepresión, sino también a la propia acción del virus sobre los factores que influyen en la agudización de la psoriasis, como la estimulación de los queratinocitos, favorecer la presencia de infecciones en la piel, o la liberación de sustancia P que favorece igualmente el incremento queratinocítico. Se presenta un caso clínico y su expresión gráfica a través de las imágenes acompañantes.Psoriasis, which does not appear to have greater prevalence amongst HIV+ patients, does however present in its progress significant differences in these cases that are not only linked to immunodepression, but also to action of the virus itself on factors that aggravate psoriasis, such as the stimulation of keratinocytes, the favouring of skin infections, or the liberation of substance P, which also encourages growth in keratinocytes. A clinical case is presented along with explanatory imagess

  9. Norovirus - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be used between hand-washing. People infected with norovirus are placed in contact isolation . This is a way to create barriers between ... items. Anyone visiting a patient who has an isolation sign outside their door should stop at the nurses' station before entering ... - norovirus References Dolin ...

  10. Norovirus in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Transplant Safety Vaccine Safety General Information about Norovirus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Norovirus prevention toolkit Additional Information General Information about Norovirus Noroviruses are a group of viruses that cause ...

  11. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

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    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

  12. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...

  13. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz

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    Valadés F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p < 0,001. Se aisló el virus en las 4 muestras de vesículas estudiadas y la serología (IgM fue positiva en los 9 sueros estudiados. El coste total de brote fue de 927,21 e, con una media de 12,53 e por caso, y 205 días de pérdida escolar. Conclusión: Se confirmó la existencia de un brote de varicela en el colegio de la localidad de Herrera del Duque, con transmisión persona a persona, que afectó a niños de entre uno y 9 años. La elevada

  14. Tipificación del comportamiento epidemiológico de brotes en entornos laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Maqueda Blasco, Jerónimo

    2016-01-01

    El entorno laboral es un determinante de salud, que tiene un valor para interpretar la enfermedad, tanto a nivel del individuo como a nivel comunitario. El entorno laboral forma parte del complejo causal de la enfermedad y por lo tanto debe considerarse en la investigación epidemiológica y en el estudio de brotes. La epidemiología de campo aplicada al estudio de brotes en entornos laborales tiene una dimensión añadida frente a la epidemiología de campo en salud pública, que es la vinculación ...

  15. Probable brote de transmisión oral de enfermedad de Chagas en Turbo, Antioquia

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    Juan Fernando Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Conclusión. Se identificó un probable brote agudo de enfermedad de Chagas en Antioquia y se plantea como hipótesis la transmisión por vía oral, mediante la ingestión de T. cruzi en alimentos contaminados con restos de triatominos o excrementos de marsupiales.

  16. Advances in norovirus biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karst, Stephanie M; Wobus, Christiane E; Goodfellow, Ian G; Green, Kim Y; Virgin, Herbert W

    2014-01-01

    .... Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus...

  17. Brote nosocomial y comunitario de queratoconjuntivitis epidémica en Navarra

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    Salcedo Miqueleiz Asunción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La queratoconjuntivitis epidémica (QCE es una infección aguda, generalmente bilateral, que se presenta de forma esporádica o en brotes a partir de una fuente de infección común, que puede ser una consulta de oftalmología o una piscina. La queratitis puede evolucionar hacia la formación de lesiones subepiteliales cornéales que pueden persistir durante varios meses. El objetivo de este trabaji fue la descripción de un brote de queratoconjuntivitis epidémica ocurrido en Navarra (España entre Abril y Agosto de 1996 que afectó al menos a 266 personas MÉTODOS: Descripción del brote, definición de caso clínico, investigación microbiológica, e investigación epidemiológica del brote mediante encuesta. RESULTADOS: En la investigación epidemiológica destaca la existencia de 2 consultas de oftalmología como mecanismo de transmisión de la enfermedad en 47 de los 116 pacientes investigados. La diseminación de la enfermedad en el entorno de los pacientes se pudo conocer en 119 casos, de éstos, 62 se consideraron casos secundarios. El diagnóstico etiológico del brote se realizó a los 11 días de iniciada la investigación microbiológica, aislándose adenovirus en muestras conjuntivales de 8 de los 19 pacientes investigados. CONCLUSIONES: Las medidas de prevención instauradas para el control del brote y la eficacia de las mismas se pone de manifiesto por la reducción paulatina de casos.

  18. Brote de gastroenteritis en una residencia de ancianos de Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Cortes José María

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe el estudio de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de inicio explosivo y probable origen hídrico, en una residencia de ancianos de Albacete, en el mes de noviembre de 1999 y que afectó a 104 residentes y a 35 trabajadores. El cuadro clínico se caracterizó por la presentación de vómitos y diarrea como síntomas dominantes. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se realiza un análisis descriptivo de datos y cruce de variables mediante tablas simples. El análisis multivariante se realiza mediante modelos de regresión logística para la fase explosiva y de transmisión de persona a persona. Resultados: La tasa de ataque fue del 45,8% para residentes y de 33,7% en trabajadores. Se encontró asociación entre la utilización del comedor principal de la residencia y el inicio explosivo del brote así como entre la presencia inicial de un caso en habitaciones compartidas y la transmisión de persona a persona. Se aisló virus Norwalk-like en heces de 4 enfermos. Conclusiones: El análisis de las características clínicas y epidemiológicas, así como los resultados de laboratorio confirman la implicación del virus Norwalk-like como agente causal en este brote.

  19. Brote de shigellosis en un barrio de nivel social bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chover Lara José Luis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Los brotes epidémicos debidos a Shigella sonnei en nuestro entorno se hallan asociados frecuentemente a guarderías y colegios de educación primaria. Se comunica un brote epidémico de shigellosis en un barrio marginal. El objeto del estudio fue identificar la fuente de infección, modo de transmisión, características de los afectados y valorar la pertinencia de las medidas adoptadas. MÉTODOS: Para el seguimiento temporal del brote, se realizó un estudio observacional longitudinal mixto, en territorio delimitado para las variables clásicas de vigilancia epidemiológica (tiempo, lugar y persona. Se analiza la potencia infectante de la fuente (tasa de ataque por edad, sexo y centro escolar; razón de tasas y fracción atribuible. RESULTADOS: Temporalmente el brote se extendió entre las semanas 46/97 y la 8/98. Afectó a 218 personas (110 varones y 108 mujeres, que suponen el 5,46 % de la población del barrio. La mayor frecuencia se dio en el grupo de 0-4 años (43,6%, asisten a la guardería el 29,4% (tasa de ataque de 70,32% con un riesgo relativo de 3,9(IC 95%: 2,57-5,93 y fracción atribuible del 74,36%. La razón de tasas entre la guardería y los colegios del barrio es 5,62 (IC 95%: 4,33-7,31. Se realizó coprocultivo en muestras de 84 casos (38.5 % aislándose Shigella sonnei en 38 (17.4%. Se pautó tratamiento antibacteriano (amoxi-clavulánico y se aplicaron medidas higiénico-sanitarias individuales y colectivas. CONCLUSIONES: El largo periodo de transmisibilidad y la baja dosis de microorganismos viables necesarios para producir enfermedad, propició una transmisión interpersonal en los ámbitos escolar y familiar. Las medidas aplicadas limitaron de modo eficiente la transmisión del agente infeccioso en los centros escolares.

  20. Brote de legionelosis asociado a un balneario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Santa Marina Rodríguez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 el inicio de la temporada de actividad de un balneario en Gipuzkoa coincidió con la detección de un brote de legionelosis asociado al mismo, lo cual condujo al cierre de la instalación y al estudio epidemiológico -casos y controles- y ambiental oportunos. Se definió como caso toda persona que durante su estancia en el balneario o durante los 10 días siguientes presentará neumonía o un cuadro febril compatible con fiebre de Pontiac.El estudio ambiental incluyó la inspección del balneario y entorno y muestreos de los sistemas sanitarios de agua y de los elementos de hidroterapia.De las 287 personas encuestadas de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, el 12.5% cumplían con la definición de caso; 9 casos presentaron neumonía y 26 fiebre de Pontiac. La curva epidémica se inició el 7 de mayo, alcanzando un pico los días 14 y 15 de mayo y finalizando el día 20. El riesgo de enfermar ajustado por edad, sexo y consumo de tabaco se asoció con la duración de la estancia en el balneario (OR=118.5, 95% I.C: 18.7-750.2 y con el uso de una piscina (OR=10.5, 95% I.C: 1.3-82.6. Se detecto L. pneumophila serogrupo1 en recuentos superiores a 103 ufc/l en diversos puntos de la red de hidroterapia y en la ducha de la habitación de uno de los enfermos. El análisis por electroforesis en campos pulsados de una muestra biológica y muestras ambientales permitió la confirmación genotípica. El establecimiento se abrió al público tras realizar un tratamiento de choque y comprobar que transcurridos 15 días no se detectó L. pneumophila en las muestras ambientales.

  1. Brote de micoplasmosis clínica por Mycoplasma ovis en ovinos de Salta, Argentina: Diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico y molecular Clinical mycoplasmosis outbreak due to Mycoplasma ovis in sheep from Salta, Argentina: Clinical, microbiological and molecular diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Aguirre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovis es un parásito obligado de los eritrocitos de los pequeños rumiantes (ovinos, caprinos, en los que produce anemia crónica o aguda. Su distribución es mundial, aunque se desconoce la difusión de esta bacteria en la Argentina. Este trabajo describe un brote de micoplasmosis en un rebaño ovino de la localidad salteña de Rosario de la Frontera, ocurrido en enero de 2007. Durante ese brote resultó afectada la categoría de ovinos adultos, con una mortalidad del 17,8%. El diagnóstico en extendidos de sangre (tinción de Giemsa reveló pequeños cuerpos basófilos, característicos de la infección por M. ovis, en todas las muestras examinadas (n = 11, lo que indica una alta prevalencia de la infección en la majada. El diagnóstico molecular (n = 9 confirmó los hallazgos mediante la amplificación de dos fragmentos del gen 16S rRNA. Este representa el tercer registro del microorganismo en la Argentina y el primero con expresión clínica a escala poblacional (rebaño.Mycoplasma ovis is an obligatory parasite of the erythrocytes from small ruminants (sheep, goat, wherein it causes chronic or acute anaemia. This agent shows worldwide distribution. However, its dispersion is still unknown in Argentina. This work describes an outbreak of mycoplasmosis occurred in January 2007 in a sheep flock from Rosario de la Frontera, Salta, Argentina. Adult sheep became ill with a mortality rate of 17.8%. All blood smears (n = 11 examined by Giemsa stain showed the presence of small basophile bodies characteristic of M. ovis infection, indicating a high prevalence of the infection in the flock. The molecular diagnosis (n = 9 confirmed the findings through the amplification of two fragments from the 16S rRNA gene. This is the third report of M. ovis in Argentina and the first one concomitant with clinical signs at flock level.

  2. Caracterización de dos brotes de fiebre tifoidea en Apartadó, Antioquia, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora María Cardona-Castro

    2007-06-01

    Conclusiones. La electroforesis en campo pulsado estableció la presencia de dos brotes, que inicialmente, por epidemiología y pruebas fenotípicas del patógeno, habían sido descritos como uno solo. Además, permitió diferenciar dos aislamientos de origen clonal diferente, que indicaron casos aislados. No se pudo corroborar la fuente de infección en el agua.

  3. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  4. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a rural population, spread person to person contact Brote de gastroenteritis aguda en una población rural por transmisión de persona a persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Garrido Almagro

    2004-12-01

    ón logística.Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en la variable sexo y de consumo de cualquier tipo de agua (red y embotellada. La curva epidémica no refleja un comienzo explosivo. En el cálculo de la OR ajustada destaca la relación causal los antecedentes familiares de padecer la enfermedad (OR ajustada= 5,32; IC-95% 1,23- 22,93; p=0,025. La inspección de la red de agua estaba bien y no se remitieron muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis.Conclusiones: Se trata de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de base poblacional, de etiología desconocida y con mecanismo de transmisión de persona a persona.

  5. Norovirus: U.S. Trends and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new strain of the virus going around. Norovirus-associated Deaths See also: Norovirus-associated Hospitalizations Norovirus- ... to the Foodborne Outbreak Online Database (FOOD) . Common Norovirus Outbreak Settings Norovirus in Healthcare Facilities Health care ...

  6. Brote de legionelosis asociado a un balneario

    OpenAIRE

    I. Santa Marina Rodríguez; M. Basterretxea Irurzun; J. Ibarlucea Maurolagoitia; E. Serrano Ibarbia; C. Zigorraga Arrieta

    2001-01-01

    En 1998 el inicio de la temporada de actividad de un balneario en Gipuzkoa coincidió con la detección de un brote de legionelosis asociado al mismo, lo cual condujo al cierre de la instalación y al estudio epidemiológico -casos y controles- y ambiental oportunos. Se definió como caso toda persona que durante su estancia en el balneario o durante los 10 días siguientes presentará neumonía o un cuadro febril compatible con fiebre de Pontiac.El estudio ambiental incluyó la inspección del balnear...

  7. Brote con síntomas respiratorios en la provincia de Almería por una posible exposición a microalgas tóxicas An epidemic outbreak with respiratory symptoms in the province of Almeria (Spain due to toxic microalgae exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Barroso García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir un brote con clínica de irritación de las vías respiratorias, notificado en una localidad de la costa almeriense en agosto de 2006, así como la investigación etiológica realizada. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y de casos y controles. Se dividió la localidad en 3 zonas según su mayor o menor cercanía al mar (de 1 a 3. La sintomatología fue valorada subjetivamente de menor a mayor gravedad (1 a 3. Se estimaron las tasas de ataque (TA. Para relacionar la gravedad de los síntomas por zonas y el tipo de exposición se calcularon las odds ratio (OR y sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%. También se utilizó la prueba de la χ2 y el test exacto de Fisher. Se realizó una investigación ambiental. Resultados: Se encuestó a 57 casos y 26 controles. Se estimó una TA del 69%. El síntoma más frecuente fue el estornudo (87,7%. Los individuos de la zona 1 presentaron mayor riesgo de padecer sintomatología de más gravedad que los de la zona 3 (OR = 46,7; IC95%: 4,7-2.067,4. Los que indicaron una mayor permanencia fuera de la vivienda tuvieron mayor riesgo de enfermar (OR = 12,2; IC95%: 1,1-615,1. En agua de mar se detectaron 1.200 células/l de dinoflagelados Ostreopsis. Conclusiones: Se trata de un brote con sintomatología respiratoria, con distinto grado de afectación según la cercanía al mar de la vivienda. Según la investigación epidemiológica y ambiental, lo más probable es que se haya debido a la presencia de microalgas tóxicas Ostreopsis.Aim: To describe an outbreak with symptoms of respiratory tract irritation reported in a village located on the Almerian coast in August 2006, as well as the etiological research performed. Methods: We performed a descriptive case-control study. The village was divided into three areas (from 1 to 3 according to the distance from the sea. Symptomatology was subjectively assessed on an ascending severity scale (from 1 to 3. Attack rates (AR were estimated. To correlate

  8. Manifestaciones sistémicas del brote dentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana María Abreu Correa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para comprobar la presencia de manifestaciones sistémicas asociadas con el brote dentario, aspecto que ha sido motivo de discrepancias entre médicos y estomatólogos durante mucho tiempo. Para la obtención de los datos se entrevistaron a las madres de 121 infantes, cuyas edades oscilaron entre 6 y 12 meses, por considerarse las edades más propensas a estas manifestaciones. Se aplicó el método estadístico de prueba de contraste de hipótesis. No hubo diferencias en relación con el sexo. Las madres refirieron los síntomas y signos que se presentan durante la erupción dentaria y que se expresan en por cientos; otro grupo planteó que la erupción fue asintomática. Entre las manifestaciones o patologías asociadas, las diarreas tuvieron una mayor incidencia, seguidas de la fiebre, el estado catarral y los vómitos. También estuvieron presentes, aunque con menos incidencia, la irritabilidad y la dermatitis. Según las pruebas estadísticas los resultados fueron altamente significativos, lo que demuestra la relación existente entre manifestaciones sistémicas y el brote dentario.It was conducted a study to prove the presence of systemic manifestations associated with tooth eruption, an aspect that has been the cause of differences between doctors and stomatologists for a long time. In order to obtain information the mothers of 121 infants aged 6-12 months were interviewed as they had more possibilities to present these manifestations. The statistical method of hypothesis contrast test was applied. There were no differences in connection with sex. Mothers explained the symptoms and signs appearing during tooth eruption that are expressed in percents. The other group said that the eruption was asymptomatic. Among the associated manifestations or pathologies, diarrheas had the greatest incidence, followed by fever, cold, and vomits. Irritability and dermatitis were also present but with less incidence. According to the

  9. La brucelosis como enfermedad profesional: estudio de un brote de transmision aerea en un matadero

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    Rodríguez Valín Mª Elena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. MÉTODOS: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. CONCLUSIONES: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  10. LA BRUCELOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD PROFESIONAL: ESTUDIO DE UN BROTE DE TRANSMISION AEREA EN UN MATADERO

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    Ma. Elena Rodríguez Valín

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. Métodos: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. Conclusiones: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  11. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Bodewes, Rogier; van Elk, Cornelis E; van de Bildt, Marco; Getu, Sarah; Aron, Georgina I; Verjans, Georges M G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; van den Brand, Judith M A; Kuiken, Thijs; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2017-01-01

    A norovirus was detected in harbor porpoises, a previously unknown host for norovirus. This norovirus had low similarity to any known norovirus. Viral RNA was detected primarily in intestinal tissue, and specific serum antibodies were detected in 8 (24%) of 34 harbor porpoises from the North Sea.

  12. Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Bodewes, Rogier|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33230583X; van Elk, Cornelis E; van de Bildt, Marco; Getu, Sarah; Aron, Georgina I; Verjans, Georges M G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; van den Brand, Judith M A; Kuiken, Thijs; Koopmans, Marion P G

    A norovirus was detected in harbor porpoises, a previously unknown host for norovirus. This norovirus had low similarity to any known norovirus. Viral RNA was detected primarily in intestinal tissue, and specific serum antibodies were detected in 8 (24%) of 34 harbor porpoises from the North Sea.

  13. BROTE DE ESCABIOSIS EN UNA RESIDENCIA PARA PERSONAS MAYORES EN LA PROVINCIA DE HUESCA

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    Alberto Larrosa Montañés

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los colectivos de personas institucionalizadas constituyen actualmente un grupo de riesgo para la aparición de brotes de escabiosis. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar desde la Sección Provincial de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Huesca las características de uno de esos brotes, ocurrido en una residencia para personas mayores ubicada en el municipio de Barbastro (Huesca. Métodos: Tras la notificación inicial de casos, se estableció un protocolo específico para la prevención de escabiosis. Se llevó a cabo una investigación epidemiológica, procediéndose a la búsqueda activa de casos entre todos las personas residentes y los trabajadores. La información obtenida de los casos y contactos mediante una encuesta validada fue incluida en una base de datos utilizando Epiinfo 6.0. Se estimó la tasa de ataque y el riesgo relativo de los residentes de cada área del centro, tomando como referencia la de menor tasa de ataque. Resultados: Entre las 104 personas residentes y 20 trabajadores, se detectaron 19 casos de escabiosis (18 y 1 respectivamente. No pudo precisarse el origen del brote, si bien al menos dos de los primeros casos iniciaron sus síntomas seis meses antes de su detección. El retraso diagnóstico medio fue de 53 días. El brote afectó preferentemente a la sección de hombres asistidos (TA=77%; RR=18,5, IC95%=2,7-128,7. El único trabajador afectado era el responsable de este área, quien no aplicaba durante sus cuidados las medidas universales de protección individual. Conclusiones: Se trata de un brote de escabiosis en una residencia para personas mayores, probablemente debido al retraso diagnóstico de los primeros casos y a la falta de uso de las medidas de protección individual por parte de un cuidador. La aplicación de un protocolo específico para la prevención de escabiosis, resultó fundamental para su control.

  14. BROTES EPIDÉMICOS DE SARAMPIÓN EN ANDALUCÍA DURANTE EL PERÍODO 2010-2015

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    Carmen Montaño Remacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía (SVEA es el encargado de vigilar e investigar urgentemente cualquier notificación de sospecha de sarampión y otras enfermedades de declaración obligatoria y alertas. El objetivo del artículo es describir las características epidemiológi-cas de los brotes de sarampión ocurridos en Andalucía en los últimos cinco años (2010-2015 así como las medidas de actuación llevadas a cabo durante los mismos. En el periodo estudiado se notificaron tres brotes. El primero de ellos comenzó en Granada en 2010 en población contraria a la vacunación. Las medidas de control adoptadas fueron las recogidas en el protocolo de sarampión del SVEA (aislamiento de casos, identificación e inmunización de contactos, entre las que se incluyeron acciones judiciales ante la negativa de un determinado colectivo a vacunar a sus hijos. El segundo brote comen-zó en Sevilla en 2011 en una de las zonas denominadas “con necesidades de transformación social” y se extendió por toda la provincia. A partir de aquel brote se introdujo de forma rutinaria la revisión de las coberturas vacunales dentro del sistema de vigilancia, identificando a los grupos más vulnerables. Durante el primer semestre de 2015 ha habido un pequeño brote en Granada con 15 casos. Se controló rápidamente debido a la actuación precoz en la mayoría de los casos, a la instauración de las medidas correspondientes en centros sanitarios y escolares y a la alta cobertura vacunal de la población.

  15. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  16. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health NoroCORE Food Virology Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... identify newly emerging norovirus strains. Definition of a Norovirus Outbreak An outbreak of norovirus is defined as ...

  17. ¿Qué hacemos ante un brote de escabiosis en un hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Maestre Naranjo

    Full Text Available La escabiosis o sarna es una enfermedad de la piel producida por Sarcoptes scabiei; puede ir aumentando el número de casos, hasta llegar a producir verdaderas epidemias¹. Se procede a describir las actuaciones del Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales de un hospital ante un brote de escabiosis ocurrido en una planta de hospitalización, con afectación de trabajadores sanitarios, tras el contacto con un paciente fuente (sospecha clínica y epidemiológica de escabiosis.

  18. Norovirus in retail shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, V; Martella, V; Moschidou, P; Di Pinto, P; Tantillo, G; Buonavoglia, C

    2010-02-01

    Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections worldwide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Bivalve molluscs (mussels, clams and oysters) at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled between 2005 and 2008 in several retail points in Apulia, Italy, and screened by a semi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 12.1% of the samples, with lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8.1%) rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (17.6% and 16.2%, respectively). By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variants GII.4/2004 and GII.b/Hilversum, which were both circulating in Italy in the same time-span.

  19. Brote de criptosporidiosis en Guadarrama (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodríguez-Salinas Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En la primavera de 1998 hubo un brote de gastroenteritis aguda en Guadarrama (Comunidad de Madrid, España que afectó sobre todo a niños en edad preescolar. Métodos: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y analítico (casos y controles del brote. Se tomaron muestras para estudio microbiológico de las heces de los afectados. Se inspeccionó el sistema de captación de agua de consumo de propiedad municipal y se tomaron muestras para análisis microbiológico. Resultados: Veintiún niños/as de 0 a 5 años presentaron diarrea líquida de más de 5 días de duración. Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el consumo de agua del grifo y la gastroenteritis [OR=5,73 (1,18-43,30; p<0,05]. No se halló asociación con otras variables investigadas. Se detectaron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium parvum en heces de ocho de las personas afectadas. Se observaron deficiencias en el sistema de captación y depuración de agua de consumo público de propiedad municipal pero no se encontraron ooquistes en los análisis del agua. Conclusiones: Los resultados de la investigación epidemiológica sustentan que el origen del brote de gastroenteritis por Cryptosporidium parvum fue el agua del grifo. Aunque no se detectó este parásito en los análisis de agua, esto es explicable por las dificultades que entraña esta técnica. En la revisión bibliográfica, no se han hallado descripciones de brotes epidémicos similares en nuestro país, pero según algunos informes, no son infrecuentes en países de nuestro entorno. Por tanto, Cryptosporidium parvum debería ser tenido en cuenta en el diagnóstico y manejo de estas situaciones.

  20. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Green, Kim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing towards generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. PMID:24922570

  1. Prevent the Spread of Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Prevent the Spread of Norovirus Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... This leads to cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Norovirus Is the Most Common Cause of Gastroenteritis in ...

  2. Infection control for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  3. PLAN DE VIGILANCIA DE BROTES EPIDÉMICOS RECIENTES DE SARAMPIÓN Y RUBEOLA EN CATALUÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Jané

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El sarampión y la rubeola son dos enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. En Cataluña, desde 1988, se administra a todos los niños y niñas dos dosis de vacuna antirubeola y antisarampión con altas coberturas vacunales. Desde 1990 se lleva a cabo el Programa de eliminación del sarampión en Cataluña que contempla alcanzar y mantener un nivel elevado de inmunidad en la po-blación mediante coberturas vacunales altas, una vigilancia epidemiológica intensa y una respuesta inmediata ante la aparición de un caso o un brote. La tasa de sarampión se situó en 2014 en 1,9 casos/100.000 habitantes, des-tacando los brotes recientes de 2006, 2011, 2013 y 2014, que afectaron a 381, 289, 31 y 124 personas respectivamente. Todos los brotes fueron des-encadenados por un caso importado. En el 2011 y 2014 el 6% y 5,5% de los afectados fueron profesionales de la salud. En todos los brotes se observó una amplia variedad genotípica. En el caso del Programa de eliminación de la rubeola, desde el 2002 ha habido 68 casos confirmados de rubeola post-natal y 5 casos de rubeola congénita confirmada. En la vigilancia y control del sarampión y la rubeola, además de reforzar las coberturas vacunales, es esencial la declaración urgente, antes de las 24 horas, de la sospecha y la confirmación por parte del laboratorio de los casos declarados. Respecto a las coberturas vacunales, destaca la necesidad de reforzar la vacunación en el grupo de profesionales de la salud al igual que en otros colectivos no vacunados. En este sentido se aconseja vacunar a todas las personas nacidas después de 1966 que no estén correctamente vacunadas con dos dosis de triple vírica. Asimismo es de destacar que el avance en el estudio de los genotipos aislados permite identificar diversas importaciones procedentes de otros países europeos con brotes activos, aspecto que facilita la vigilancia de estas enfermedades.

  4. Descripción de un brote de enfisema y edema pulmonar agudo del bovino (EPAB) en Parral (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    H. URRUTIA; C. BREVIS; Quezada, M.; Donoso, S

    1997-01-01

    Se describe un brote de enfisema y edema alveolar agudo del bovino (EPAB) ocurrido en la zona centro-sur a fines del verano de 1995. Los animales Frisón negro, de aproximadamente 2 años de edad, fueron afectados después de cambiarse de una pradera fibrosa a una suculenta de alfalfa. La mortalidad por esta causa fue de un 23%. Las principales lesiones encontradas en la necropsia fueron enfisema y edema intersticial intenso del pulmón, lo cual fue corroborado histopatológicamente, encontrándose...

  5. Análisis de un brote de meningitis viral en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire María Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Confirmar la existencia de un brote de meningitis viral en 1996 en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina, y estudiar sus características epidemiológicas. MÉTODOS: Se analizó información obtenida del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SINAVE del Ministerio de Salud de Argentina para el período de 1994-1998, la cual fue provista por la Dirección de Epidemiología de dicho ministerio. Para el cálculo de incidencias se usaron estimaciones poblacionales para los años 1994-1998 realizadas por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC sobre la base del censo de 1991. El estudio de frecuencias se realizó mediante el análisis de tablas de contingencia de doble entrada, según el método de ji cuadrado con la corrección de Yates. Se consideró significativo el resultado cuando P < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Se confirmó la presencia de un brote de 189 casos entre el 11 de febrero y el 18 de mayo de 1996. La incidencia de casos en la provincia mostró un aumento entre 1995 y 1996 (de 0,5 a 19,3 casos por 100000 años-persona y dicha incidencia fue significativamenrte mayor que la observada en el resto del país (19,3 frente a 2,8 casos por 100000 años-persona. El 75,1% de los casos ocurrió en niños menores de 9 años (142/189. Se detectó la presencia de Enterovirus (EV en 65 de las 111 muestras estudiadas (58,6%. Mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP anidada con transcripción inversa se logró detectar EV en 66,3% (53/80 de los casos estudiados por este método, en comparación con solo 29,6% (24/81 de los estudiados mediante aislamiento viral. Se identificó echovirus tipo 4 en 15 (68% en las 22 muestras tipificadas (5 por aislamiento, 3 por secuenciación y 7 por ambos métodos. Este brote demuestra la capacidad de los EV para diseminarse y producir enfermedad en la población. Durante el brote, por lo menos 56% de los casos fueron hospitalizados. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de métodos moleculares

  6. BROTE DE LEGIONELOSIS EN UN RESTAURANTE DE LA COMUNIDAD DE MADRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Abad Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: el 27 de Junio de 2012 se detectó en el Servicio de Salud Pública del Área 8 de la Comunidad de Madrid un brote de legio- nelosis con 46 personas afectadas. Todas habían estado en el mismo restaurante del municipio de Móstoles dentro del periodo de incubación de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la evolución del brote y las medidas sanitarias adoptadas durante el mismo. Métodos: se trata de un estudio descriptivo. Se estudiaron las variables demográficas de los enfermos , antecedentes patológicos, síntomas, evolución clínica y pruebas diagnósticas. Para las variables cualitativas se calcularon frecuencias y porcentajes. Para las variables cuantitativas la media, el valor mínimo y máximo. En las muestras de agua tomadas en las instalaciones de riesgo se estudió concentración de cloro, pH, temperatura y presencia de Legionella. Resultados: en el cultivo del agua del filtro de arena de la depuradora de la fuente exterior creció Legionella pneumophila Serogrupo 1, Sub-grupo Pontiac Allentown/France. Este resultado coincidió con la cepa aislada en las muestras respiratorias de 4 pacientes. Por otro lado, en las muestras de biopelícula obtenidas en la champanera se detectó por PCR la presencia de Legionella pneumophila cuya secuenciación de genes fue idéntica a la encontrada en la muestra respiratoria de un paciente. Conclusiones: se consiguió aislar Legionella pneumophila serogrupo 1 Subgrupo Pontiac Allentown/France serotipo 448 en muestras ambientales, coincidente con la Legionella aislada en muestras respiratorias de algunos pacientes, por lo que se pudo demostrar la vinculación entre el factor de riesgo ambiental y la enfermedad. Este vínculo se confirmó además por secuenciación genética realizada por PCR.

  7. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  8. Brote de histoplasmosis aguda en un grupo familiar: identificación de la fuente de infección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alonso Jiménez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se informa un brote de histoplasmosis ocurrido en los integrantes de una familia y que comprometió a cuatro personas, dos mujeres, una niña y un hombre. El caso índice consultó por sintomatología respiratoria grave, de comienzo súbito, que requirió hospitalización. En los otros casos, la infección cursó de manera asintomática pero se puso en evidencia por la reactividad en las pruebas serológicas con histoplasmina. La búsqueda de una fuente común de contagio llevó a sospechar que era la tierra de un vivero que se había utilizado como fertilizante de las plantas caseras. Las suspensiones de las tierras de las macetas sirvieron para inocular ratones BALB/c, de cuyos órganos fue posible aislar el agente etiológico, Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. Si bien la histoplasmosis es más frecuente en ciertas ocupaciones y es propia de áreas rurales, las epidemias y los brotes son ahora comunes en áreas urbanas debido a actividades como la urbanización masiva, la tala de árboles, las demoliciones y el uso de tierras enriquecidas con abonos orgánicos (gallinaza, guano. Se llama la atención sobre el peligro que representa esta última actividad.

  9. Caracterización molecular de calicivirus aislados de brotes de gastroenteritis ocurridos en la Argentina durante los años 2005 y 2006 Molecular characterization of calicivirus strains detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis occurring in Argentina during 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la incidencia de calicivirus, rotavirus y astrovirus en brotes de gastroenteritis ocurridos en diversas regiones de la Argentina durante los años 2005 y 2006, se analizaron muestras de materia fecal provenientes de 7 brotes con resultado de coprocultivo negativo. Para el diagnóstico de rotavirus se utilizó un ELISA comercial, mientras que para el diagnóstico de calicivirus y astrovirus se utilizó el método de RT-PCR. De las 74 muestras analizadas, 20 fueron positivas para calicivirus, 17 para rotavirus y una para astrovirus. No se identificaron infecciones virales mixtas. En 5 muestras positivas para calicivirus se secuenció una región del gen de la polimerasa; 4 de ellas correspondieron al género Norovirus y una al género Sapovirus. El análisis filogenético de las muestras secuenciadas determinó la presencia de norovirus de los genogrupos GI y GII; dentro de este último, se identificaron los genotipos GII-4, GII-b y GII-17. El análisis de la muestra en la cual se identificó sapovirus reveló la presencia del genotipo GI-1. Este estudio representa una continuación del análisis epidemiológico molecular de calicivirus asociados a brotes de gastroenteritis iniciado en 2004 y constituye la primera comunicación de la circulación de norovirus del genotipo GII-17 en la Argentina.

  10. Brotes de leptospirosis humana en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba Human leptospirosis outbreak in the district of Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Suárez Hernández

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los brotes de leptospirosis ocurridos en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila en el periodo de 1980 a 1995. En la etapa se notifican 40 brotes. Las actividades principales vinculadas a los mismos fueron la atención al cultivo de la caña de azúcar, al cultivo del plátano, el baño en río y las inundaciones. Se nota un incremento de brotes a partir del mes de junio. En los meses de octubre y noviembre se reportan las mayores incidencias. Los grupos de edades que más casos aportaron fueron de 10-14 años, 15-19 años y 30-34 años. El sexo más afectado fue el masculino. Los grupos más afectados fueron los estudiantes, pobladores urbanos y trabajadores agrícolas cañeros. De los 40 brotes, 21 fueron confirmados por medio de la prueba de microaglutinación y 19 por la prueba hemolitica, siendo los serogrupos más frecuentes Pomona y Australis.Forty leptospirosis outbreaks occurred in Ciego de Avila province from 1980 to 1995. The main events involved in the outbreaks were floods, bathing in rivers and activities related to sugar cane and banana cultivation. The number of cases increased after June, with higher incidences reported in October and November. The most affected age groups were 10-14 years, 15-19 years and 30-34 years. Men were more affected than women. Students, people residing in the urban zone and farmers were the most affected groups. A total of 21 outbreaks out of 40 were confirmed by the microagglutination test and the remaining 19 by the hemolytic test. Pomona and Australis were the serogroups most frequently detected by microagglutination.

  11. Brote de shigelosis en la ciudad de Luján, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Della Gaspera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue describir un brote por Shigella sonnei ocurrido en julio de 2012 en Luján, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Estuvieron afectadas 5 personas que asistieron a una reunión familiar, donde consumieron una rosca vienesa de elaboración artesanal adquirida en un comercio. Todos presentaron fiebre, dolores articulares, escalofríos y diarrea no sanguinolenta con mucus. Se realizaron coprocultivos en los afectados y análisis microbiológicos de los ingredientes. Se aisló y caracterizó S. sonnei de todos los pacientes y de la crema de almendras empleada en la preparación de la rosca vienesa. A los aislamientos se les determinó el perfil de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos y el genético por electroforesis en campo pulsado. Los resultados demostraron la relación genética de los aislamientos, y esto confirmó la ocurrencia de los casos por exposición a una misma fuente de infección, la crema de almendras. Al ser un ingrediente industrial, de improbable contaminación inicial, la crema de almendras podría haber sufrido una contaminación durante la manipulación en la panadería.

  12. Current Tools for Norovirus Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekara, Sahani; Prior, Allan M.; Hua, Duy H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid transmission of norovirus often occurs due to its low infectious dosage, high genetic diversity and its short incubation time. The viruses cause acute gastroenteritis and may lead to death. Presently, no effective vaccine or selective drugs accepted by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are available for the treatment of norovirus. Advances in the development of norovirus replicon cell lines, GII.4-Sydney HuNoV strain human B cells, and murine and gnotobiotic pig norovirus models have facilitated the discovery of effective small molecule inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Areas covered This review gives a brief discussion of the biology and replication of norovirus before highlighting the discovery of anti-norovirus molecules. The article coverage includes: an overview of the current state of norovirus drug discovery, the targeting of the norovirus life cycle, the inhibition of structural and nonstructural proteins of norovirus such as proteases and polymerase, and the blockage of virus entry into host cells. Finally, anti-norovirus drugs in the clinical development stage are described. Expert opinion The current approach for the counteraction of norovirus focuses on the inhibition of viral RNA polymerase, norovirus 3C-like protease and the structural proteins VP1 as well as the blockade of norovirus entry. Broad-spectrum anti-norovirus molecules, based on the inhibition of 3C-like protease, have been developed. Other host factors and ways to overcome the development of resistance through mutation are also being examined. A dual approach in targeting viral and host factors may lead to an effective counteraction of norovirus infection. Current successes in developing norovirus replicon harboring cells and norovirus infected human cells, as well as murine norovirus models and other animal models such as piglets have facilitated the discovery of effective drugs and helped our understanding of its mechanism of action. PMID:27108716

  13. Recent Advances in Understanding Norovirus Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Tibbetts, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses constitute a family of ubiquitous and highly efficient human pathogens. In spite of decades of dedicated research, human noroviruses remain a major cause of gastroenteritis and severe diarrheal disease around the world. Recent findings have begun to unravel the complex mechanisms that regulate norovirus pathogenesis and persistent infection, including the important interplay between the virus, the host immune system, and commensal bacteria. Herein, we will summarize recent research developments regarding norovirus cell tropism, the use of M cells, and commensal bacteria to facilitate norovirus infection, and virus, host, and bacterial determinants of persistent norovirus infections. PMID:27110852

  14. The State of Norovirus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbink, Kari; Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses represent the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide; however, currently no licensed vaccine exists. Widespread vaccination that minimizes overall norovirus disease burden would benefit the entire population, but targeted vaccination of specific populations such as healthcare workers may further mitigate the risk of severe disease and death in vulnerable populations. While a few obstacles hinder the rapid development of efficacious vaccines, human trials for virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines show promise in both immune response and protection studies, with availability of vaccines being targeted over the next 5–10 years. Ongoing work including identification of important norovirus capsid antigenic sites, development of improved model systems, and continued studies in humans will allow improvement of future vaccines. In the meantime, a better understanding of norovirus disease course and transmission patterns can aid healthcare workers as they take steps to protect high-risk populations such as the elderly and immunocompromised individuals from chronic and severe disease. PMID:24585561

  15. Brote de encefalitis de San Luis en el Área Metropolitana Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hallazgos epidemiológicos y clínicos de 13 enfermos con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, con transmisión entre enero y marzo de 2010, en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires (AMBA. Los 13 enfermos, promedio de edad 38 años, tuvieron un comienzo agudo caracterizado por hipertermia y cefalea. Entre los días dos y diez de iniciados los síntomas, 7/13 enfermos tuvieron signos y síntomas de compromiso neurológico caracterizado por meningitis sin signos encefálicos en 1/7. En 6/7 los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron: rigidez de nuca, desorientación temporoespacial, fotofobia, confusión y alteración del lenguaje. Dos resonancias magnéticas y un electroencefalograma presentaron signos de afectación de lóbulos temporales. El líquido cefalorraquídeo se caracterizó por pleocitosis con predominio de células mononucleadas, glucorraquia normal y discreto aumento de proteínas. No hubo casos fatales. En 6/13 pacientes la sospecha clínica inicial fue dengue. Por la agrupación espacial y temporal de los casos puede considerarse un brote epidémico, el primero conocido en el AMBA, ya que no se había notificado previamente la circulación epidémica del virus.

  16. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks Food service has a key role. Language: ... and on-call staffing, to support compliance. Problem Norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food are common in food ...

  19. Brote de fiebre amarilla selvática en Colombia 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bernal M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Antecedentes: el 9 de enero se confirma un caso de fiebre amarilla en la sierra nevada de Santa Marta cuya circulación viral es la continuación de la presentada en el 2003 en la región del Catatumbo. En la región no se confirmaban casos desde el año 1979 y el comportamiento del brote es similar al presentado en dicho año.

    Metodología: estudio descriptivo longitudinal de casos captados mediante vigilancia activa comunitaria, estudio de casos y vigilancia pasiva. Los casos son confirmados por IgM, inmunohistoquímica y patología. Se realizaron acciones del fortalecimiento de la vigilancia de febriles icterohemorrágicos, entomológica, vectorial y de epizootias. Igualmente acciones de intensificación de la inmunización de susceptibles y educación a la comunidad.

    Resultados: se confirmó la circulación del virus en epizootias ocurridas en tres zonas de la región (Municipios de Valledupar, La Paz y Santa Marta. Por fecha de inicio de síntomas los casos comenzaron en la semana 51 de 2003 y el pico epidémico fue en la semana 1 de 2004; el último caso se confirmó el 22 de enero de 2004. Se confirmaron 29 casos de 787 notificados (15 del distrito de Santa Marta, 8 del departamento del Cesar y 6 de La Guajira; 20% de los casos fueron captados por vigilancia activa. El 28% fue confirmado por patología e inmunohistoquímica y el restante por IgM. El grupo de edad con mayor incidencia fue 15 a 44 años (75%, hombres (72% y agricultores (45%. La letalidad fue 28%.

    La vigilancia entomológica reportó la presencia de Sabethes s.p en Valledupar y los índice médicos, excepto en esta última ciudad, fueron mayores del 10%. Las coberturas de

  20. Tipificación molecular del virus dengue 3 durante el brote epidémico de dengue clásico en Lima, Perú, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Mamani Z

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar mediante trascripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR y sitios específicos de restricción - reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RSS-PCR al agente causal del brote epidémico presentado en el distrito de Comas, Lima en abril del año 2005. Materiales y métodos: veinte muestras de suero colectadas durante el brote de dengue fueron procesados por RT-PCR para determinar el serotipo, esta técnica se realizó en un solo paso. Luego se aplicó la técnica RSS-PCR para la identificación del genotipo circulante y se corroboraron los resultados posteriormente con aislamiento viral y secuenciamiento. Resultados: El análisis del RTPCR del ARN extraído de las muestras presentó un producto amplificado de 290pb que corresponden al dengue serotipo 3 (DEN 3. El análisis de los productos de RSS-PCR del ARN extraído a partir de aislamientos de DEN 3 correspondió al patrón C, incluido en el genotipo III. Los aislamientos de los virus dengue 3 en líneas celulares C6/36, tipificadas por IFI y el secuenciamiento genético confirmaron los resultados obtenidos por las pruebas previamente descritas. Conclusión: Durante el brote epidémico de dengue clásico en Lima, circuló el genotipo III del virus DEN 3.

  1. Personalized Genetic Testing and Norovirus Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prystajecky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-to-consumer personalized genetic testing has enabled the public to access and interpret their own genetic information. Various genetic traits can be determined including resistance to norovirus through a nonsense mutation (G428A in the FUT2 gene. Although this trait is believed to confer resistance to the most dominant norovirus genotype (GII.4, the spectrum of resistance to other norovirus strains is unknown. The present report describes a cluster of symptomatic norovirus GI.6 infection in a family identified to have norovirus resistance through personalized genetic testing.

  2. Control de la polilla de brote del pino: uso de la ferómona de atracción sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Belmar, Julio; M

    2013-01-01

    En Chile, la polilla del brote del pino (rhyacionia buoliana) fue detectada por primera vez en 1985, desde entonces la población de este insecto se ha extendido hasta llegar a constituir la principal plaga forestal del país. Cubre alrededor del 90% de la superficie plantada con pino (1.400.000 has)La superficie plantada con pino corresponde a un 75% de las plantaciones forestales. Esta situación es motivo de preocupación de organismos de gobierno como CONAF y de las empresas forestales. En es...

  3. Environmental indicators for human norovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkhali Chenar, Shima; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Norovirus is the most common cause of outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in human. While the winter seasonality of norovirus outbreaks has been widely reported, the association between norovirus outbreak epidemics and environmental factors remains not fully understood. This literature review is intended to improve understanding of environmental factors governing norovirus outbreaks and how the factors affect norovirus transmission. To that end, a large number of studies (67) from countries around the world were critically reviewed and discussed. Results of the literature review show that temperature, humidity, and rainfall are the most important environmental variables governing the norovirus epidemic cycle. It was found that low temperature between -6.6 and 20 °C, relative humidity between 10 and 66 %, and rainfall from 1 day to 3 months before an outbreak are effective ranges of the environmental factors, which favor the prevalence of norovirus. Some other environmental factors might have an association with the cycle of norovirus epidemics. However, further investigations are needed to understand effects of the other factors on norovirus incidence. The findings of this literature review improve our understanding of the relationship between norovirus outbreaks and environmental factors and provide the direction for future research on norovirus outbreaks.

  4. Norovirus Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Ben A.; Payne, Daniel C.; Patel, Manish M.; Gastañaduy, Paul A.; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates for the United States. Norovirus causes an average of 570–800 deaths, 56,000–71,000 hospitalizations, 400,000 emergency department visits, 1.7–1.9 million outpatient visits, and 19–21 million total illnesses per year. Persons >65 years of age are at greatest risk for norovirus-associated death, and children norovirus-associated medical care visits. Endemic norovirus disease occurs year round but exhibits a pronounced winter peak and increases by ≤50% during years in which pandemic strains emerge. These findings support continued development and targeting of appropriate interventions, including vaccines, for norovirus disease. PMID:23876403

  5. Norovirus Surveillance: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John P

    2016-02-01

    Surveillance for norovirus is challenging because the nature of illness due to norovirus is such that the majority of people who are infected will not have any contact with medical services and are highly unlikely to have a sample collected for diagnosis. Public health advice urges people to not visit hospitals or their family physicians, to prevent the risk further spread. The recognition of the importance of this pathogen was quickly established following the introduction of surveillance of outbreaks of gastrointestinal infection in England and Wales in 1992. This period saw >1800 outbreaks of norovirus infection reported in hospitals in England, affecting >45 000 patients and staff. A new system for reporting outbreaks of norovirus infection in hospitals, the Hospital Norovirus outbreak Reporting Scheme (HNORS), began in January 2009. Summary information on outbreaks is provided by infection control staff at hospitals and includes questions on the date the first and last person in the outbreak became symptomatic and whether closure of a bay or ward was needed. In the first 3 years (2009-2011) of the HNORS surveillance scheme, 4000 outbreaks were reported, affecting 40 000 patients and 10 000 staff. Over the last 3 years, these outbreaks have been associated with an average of 13 000 patients and 3400 staff becoming ill, with 15 000 lost bed-days annually. With the possible introduction of a vaccine on the horizon, targeted research with a more integrated approach to laboratory testing and outbreak reporting is essential to a greater understanding of the epidemiology of norovirus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  7. BROTE DE GRIPE PANDÉMICA (H1N1 2009 EN UNA ACADEMIA MILITAR: INICIO DE LA CIRCULACIÓN COMUNITARIA EN ESPAÑA

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    Elga Mayo Montero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El 19 de mayo de 2009 se declararon 21 casos de soldados con síntomas de infección respiratoria aguda en la Academia Militar de Ingenieros (ACING en Hoyo de Manzanares, España. En el contexto de una alerta mundial por gripe A(H1N1 2009, se decide investigar la posible aparición de un brote por este virus. El objetivo es describir un posible brote de gripe (H1N1 2009 en un Centro de Formación Militar y describir las medidas adoptadas, en la fase de contención, para evitar su transmisión. Métodos: Se administró un cuestionario específico y se recogieron muestras biológicas a todos los casos en investigación. Se recomendaron aislamiento y cuarentena, respectivamente de los casos y contactos. Resultados: Se confirmaron 81 casos de infección por virus de la gripe A (H1N12009. De las 52 muestras procesadas 31 fueron positivas para virus influenza A/California/7/2009. La edad media de los casos fue 22,0 años (rango, 18-31. El 84% eran varones. Los síntomas más comunes fueron tos y fiebre. Todos los casos permanecieron aislados y fueron tratados con oseltamivir, con buena evolución. La tasa de ataque global fue 12,42%. Ningún caso tenía antecedentes de viaje a zonas de riesgo o vinculo epidemiológico con un caso diagnosticado previamente fuera de la ACING. Se identificaron 31 casos relacionados con este brote fuera de la ACING, 24 casos eran contactos familiares y amigos. Conclusiones: Este brote alertó del inicio de la circulación comunitaria del virus pandémico en España. La detección precoz del mismo favoreció la puesta en marcha de medidas para la contención de su trasmisión.

  8. Brote de Salmonella Enteritidis resistente a ácido nalidíxico en Popayán, Cauca, 2011

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    Miguel Ángel Díaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Salmonella Enteritidis es reconocida a nivel mundial como uno de los principales agentes de infección gastrointestinal. Varios reportes indican la presencia de aislamientos con sensibilidad disminuida a la ciprofloxacina que puede conllevar a una respuesta retardada o al desarrollo de resistencia durante el tratamiento. Objetivo. Describir y caracterizar los aislamientos de Salmonella Enteritidis asociados a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en Popayán, Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 10 aislamientos de Salmonella Enteritidis, nueve de pacientes y uno de alimentos (emparedado de pollo, por pruebas bioquímicas, serotipificación y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. La concentración inhibitoria mínima a la ciprofloxacina se determinó por E-test y el perfil genético de los aislamientos se evaluó por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE con las enzimas Xbal y Blnl. Resultados. En todos los aislamientos se identificó Salmonella Enteritidis con resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y sensibilidad disminuida a la ciprofloxaxina entre 0,25 y 0,5 µg/ml; todos fueron sensibles a los demás antimicrobianos ensayados. La PFGE agrupó los 10 aislamientos con la enzima Xbal en el patrón COIN11.JEG.X01.0038 y siete aislamientos se confirmaron con la enzima BlnI con el patrón COIN11.JEG.A26.0009. Conclusión. Se reporta por primera vez en Colombia un brote de Salmonella Enteritidis con resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y se confirma por análisis fenotípico y genotípico la asociación entre los aislamientos de los pacientes con el del emparedado de pollo como la fuente de infección.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i1.810

  9. Micropropagación de chayote (sechium edule jacq. Sw. a partir de brotes vegetativos

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    Ana Abdelnour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El chayote (Sechium edule es una importante fuente de divisas para los países exportadores, entre los que Costa Rica mantiene el liderazgo mundial. Entre los factores más limitantes para su producci ón se encuentra el material de siembra, tradicionalmente la semilla, que por su naturaleza no permite la obtención de una producción morfológicamente homogénea de frutos (color, forma y textura de la epidermis motivo de los altos porcentajes de rechazo en las plantas empacadoras. El establecimiento de una metodología de propagación vegetativa de la especie ayudaría a resolver los problemas de heterogeneidad. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación se dirigió a desarrollar un método de micropropagación a partir de brotes vegetativos. Se evaluó el efecto de varios desinfectantes y concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las etapas de establecimiento, multiplicación y enraizamiento de dos cultivares comerciales. Se observó que una desinfección con hipoclorito de calcio al 4% permitió el mayor porcentaje de explantes establecidos asépticamente bajo condiciones in vitro (49%. También se observó que durante las etapas posteriores de la micropropagación, los requerimientos de reguladores de crecimiento fueron muy bajos (0,1 mgL-1 de BA en la etapa de brotación de yemas y de 0,1 a 0,2 mgL-1 de AIB durante el enraizamiento o no se requirieron (etapa de multiplicaci ón de microestacas.

  10. El hospital ante un brote prolongado de legionelosis The hospital faced with a prolonged Legionella outbreak

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    Juan Antonio Fernández

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los recursos asistenciales utilizados en pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía por Legionella durante un brote ocurrido en Alcoy y compararlos con los empleados en otras neumonías. Métodos y resultados: Mediante un protocolo, se analiza y compara a 177 pacientes con neumonía por Legionella con 180 pacientes ingresados por otras neumonías, y se describe su tratamiento y los recursos empleados. La claritromicina fue el antibiótico más utilizado en ambos grupos. La estancia hospitalaria fue similar, pero los requerimientos de ventilación mecánica y cuidados intensivos fueron superiores para Legionella. La hospitalización domiciliaria se utilizó con éxito en un 15,6% de los pacientes con Legionella y en un 11,3% de los demás. El uso de oxigenoterapia domiciliaria al alta fue menor para Legionella (7,8% que para el resto de neumonías (16,7%. Conclusiones: Se destaca la mayor necesidad de ventilación mecánica en la neumonía por Legionella y los buenos resultados de la hospitalización domiciliaria dentro de los nuevos sistemas de gestión.Objective: To describe the health resources used in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia during an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Alcoy (Spain, and to compare them with those used in other forms of pneumonia. Methods and results: Using a clinical protocol, 177 Legionella pneumonia patients were compared with 180 patients hospitalized for other types of pneumonia. Data on therapy and the resources used were collected. The most common antibiotic treatment in both groups was clarithromycin, but intensive care and mechanical ventilation requirements were greater in Legionella pneumonia. Home-based hospital care was successfully used in 15.6% of patients with Legionella pneumonia and in 11.3% of those with other types of pneumonia. Home oxygen therapy after discharge was less frequent in the Legionella pneumonia group (7.8% than in the group with non

  11. Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  12. Norovirus contamination found in oysters worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peter K C; Wong, Derek K K; Chung, Thomas W H; Lim, Wilina W L

    2005-08-01

    Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses) are recognized as major causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis are often associated with consumption of oysters. In this study, oysters imported into Hong Kong from 11 countries over a 3-year period were screened by RT-PCR. Overall, 53 out of 507 (10.5%) samples were positive for norovirus-RNA, and a wide variety of strains were found. Two novel genetic clusters were detected, which could indicate novel human or animal norovirus strains. However, whether these two new clusters are of human or animal origin is not known. Thirteen outbreaks, in which oysters were implicated as the source of infection were investigated: Norovirus RNA sequences could be detected in oysters from six outbreaks, but only in one outbreak the strains isolated from patients and oysters matched (>98% homology). Therefore, RT-PCR was of use in detecting norovirus contamination of oysters implicated in an outbreak, but was less useful in demonstrating an actual molecular epidemiological link with human cases. It was shown that contamination by noroviruses could be demonstrated in oysters worldwide, and therefore oysters may serve as an important vehicle for introducing novel norovirus strains. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Brote de legionelosis en Murcia en julio de 2001. La óptica de sanidad ambiental

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    C. Gutiérrez Molina

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las medidas de intervención adoptadas para el estudio y control del brote. Se encontraron 126 instalaciones con riesgo (45 de ellas de alto: 70 torres de refrigeración y similares, 35 fuentes ornamentales, 1 obra con movimiento de tierra y 20 sistemas con circuito cerrado aire-agua, que se distribuyeron por categorías de riesgo.De forma inmediata se clausuraron: las fuentes ornamentales, el baldeo de calles y riegos por aspersión de parques y la obra.Se realizaron un total de 486 inspecciones y 1040 toma de muestras, ordenando la limpieza y desinfección de torres de refrigeración y similares y su clausura en caso necesario. Posteriormente, se cambio de relleno en torres de refrigeración positivas a Lp.Del total de instalaciones investigadas (339, en 57 (16’9% se encontró un cultivo positivo a Lp. Distribución por tipo de instalación con cultivo positivo a Lp: en torres de refrigeración 23 (6’8%, en fuentes ornamentales 3 (7,32% y en agua sanitaria 31 (9’1%.Distribución por serogrupos: LpS1 (62’3%, serogrupos 2-14 (36’68%.LpS1Olda Olda (21’74% fue la mas abundante seguida de LpS1 Pontiac Filadelfia Lugano (18’84% frente a LpS1 Pontiac Filadelfia Glasgow (en 1 ocasión, 1’45%, esta ultima fue la aislada en las 18 muestras de enfermos.En 355 ocasiones se dispone de cultivo y PCR, encontrándose una sensibilidad de 30,8% (Intervalo de confianza al 95%, de 25,1 y una especificidad del 99,4±0,8. Hay que considerar la eventual influencia en los resultados aportada por la posible aparición de dos falsos negativos en el cultivo.Se encuentra un elevado porcentaje de muestras correspondientes a Legionella pneumophilla serogrupo 1, dentro de estas prevalecen las tipo Pontiac Philadelphia, y dentro de estas las tipo Lugano.La primera desinfección no erradicó la contaminación en su totalidad. Abundando en lo anterior, el hallazgo de un número considerable de torres de refrigeración positivas a Lp tras limpieza y

  14. Regeneración in vitro de brotes de Polianthes tuberosa L. a partir de yemas vegetativas de la inflorescencia y de tejido de cormo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Hernández-Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polianthes tuberosa L. es una planta endémica de México, comercialmente se cultiva para flor de corte, y, además, es utilizada en la industria farmacéutica y del perfume. Tradicionalmente, los productores la propagan utilizando los cormos, lo que ha ocasionado que el cultivo presente poca variabilidad genética y posiblemente, por esta razón solo se conocen cultivares con flores blancas. Con base en lo anterior el objetivo de la presente investigación consistió en establecer la metodología práctica y competitiva para propagar in vitro Polianthes tuberosa L. Las yemas y pequeños segmentos de tejido de cormo fueron colocadas sobre la superficie del medio de cultivo, base GC (comunicación personal Guillermo Carrillo con las sales inorgánicas del medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog (1962 por litro, 50 mL de agua de coco, 20 g de sacarosa, 6.4 g de agar y el pH fue ajustado a 5.7. Con este medio básico se prepararon medios de cultivo que contenían bencilaminopurina (BAP, ácido naftalenacético (ANA, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, ácido indolacético (AIA, y cinetina. La formación de brotes que dieron origen a las plántulas ocurrió mediante, la regeneración directa de la yema floral la cual al crecer forma sólo una plántula y a partir del tejido de la base de la yema, de esta región se obtuvieron hasta seis brotes por yema en el medio que contiene BAP, 4.5 mg y ANA, 0.1 mg, del cual la regeneración de brotes fue mayor (56.1 %. En el caso de cormo el problema fue la contaminación llegando en algunos casos hasta el 100 % de los cultivos. Es de resaltar la importancia de poder lograr la regeneración masiva in vitro de plantas de nardo a partir de yemas florales.

  15. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz Chickenpox outbreak in Herrera del Duque, Badajoz, Spain

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    F.J. Valadés

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p Introduction: Chickenpox is a worldwide disease with high morbidity but few complications, although complications can be sevre in immunocompromised individuals and healthy adults. The annual chickenpox rate declared to the National Notification Disease Surveillance System is approximately 5 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in Extremadura (Spain. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics and cost of an epidemic outbreak of chickenpox

  16. Comparison of Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in clinical fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho-Laukkanen, E; Hirvonen, J J; Saha, K

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usability and performance of the Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens. Of the 186 stool specimens, 53 (28.5%) were considered true-positive for norovirus (NoV). Of the true-positive specimens, Xpert detected 53 and RidaGene detected 52. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 91.0-98.5%] for the Xpert assay, and 98.1% (95% CI, 94.4-100%) and 97.0% (95% CI, 94.1-99.9%) for the RidaGene assay. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) were 88.3% and 100% for the Xpert assay, and 92.9% and 99.2% for the RidaGene assay, respectively. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences (p-value > 0.5) between the results of the Xpert and RidaGene Norovirus assays. We found that both assays are useful for the detection of noroviruses in clinical stool samples.

  17. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vipin Kumar; George, Santosh; Sarkar, Rajiv; Giri, Sidhartha; Samuel, Prasanna; Vivek, Rosario; Saravanabavan, Anuradha; Liakath, Farzana Begum; Ramani, Sasirekha; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J; Brown, David W; Estes, Mary K; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia. Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group. Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2%) were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6%) were norovirus GI, 150(8.1%) norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4%) were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4%) were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8%) were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6%) GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0%) with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3%) ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428) were at a significantly lower risk (48/190) of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01). This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  18. Determinación de tamaño de muestra de características del xilema de brote de aguacate mediante remuestreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Meza-Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el tamaño de muestra adecuado, para detectar diferencias estadísticas en análisis de varianza de los caracteres de xilema, en brotes anuales de aguacate. Para esto, fueron registradas en tres árboles con altura contrastante las variables frecuencia, área, perímetro y diámetro de los vasos del xilema. A partir de 50 observaciones de cada árbol, se realizaron 5.000 remuestreos no paramétricos, para cada repetición de 2 a 50 campos microscópicos. A partir del tamaño de muestra de 15 repeticiones, las desviaciones en los cinco estadísticos son mínimas, por lo que se propone como el mínimo para el muestreo de dichas variables.

  19. Enterovirus and Norovirus Monitoring under UCMR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule round 3 (UCMR3) monitoring program for enterovirus and norovirus in groundwater. It provides the data on microbial indicators and virus occurrence during the monitoring period. Enteric virus occurrence was ab...

  20. Inactivation of Norovirus by Lemongrass Essential Oil Using a Norovirus Surrogate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Won; You, Hyun Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Do Kyung; Choi, Joo-Bong; Kim, Ji-Ah; Lee, Hee Jung; Joo, In Sun; Lee, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Giljae; Ko, Gwang Pyo; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on the infectivity and viral replication of norovirus. Murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate of human norovirus, was preincubated with LGEO and then used to infect RAW 264.7 cells in a plaque reduction assay. LGEO exhibited a significant reduction in MNV-1 plaque formation in both time- and dose-dependent manners. The quantification of viral genome by quantitative real-time PCR showed similar results in line with those of the plaque reduction assay. It was revealed that citral, a single compound in LGEO, showed dramatic reduction in MNV-1 infectivity (-73.09% when using a treatment of 0.02%, v/v). The inhibitory activity of LGEO on viral replication was further investigated in HG23 cells that harbored a human norovirus replicon. LGEO treatment significantly reduced viral replication in HG23 cells, which suggests that LGEO may have dual inhibitory activities that inactivate viral coat proteins required for viral infection and suppress norovirus genome replication in host cells. In animal experiments, oral administration of murine norovirus preincubated with LGEO significantly suppressed virus infectivity in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that LGEO, in particular the LGEO component citral, inactivates the norovirus and its subsequent replication in host cells. Thus, LGEO shows promise as a method of inhibiting norovirus within the food industry.

  1. Treatment of norovirus particles with citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; White, Peter A; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-11-01

    Human norovirus is a dominant cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. Several norovirus disinfectants label citric acid as an active ingredient. In this study, we showed that norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) treated with citrate buffer caused the particles to alter their morphology, including increased diameters associated with a new ring-like structure. We also found that epitopes on the protruding (P) domain on these particles were more readily accessible to antibodies after the citrate treatment. These results suggested that citrate had a direct effect on the norovirus particles. Using X-ray crystallography, we showed that the P domain bound citrate from lemon juice and a disinfectant containing citric acid. Importantly, citrate binds at the histo-blood group antigen binding pocket, which are attachment factors for norovirus infections. Taken together, these new findings suggested that it might be possible to treat/reduce norovirus infections with citrate, although further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Norovirus Binding to Ligands Beyond Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are commonly accepted as the cellular receptors for human norovirus. However, some human noroviruses have been found not to bind any HBGA ligand, suggesting potential additional co-factors. Some ligands have been found to bind noroviruses and have the potential to be additional cellular receptors/attachment factors for human norovirus or inhibitors of the HBGA interaction. The studies identifying these mostly characterize different chemical, human, food, or bacterial components and their effect on norovirus binding and infection, although the mechanism of interaction is unknown in many cases. This review seeks to supplement the already well-covered HBGA-norovirus literature by covering non-HBGA human norovirus ligands and inhibitors to provide investigators with a more comprehensive view of norovirus ligands. PMID:29312233

  3. Aplicación del teorema del umbral estocástico de Whittle a un brote de varicela Application of Whittle's stochastic threshold theorem to a chickenpox outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar el ritmo reproductivo básico en un brote de varicela, aplicar el teorema umbral estocástico para estimar la probabilidad de la ocurrencia del brote e identificar medidas preventivas. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en una guardería de 16 niños, con 13 susceptibles, un infectado inicial y dos niños inmunes por antecedente de enfermedad. Se partió de un modelo estocástico: susceptible - infectado - removido. Se estimó el ritmo de reproducción básico de la enfermedad R0, usando un método de máxima verosimilitud basado en el conocimiento de la distribución de probabilidades para el tamaño total de la epidemia y haciendo una aproximación de epidemia casi-completa. Con el R0 obtenido se aplicó el teorema de umbral estocástico para obtener algunas medidas preventivas que podrían impedir la irrupción del brote de varicela. RESULTADOS: Cada infectado inicial produjo tres casos nuevos de infección, requiriendo para impedir el brote, una cobertura mínima de vacunación del 62%, o disminuir en 62% el contacto entre miembros del grupo o aumentar en 170% la remoción de infectados. CONCLUSIONES: El teorema del umbral estocástico permite identificar medidas que se podrían implementar para prevenir y controlar brotes de varicela. Aunque la distribución del tamaño de la epidemia en forma bimodal con similar probabilidad de ocurrencia de brotes grandes y pequeños, señala la incertidumbre del proceso epidémico en grupos pequeños, requiriéndose un estrecho seguimiento de los brotes en tales grupos.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the basic reproductive rate of a chickenpox outbreak, to apply the stochastic threshold theorem to estimate the probability of an outbreak occurrence and to identify preventive measures. METHODS: The study was carried out in a daycare center comprising 16 children, 13 susceptible, one infected and two children with acquired immunity by previous disease. A stochastic susceptible - infected - removed

  4. Efectos de la cobertura vacunal previa en la dinamica de un brote de sarampion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La eficacia de una vacuna debería medirse mediante ensayos clínicos controlados, no obstante, aspectos éticos lo impiden. Orenstein sugiere que se estime la eficacia de una vacuna mediante, entre otros métodos, el estudio de los brotes epidémicos de la enfermedad caso de ser posible. El presente estudio plantea el cálculo de la eficacia vacunal en el terreno y de los efectos protectores de un programa de vacunación mediante el análisis de un brote epidémico de sarampión. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo. La población de estudio la constituyó el grupo de niños nacidos en el municipio de Aznalcollar (localidad de 5.571 habitantes perteneciente al Distrito Sanitario Aljarafe-Sevilla entre dos brotes epidémicos de sarampión ocurridos en dicha localidad en los años 1986 y 1994. Se excluyeron de la cohorte a aquellos niños que a comienzos del brote de 1994 no habían cumplido la edad de vacunación y también a quienes tuvieron exposición anterior al virus, es decir los nacidos antes y durante la epidemia de 1986. El estudio incluyó a vacunados y no vacunados. Todos los casos cumplían los criterios diagnósticos establecidos. A todos los niños en seguimiento se les revisó sus antecedentes vacunales. Tras el cálculo de las tasas de ataque en vacunados y no vacunados, se determinaron la eficacia vacunal y los efectos indirectos totales y medios del programa de vacunación. RESULTADOS: La vacuna resultó eficaz en el 91'5 % de los vacunados. El programa de vacunación produjo una reducción del número de casos en los no vacunados del 78'9%, del 98% en los vacunados y del 92% en el conjunto de la cohorte estudiada, siendo la cobertura vacunal de la misma del 66'4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los efectos de la vacunación y la eficacia vacunal pueden y deben ser calculados aprovechando la aparición de brotes epidémicos caso de ser posible. Se recomienda incrementar las coberturas de vacunación de la poblaci

  5. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza-Avilés Alberto González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.

  6. Brote de legionelosis asociado a un balneario Legionella outbreak at a spa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serrano Ibarbia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 el inicio de la temporada de actividad de un balneario en Gipuzkoa coincidió con la detección de un brote de legionelosis asociado al mismo, lo cual condujo al cierre de la instalación y al estudio epidemiológico -casos y controles- y ambiental oportunos. Se definió como caso toda persona que durante su estancia en el balneario o durante los 10 días siguientes presentará neumonía o un cuadro febril compatible con fiebre de Pontiac.El estudio ambiental incluyó la inspección del balneario y entorno y muestreos de los sistemas sanitarios de agua y de los elementos de hidroterapia.De las 287 personas encuestadas de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, el 12.5% cumplían con la definición de caso; 9 casos presentaron neumonía y 26 fiebre de Pontiac. La curva epidémica se inició el 7 de mayo, alcanzando un pico los días 14 y 15 de mayo y finalizando el día 20. El riesgo de enfermar ajustado por edad, sexo y consumo de tabaco se asoció con la duración de la estancia en el balneario (OR=118.5, 95% I.C: 18.7-750.2 y con el uso de una piscina (OR=10.5, 95% I.C: 1.3-82.6. Se detecto L. pneumophila serogrupo1 en recuentos superiores a 103 ufc/l en diversos puntos de la red de hidroterapia y en la ducha de la habitación de uno de los enfermos. El análisis por electroforesis en campos pulsados de una muestra biológica y muestras ambientales permitió la confirmación genotípica. El establecimiento se abrió al público tras realizar un tratamiento de choque y comprobar que transcurridos 15 días no se detectó L. pneumophila en las muestras ambientales.The start of seasonal activity at a spa in Guipuzcoa coincided with the detection of an associated legionnaire outbreak in 1998. This led to the closure of the premises and to the carrying out of opportune environmental and epidemiological studies. The latter included case-control study. A case was defined as a person who, either during his stay or in a period of 10 days thereafter

  7. Brote de onicomadesis posvírica en Valladolid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redondo Granado, M.J; Torres Hinojal, M.C; Izquierdo López, B

    2009-01-01

    ... los procesos febriles, las enfermedades inflamatorias graves, como el síndrome de Stevens-Johnson o la enfermedad de Kawasaki, las toxicodermias, la quimioterapia, la acrodermatitis enteropática y las infecciones, como sífilis y escarlatina 1,2 . En el recién nacido se pueden observar debido al estrés del parto 1 . Por otra parte, la enfermedad...

  8. Perspectivas de salud ambiental en la investigación de brotes epidémicos asociados con una zona de abastecimiento de aguas de consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Gámez de la Hoz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar la magnitud, posibles causas y factores ambientales contribuyentes en la aparición de brotes de origen hídrico, en el ámbito de actuación de la localidad de Benaoján (Serranía de Ronda, Málaga.Material y métodos. Análisis de la potabilidad del agua y controles de desinfección. Evaluación del cumplimiento de la calidad del agua potable y requisitos técnico sanitarios de abastecimientos de aguas, conforme a la normativa española sobre aguas de consumo público.Resultados. Se han realizado 110 análisis de potabilidad, comprobando que el 13,4% de las muestras no cumplen con los criterios de potabilidad del agua. Se practicaron 647 controles de desinfección, de los que el 53% resultaron no conformes. El diseño de la red de abastecimiento es del tipo ramificada y al menos presenta 30 ramales ciegos, puntos donde el agua queda estancada. El servicio municipal de aguas no realiza autocontroles de la calidad del agua ni tiene implantados planes generales de higiene de las instalaciones del abastecimiento.Discusión. La investigación ambiental sugiere que la red pública de abastecimiento de aguas es una fuente de infección, problema relacionado con la aparición de brotes epidémicos. Por ello el consumo de agua no tratada debe ser evitado.

  9. Norovirus outbreak management: how much cohorting is necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, S; Pettke, A; Kossow, A; Mellmann, A; Willems, S; Kipp, F

    2016-03-01

    For the control of norovirus outbreaks, it is widely recommended that exposed but asymptomatic patients should be cohorted separately from unexposed patients and from symptomatic patients. The frequency of subsequent symptomatic norovirus infection in contact patients has not been investigated systematically. We retrospectively investigated the development of typical norovirus symptoms in contact patients during seven norovirus outbreaks affecting 57 patients between November 2014 and May 2015. Only one of 14 contact patients developed typical norovirus symptoms, calling into question current recommendations to isolate contact patients. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Curcumin Shows Antiviral Properties against Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minji; Lee, GilJae; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Sung-Joon; You, Hyun Ju; Ko, GwangPyo

    2016-10-20

    Phytochemicals provide environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive natural products, which could potentially benefit public health by controlling human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. In this study, 18 different phytochemicals were evaluated for antiviral effects against norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a model for norovirus biology. Among these phytochemicals, curcumin (CCM) was the most potent anti-noroviral phytochemical, followed by resveratrol (RVT). In a cell culture infection model, exposure to CCM or RVT for 3 days reduced infectivity of norovirus by 91% and 80%, respectively. To confirm the antiviral capability of CCM, we further evaluated its antiviral efficacy at various doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 2 mg/mL) and durations (short-term: 10, 30, 60, and 120 min; long-term: 1, 3, 7, and 14 days). The anti-noroviral effect of CCM was verified to occur in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of each phytochemical on the replication of HuNoV using a HuNoV replicon-bearing cell line (HG23). Neither CCM nor RVT had a strong inhibitory effect on HuNoV replication, which suggests that their antiviral mechanism may involve viral entry or other life cycle stages rather than the replication of viral RNA. Our results demonstrated that CCM may be a promising candidate for development as an anti-noroviral agent to prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness.

  11. Norovirus in Latin America: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Riera-Montes, Margarita; Lopman, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. We carried out a literature search in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS. We included papers that provided information on the prevalence or incidence of norovirus (including seroprevalence studies and outbreaks), with a recruitment and/or follow-up period of at least 12 months and where the diagnosis of norovirus was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The data were pooled for meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of norovirus AGE and norovirus asymptomatic infection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirty-eight studies were included in the review. Overall, the prevalence of norovirus among AGE cases was 15% (95% CI: 13-18). By location, it was 15% in the community (95% CI: 11%-21%), 14% in outpatient settings (95% CI: 10%-19%) and 16% in hospital locations (95% CI: 12%-21%). The prevalence of norovirus among asymptomatic subjects was 8% (95% CI: 4-13). Norovirus GII.4 strains were associated with 37%-100% of norovirus AGE cases, but only 7% of norovirus asymptomatic detections. Noroviruses are associated with almost 1 out of every 6 hospitalizations because of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age in Latin America.

  12. Brote de parotiditis vírica en un colegio de Bizkaia en 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Millán Ortuondo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Recientemente se han registrado brotes de parotiditis en España y en otros países desarrollados. Los motivos barajados son la baja cobertura vacunal de las poblaciones afectadas y/o la baja efectividad de las cepas vacunales empleadas. Este trabajo describe un brote de parotiditis ocurrido en Bizkaia y valora la efectividad de las cepas vacunales y la utilidad de las pruebas diagnósticas actualmente empleadas. Métodos: Se etiquetaron como casos aquéllos con clínica compatible y vínculo epidemiológico en el periodo de estudio (febrero-mayo-2006. Se recogieron muestras de sangre para estudio de IgM e IgG y de saliva para detección de RNA y genotipo. Se averiguó el estado vacunal y la cepa empleada mediante los registros del reparto vacunal. Se realizó un análisis univariante de los datos y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según las cepas vacunales empleadas. Resultados: Se detectaron 63 casos; 52 eran alumnos del mismo colegio. El 50% tenía entre 9 y 13 años. El 88,5% de los casos del colegio estaba correctamente vacunado. La sensibilidad de la IgM fue del 9% y la de la PCR del 37%. El riesgo relativo de los alumnos vacunados con una primera dosis de cepa Rubini frente a los vacunados con cepa Jeryl-Lynn fue de 3,8 (IC95% 2,27-6,49. Conclusiones: La elevada cobertura vacunal no impide el desarrollo de brotes en lugares con un alto grado de exposición. La IgM se muestra poco sensible para el diagnóstico de parotiditis. Parece necesario replantearse las estrategias vacunales y los métodos diagnósticos actuales.

  13. 75 FR 34146 - Draft Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings...-based recommendations for prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings. DATES...

  14. Brote de 18 casos de hepatitis C en una unidad de hemodiálisis Outbreak of 18 cases of hepatitis C in a hemodialysis unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castell

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El 30 de septiembre de 2001 se conoció la posible existencia de un brote de hepatitis C en una unidad de hemodiálisis hospitalaria en Ciudad Real. Se inició una investigación con el objetivo de determinar la causa del brote y establecer medidas de control. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y otro analítico de cohortes retrospectivo. En el descriptivo se estudió la incidencia de infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC en la unidad en el período comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 1998 y el 30 de septiembre de 2001. En el estudio de cohortes, el total de sujetos incluidos fue de 86, de los que 18 eran casos del brote. Se realizó un estudio virológico en el que se incluyeron la determinación de anticuerpos frente a VHC, el estudio de avidez de IgG específica, la PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y el análisis filogenético de los subtipos virales encontrados. Resultados: En el período de estudio habían sido atendidos 86 pacientes en la unidad; de ellos, 27 ya eran positivos para el VHC antes del 1 de marzo de 2001 (31,4%. La curva epidémica sugería una fuente común con la aparición de casos secundarios. Desde 1998 sólo se había producido una seroconversión, en 1999. Únicamente se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para el turno de diálisis. Ningún paciente que se hubiese dializado de manera exclusiva en el turno de martes, jueves y sábado resultó infectado. Todos los casos pertenecían al genosubtipo 4d, poco frecuente en la población española (3%, lo que confirmaría que se trata de un brote nosocomial. La mayoría de los casos antiguos de la unidad eran 1b, 3 eran 4c/4d y 1 caso 1a. El estudio de avidez de anticuerpos frente a IgG sugiere que no todos se infectaron al mismo tiempo, lo que apoya la hipótesis de fuente común inicial con transmisión secundaria. Conclusiones: Se confirmó la presencia de un brote de hepatitis C con 18 casos entre pacientes

  15. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Menon

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia.Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group.Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2% were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6% were norovirus GI, 150(8.1% norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4% were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4% were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8% were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6% GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0% with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3% ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428 were at a significantly lower risk (48/190 of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01.This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  16. Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This podcast is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  17. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10 percent stool filtrate. One min free chlorine treatments at concentrat...

  18. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Ozawa, Sachiko; Hall, Aron J.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus. Methods We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total) stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization) and productivity losses. Results Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2–5.7 billion) in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4–83.4 billion) in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84–99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons), high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs), while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days). Conclusions The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large costs overwhelmingly are from productivity losses resulting from acute

  19. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  20. Economic Value of Norovirus Outbreak Control Measures in Healthcare Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Wettstein, Zachary S.; McGlone, Sarah M.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Umscheid, Craig A.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Muder, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Although norovirus is a significant cause of nosocomial viral gastroenteritis, the economic value of hospital outbreak containment measures following identification of a norovirus case is currently unknown. We developed computer simulation models to determine the potential cost-savings from the hospital perspective of implementing the following norovirus outbreak control interventions: (1) increased hand hygiene measures, (2) enhanced disinfection practices, (3) patient isolation, (4) use of ...

  1. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  2. Acute Liver Dysfunction in the Course of Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nakajima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with abdominal pain and malaise who showed delayed symptom of acute gastroenteritis came to see us. Her illness was diagnosed as norovirus infection, but liver dysfunction accompanied this gastroenteritis. We investigated the pathogenesis of this hepatitis for all causes including drugs, but we could not detect norovirus infection. The liver damage improved shortly in course of the gastroenteritis. She recovered completely within 2 weeks without any damage left. Norovirus-induced liver dysfunction is not known, and there is no report in the literature. We report, for the first time, the case of liver dysfunction with norovirus gastroenteritis.

  3. Advances in Laboratory Methods for Detection and Typing of Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, in the United States norovirus gastroenteritis causes an estimated 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths each year. This minireview describes the latest data on laboratory methods (molecular, immunological) for norovirus detection, including real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and commercially available immunological assays as well as the latest FDA-cleared multi-gastrointestinal-pathogen platforms. In addition, an overview is provided on the latest nomenclature and molecular epidemiology of human noroviruses. PMID:24989606

  4. Risk Factors for Norovirus Gastroenteritis among Nicaraguan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joann F; Bowman, Natalie M; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Reyes, Yaoska; Belson, Connor; Michaels, Kenan C; Bucardo, Filemon

    2017-09-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of pediatric gastroenteritis. Understanding norovirus epidemiology is essential for reducing disease burden. We conducted a case-control study to describe the distribution, clinical features, and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children norovirus and controls were children living in the cases' communities. Study staff interviewed mothers of enrolled cases and controls to obtain detailed exposure information including food, water, and sanitation sources; recent exposures; household characteristics; and handwashing practices. In addition, study staff requested stool samples to be tested for norovirus from select household members. We used descriptive statistics to understand the epidemiologic and clinical features of gastroenteritis episodes. To analyze potential risk factors, we used Firth's penalized logistic regression to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 102 children with gastroenteritis, 18 cases of norovirus and 31 controls. Norovirus cases occurred later in the year, corresponding to a delay in the rainy season. Cases were more likely to have a household member with norovirus in their stool as compared with controls [crude OR: 13.3 (95% CI: 2.5, 136.2) and adjusted OR: 11.5 (95% CI: 1.6, 223.2)]. In addition, alcohol-based hand sanitizer use among household members was reported for 10 (32%) of controls and but never for cases. Further research is needed to understand household transmission of norovirus in low- and middle-income countries and the potential impact of hand sanitizer use.

  5. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIAID)

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  6. Virucidal Effectiveness Testing Using Feline Calicivirus as Surrogate for Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents describe the effectiveness test using Feline Calicivirus as Surrogate for Norovirus, including initial and confirmatory testing and testing with pre-saturated or impregnated towelettes.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Norovirus in Korea in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus exhibits temporal and geographical fluctuations, and new variants of the GII.4 genotype emerge every 2-3 years to cause global epidemics of acute gastroenteritis. We investigated GI and GII genotypes of human norovirus strains isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Korea in 2013. Norovirus antigen test was performed on 2,980 fecal specimens from January to December 2013. RNA was extracted from norovirus antigen-positive fecal suspensions, and the norovirus capsid (VP1) and polymerase (RdRp) genes were characterized by RT-PCR and sequencing. Of the 230 genotyped strains, GII.4 (77.3%) was the most frequently observed capsid genotype, followed by GII.3 (6.1%) and GII.13 (3.9%). A norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the most frequently found polymerase/capsid genotype (65.7%), followed by GII.P17/GII.17 (2.1%) and GII.P21/GII.3 (2.1%). Phylogenetic, similarity, and capsid epitope analyses of GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains were performed. We concluded that the norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the main cause of norovirus-related gastroenteritis in Korea in 2013. PMID:26421289

  8. Peculiarities of norovirus and rotavirus infections in hospitalised young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkeviciute, Irena; Tamusauskaite, Indre

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the features of norovirus infection in hospitalised children under the age of 3 and to compare the results with those of rotavirus infection. Case notes were randomly selected and retrospectively analysed for 70 norovirus- and 70 rotavirus-infected children. All of the children were treated in Vilnius University Children's Hospital in 2005. The norovirus antigen was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the rotavirus using immunochromatography diagnostic assay. In young children, norovirus infection manifested as vomiting (94% of all cases), diarrhoea (81%), and fever (66%). It presented as gastroenteritis with fever (47%) or without fever (30%). However, 19% of cases were without diarrhoea. During rotavirus infection, fever was present in 97% of cases and 81% of them were >38 degrees C. However, in norovirus infection, the percentages were 66% and 48%, respectively (P or =7 times/day) more frequently appeared in children with rotavirus infection than with norovirus (P or =4 times/day) has been more common for children with norovirus infection. As opposed to norovirus infection, which has 2 main syndromes (gastroenteritis with fever and without fever), rotavirus infection is dominated by just 1 clinical syndrome-gastroenteritis with fever (P fever. Norovirus and rotavirus infections had statistically significant differences in the presence and the degree of fever, and the intensity of diarrhoea and vomiting, as well as frequency of different syndromes.

  9. Descripción de un brote de intoxicación alimentaria estafilocócica ocurrido en Las Rosas, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal A. Brizzio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En febrero de 2008 se denunció en la localidad santafecina de Las Rosas un presunto brote de una enfermedad transmitida por alimentos. En los procedimientos oficiales no fue posible determinar la cantidad de personas afectadas luego de consumir canelones de verdura adquiridos en un local comercial. Se auditó el establecimiento elaborador y se tomaron muestras del citado producto, muestras ambientales e hisopados de los manipuladores de alimentos. Se entrevistó a los afectados y se recuperaron restos del alimento ingerido. Mediante análisis microbiológicos de rutina se determinó la presencia de S. aureus subespecie aureus coagulasa positivo en muestras del producto consumido, del producto crudo y de los manipuladores del alimento. Los microorganismos indicadores no mostraron niveles significativos y no se aisló otro patógeno de transmisión alimentaria. Se investigó la presencia de genes productores de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas, con resultado positivo para la enterotoxina B en las cepas aisladas de un manipulador y en el alimento vinculado con el brote. Al analizar los aislamientos por SmaI-PFGE se demostró un 100% de similitud entre ellos. La notificación oportuna, las acciones sanitarias coordinadas y la disponibilidad de las herramientas de laboratorio apropiadas permitieron identificar los factores de protección y de riesgo, y cortar la cadena de transmisión de la enfermedad.On February 2008, a suspected foodborne outbreak was reported in Las Rosas (Santa Fe Province, Argentina. The formal procedures indicated that an undetermined number of individuals had experienced food poisoning following consumption of vegetable cannelloni bought at a local shop. The manufacturer establishment was audited. Samples from the suspected food, as well as environmental samples and swabs from food handlers were obtained and involved subjects were interviewed. Remnants of ingested food were also obtained. Routine microbiological procedures of

  10. Demand for care and nosocomial infection rate during the first influenza AH1N1 2009 virus outbreak at a referral hospital in Mexico City Demanda asistencial y tasa de infección nosocomial durante el primer brote de influenza AH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Comparison of routine hospital indicators (consults at the Emergency Room (ER and hospital admissions during the 2009 pandemic of the influenza AH1N1 virus at the national referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outbreak was from April to mid-May 2009 and two control periods were used:2009 (before and after the outbreak,and during April-May from 2007 and 2008. RESULTS: During the outbreak total consultation at the ER increased six times compared with the 2007-2008 control period and 11 times compared with the 2009 control period. Pneumonia- or influenza-related ER consultations increased 23.2 and 15.3%, respectively. The rate of nosocomial infection during the outbreak was 13.6 and that of nosocomial pneumonia was 6 per/100 hospital discharges, a two-fold and three-fold increase compared to the control periods respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak,mean severity of admitted patients increased,with a rise in in-hospital mortality and nosocomial infections rate, including nosocomial pneumonia.OBJETIVO: Comparación de indicadores hospitalarios de rutina (consultas de urgencia, admisiones hospitalarias etc. durante la pandemia de influenzaAH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia para enfermedades respiratorias de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El brote se consideró de abril a la mitad de mayo de 2009 y se comparó con dos periodos control: el de 2009 (antes y después del brote, y durante abril y mayo de 2007 y 2008. RESULTADOS: Durante el brote las consultas de urgencia crecieron seis veces comparadas con el periodo control 2007-2008 y 11 veces contra el periodo control de 2009. Las consultas por neumonía o influenza incrementaron 23.2 y 15.3% comparadas contra los periodos control, respectivamente. La tasa de infección nosocomial durante el brote fue de 13.6 y la de neumonía nosocomial de 6.0 por 100 egresos hospitalarios, el doble y el triple de la documentada en los

  11. Caracterización epidemiológica de las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA) en el periodo 2008-2012 en la ciudad de Bogotá D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    García Vesga, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Se describen 680 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos que afectaron a 12,171 personas en la ciudad de Bogotá DC, Colombia, en el período 2008- 2012. Se identifica la caracterización epidemiológica de los brotes año por año y en el periodo en las variables de tiempo, persona y lugar que incluyen la edad, sexo, localidad de procedencia y de notificación, los alimentos involucrados, los sitios de ocurrencia, los factores de riesgo involucrados y los agentes patógenos identificados. ...

  12. Inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz Et Pavon, Oken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available La atractiva apariencia de la madera de Cordia alliodora (laurel, sus características físico-mecánicas, su abundante regeneración natural, captura de carbono y protección al suelo, la hacen ideal para la reforestación. No obstante, la falta de material de siembra de buena calidad para suplir la demanda media anual, convierten la propagación vegetativa en una herramienta esencial para el mejoramiento genético, y la conservación de genotipos en bancos clonales. En este sentido, se propuso establecer una metodología para la inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de árboles de laurel utilizando reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Las concentraciones de citoquininas empleadas para la inducción de brotes a partir de árboles adultos fueron de: 0, 3000, 6000, 9000 mg L-1 de BAP sola y combinadas con 1000, 2000, 3000 mg L-1 de AIA, y se determinaron utilizando un Diseño Completo Aleatorizado (DCA. Las concentraciones de auxinas para el enraizamiento de los brotes fueron de 0, 1000, y 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA y AIB, mediante un DCA con arreglo factorial 3 x 3 (hormona ANA x hormona AIB. Se evaluó la inducción de brotes epicórmicos y se obtuvieron 2.67 brotes de 16.42 cm de longitud, con 6000 mg kg-1 de BAP + 2000 mg kg-1 de AIA. El porcentaje de enraizamiento fue 54%, número de raíces 1.78, longitud 2.59 con 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA + 1500 mg kg-1 de AIB. El uso de citoquininas y auxinas fue efectivo para provocar la diferenciación celular tanto en la inducción y rizogénesis de brotes epicórmicos de laurel.

  13. Inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz Et Pavon, Oken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carranza Patiño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La atractiva apariencia de la madera de Cordia alliodora (laurel, sus características físico-mecánicas, su abundante regeneración natural, captura de carbono y protección al suelo, la hacen ideal para la reforestación. No obstante, la falta de material de siembra de buena calidad para suplir la demanda media anual, convierten la propagación vegetativa en una herramienta esencial para el mejoramiento genético, y la conservación de genotipos en bancos clonales. En este sentido, se propuso establecer una metodología para la inducción y enraizamiento de brotes epicórmicos de árboles de laurel utilizando reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Las concentraciones de citoquininas empleadas para la inducción de brotes a partir de árboles adultos fueron de: 0, 3000, 6000, 9000 mg L-1 de BAP sola y combinadas con 1000, 2000, 3000 mg L-1 de AIA, y se determinaron utilizando un Diseño Completo Aleatorizado. Las concentraciones de auxinas para el enraizamiento de los brotes fueron de 0, 1000, y 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA y AIB, mediante un DCA con arreglo factorial 3 x 3 (hormona ANA x hormona AIB. Se evaluó la inducción de brotes epicórmicos y se obtuvieron 2.67 brotes de 16.42 cm de longitud, con 6000 mg kg-1 de BAP + 2000 mg kg-1 de AIA. El porcentaje de enraizamiento fue 54%, número de raíces 1.78, longitud 2.59 con 1500 mg kg-1 de ANA + 1500 mg kg-1 de AIB. El uso de citoquininas y auxinas fue efectivo para provocar la diferenciación celular tanto en la inducción y rizogénesis de brotes epicórmicos de laurel.

  14. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Soizick

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contam...

  15. Detection and Quantification of Noroviruses in Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Schaeffer, Julien; Bosch, Albert; Loisy, Fabienne; Pommepuy, Monique; Atmar, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans, and high concentrations of NoVs are discharged into the environment. As these viruses are very resistant to inactivation, the sanitary consequences are contamination of food, including molluscan shellfish. There are four major problems with NoV detection in shellfish samples: low levels of virus contamination, the difficulty of efficient virus extraction, the presence of interfering substances that inhibit...

  16. Guillain–Barre syndrome associated with Norovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Eltayeb, Khalid Gailani; Crowley, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a case of Guillain–Barre syndrome after the diarrhoeal infection due to Norovirus. Many infections have been described most notably Campylobacter jejuni. To our knowledge a connection to Norovirus has not been described in the world literature. The authors speculate on why this may be so.

  17. Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, J.C.; Teunis, P.; Morroy, G.; Wijkmans, C.J.; Oostveen, S.; Duizer, E.; Kretzschmar, M.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We

  18. Six Tips to Help Prevent the Spread of Norovirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-27

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses six tips to help prevent the spread of norovirus.  Created: 8/27/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 8/27/2013.

  19. Norovirus Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    If you’re suffering from vomiting and diarrhea, you might be among the millions of Americans who get sick from norovirus each year. In this podcast, Dr. Aron Hall discusses ways to prevent norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  20. Norovirus Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    Nearly one in 15 people in the U.S. gets sick from norovirus each year and up to 800 die. This podcast discusses the importance of hand washing, and other ways to prevent the spread of noroviruses.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  1. Recurring norovirus transmission on an airplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Craig N; Emslie, Nicola A; Sprott, Tim W; Greening, Gail E; Rapana, Jackie P

    2011-09-01

    Previously reported outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with aircraft have been limited to transmission during a single flight sector. During October 2009, an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting occurred among different groups of flight attendants who had worked on separate flight sectors on the same airplane. We investigated the cause of the outbreak and whether the illnesses were attributable to work on the airplane. Information was obtained from flight attendants on demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible transmission risk factors. Case patients were defined as flight attendants with diarrhea or vomiting airplane during 13-18 October 2009. Stool samples were tested for norovirus RNA. A passenger had vomited on the Boeing 777-200 airplane on the 13 October flight sector. Sixty-three (82%) of 77 flight attendants who worked on the airplane during 13-18 October provided information, and 27 (43%) met the case definition. The attack rate among flight attendants decreased significantly over successive flight sectors from 13 October onward (P airplane during successive flight sectors. Airlines should make provision for adequate disinfection of airplanes with use of products effective against norovirus and other common infectious agents after vomiting has occurred.

  2. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Eunüs S.; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and...

  3. Identification of the novel Kawasaki 2014 GII.17 human norovirus strain in Italy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Calderaro, Adriana; Chironna, Maria; Giammanco, Giovanni Maurizio; De Grazia, Simona; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Chezzi, Carlo; Martella, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of noroviruses in Italy identified the novel GII.17 human norovirus strain, Kawasaki 2014, in February 2015. This novel strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis in Asia during 2014/15, replacing the pandemic GII.4 norovirus strain Sydney 2012, but being reported only sporadically elsewhere. This novel strain is undergoing fast diversification and continuous monitoring is important to understand the evolution of noroviruses and to implement the future strategies on norovirus vaccines.

  4. Estudio de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a brotes comunitarios de legionelosis Study of refrigeration towers associated with community outbreaks of legionellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Pérez Lleonart

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a un brote comunitario de legionelosis según sus características de mantenimiento y la calidad del agua. Método: Comparar los datos recogidos entre los 4 tipos de torres de refrigeración: control 1, control 2, probable y confirmada. Se han estudiado un total de 184 torres de refrigeración asociadas a 17 brotes comunitarios de legionelosis de la provincia de Barcelona durante el año 2004, de las cuales 112 son control 1, 54 control 2, 8 probables y 10 confirmadas. Resultados: Las torres confirmadas se caracterizan por: niveles elevados de conductividad, aerobios totales, dureza cálcica, sólidos totales en disolución, temperatura y turbidez; concentraciones de cloro deficientes (Objetive: To evaluate the factors of risk of the risk cooling towers associated to a community outbreak of legionellosis according to its characteristics of maintenance and the quality of the water with the purpose of improving the systems of prevention of this one disease. Method: To compare the piece of information gathered between the 4 types of cooling towers: control 1, control 2, probable and confirmed. A total of 184 cooling towers have been studied associated to 17 community outbreak of legionellosis of the province of Barcelona (Spain during the year 2004, of which 112 are control 1, 54 control 2, 8 probable and 10 confirmed. Results: The confirmed towers are characterized by: high levels of conductivity, total aerobes, calcic hardness, total solids in dissolution, temperature and turbidity; low levels of chlorine (< 2 ppm; of use hypochlorite as disinfectant in a 10%; greater degree of breach of the revision program and cleaning of the internal elements of the tower (tray, stuffed and separating of drops; degree of performance of the periodic disinfections and the cleaning of deposits of the 100%. A 47% of the investigated towers do not use the previous treatments of the

  5. Development of rhabdomyolysis in a child after norovirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Tomohiro; Yonetani, Ryoko; Ito, Eisuke; Yoneta, Makiko; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tokiko; Sugimoto, Tohru

    2016-11-04

    In children, the most significant cause of rhabdomyolysis or muscle breakdown is viral infection. However, there are no reports that norovirus, a gastroenteric virus that commonly infects children, specifically causes rhabdomyolysis. Here, we report the first pediatric case of norovirus-associated rhabdomyolysis. The patient, a 2-year-old boy with fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, was referred to our hospital with dysstasia and transaminitis. He was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis. Additionally, norovirus genogroup GII was detected from stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, and thereafter, the norovirus GII.4 variant was identified. However, the association between rhabdomyolysis and the isolated norovirus variant was not clarified. After treatment the patient recovered without renal failure or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Rhabdomyolysis is a disease for which there is a need for early detection and treatment. If abnormal posture or muscle weakness is observed during the course of gastroenteritis, blood and urinary tests should be performed to rule out rhabdomyolysis.

  6. A decade of norovirus genetic diversity in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollants, Elke; De Coster, Sarah; Van Ranst, Marc; Maes, Piet

    2015-03-01

    Outbreaks of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis occur during all seasons and in various locations, and are recognized as one of the most common causes of nonbacterial food-borne infections. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections has not been well characterized in Belgium. To study the incidence of norovirus infections and the nature of the circulating genotypes, 3080 specimens were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis between 2004 and 2014. Norovirus was detected with RT-PCR in 554 samples (18%). The circulating strains were genotyped based on the variability in the 5' end of the capsid gene (region C). The GII.4 genotype, which is detected predominantly worldwide, was also the most prevalent genotype in our study (87%). This study shows a high frequency and genetic diversity of norovirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis in health care facilities in Flanders, Belgium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multicenter Evaluation of the Xpert Norovirus Assay for Detection of Norovirus Genogroups I and II in Fecal Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mark D.; Langley, L. Claire; Faron, Matthew L.; Maier, Melanie; Templeton, Kate; Walker, Kimberly; Popowitch, Elena B.; Miller, Melissa B.; Rao, Arundhati; Liebert, Uwe G.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and outbreaks worldwide. The rapid identification of norovirus has important implications for infection prevention measures and may reduce the need for additional diagnostic testing. The Xpert Norovirus assay recently received FDA clearance for the detection and differentiation of norovirus genogroups I and II (GI and GII), which account for the vast majority of infections. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Xpert Norovirus assay with both fresh, prospectively collected (n = 914) and frozen, archived (n = 489) fecal specimens. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) composite reference method was used as the gold standard for comparison. For both prospective and frozen specimens, the Xpert Norovirus assay showed positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values of 98.3% and 98.1% for GI and of 99.4% and 98.2% for GII, respectively. Norovirus prevalence in the prospective specimens (collected from March to May of 2014) was 9.9% (n = 90), with the majority of positives caused by genogroup II (82%, n = 74). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the Xpert Norovirus assay was 75% for GI-positive specimens, whereas it was 86.5% for GII-positive specimens. The negative predictive values (NPV) for GI and GII were 100% and 99.9%, respectively. PMID:26560532

  8. Caracterización molecular de un brote de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos en un hospital de alto nivel de complejidad de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Conclusión. Mediante el empleo de técnicas de tipificación molecular fue posible confirmar un brote ocasionado por K. pneumoniae ST258 portador del blaKPC-3 con un perfil de multirresistencia, el cual había sido asociado a uno anterior ocurrido en otro hospital de Medellín. El ST258 es un clon de alto riesgo presente a nivel mundial, lo que debe alertar sobre la posible diseminación de resistencia en el país. El empleo de herramientas moleculares en la vigilancia epidemiológica, es útil para evaluar la diseminación de microorganismos de interés en salud pública.

  9. Identification of immune and viral correlates of norovirus protective immunity through comparative study of intra-cluster norovirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhu

    Full Text Available Whether or not primary norovirus infections induce protective immunity has become a controversial issue, potentially confounded by the comparison of data from genetically distinct norovirus strains. Early human volunteer studies performed with a norovirus-positive inoculum initially led to the conclusion that primary infection does not generate long-term, protective immunity. More recently though, the epidemiological pattern of norovirus pandemics has led to the extrapolation that primary norovirus infection induces herd immunity. While these are seemingly discordant observations, they may in fact reflect virus strain-, cluster-, or genogroup-specific differences in protective immunity induction. Here, we report that highly genetically related intra-cluster murine norovirus strains differ dramatically in their ability to induce a protective immune response: Primary MNV-3 infection induced robust and cross-reactive protection, whereas primary MNV-1 infection induced modest homotypic and no heterotypic protection. In addition to this fundamental observation that intra-cluster norovirus strains display remarkable differences in protective immunity induction, we report three additional important observations relevant to norovirus:host interactions. First, antibody and CD4⁺ T cells are essential to controlling secondary norovirus infections. Second, the viral minor structural protein VP2 regulates the maturation of antigen presenting cells and protective immunity induction in a virus strain-specific manner, pointing to a mechanism by which MNV-1 may prevent the stimulation of memory immune responses. Third, VF1-mediated regulation of cytokine induction also correlates with protective immunity induction. Thus, two highly genetically-related norovirus strains displayed striking differences in induction of protective immune responses, strongly suggesting that the interpretation of norovirus immunity and vaccine studies must consider potential virus

  10. Outbreak of norovirus illness in a college summer camp: impact of cleaning on occurrence of norovirus on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankem, Sonia L M; Boone, Stephanie A; Gaither, Marlene; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-04-01

    During the summer of 2005 an outbreak of norovirus acute gastroenteritis occurred in a residential college summer camp and was reported to the local health department. The outbreak spread rapidly to several other groups concurrently sharing the same facilities. During the investigation, fomites were sampled at different times in dorm rooms and tested for norovirus. The number of norovirus-positive rooms increased after the first room cleaning, from 40% to 73%. After the initial cleaning, the staff was instructed on proper cleaning and disinfection procedures and provided with disposable disinfecting wipes to reduce cross contamination, and the number of norovirus-positive rooms decreased to 30%. These findings reinforce the need for appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures during a norovirus outbreak.

  11. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eunüs S; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and subsequently performed in silico and in vitro drug screens have identified compounds that block norovirus binding and may thereby serve as structural templates for design of therapeutic norovirus inhibitors. This review explores norovirus therapeutic options based on the strategy of blocking norovirus-HBGA binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying Potential Norovirus Epidemics in China via Internet Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Huang, Sichao; Miao, Zi-Ping; Chen, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Wang, Zhengting; Gu, Hua; Chai, Chengliang; Jiang, Jianmin

    2017-08-08

    Norovirus is a common virus that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but a monitoring system for norovirus is unavailable in China. We aimed to identify norovirus epidemics through Internet surveillance and construct an appropriate model to predict potential norovirus infections. The norovirus-related data of a selected outbreak in Jiaxing Municipality, Zhejiang Province of China, in 2014 were collected from immediate epidemiological investigation, and the Internet search volume, as indicated by the Baidu Index, was acquired from the Baidu search engine. All correlated search keywords in relation to norovirus were captured, screened, and composited to establish the composite Baidu Index at different time lags by Spearman rank correlation. The optimal model was chosen and possibly predicted maps in Zhejiang Province were presented by ArcGIS software. The combination of two vital keywords at a time lag of 1 day was ultimately identified as optimal (ρ=.924, Pnorovirus infections by 2.15 times during the outbreak. In addition to Jiaxing Municipality, Hangzhou Municipality might have had some potential epidemics in the study time from the predicted model. Although there are limitations with early warning and unavoidable biases, Internet surveillance may be still useful for the monitoring of norovirus epidemics when a monitoring system is unavailable.

  13. Human norovirus inhibition by a human milk oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna; Tripathi, Shailesh; Morozov, Vasily; Schroten, Horst; Hansman, Grant S

    2017-08-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Norovirus interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be important for an infection. In this study, we identified the HBGA binding pocket for an emerging GII genotype 17 (GII.17) variant using X-ray crystallography. The GII.17 variant bound the HBGA with an equivalent set of residues as the leading pandemic GII.4 variants. These structural data highlights the conserved nature of HBGA binding site between prevalent GII noroviruses. Noroviruses also interact with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which mimic HBGAs and may function as receptor decoys. We previously showed that HMOs inhibited the binding of rarely detected GII.10 norovirus to HBGAs. We now found that an HMO, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), additionally blocked both the GI.1 and GII.17 noroviruses from binding to HBGAs. Together, these findings provide evidence that 2'FL might function as a broadly reactive antiviral against multiple norovirus genogroups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Intoxicación por atropina en estudiantes del colegio de Capiro-Piñas

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    Janette Esther Eras Carranza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La atropina es un producto que inicialmente estimula el Sistema Nervioso Central y luego lo deprime. Presenta efecto antiespasmódico sobre músculo liso reduciendo las secreciones salivales y bronquiales, así como reduce la transpiración, incrementa la frecuencia cardiaca y la visión se torna en borrosa. Objetivo: Identificar la magnitud del brote de intoxicación por atropina acorde a la curva epidémica, la fuente de intoxicación y el tipo de transmisión. Descripción de los casos: El 2 de septiembre del año 2008 se notificaron cuatro casos de adolescentes hospitalizadas entre 12 a 18 años de edad, todas de sexo femenino con sintomatología dada por mareos, cefalea y pérdida de conocimiento, el diagnóstico planteado fue intoxicación por atropina. La magnitud del brote fue focalizado al grupo de adolescentes del sexo femenino con tasa de ataque de 21.3%, el grupo de edad fue de 15 a 19 años. La duración del brote fue de cuatro días de, la fuente de intoxicación fue común a partir del sitio donde tentativamente estuvo dispersa la escopolamina, el aula del colegio. Conclusiones: Se trató de un brote que afectó a adolescentes del sexo femenino, tuvo una corta duración y una fuente común de origen químico. Por medio del laboratorio se confirmó la presencia de escopolamina en las muestras de sangre y no hubo trasmisión en estos casos.

  15. Enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en el penal San Jorge, Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Arias B., Isabel

    2004-01-01

    El 27 de abril a las 8 de la noche, se informa al Instituto Nacional de Salud la ocurrencia de un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el penal de reos primarios de San Jorge. Inmediatamente, se organiza una intervención conjunta con la Oficina General de Epidemiología y la Dirección General de Salud de las Personas.

  16. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, detection in foods relies on molecular techniques such as Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on extracted viral RNA followed by PCR product confirmation by hybridisation and/or sequencing. However, in order to obtain...... with I 0-fold dilutions of human faecal samples containing norovirus genogroup II. The samples were tested on three different occasions using four different sample treatment protocols. The protocols were assessed with regard to their ability to recover viral RNA and detect norovirus in spiked oysters...

  17. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  18. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-02

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. © 2013.

  19. Response of first attack of inflammatory bowel disease requiring hospital admission to steroid therapy Respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo del primer brote de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal que requiere ingreso hospitalario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu-Suboh Abadía

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: corticoid administration is the usual treatment of Crohn' disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC attacks. How-ever, information available on response rates and their predictive factors is scarce. Objective: to establish response to steroidal treatment in an homogeneous group of patients with CD or UC during their first admission to hospital. Methods: restrospective analysis of 86 patients who received systemic steroidal treatment for a severe flare-up during their first hospital admission between 1995 and 2000. Patients were treated per protocol with fluid therapy, absolute diet, IV 6-methyl-prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, and enoxaparin at prophylactic doses. Clinical response at 30 days was considered good in case of complete remission, and poor in case of partial or absent remission. Univariate and multivariate analyses according to non-parametric statistics were performed for sociodemographic and biologic variables. Results: 45 patients with CD and 41 with UC were included. Good response rates were 64.4% for CD and 60.9% for UC. The univariate analysis showed that patients with good response have shorter evolution times and fewer previous flare-ups (p Introducción: la administración de corticoides constituye el tratamiento habitual de los brotes de enfermedad de Crohn (EC y colitis ulcerosa (CU. Sin embargo, existe poca información sobre las tasas de respuesta y los factores que puedan predecirla. Objetivo: determinar la respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo en un grupo homogéneo de pacientes de EC y CU que ingresan por primera vez en el hospital. Métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 86 pacientes que en su primer ingreso hospitalario recibieron tratamiento esteroideo sistémico por brote grave de EC o CU entre 1995 y 2000. Fueron tratados de forma protocolizada con sueroterapia, dieta absoluta, 6-metil-prednisolona 1 mg/kg/día IV y enoxaparina a dosis profilácticas. Se ha considerado la respuesta clínica a los 30 días como

  20. Escabiosis: a propósito de un brote Escabiosis: a clinical outbrake

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    Ismael Silvino Diana Domínguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Comentaremos a continuación un brote de escabiosis sucedido en dos centros de trabajo que pertenecen a una empresa pública y en donde coexisten trabajadores de tres empresas distintas. Pretendemos expresar la importancia de la aplicación de los protocolos existentes y su revisión para aquellas enfermedades poco frecuentes y con posibilidad de convertirse en epidemias, así como la importancia de la coordinación empresarial en aquellos centros de trabajo donde realizan su función dos o más empresas.We discuss below a scabies outbreak happened in two workplaces belonging to a public company and where coexist workers from three different companies. We intend to express the importance of the implementation of existing protocols and review for those with rare diseases and epidemics become possible, and the importance of business coordination in all cases of prevention and treatment in those workplaces where do function two or more companies.

  1. Herramientas para afrontar las situaciones de crisis en un brote de gastroenteritis aguda en un colegio público Practical lessons from the risk management of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Morillo-García

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo describimos las reflexiones y conclusiones extraídas del análisis de un brote de gastroenteritis en un centro escolar, que ocasionó una crisis de salud pública. El análisis realizado tuvo como base la metodología de las matrices de "debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades" (DAFO. Se describe la epidemiología de los sucesos y decisiones tomadas, basadas en aspectos operativos durante una situación de crisis. Incluye la experiencia del equipo responsable del brote, las relaciones con otras entidades y la gestión de la información. Las dificultades encontradas por el equipo coordinador consistieron en el retraso de la declaración, la falta de formación de algunas entidades implicadas y el mal uso de los circuitos establecidos. Es necesario un entrenamiento específico en los actuales protocolos de manejo de crisis y fomentar la mejora continua de los circuitos de coordinación mediante la autoevaluación y actualización de conocimientos y recursos.We present our reflections on the management of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak in a public school, which caused a public health crisis, and the conclusions drawn from this experience. The methodology of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis was used. This article describes the epidemiology of the incident and the policy decisions made, but focuses on operational aspects of outbreak management. The experience of the outbreak control team, liaison with other organizations, and data management are discussed. The difficulties encountered by the outbreak team related to delay in declaring in the outbreak, lack of training in some of the entities involved, and incorrect use of the surveillance circuits. Current protocols and specific action plans for the management of outbreaks should be improved through self-evaluation and updating of resources and knowledge.

  2. Brote de encefalitis de San Luis en el Área Metropolitana Buenos Aires Outbreack of St. Luis encephalitis in the Metropolitan Buenos Aires Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hallazgos epidemiológicos y clínicos de 13 enfermos con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, con transmisión entre enero y marzo de 2010, en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires (AMBA. Los 13 enfermos, promedio de edad 38 años, tuvieron un comienzo agudo caracterizado por hipertermia y cefalea. Entre los días dos y diez de iniciados los síntomas, 7/13 enfermos tuvieron signos y síntomas de compromiso neurológico caracterizado por meningitis sin signos encefálicos en 1/7. En 6/7 los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron: rigidez de nuca, desorientación temporoespacial, fotofobia, confusión y alteración del lenguaje. Dos resonancias magnéticas y un electroencefalograma presentaron signos de afectación de lóbulos temporales. El líquido cefalorraquídeo se caracterizó por pleocitosis con predominio de células mononucleadas, glucorraquia normal y discreto aumento de proteínas. No hubo casos fatales. En 6/13 pacientes la sospecha clínica inicial fue dengue. Por la agrupación espacial y temporal de los casos puede considerarse un brote epidémico, el primero conocido en el AMBA, ya que no se había notificado previamente la circulación epidémica del virus.We describe the epidemiological and clinical findings of 13 patients with diagnosis of infection by St. Louis encephalitis virus, transmitted between January and March 2010 in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (AMBA. Thirteen patients, average age 38 years, had an acute onset with hyperthermia and headache. Between days two and ten of the onset of symptoms, 7/13 patients had signs and symptoms of neurological involvement. This was characterized by meningitis without encephalic sings in 1/7 and in 6/7 the most frequent findings were: stiff neck, disorientation, photophobia, confusion and language impairment. Two MR and one EEG revealed signs of involvement of temporal lobes. The cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis with predominance of

  3. Innate Susceptibility to Norovirus Infections Influenced by FUT2 Genotype in a United States Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Rebecca L.; Payne, Daniel C.; Staat, Mary A.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Shirley, S. Hannah; Halasa, Natasha; Boom, Julie A.; Englund, Janet A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Klein, Eileen J.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Wikswo, Mary E.; Parashar, Umesh; Vinjé, Jan; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Noroviruses bind to gut histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), but only 70%–80% of individuals have a functional copy of the FUT2 (“secretor”) gene required for gut HBGA expression; these individuals are known as “secretors.” Susceptibility to some noroviruses depends on FUT2 secretor status, but the population impact of this association is not established. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2012, active AGE surveillance was performed at 6 geographically diverse pediatric sites in the United States. Case patients aged norovirus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Norovirus genotype was then determined by sequencing. Results. Norovirus was detected in 302 of 1465 (21%) AGE cases and 52 of 826 (6%) healthy controls. Norovirus AGE cases were 2.8-fold more likely than norovirus-negative controls to be secretors (P norovirus, GII.4. Control children of Meso-American ancestry were more likely than children of European or African ancestry to be secretors (96% vs 74%; P norovirus infection and varies by ancestry. GII.4 norovirus exclusively infected secretors. These findings are important to norovirus vaccine trials and design of agents that may block norovirus-HBGA binding. PMID:25744498

  4. Brote de mastitis clínica por Corynebacterium spp. y Streptococcus dysgalactiae en cabras en Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheloud, J.F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infections are a serious problem for goat’s milk production worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the most prevalent pathogens responsible for intramammary infection in small ruminants; however, there is only little information about goat mastitis in Argentina. The objective of this communication was to describe an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 12 of 24 lactating goats. Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were isolated in pure culture from all milk samples. All the clinical isolates were identified by biochemical tests and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests.

  5. Strain-dependent norovirus bioaccumulation in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Haifa; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Pendu, Jacques; Atmar, Robert L; Crawford, Sue E; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2011-05-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main agents of gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Some NoV strains bind to shellfish tissues by using carbohydrate structures similar to their human ligands, leading to the hypothesis that such ligands may influence bioaccumulation. This study compares the bioaccumulation efficiencies and tissue distributions in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) of three strains from the two principal human norovirus genogroups. Clear differences between strains were observed. The GI.1 strain was the most efficiently concentrated strain. Bioaccumulation specifically occurred in digestive tissues in a dose-dependent manner, and its efficiency paralleled ligand expression, which was highest during the cold months. In comparison, the GII.4 strain was very poorly bioaccumulated and was recovered in almost all tissues without seasonal influence. The GII.3 strain presented an intermediate behavior, without seasonal effect and with less bioaccumulation efficiency than that of the GI.1 strain during the cold months. In addition, the GII.3 strain was transiently concentrated in gills and mantle before being almost specifically accumulated in digestive tissues. Carbohydrate ligand specificities of the strains at least partly explain the strain-dependent bioaccumulation characteristics. In particular, binding to the digestive-tube-specific ligand should contribute to bioaccumulation, whereas we hypothesize that binding to the sialic acid-containing ligand present in all tissues would contribute to retain virus particles in the gills or mantle and lead to rapid destruction.

  6. Norovirus immunology: Of mice and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kira L; Leon, Juan S

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis in the United States and Europe and are responsible for 20% of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Over the past decade, the understanding of NoV immunology has grown immensely. Studies of the natural immune response to NoV in humans and animal models have laid the foundation for innovations in cell culture systems for NoV and development of new therapeutics. Evidence from animal models, NoV surrogates, observational human research, and human challenge studies suggest that the innate immune response is critical for limiting NoV infection but is insufficient for viral clearance. NoV may antagonize the innate immune response to establish or prolong infection. However, once a robust adaptive immune response is initiated, the immune system clears the infection through the action of T cells and B cells, simultaneously generating highly specific protective immunologic memory. We review here both the current knowledge on norovirus immunity and exciting new developments, with a focus on ongoing vaccine development work, novel cell culture systems, and advances in understanding the role of the gut microbiome. These changes reinforce the need for a better understanding of the human immune response to NoV and suggest novel hypotheses. PMID:26256101

  7. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences v...... and that maintaining diversity is important for the establishment of infection. This work supports the hypothesis that the reduced polymerase fidelity of the pandemic GII.4 human norovirus isolates may contribute to their global dominance.......Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences...... viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...

  8. Tropical and travel-associated norovirus: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Saito, Mayuko; Mirelman, Andrew J.; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review We highlight recent advances relevant to understanding norovirus infections in the tropics, both in populations living in developing settings and travelers to these regions. Recent findings Because of the decrease in diarrheal disease associated with the global rollout of vaccines against rotavirus, norovirus is emerging as the predominant cause of diarrhea morbidity among children in the tropics, and evidence suggests that it contributes to adult disease in endemic populations and travelers. In addition to identifying potential target populations for preventive measures, we provide an update on norovirus vaccine development and concepts related to their implementation in low-income and middle-income countries. Summary These current concepts related to norovirus-attributable disease burden, clinical significance, and economic impact can potentially be applied to tailoring efforts to prevent and mitigate the effects of this important enteropathogen. PMID:26237546

  9. Descripción de los tres primeros brotes de gripe A (H1N1 2009 notificados en prisiones de España Description of the first three notified outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1 2009 in Spanish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gómez-Pintado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: describir los tres primeros brotes de gripe A (H1N1 2009 notificados entre julio y septiembre de 2009 en las prisiones españolas. Metodología: Se definió brote como la aparición de tres o más casos con síntomas gripales y con vínculo epidemiológico en el mismo módulo de una prisión. Los brotes son notificados mediante cuestionario específico. El análisis realizado por las variables sexo, edad, fecha de notificación, duración de los brotes, factores de riesgo y características clínicas se presenta en forma de números absolutos, porcentajes y tasas de ataque y el estudio de la difusión de la enfermedad a través de las curvas epidémicas. Resultados: Se notifican tres brotes desde las prisiones de Alcalá-Meco con 85 varones afectados, Pamplona (18 varones afectados y Jaén (12 mujeres afectadas con una tasa de ataque global que varía entre el 7,1% y el 17,9%. La duración de los brotes varía entre 8 y 35 días, y la mediana de duración de la enfermedad es de 3 días. Sólo ingresaron 4 internos que fueron dados de alta por mejoría. Los hombres son mas jóvenes (pAim: This study describes three reported outbreaks of influenza H1N1 2009 in Spanish prisons between july and september 2009. Methods: An outbreak was defined as the appearance of three or more cases with influenza symptoms and with an epidemiological link in the same module of a prison. The outbreaks were reported using a specific questionnaire. The analysis, which used variables of gender, age, date of notification, duration of outbreak, risk factors and clinical features are presented as absolute numbers, percentages and attack rates, while study of the diffusion of the illness is expressed as epidemic curves. Results: Three outbreaks were reported at the prisons of Alcala-Meco (85 affected males, Pamplona (18 affected males and Jaen (12 affected females with an overall attack rate that ranged from 7.1% to 17.9%. Duration of the outbreaks was between 8

  10. Prospects and Challenges in the Development of a Norovirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W; Ramani, Sasirekha; Estes, Mary K; Atmar, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of acute epidemic gastroenteritis among children under the age of 5 years and adults in the United States and in adults worldwide, accounting for an estimated 20% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. No effective vaccine is presently available. This article provides an overview of the current state of norovirus vaccine development, emphasizing barriers and challenges in the development of an effective vaccine, correlates of protection used to assess vaccine efficacy, and the results of clinical trials of the major candidate vaccines. We performed an unstructured literature review of published articles listed in PubMed in the field of norovirus vaccine development, with an emphasis on studies in humans. Two candidate vaccines have reached clinical trials, and a number of other candidates are in the preclinical stages of development. Multivalent vaccination may be effective in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies protective against challenge with novel and heterologous norovirus strains. Most identified correlates of protection have not been validated in large-scale challenge studies, nor have the degrees to which these correlates covary been assessed. Immune correlates of protection against norovirus infection need to be further developed to facilitate additional studies of the tolerability and efficacy of candidate norovirus vaccines in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of the Hospital Environment in Norovirus Containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Martina; Ready, Derren

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus is an important cause of gastroenteritis in healthcare settings; these infections occur frequently, are highly contagious, and can be difficult to control. Norovirus outbreaks were investigated during a 3-month enhanced surveillance period from 1 February to 30 April 2015 in 6 London, United Kingdom, hospitals (coded A-E). During this surveillance period, 1379 stool samples were tested for the presence of norovirus. Of these, 129 (9.4%) demonstrated the presence of norovirus RNA. Two of these hospitals (A and D) reported 0 outbreaks, 2 (hospitals C and F) reported 1 outbreak, 1 hospital (B) reported 2 outbreaks, and hospital E reported 16 norovirus outbreaks during this period. The hospital with a newer infrastructure (B), which reported 2 norovirus outbreaks, demonstrated that 7 bed-days had been lost over the 3-month period, compared with 512 bed-days lost by the hospital with an older, Nightingale-style infrastructure (E). Control measures included isolation, hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and rapid diagnostic testing. Our data suggest that outbreak control is more difficult to achieve in a hospital with Nightingale-style wards and limited isolation facilities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Environmental indicators of oyster norovirus outbreaks in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkhali Chenar, Shima; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based approach to identifying environmental indicators of oyster norovirus outbreaks in coastal waters. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks are generally linked to the extreme combination of antecedent environmental conditions characterized by low water temperature, low solar radiation, low gage height, low salinity, strong wind, and heavy precipitation. Among the six environmental indicators, the most important three indicators, including water temperature, solar radiation and gage height, are capable of explaining 77.7% of model-predicted oyster norovirus outbreaks while the extremely low temperature alone may explain 37.2% of oyster norovirus outbreaks. It is, therefore, recommended that water temperature in oyster harvesting areas be monitored in the cold season and particularly the extremely low temperature during a low gage height be used as the primary indicator of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The findings are of profound significance to reducing the public health risk of norovirus outbreaks associated with consumption of oysters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic characterization of norovirus strains in hospitalized children from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Amna; Qureshi, Sohail A; Vinjé, Jan; Zaidi, Anita

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus is one of the most common causes of acute gastroenteritis among children in developing countries. No data on the prevalence and genetic variability of norovirus are available for Pakistan, where early childhood mortality due to acute gastroenteritis is common. We tested 255 fecal specimens from children under 5 years of age hospitalized between April 2006 and March 2008 with severe acute gastroenteritis in five hospitals in the four largest cities in Pakistan for norovirus by real-time RT-PCR. Positive samples were further genotyped by conventional RT-PCR targeting the 5'-end of the capsid gene followed by sequencing of the positive PCR products. Overall, 41 (16.1%) samples tested positive for norovirus with an equal frequency in rotavirus-positive and rotavirus-negative samples. Nine (22%) samples were genogroup (G)I positive, 30 (73%) GII positive and two (5%) samples contained a mixture of GI and GII viruses. Sequence analyses demonstrated co-circulation of 14 norovirus genotypes including four GI genotypes (GI.3, GI.5, GI.7, GI.8) and 10 GII genotypes (GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.7, GII.9, GII.13, GII.16, and GII.21). The most prevalent genotypes were GI.7 and GII.4 both causing 12.2% of the infections. This report confirms the presence of multiple norovirus genotypes in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Pakistan and a lack of clear predominance of GII.4 viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anti-Norovirus Therapeutics: A Patent Review (2010–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C.; Weerawarna, Pathum M.; Kim, Yunjeong; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Groutas, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human noroviruses are the primary causative agents of acute gastroenteritis and are a pressing public health burden worldwide. There are currently no vaccines or small molecule therapeutics available for the treatment or prophylaxis of norovirus infections. An improved understanding of norovirus biology, as well as the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the disease, has provided the impetus for a range of intense exploratory drug discovery efforts targeting viral and host factors. Areas covered An overview of norovirus inhibitors disclosed in the patent literature (2010-present) and Clinicaltrials.gov is presented. The review is further enriched and supplemented by recent literature reports. Expert opinion Seminal discoveries made in recent years, including a better understanding of the pathobiology and life cycle of norovirus, the identification and targeting of multiple viral and host factors, the advent of a replicon system and a small animal model for the preclinical evaluation of lead compounds, and the availability of high resolution X-ray crystal structures that can be utilized in structure-based drug design and lead optimization campaigns, collectively suggest that a small molecule therapeutic and prophylactic for norovirus infection is likely to emerge in the not too distant future. PMID:26881878

  15. Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melissa K; Watanabe, Makiko; Zhu, Shu; Graves, Christina L; Keyes, Lisa R; Grau, Katrina R; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B; Iovine, Nicole M; Wobus, Christiane E; Vinjé, Jan; Tibbetts, Scott A; Wallet, Shannon M; Karst, Stephanie M

    2014-11-07

    The cell tropism of human noroviruses and the development of an in vitro infection model remain elusive. Although susceptibility to individual human norovirus strains correlates with an individual's histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) profile, the biological basis of this restriction is unknown. We demonstrate that human and mouse noroviruses infected B cells in vitro and likely in vivo. Human norovirus infection of B cells required the presence of HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria. Furthermore, mouse norovirus replication was reduced in vivo when the intestinal microbiota was depleted by means of oral antibiotic administration. Thus, we have identified B cells as a cellular target of noroviruses and enteric bacteria as a stimulatory factor for norovirus infection, leading to the development of an in vitro infection model for human noroviruses. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. INFLUENCIA DEL USO DE REGULADORES DE CRECIMIENTO SOBRE BROTES VEGETATIVOS Y NÚMERO DE ESTRÓBILOS MASCULINOS EN Pinus pinea L. EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Venegas-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de reguladores de crecimiento o fitorreguladores, es una alternativa para aumentar la floración en la familia Pinaceae. En este estudio se analizaron los efectos de la aplicación de reguladores de crecimiento (fitorreguladores sobre brotes vegetativos y estróbilos masculinos de Pinus pinea L. Los productos seleccionados fueron: giberelina cuatro más siete (GA 4+7 , ácido naftalenacético (NAA y bencilaminopurina (BAP, distribuidos en siete tratamientos, incluido el control. Estos fitorreguladores se emplearon en una plantación de Pinus pinea de 16 años de edad ubicada en Toconey, comuna de Pencahue, región del Maule-Chile. Los tratamientos se aplicaron en cinco fechas, cada dos semanas (fin de agosto a inicio de noviembre. Al final de las aplicaciones se evaluaron las variables: estróbilos masculinos, número de brotes vegetativos y de nuevas brotes, y longitud de brotes apicales . Los principales resultados indicaron que la aplicación de 1.000 mg L -1 de GA 4+7 , fue el tratamiento que indujo la mayor floración masculina, presentando un 99,6 % más de estróbilos con respecto a las ramas testigo y también tuvo un efecto significativo en la longitud de los brotes apicales, aumentando más del doble la longitud respecto al testigo. En el número de brotes vegetativos, la aplicación de 500 mg L -1 BAP mostró diferencias significativas, obteniendo un incremento de 414,3 % con respecto al tratamiento control.

  17. Food-borne norovirus-outbreak at a military base, Germany, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wadl, Maria; Scherer, Kathrin; Nielsen, Stine; Diedrich, Sabine; Ellerbroek, L?ppo; Frank, Christina; Gatzer, Renate; Hoehne, Marina; Johne, Reimar; Klein, G?nter; Koch, Judith; Schulenburg, J?rg; Thielbein, Uta; Stark, Klaus; Bernard, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission through an analytical epidemiological study. During 7-9 January, 2009, 36 persons at a military base in Germany fell ill with acute gastroenteritis. Food from the military base's canteen was suspected as vehicle of infection, norovirus as the pathogen causing the ill...

  18. Brote epidémico de denguevirus 2, genotipo Jamaica, en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianella Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Confirmar la presencia de brote de dengue en la ciudad de Santa Cruz, Bolivia, así como identificar el denguevirus causal, estimar la tasa de ataque y determinar la proporción de infecciones sintomáticas. Material y métodos. En marzo de 1997 se realizó una encuesta seroepidemiológica con muestreo aleatorio en un distrito céntrico de la ciudad. Se obtuvo información sobre episodios de enfermedad aguda, antecedentes de cuadro febril reciente y muestras de sangre venosa. Se determinó la presencia de IgM antidengue con el método MAC ELISA y se procedió a la tipificación del virus con tecnología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM en 6.5% de los adultos (IC95% 3.4-9.6 y 5.1% de los niños (IC 95% 2.0-8.2. El virus circulante fue identificado como dengue serotipo 2, genotipo Jamaica. Menos de la mitad de los niños infectados tuvieron una infección sintomática, contra casi 90% de los adultos. Conclusiones. La tasa de ataque estimada es compatible con una epidemia de dengue en Santa Cruz. La introducción del serotipo 2 - Jamaica en el país aumenta el riesgo de dengue hemorrágico.

  19. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza-Avilés Alberto González; Ortiz-Zaragoza Catalina; Mota-Vázquez Ricardo; Dickinson-Bannack Ma Eloísa; Dávila-Mendoza Rocío; Fernández-Ortega Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA). Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA) y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron po...

  20. Norovirus surveillance among callers to foodborne illness complaint hotline, Minnesota, USA, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Amy A; Kaehler, Dawn; Cebelinski, Elizabeth A; Nefzger, Brian; Hall, Aron J; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. During October 2011-January 2013, we conducted surveillance for norovirus infection in Minnesota among callers to a complaint-based foodborne illness hotline who reported diarrhea or vomiting. Of 241 complainants tested, 127 (52.7%) were positive for norovirus.

  1. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van L.; Siebenga, J.; Wijngaard, van den C.; Verheij, R.; Vliet, van H.; Kretzschmar, M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Pelt, van W.; Koopmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on

  2. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, L. van; Siebenga, J.; Wijngaard, C. van den; Verheij, R.; Vliet, H. van; Kretzschmar, M.; Boshuizen, H.; Pelt, W. van; Koopmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on

  3. Risk groups for clinical complications of norovirus infections: an outbreak investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattner, F; Sohr, D; Heim, A; Gastmeier, P; Vennema, H; Koopmans, M

    2006-01-01

    Norovirus infections have been described as self-limiting diseases of short duration. An investigation of a norovirus outbreak in a university hospital provided evidence for severe clinical features in patients with several underlying diseases. Clinical outcomes of norovirus infection were defined.

  4. Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Monassa Fioretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of NoV, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. The present study assessed the circulation of NoV genotypes in different Brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 was the prevalent (78% followed by GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.16 and GII.17, demonstrating the great diversity of NoV genotypes circulating in Brazil. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of NoV and their spreading potential.

  5. Norovirus Epidemiology in Africa: A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mans

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV is recognised as a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. The prevalence and diversity of NoVs in many African countries is still unknown, although early sero-prevalence studies indicated widespread early infection. Reports on NoVs in Africa vary widely in terms of study duration, population groups and size, inclusion of asymptomatic controls, as well as genotyping information. This review provides an estimate of NoV prevalence and distribution of genotypes of NoVs in Africa. Inclusion criteria for the review were study duration of at least 6 months, population size of >50 and diagnosis by RT-PCR. As regions used for genotyping varied, or genotyping was not always performed, this was not considered as an inclusion criteria. A literature search containing the terms norovirus+Africa yielded 74 publications. Of these 19 studies from 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa met the inclusion criteria. Data from studies not meeting the inclusion criteria, based on sample size or short duration, were included as discussion points. The majority of studies published focused on children, under five years of age, hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis. The mean overall prevalence was 13.5% (range 0.8-25.5% in children with gastroenteritis and 9.7% (range 7-31% in asymptomatic controls, where tested. NoV GII.4 was the predominant genotype identified in most of the studies that presented genotyping data. Other prevalent genotypes detected included GII.3 and GII.6. In conclusion, NoV is a common pathogen in children with diarrhoea in Africa, with considerable carriage in asymptomatic children. There is however, a paucity of data on NoV infection in adults.

  6. Estudio clínico y epidemiológico de un brote de beriberi húmedo en Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 1992-1993

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    M. Martínez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación ha tenido como objetivo primordial aclarar la etiología de un cuadro clínico caracterizado por edema de las piernas, disestesias con déficit motor en miembros inferiores que, en dos casos, incluyó una cardiopatía que llevó a insuficiencia cardiaca irreversible. Este brote ocurrió entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1993; afectó selectivamente infantes de marina de la Escuela Naval Almirante Padilla en Cartagena de Indias. La metodología se centró en un estudio de casos y controles en el cual se sometió a cada grupo a un cuidadoso interrogatorio, examen clínico, medición por el laboratorio de metales pesados en sangre y orina de 24 horas y estudio de niveles de tiamina en muestras de suero; se analizaron cuatro biopsias de nervio sural y en el estudio postmortem de los fallecidos se puso especial atención a las alteraciones de miocardio. En muestras ambientales y biológicas, se analizó mercurio, plomo, arsénico y talio. Los resultados totalizan un grupo de 22 infantes de marina con un cuadro muy uniforme sobre todo por las manifestaciones de una neuropatía periférica nutricional, lo cual sumado a la cardiopatía fatal en dos pacientes, cuyo estudio tanto en microscopia de luz como electrónica, demostró cambios en todo compatibles con lo observado en beriberi, permiten que se considere que el problema de fondo reune las características del beriberi húmedo. Después de concluir que el problema tenía como fondo un origen nutricional basado, en primer lugar, en una falla de tiamina, se hicieron las recomendaciones y ajustes dietéticos indicados para estos casos con una respuesta inmediata y enteramente satisfactoria.

  7. Norovirus Infection and Disease in an Ecuadorian Birth Cohort: Association of Certain Norovirus Genotypes With Host FUT2 Secretor Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Ben A.; Trivedi, Tarak; Vicuña, Yosselin; Costantini, Veronica; Collins, Nikail; Gregoricus, Nicole; Parashar, Umesh; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha E.; Vinjé, Jan; Cooper, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although norovirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis, there are few data on the community incidence of infection/disease or the patterns of acquired immunity or innate resistance to norovirus. Methods. We followed a community-based birth cohort of 194 children in Ecuador with the aim to estimate (1) the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis from birth to age 3 years, (2) the protective effect of norovirus infection against subsequent infection/disease, and (3) the association of infection and disease with FUT2 secretor status. Results. Over the 3-year period, we detected a mean of 2.26 diarrheal episodes per child (range, 0–12 episodes). Norovirus was detected in 260 samples (18%) but was not found more frequently in diarrheal samples (79 of 438 [18%]), compared with diarrhea-free samples (181 of 1016 [18%]; P = .919). A total of 66% of children had at least 1 norovirus infection during the first 3 years of life, and 40% of children had 2 infections. Previous norovirus infections were not associated with the risk of subsequent infection. All genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) infections were among secretor-positive children (P < .001), but higher rates of non-GII.4 infections were found in secretor-negative children (relative risk, 0.56; P = .029). Conclusions. GII.4 infections were uniquely detected in secretor-positive children, while non-GII.4 infections were more often found in secretor-negative children. PMID:25505295

  8. Norovirus and Medically Attended Gastroenteritis in U.S. Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C.; Vinjé, Jan; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary Allen; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Hall, Caroline B.; Chappell, James; Bernstein, David I.; Curns, Aaron T.; Wikswo, Mary; Shirley, S. Hannah; Hall, Aron J.; Lopman, Benjamin; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed. METHODS We conducted active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus among children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in hospitals, emergency departments, and outpatient clinical settings. The children resided in one of three U.S. counties during the years 2009 and 2010. Fecal specimens were tested for norovirus and rotavirus. We calculated population-based rates of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis and reviewed billing records to determine medical costs; these data were extrapolated to the U.S. population of children younger than 5 years of age. RESULTS Norovirus was detected in 21% of young children (278 of 1295) seeking medical attention for acute gastroenteritis in 2009 and 2010, with norovirus detected in 22% (165 of 742) in 2009 and 20% (113 of 553) in 2010 (P = 0.43). The virus was also detected in 4% of healthy controls (19 of 493) in 2009. Rotavirus was identified in 12% of children with acute gastroenteritis (152 of 1295) in 2009 and 2010. The respective rates of hospitalization, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits for the norovirus were 8.6, 146.7, and 367.7 per 10,000 children younger than 5 years of age in 2009 and 5.8, 134.3, and 260.1 per 10,000 in 2010, with an estimated cost per episode of $3,918, $435, and $151, respectively, in 2009. Nationally, we estimate that the average numbers of annual hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits due to norovirus infection in 2009 and 2010 among U.S. children in this age group exceeded 14,000, 281,000, and 627,000, respectively, with more than $273 million in treatment costs each year. CONCLUSIONS Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, norovirus has become the leading cause of medically attended acute

  9. Norovirus: a growing cause of gastroenteritis in catalonia (Spain)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, A; Torner, N; Broner, S; Bartolomé, R; Guix, S; de Simón, M; Godoy, P; Moreno, A; Company, M; Balanyà, P J; Sala, M R; Torra, R; Ferrús, G; Parrón, I; Barrabeig, I; Domínguez, A

    2013-10-01

    Infectious acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major health problem worldwide. Salmonella is a leading cause of AGE outbreaks, but viruses may be responsible for up to 80% of cases. We compared the frequency and characteristics of AGE out breaks in Catalonia due to norovirus and Salmonella and the changes in these outbreaks from 2000 through 2010. In 2006 through 2010, we also investigated the distribution by season, setting, and implicated food, the incidence rates of cases associated, and the hospitalization rates. Differences in proportions were estimated by Pearson's chi-square test, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. In 2000 through 2010, the number of AGE outbreaks caused by Salmonella decreased and those caused by norovirus significantly increased. From 2006 onward, norovirus was the most common etiology in AGE outbreaks, but in foodborne outbreaks, Salmonella was the more common cause until 2010. The incidence rate per 10(5) inhabitants was greater for norovirus (20.81 versus 3.97, P Catalonia. Foodborne AGE outbreaks were more commonly caused by norovirus than by Salmonella only in 2010, the last year of the study.

  10. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for norovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prag, C; Prag, M; Fredlund, H

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus causes viral gastroenteritis, which is a major problem in health care. The disease causes death in elderly and seriously ill patients, and results in significant health costs each year. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acidity, which is an important protection against microorganisms. We hypothesised that treatment with PPIs increases the risk of contracting norovirus infection. This has not previously been studied. The study was a retrospective case-control study, in which 192 hospitalised patients positive for norovirus in Örebro County, Sweden, were identified as cases. For each case, a hospitalised patient who did not have the infection was selected as a control, and matched with respect to ward, gender, admission date and age. Details of exposure, i.e. treatment with PPIs, were retrieved from the patient records. Odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values were calculated using McNemar's test. There was a significantly increased risk of norovirus infection in patients treated with PPIs compared with patients without PPI treatment (OR 1·73, 95% CI 1·07-2·81; P = 0·02). PPIs appear to be a risk factor for norovirus infection, and our results motivate future studies to further examine this association.

  12. Airborne or Fomite Transmission for Norovirus? A Case Study Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus infection, a highly prevalent condition associated with a high rate of morbidity, comprises a significant health issue. Although norovirus transmission mainly occurs via the fecal-oral and vomit-oral routes, airborne transmission has been proposed in recent decades. This paper re-examines a previously described norovirus outbreak in a hotel restaurant wherein airborne transmission was originally inferred. Specifically, the original evidence that suggested airborne transmission was re-analyzed by exploring an alternative hypothesis: could this outbreak instead have occurred via fomite transmission? This re-analysis was based on whether fomite transmission could have yielded similar attack rate distribution patterns. Seven representative serving pathways used by waiters were considered, and the infection risk distributions of the alternative fomite transmission routes were predicted using a multi-agent model. These distributions were compared to the reported attack rate distribution in the original study using a least square methods approach. The results show that with some reasonable assumptions of human behavior patterns and parameter values, the attack rate distribution corresponded well with that of the infection risk via the fomite route. This finding offers an alternative interpretation of the transmission routes that underlay this particular norovirus outbreak and an important consideration in the development of infection control guidelines and the investigation of similar norovirus outbreaks in future.

  13. Norovirus surrogate survival on spinach during preharvest growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-04-01

    Produce can become contaminated with human viral pathogens in the field through soil, feces, or water used for irrigation; through application of manure, biosolids, pesticides, and fertilizers; and through dust, insects, and animals. The objective of this study was to assess the survival and stability of human noroviruses and norovirus surrogates (Murine norovirus [MNV] and Tulane virus [TV]) on foliar surfaces of spinach plants in preharvest growth conditions. Spinach plants were housed in a biocontrol chamber at optimal conditions for up to 7 days and infectivity was determined by plaque assay. Virus inoculation location had the largest impact on virus survival as viruses present on adaxial leaf surfaces had lower decimal reduction time (D values) than viruses present on abaxial leaf surfaces. Under certain conditions, spinach type impacted virus survival, with greater D values observed from survival on semi-savoy spinach leaves. Additional UVA and UVB exposure to mimic sunlight affected virus survival on adaxial surfaces for both semi-savoy and smooth spinach plants for both viruses. Human GII norovirus inoculated onto semi-savoy spinach had an average D value that was not statistically significant from MNV and TV, suggesting that these surrogates may have similar survival on spinach leaves compared with human noroviruses. An understanding of the behavior of enteric viruses on spinach leaves can be used to enhance growers' guidelines and for risk assessment with certain growing conditions.

  14. Re-assessing the total burden of norovirus circulating in the United Kingdom population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John P; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; O'Brien, Sarah J

    2017-02-07

    The second Infectious Intestinal Diseases study (IID2) estimated the incidence of norovirus in the UK at 47/1000 population (three million cases annually). Clinically significant norovirus was defined using a cycle threshold (ct) value of norovirus means asymptomatic individuals potentially contribute to ongoing transmission. Using a less stringent but diagnostically relevant threshold increases the estimation of the population burden of norovirus infection by around 26% to 59/1000 person years (95% CI 52.32-64.98), equating to 3.7 million norovirus infections annually (3.3-4.1 million). With possible vaccines on the horizon for norovirus, having a good estimate of the total burden of norovirus infection, as well as symptomatic disease will be useful in helping to guide vaccination policy when candidate vaccines become available. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in sporadic cases of viral gastroenteritis among children in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Martinelli, Monica; Abelli, Laura Anna; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Pinardi, Federica; De Conto, Flora; Izzi, Giancarlo; Bernasconi, Sergio; Chezzi, Carlo; Dettori, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Surveillance of norovirus infections in sporadic cases of pediatric gastroenteritis admitted to a main hospital in Northern Italy during a full-year period (2002) showed that noroviruses (10.4%) were the second most common causative viral agent, following rotaviruses (21.1%), and noroviruses (81%) were mostly implicated in mixed infections. The epidemic period of norovirus was September-December, with September and November as months of major prevalence (33.3 and 38.5%, respectively). Six distinct norovirus genotypes were detected (GI.7, GII.1, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, GII, not assigned named GIIb), and the predominant genotype was GII.4. A "new GII.4 2002 variant" accounted for 82.9% of total strains. Since the severity of norovirus symptoms does not usually require admission to hospital, the burden of norovirus disease in the general children population may be much higher than that suggested by the present hospital-based investigation.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in children and the elderly in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jumi; Wahl, Kelly; Sederdahl, Bethany K; Jerris, Robert R; Kraft, Colleen S; McCracken, Courtney; Gillespie, Scott; Anderson, Evan J; Kirby, Amy E; Shane, Andi L; Moe, Christine L

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis, which can be severe at the extremes of ages. Data documenting the endemic burden of norovirus among children and elderly adults are lacking. Stool specimens submitted for clinical testing were collected from elderly (≥ 65 years) adults and children (elderly specimens and 11% (67/628) of pediatric, with GII.4 Sydney_2012 detected in 64% (7/11) of elderly norovirus-positive and 11% (8/67) of pediatric specimens, P children, hospitalized elderly with norovirus were more commonly admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (36% vs. 7%, P = 0.02). Norovirus in the elderly can be associated with severe illness requiring ICU admissions. The pediatric group demonstrated greater variability in genotype distribution. Ongoing surveillance of norovirus genotypes is crucial for norovirus vaccine development in understanding circulating and emerging genotypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Norovirus Genotypes in Hospital Settings - Differences between Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Norovirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis and hospital outbreaks, leading to substantial morbidity and direct healthcare expenses as well as indirect societal costs. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of nosocomial norovirus infections among inpatients tested...... positive for norovirus in Denmark, 2002-2010, and to study the distribution of norovirus genotypes among inpatients with nosocomial and community-acquired norovirus infections, respectively. METHODS:  Admission and stool sampling dates from 3656 NoV infected patients were used to estimate the proportion...... of nosocomial infections. The associations between nosocomial infection and patient age, gender, and norovirus genotype GII.4 were examined. RESULTS:  Of the 3656 inpatients, 63% were classified as having nosocomial infections. Among these 9 capsid and 8 polymerase norovirus genotypes were detected whereas...

  18. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences...... viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...... fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts. We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. The I391L polymerase mutant also exhibited lower transmission rates...

  19. NOROVIRUS OUTBREAK AT A DAYCARE CENTER IN BANGKOK, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumpholsup, Tikumporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Felber, Joshua A; Suvaporn Anugulruengkit; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Chomto, Sirinuch; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, affecting developing and developed countries, both children and adults. This study describes an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at a daycare center of a tertiary level hospital in Bangkok, Thailand during October 2014. Although none of the staff became symptomatic, 8 of 11 children attending the center and 4 of their household contacts developed acute gastroenteritis. No pathogenic bacteria or rotavirus were detected in their evaluation; however, 3 out of 7 stool samples from the cases were positive for norovirus GII.17. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis with sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed the viral strain was the same strain reported from Taiwan in 2013. Because norovirus is a frequent cause of outbreaks in crowded conditions, early detection and preventive measures are important to control outbreaks.

  20. An outbreak of norovirus linked to oysters in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodo, Kerryn L; Veitch, Mark G K; Green, Michelle L

    2014-03-31

    Norovirus is the most commonly reported virus in shellfish related gastroenteritis outbreaks. In March 2013 an investigation was conducted following the receipt of reports of gastroenteritis after the consumption of oysters at private functions in Tasmania. Cases were ascertained through general practitioners, emergency departments, media releases and self-reporting. Of the 306 cases identified in Tasmania, ten faecal specimens were collected for laboratory testing and eight were positive for norovirus (GII.g). The most common symptoms were vomiting (87%), diarrhoea (85%), myalgia (82%) and fever (56%). The implicated oysters were traced to a single lease from which they were harvested and distributed locally and interstate. Nationally 525 cases were identified from Tasmania (306), Victoria (209), New South Wales (8) and Queensland (2). This report highlights the consequences of norovirus outbreaks in shellfish, even with rapid identification, trace back and removal of the implicated product from the market. copyright@health.gov.au

  1. Non-thermal inactivation of Noroviruses in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Bošković, T.

    2017-09-01

    An increased incidence of foodborne illnesses caused by Norovirus and consumer demand for fresh, convenient, and safe foods have prompted research into alternative antiviral processing technologies. Chlorine dioxide, UV treatment and thermal processing are standard antinoroviral technologies that have been employed for a while; however, they tend to be non-effective in modern processing due to residue concerns (ClO2), shadowing effects (UV) and low-energy efficiency (heat treatment). Alternative technologies have been validated such as ozone treatment, high pressure processing and pulse electric fields. Although these techniques are promising, none of them individually can deem food free of Norovirus. Further research on the effects on Norovirus in various food matrices is required. Good manufacturing practices and proper sanitation procedures remain the “gold” safety tools in food business.

  2. Estudio de un brote de leptospirosis en Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch y potencialidad profiláctica de vax-SPIRAL®

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    Mariela Naranjo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En Honduras, uno de los países de Centroamérica más afectados por el huracán Mitch, debido a las fuertes lluvias e inundaciones, se crearon las condiciones idóneas para el desarrollo de un brote de leptospirosis. Un grupo de especialistas cubanos realizamos un estudio a 68 pacientes con un cuadro clínico epidemiológico sospechoso de leptospirosis entre los pobladores del Departamento de Puerto Cortés, una las regiones más comprometidas. A todos los pacientes se les tomó una muestra de sangre para hemocultivo y obtención de suero. Se empleó la técnica de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para la identificación de las cepas de leptospira y para evaluar la protección conferida por vax-SPIRAL® (vacuna antileptospirósica cubana frente al reto con la cepa aislada y se verificó la prevalencia de leptospiras en los riñones e hígado. Se observó un predominio de pacientes del sexo masculino, en un grupo entre 15-49 años. Los municipios de este Departamento con un mayor número de casos fueron San Pedro Sula, La Lima y Chamelecón. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, cefalea, mialgias, malestar general, entre otros. Más del 80% de los individuos manifestaron la presencia de roedores en sus viviendas y que tuvieron contacto con aguas estancadas y animales domésticos. La cepa aislada del hemocultivo positivo fue del serogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae, muy virulento en el modelo animal empleado. Se evidenció el 100% de protección de los hámsteres inmunizados con vax-SPIRAL® y retados con la cepa de Honduras. El análisis macroscópico de los órganos de los animales inmunizados que sobrevivieron al reto al 100%, reveló la ausencia de signos característicos de la infección.

  3. Características clínicas y moleculares de un brote de influenza en dos bases militares, Tumbes- Perú, 2007

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    Tatiana Saldarriaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir un brote de Influenza en dos bases militares en Tumbes, Perú. Material y métodos. Se utilizó la definición de caso de síndrome gripal del Ministerio de Salud en casos con menos de cinco días de inicio de síntomas. Se tomó hisopado nasal para la prueba rápida de Influenza (PRI e hisopado faríngeo para aislamiento viral en tres líneas celulares (MDCK, VERO, LLCMK2. Para la genotipificación de Influenza B se usó un secuenciamiento parcial de la región de hemaglutinina de 898 pares de bases teniendo como base la cepa de la vacuna del 2007 (B/Florida/4/2006 y para el tipo A se analizó 958 pares de bases teniendo como referencia la cepa vacunal del 2007 (A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2. Resultados. Se tomó 124 hisopados, 20 de la base militar (BM # 1 y 104 de la BM # 2. La PRI identificó a 41 casos positivos: Flu B: 27, Flu A: 02, Flu: 12, con 62% de sensibilidad y 100% de especificidad. Finalmente, 66 casos fueron confirmados por cultivo celular, 54 Flu B y 12 Flu A. Los aislamientos de Tumbes fueron genéticamente similares con la cepa B/Texas/4/ 2006 (n=34 y A/Texas/91/2007 (H3N2/ (n=7. Los síntomas más comunes fueron fiebre, cefalea, malestar general, tos, dolor de garganta, mialgias y rinorrea. Las medidas de control consistieron en el aislamiento de los casos identificados y el uso de mascarillas. Conclusiones. Se confirmó 66 casos de Influenza por cultivo celular. Los aislamientos tuvieron la mayor similitud genética con las cepas denominadas B/Texas/4/2006 y A/Texas/91/2007 (H3N2.

  4. Brote de histoplasmosis en la Escuela de Cadetes de la Base Aérea de Morón, Provincia de Buenos Aires, República Argentina Histoplasmosis outbreak in Morón, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

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    R. Negroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de histoplasmosis que afectó a 6 cadetes de la Fuerza Aérea Argentina, sin antecedentes patológicos previos. Todos consultaron por problemas respiratorios después de haber limpiado un hangar. En ese recinto se encontraron abundantes deyecciones de animales, presuntamente de palomas y murciélagos. Los pacientes sufrieron fiebre, mialgias, taquipnea y tos no productiva. Las radiografías y tomografías de tórax mostraron imágenes pulmonares micronodulares, engrosamiento de los tabiques interalveolares y adenopatías hiliares. Todos tuvieron una evolución favorable y no requirieron tratamiento antifúngico. Las pruebas de inmunodifusión y contrainmunoelectroforesis con antígenos de Histoplasma capsulatum fueron positivas, al igual que las intradermorreacciones con histoplasmina. Se recogieron 5 muestras de tierra del lugar, las que fueron inoculadas por vía intraperitoneal a 20 hámsteres. De los cultivos de hígado y bazo de dichos animales se consiguió aislar la fase micelial de H. capsulatum. La cepa aislada se comparó con las obtenidas de 12 pacientes argentinos utilizando perfiles genéticos y se observó un clado único con más de 96% de similitud, lo que confirma la homogeneidad de las cepas argentinas. Si bien la histoplasmosis es endémica en la Pampa húmeda, este es el primer brote totalmente documentado al sur del paralelo 34°.An histoplasmosis outbreak affecting 6 previously healthy Air Force cadets is herein presented. The patients suffered from fever and respiratory symptoms after having cleaned an abandoned hangar soiled with pigeons and bat droppings. They all presented fever, myalgia, tachypnea, and nonproductive cough. Chest X-ray and CT scan studies showed disseminated reticulonodular images affecting both lungs. Hiliar adenomegalies were also observed. All patients achieved a favourable outcome without antifungal treatment. Both serologic tests searching for specificic antibodies

  5. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-02

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  6. Super-infections and relapses occur in chronic norovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julianne R; Roy, Sunando; Tutill, Helena; Williams, Rachel; Breuer, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients with considerable associated morbidity. It is not known whether chronic infections involve super- or re-infections or relapses. To retrospectively investigate whether longitudinal sampling in chronically infected patients demonstrates persistent infection with the same virus, or super- or re-infection. Norovirus full genomes were generated from 86 longitudinal samples from 25 paediatric patients. Consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping. Super-infections occurred in 17% of chronically infected patients who were continuously PCR positive; including two with mixed norovirus infections. The median duration of infection was 107days longer in those with super-infections; however this was not statistically significant. A third of patients with interrupted norovirus shedding continued to be infected with the same virus despite up to 2 months of PCR negative stools, classified as a relapse. The majority (67%) of patients with interrupted shedding were re-infected with a different genotype. Chronically infected patients who are continuously PCR positive are most likely to remain infected with the same virus; however super-infections do occur leading to mixed infection. Patients with interrupted shedding are likely to represent re-infection with a different genotype, however relapsing infections also occur. Our findings have implications for infection control as immunosuppressed patients remain susceptible to new norovirus infections despite current or recent infection and may continue to be infectious after norovirus is undetectable in stool. The relevance to children without co-morbidities remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Infectious Diarrhea: Norovirus and Clostridium difficile in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary B; Rajagopalan, Shobita; Yoshikawa, Thomas T

    2016-08-01

    Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection. Appropriate preventive measures and judicious use of antibiotics can help mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load

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    Tam Clarence C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID. However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in an IID case when they are RT-PCR positive. It is important to identify the pathogen causing illness in sporadic IID cases, for clinical management and for community based incidence studies. The aim of this study was to investigate how faecal viral load can be used to determine when norovirus is the most likely cause of illness in an IID case. Methods Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the viral load in faecal specimens collected from 589 IID cases and 159 healthy controls, who were infected with genogroup II noroviruses. Cycle threshold (Ct values from the real-time RT-PCR were used as a proxy measure of viral load. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to identify a cut-off in viral load for attributing illness to norovirus in IID cases. Results One hundred and sixty-nine IID cases and 159 controls met the inclusion criteria for the ROC analysis. The optimal Ct value cut-off for attributing IID to norovirus was 31. The same cut-off was selected when using healthy controls, or IID cases who were positive by culture for bacterial pathogens, as the reference negative group. This alternative reference negative group can be identified amongst specimens routinely received in clinical virology laboratories. Conclusion We demonstrated that ROC analysis can be used to select a cut-off for a norovirus real time RT-PCR assay, to aid clinical interpretation and diagnose when norovirus is the cause of IID. Specimens routinely received for diagnosis in clinical virology laboratories can be used to select an appropriate cut-off. Individual laboratories can use this method to

  9. First outbreak of norovirus in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donia, D; Kota, M; Leno, L; Ylli, A; Cenko, F; Divizia, M

    2011-09-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) represent the most important enteric viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis world-wide. This study objective is to characterize the first outbreak of NoV that occurred in Ballsh, a small city in Albania. Stool specimens were collected from people attending to the hospital. Samples were also collected from the aqueduct for bacteriological and virological tests. Overall 33 stools and five drinking water samples were collected, respectively, from the hospital in Ballsh and from the municipal aqueduct. No water samples were scored positive whereas ten stool samples (30.3%) were scored GGII NoV positive. All the GGII isolates were identified as GGII·4 genotype, and no GGI was identified. The alignment and protein analysis were performed using, respectively, ClustalV and the mega 4 software. This is the first report of NoV GGII·4 in Albania causing an outbreak. The genetic analysis showed several point mutations and amino acid substitutions with respect to the international strains. Over the last decades, Albania has suffered from different outbreaks as cholera, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A and now, for the first time, it has been documented an outbreak of NoV. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Distribution of norovirus in oyster tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Wu, Qingping; Kou, Xiaoxia; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Jumei

    2008-12-01

    To study the distribution of norovirus (NV) in oyster tissues. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VP1 were selected from Balb/c mice. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect native NV in different tissues of artificially contaminated oysters using the MAbs. The data showed that the gills and the digestive glands are efficient tissues for accumulation of the NV. In addition, the NV was found on the cilia of the mantle after filtering. In our study, only NV RNA in the gills could be detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. NV was bioaccumulated in the gills, stomach, digestive diverticula and cilia of the mantle. Furthermore, the results suggested that the viral load of the gills and the digestive glands is heavier than that of the other tissues. This, to our knowledge, is the first paper to report the distribution of NV in oyster tissues by immunoassay after artificial contamination. Further understanding of the NV distribution in oyster may help us to sample appropriate tissues for detection of the virus.

  11. Inactivation of a Human Norovirus Surrogate, Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles, and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Gamma Irradiation ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kurtis; Divers, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Li, Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is a nonthermal processing technology that has been used for the preservation of a variety of food products. This technology has been shown to effectively inactivate bacterial pathogens. Currently, the FDA has approved doses of up to 4.0 kGy to control food-borne pathogens in fresh iceberg lettuce and spinach. However, whether this dose range effectively inactivates food-borne viruses is less understood. We have performed a systematic study on the inactivation of a human norovirus surrogate (murine norovirus 1 [MNV-1]), human norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by gamma irradiation. We demonstrated that MNV-1 and human norovirus VLPs were resistant to gamma irradiation. For MNV-1, only a 1.7- to 2.4-log virus reduction in fresh produce at the dose of 5.6 kGy was observed. However, VSV was more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and a 3.3-log virus reduction at a dose of 5.6 kGy in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was achieved. We further demonstrated that gamma irradiation disrupted virion structure and degraded viral proteins and genomic RNA, which resulted in virus inactivation. Using human norovirus VLPs as a model, we provide the first evidence that the capsid of human norovirus has stability similar to that of MNV-1 after exposure to gamma irradiation. Overall, our results suggest that viruses are much more resistant to irradiation than bacterial pathogens. Although gamma irradiation used to eliminate the virus contaminants in fresh produce by the FDA-approved irradiation dose limits seems impractical, this technology may be practical to inactivate viruses for other purposes, such as sterilization of medical equipment. PMID:21441330

  12. promisorios de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. “camu camu” para propagación vegetativa por acodo aéreo

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    Jiang Oliver Liao Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la ubicación y diámetro de la rama en tres genotipospromisorios de camu camu utilizando la técnica del acodo aéreo sobre el enraizamiento y brotación. Lasplantas madres fueron acodadas, posteriormente las ramas enraizadas se trasplantaron siguiendo el diseño deBloques Completos al Azar, con tres repeticiones. A los 3 meses del trasplante se realizó la evaluación de lasvariables, encontrando los mejores promedios para el Número de raíces al Tercio medio, Diámetro grueso,Genotipo MD-015 y al Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 con 28.67 y 28.33 raíces,respectivamente; en la variable Longitud de raíces el Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015mostró los mejores resultados con 15.27 cm. Con respecto al Número de brotes el Tercio Superior, DiámetroGrueso, Genotipo MD-014 y el Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 alcanzaron los mejoresresultados con 13.00 y 12.67 brotes, respectivamente; en la Longitud de brotes, el mejor tratamiento fue elTercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 con 30.73 cm; finalmente en la variable Número dehojas/brote sobresalieron el Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-014 y Tercio superior, Diámetrogrueso, Genotipo MD-015 con 15.10 y 14.83 hojas por brote, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieronidentificar al Tercio superior, Diámetro grueso, Genotipo MD-015 como los mejores en cuanto a la capacidadde enraizamiento y brotación.

  13. Norovirus infections in young children in Lusaka Province, Zambia: clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh M; Mwape, Innocent; Siwingwa, Mpanji; Simuyandi, Michelo; Guffey, M Brad; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Chilengi, Roma

    2017-01-23

    The burden, clinical features, and molecular epidemiology of norovirus infection in young children in southern Africa are not well defined. Using data from a health facility-based surveillance study of children norovirus infection. A convenience sample of 454 stool specimens was tested for norovirus using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RT-PCR positive samples underwent additional nucleotide sequencing for genogroup and genotype identification. Clinical features and severity of diarrheal illnesses were compared between norovirus-positive and -negative subjects using Chi-squared and t-tests. Norovirus was detected in 52/454 (11.5%) specimens tested. Abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting were the most common presenting features in norovirus-associated illnesses. However, there were no significant differences in the clinical features of norovirus-positive compared to norovirus-negative illnesses. Of 43 isolates that were available for sequencing, 31 (72.1%) were genogroup II (GII) and 12 (27.9%) were genogroup I (GI). The distribution of genotypes was diverse. Noroviruses were detected in approximately 10% of young children with diarrhea in the Lusaka Province of Zambia, with GII representing the majority of infections. These findings support the role of norovirus in symptomatic diarrhea disease in Africa. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations and to evaluate prevention strategies.

  14. Modeling and Prediction of Oyster Norovirus Outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    Oyster norovirus outbreaks often pose high risks to human health. However, little is known about environmental factors controlling the outbreaks, and little can be done to prevent the outbreaks because they are generally considered to be unpredictable. We sought to develop a mathematical model for predicting risks of oyster norovirus outbreaks using environmental predictors. We developed a novel probability-based Artificial Neural Network model, called NORF model, using 21 years of environmental and norovirus outbreak data collected from Louisiana oyster harvesting areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast, USA. The NORF model involves six input variables that were selected through stepwise regression analysis and sensitivity analysis. We found that the model-based probability of norovirus outbreaks was most sensitive to gage height (the depth of water in an oyster bed) and water temperature, followed by wind, rainfall, and salinity, respectively. The NORF model predicted all historical oyster norovirus outbreaks from 1994 through 2014. Specifically, norovirus outbreaks occurred when the NORF model probability estimate was > 0.6, whereas no outbreaks occurred when the estimated probability was oyster norovirus outbreaks may be predictable using the NORF model. The ability to predict oyster norovirus outbreaks at their onset may make it possible to prevent or at least reduce the risk of norovirus outbreaks by closing potentially affected oyster beds. Wang J, Deng Z. 2016. Modeling and prediction of oyster norovirus outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico coast. Environ Health Perspect 124:627-633; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509764.

  15. A survey of Australian oysters for the presence of human noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Felicity; Ross, Tom; Holds, Geoffrey; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Impending international policies for norovirus in oysters and the lack of Australian data suggested there was a need to undertake a national survey of norovirus in oysters. Two geographically distinct oyster-growing areas from each of three Australian states were sampled on 4 occasions during 2010 and 2011. The sites selected were considered by state shellfish authorities to be the most compromised with respect to the potential for human faecal contamination as identified by shoreline surveys. The oysters were tested for norovirus GI, GII and Escherichia coli. Norovirus GII was detected in two of 120 (1.7%) samples and norovirus GI was not detected. One of the norovirus positive samples was cloned and sequenced as GII.3. Five of 120 (4.2%) samples were found to have more than the guidance concentration of 230 E. coli per 100 g of shellfish but these samples did not contain detectable concentrations of norovirus. The apparently low prevalence of norovirus in oysters from Australian growing areas supports epidemiological data that suggests norovirus contamination of Australian oysters is rare. The results from this study emphasise the need for future norovirus control measures for shellfish to be commensurate with the risk associated with the growing area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection and genetic characterization of norovirus in oysters from China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Gia; Khamrin, Pattara; Akiyama, Miho; Yagyu, Fumihiro; Okitsu, Shoko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Nishio, Osamu; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A total of 225 oysters from China and Japan were collected during October 2005 to September 2006 and were then tested for the presence of norovirus by RT-nested PCR. The detection rate of norovirus was different between China and Japan, accounting for 14.6% (19 of 130) and 25.3% (24 of 95), respectively. In China, norovirus in oyster was detected continuously from July to February with the highest prevalence in August, October and November (each of 21%, 4 of 19). On the other hand, norovirus in Japan was found year-round with highest prevalence in March and October (each of 20.8%, 5 of 24). Norovirus strains detected were subjected to further characterization by sequence analysis. It was found that the norovirus strains belonged to only two distinct genotypes, the GII/3 (known as the Mexico virus cluster) and the GII/4 (known as the Lordsdale virus cluster). In China, the norovirus GII/4 was the most predominant, accounting for 78.9% (15 of 19). In contrast, it was interesting that both the norovirus GII/4 and the norovirus GII/3 were co-predominant with a prevalence of 50% (12 of 24) in Japan. Another interesting feature of the study was that the norovirus GII/4 strains in oysters from both countries were grouped into two distinct variant clusters known as the Farmington Hills variant and the Hunter variant. More than 102 copies of norovirus were detected in 41 of 43 oysters. This study provided additional evidence of the presence of norovirus in oysters and is also the first report to demonstrate the existence of norovirus variants in oysters.

  17. The adaptive value of shoot differentiation in deciduous trees and its evolutionary relevance Valor adaptativo de la diferenciación de brotes en árboles deciduos y su relevancia evolutiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit M. Dörken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pronounced long shoot/short shoot differentiation is typical for deciduous angiosperm trees. It also occurs in a number of gymnosperms and very few evergreen angiosperm trees. The study of 719 angiosperm tree species (602 deciduous and 117 evergreen species demonstrated that the deciduous condition is nearly always associated with shoot differentiation. Detailed measurements in 38 angiosperms showed that the leaf area of an entire short shoot equals the leaf area of a single long shoot leaf of the same species and individual. In the few cases where the leaf area of the short shoot is slightly larger than that of a single long-shoot leaf, the short shoot leaves shade each other and the projection of the short shoot equals the area of a single long shoot leaf. Calculations of the stem biomass needed to expose a given assimilatory surface show two interesting aspects. First, the stem biomass (dry weight to expose leaf surface is about 10 times less in short shoots than in long shoots. Second, this biomass in long shoots and short shoots appears to be species independent. Regarding shoot structure efficiency, leaf size and shape do not matter. Some evergreen species resemble in all parameters more to deciduous species than to typical evergreen species. Phytogeographical data as well as morphological data suggest that these atypical evergreen species are derived from deciduous ancestors. As measured parameters differ markedly between all gymnosperms, except Ginkgo, and angiosperms, we suppose that the evolutionary pathway leading to shoot differentiation was different for gymnosperms and angiosperms.En Angiospermas arbóreas deciduas, es común encontrar un alto grado de diferenciación entre brotes largos y brotes cortos. También se presenta esta característica en un número de gimnospermas y en muy pocas angiospermas arbóreas siempreverdes. El estudio de 719 especies de angiospermas arbóreas (602 deciduas y 117 siempreverdes demostró que la

  18. Recovery Optimization and Survival of the Human Norovirus Surrogates Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus on Carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-11-15

    Carpets have been implicated in prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, we then developed a minispin column elution (MSC) method, and lastly we characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface. Carpet surface charge was negative between relevant pH values (i.e., pH 7 to 9). In addition, wool could absorb approximately two times more liquid than nylon. The percent recovery efficiency obtained by the MSC method ranged from 4.34 to 20.89% and from 30.71 to 54.14% for FCV and MNV on carpet fibers, respectively, after desiccation. Overall, elution buffer type did not significantly affect recovery. Infectious FCV or MNV survived between noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Classical symptoms of illness include vomiting and diarrhea which could lead to severe dehydration and death. HuNoV are transmitted by the fecal-oral or vomitus-oral route via person-to-person contact, food, water, and/or environmental surfaces. Published laboratory-controlled studies have documented the environmental stability of HuNoV on hard surfaces, but there is limited laboratory-based evidence available about survival on soft surfaces, e.g., carpet and upholstered furniture. Several epidemiological reports have suggested soft surfaces may be HuNoV fomites illustrating the importance of conducting a survival study. The three objectives of our research were to demonstrate techniques to characterize soft surfaces, develop a viral elution method for carpet

  19. Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Albert; Guix, Susana; Fuster, Noemí; Fuentes, Cristina; Bartolomé, Rosa; Cornejo, Thais; Pintó, Rosa Maria

    2017-01-01

    In April 2016, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness (4,136 cases) occurred in Catalonia, Spain. We detected high levels of norovirus genotypes I and II in office water coolers associated with the outbreak. Infectious viral titer estimates were 33–49 genome copies/L for genotype I and 327–660 genome copies/L for genotype II. PMID:28820131

  20. Disruption of the human gut microbiota following Norovirus infection.

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    Adam M Nelson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota, the collection of all bacterial members in the intestinal tract, plays a key role in health. Disruption of the indigenous microbiota by a variety of stressors, including antibiotic therapy and intestinal infections, is associated with multiple health problems. We sought to determine if infection with Norovirus disrupts the gut microbiota. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene was used to characterize the stool microbiota in Norovirus-infected human patients (n = 38. While the microbiota in most infected patients (n = 31 resembled that seen in uninfected healthy controls, a minority of patients (n = 7 possessed a significantly altered microbiota characterized by reduced relative numbers of Bacteriodetes and a corresponding increase in Proteobacteria. In these patients, the increase in Proteobacteria was due to a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU of Escherichia coli. We cultured E. coli from Norovirus-infected patients and characterized them using PCR-ribotyping and virulence factor analysis. Multiple ribotypes were encountered, but none possessed typical virulence factors commonly carried by enteropathogenic E. coli strains. Microbiota disruption and elevated Proteobacteria were not significantly correlated to patient age, gender, sampling time following illness onset, or overall gut inflammation. These results demonstrate that some patients have a disrupted microbiota following Norovirus infection, and therefore may be at elevated risk for long-term health complications.

  1. Evidence-Based interventions of Norovirus outbreaks in China

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    Tianmu Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings where laboratory capacity is limited and response strategy is non-specific, delayed or inappropriate intervention against outbreaks of Norovirus (NoV are common. Here we report interventions of two norovirus outbreaks, which highlight the importance of evidence-based modeling and assessment to identify infection sources and formulate effective response strategies. Methods Spatiotemporal scanning, mathematical and random walk modeling predicted the modes of transmission in the two incidents, which were supported by laboratory results and intervention outcomes. Results Simulation results indicated that contaminated water was 14 to 500 fold more infectious than infected individuals. Asymptomatic individuals were not effective transmitters. School closure for up to a week still could not contain the outbreak unless the duration was extended to 10 or more days. The total attack rates (TARs for waterborne NoV outbreaks reported in China (n = 3, median = 4.37 were significantly (p < 0.05 lower than worldwide (n = 14, median = 41.34. The low TARs are likely due to the high number of the affected population. Conclusions We found that school closure alone could not contain Norovirus outbreaks. Overlooked personal hygiene may serve as a hotbed for infectious disease transmission. Our results reveal that evidence-based investigations can facilitate timely interventions of Norovirus transmission.

  2. Inactivation of a Norovirus by High-Pressure Processing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H.; Holliman, Daniel R.; Calci, Kevin R.; Chen, Haiqiang; Flick, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Murine norovirus (strain MNV-1), a propagable norovirus, was evaluated for susceptibility to high-pressure processing. Experiments with virus stocks in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium demonstrated that at room temperature (20°C) the virus was inactivated over a pressure range of 350 to 450 MPa, with a 5-min, 450-MPa treatment being sufficient to inactivate 6.85 log10 PFU of MNV-1. The inactivation of MNV-1 was enhanced when pressure was applied at an initial temperature of 5°C; a 5-min pressure treatment of 350 MPa at 30°C inactivated 1.15 log10 PFU of virus, while the same treatment at 5°C resulted in a reduction of 5.56 log10 PFU. Evaluation of virus inactivation as a function of treatment times ranging from 0 to 150 s and 0 to 900 s at 5°C and 20°C, respectively, indicated that a decreasing rate of inactivation with time was consistent with Weibull or log-logistic inactivation kinetics. The inactivation of MNV-1 directly within oyster tissues was demonstrated; a 5-min, 400-MPa treatment at 5°C was sufficient to inactivate 4.05 log10 PFU. This work is the first demonstration that norovirus can be inactivated by high pressure and suggests good prospects for inactivation of nonpropagable human norovirus strains in foods. PMID:17142353

  3. [Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain) associated with oyster consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmés Truyols, Antònia; Duran, Jaume Giménez; Riutort, Antonio Nicolau; Cerdá, Gabriel Arbona; Isabel, Catalina Bosch; Arbona, Margarita Portell; Berga, Joana Vanrell

    2011-01-01

    We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR = 60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3) and razor shells (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9). Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the necessary laboratory resources to study food-borne norovirus outbreaks. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of noroviruses in shellfish in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Loeke, Nathalie A J M te; Vennema, Harry; Jonker, Klaas; Boer, Enne de; Koopmans, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Shellfish from oyster farms in the Netherlands and imported from other European countries were examined for viral contamination. A method that allows sequence matching between noroviruses from human cases and shellfish was used. The samples of shellfish (n = 42) were analyzed using a semi-nested

  5. Low-density microarray technologies for rapid human norovirus genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjuncti...

  6. Factores de riesgo que influyen en el retardo del brote de la dentición temporal.: Policlínico "Turcios Lima", 2000-2003 Risk factors influencing the primary dentition eruption retardation. "Turcios Lima" polyclinics, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Rosa Podadera Valdés

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico de casos y controles en el área de salud del Policlínico "Turcios Lima" en el período comprendido entre julio de 2000 y julio de 2003, con el objetivo de identificar los factores de riesgo que influyen en el retardo del brote de la dentición temporal. El universo estuvo constituido por 1454 niños, de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra aleatoria de 93 niños. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante porcentajes, la prueba Chi cuadrado y el cálculo de los odds ratio con sus intervalos de confianza. Se observó que el estado nutricional anormal al inicio del embarazo, las enfermedades asociadas con este, la inadecuada ganancia de peso de la madre y el desarrollo físico del niño, constituyeron los factores que más influyeron en la problemática estudiada. Se concluye que existe una significativa influencia del estado nutricional de la madre y del niño en el retardo del brote de su dentición temporal.An analytical case-control study was carried out in "Turcios Lima" polyclinics from July, 2000 to July, 2003, to identify the risk factors influencing primary dentition eruption retardation. The universe was formed by 1 454 children from whom a random sample of 93 children was taken. The statistical analysis was based on Chi-square test and calculation of percentages and odds ratios with confidence intervals. It was observed that poor nutritional status at the beginning of pregnancy, pregnancy-related diseases, inadequate weight gain by the mother and the physical development of the infant were the most influential factors. It was concluded that there is significant influence of the nutritional status of the child and the mother on primary dentition eruption retardation.

  7. Evaluation of rapid immunochromatographic tests for norovirus in neonatal and infant faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobumasa; Nojima, Ikuko; Araki, Tooru; Takasugi, Mizue; Sakane, Tomoko; Kodera, Aya; Ikeda, Masanori; Tsukahara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of two norovirus rapid immunochromatographic kits (QuickNavi(®)-Norovirus [QN] and QuickNavi®-Norovirus 2 [QN2]; Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japan) for neonatal and infant faecal specimens. Monthly faecal samples were collected from infants from birth to 12 months of age, and tested for norovirus using QN and QN2. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used as the gold standard for norovirus detection. The diagnostic performance of the kits was calculated. A total of 343 specimens from 81 infants were analysed. In all samples, the specificity of QN and QN2 was 80% (275/343) and 99% (339/343), respectively. In infants aged norovirus infection in the neonatal and infant period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Replication of Norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages.

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    Christiane E Wobus

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1 infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-alphabeta receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution in the capsid protein of serially passaged MNV-1 was associated with virulence attenuation in vivo. This is the first report of replication of a norovirus in cell culture. The capacity of MNV-1 to replicate in a STAT-1-regulated fashion and the unexpected tropism of a norovirus for cells of the hematopoietic lineage provide important insights into norovirus biology.

  9. Human Norovirus Detection and Production, Quantification, and Storage of Virus-Like Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbink, Kari; Costantini, Veronica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Vinjé, Jan; Baric, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses constitute a significant worldwide disease burden. Each year noroviruses cause over 267 million infections, deaths in over 200,000 children under the age of five, and over 50% of U.S. food borne illness. Due to the absence of a tissue culture model or small animal model to study human norovirus, virus-like particles (VLPs) and ELISA-based biological assays have been used to answer questions about norovirus evolution and immunity as well provide a potential vaccine platform. This chapter outlines the protocols on norovirus detection in stool and norovirus VLP design, production, purification, and storage using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE)-based VRP expression system. PMID:24510290

  10. Multiple consecutive norovirus infections in the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Salminen, Marjo; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyöty, Heikki; Veijola, Riitta; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Studies investigating the magnitude and breath of protective immune responses after primary and subsequent norovirus infections in pediatric populations are limited. We investigated incidence of norovirus infections and serological responses in a child from longitudinal stool and serum samples collected from birth to 2 years of age. Four consecutive infections with distinct genotypes of norovirus were detected. Serum antibodies were genotype-specific offering no protection to reinfection with heterologous virus. This study describes norovirus-specific serological responses in a child with four consecutive norovirus infection during the first 2 years of life. The response is type-specific and does not protect from a subsequent infection with a heterologous virus. • Correlates of protection to norovirus infection and disease are not yet determined, and most of the presently available data concern adult population. • This manuscript describes serological immune responses after primary and subsequent infections in a child during the first 2 years of life.

  11. Brote de enfermedad alimentaria en la localidad de El Huecú, provincia de Neuquén Foodborne disease outbreak in El Huecú community, province of Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En febrero de 2006 ocurrió un brote epidémico de gastroenteritis aguda de origen alimentario, en ocasión de un festejo popular en una pequeña localidad de la provincia de Neuquén, Argentina. Aproximadamente 800 personas participaron de un almuerzo en las instalaciones del Gimnasio Municipal, y unas tres horas después de finalizado, cerca de 150 asistentes consultaron al hospital local, afectados por síndrome gastroentérico agudo. Se realizó una investigación epidemiológica caso-control a través de un muestreo representativo no probabilístico. Los resultados epidemiológicos establecieron un brote de ETA a fuente común, con una relación caso-control de 1:1,8. Los principales síntomas fueron cólicos abdominales (88%, vómitos (73,5% y diarrea (60%. La torta que se sirvió en ese evento fue identificada como el alimento causal (OR 9,79; IC 95%; 2,66-36,00; valor p = 0,0001, sujeto a condiciones higiénico-sanitarias insatisfactorias en los diferentes procesos de elaboración, conservación y manipulación. De una porción de la torta se aisló una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus subespecie aureus, coagulasa positiva, enterotoxigénica, con un recuento de 2,4x10(6 UFC/g, y también se aisló este microorganismo de tres muestras de manos y narinas de personas involucradas en la preparación y el servicio. Las cepas aisladas de un operador y de la torta portaron el gen sea y presentaron el mismo patrón de SmaI-PFGE. Se atribuyó el brote de ETA a la contaminación durante el proceso de preparación de la torta consumida durante ese almuerzo popular, lo que podría estar relacionado con deficiencias en aspectos higiénicos y con la falta de refrigeración y de mantenimiento de la cadena de frío.In the summer of 2006, an epidemic outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness related to food consumption occurred in a small town in the province of Neuquén, Argentina. During a popular feast, approximately 800 local residents attended lunch

  12. Descripción de un brote de leptospirosis en la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina, marzo-abril de 1998 Description of a leptospirosis outbreak in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina, March-April 1998

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    Norma B. Vanasco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En marzo-abril de 1998 se identificó en un barrio de la ciudad de Santa Fe (Argentina un brote de una enfermedad aguda caracterizada por fiebre, cefaleas y mialgias intensas. Se presentan los estudios realizados en relación con este brote y los intentos de identificación de la fuente y del modo de transmisión. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos, serológicos y clínicos indicaron que el agente causal fue Leptospira interrogans. Como prueba de tamizaje se aplicó la técnica de aglutinación macroscópica con antígeno termorresistente, seguida de la prueba de ELISA y, como prueba de confirmación, la aglutinación microscópica frente a 10 serovariedades de L. interrogans. Se estudiaron 32 individuos, 8 perros y 8 muestras de agua. Se registraron 12 casos confirmados, 2 probables y 18 negativos. En seis perros se demostró la existencia de infección y en las muestras de agua se detectó la presencia de espiroquetas móviles. Los sueros humanos reaccionaron con las serovariedades ballum, canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae y pyrogenes, y los caninos con ballum, canicola y pomona. La coaglutinación observada en todos los casos confirmados indica que se trató de casos agudos de leptospirosis, pero no permite identificar la serovariedad causal. Salvo en el caso índice, no se reconoció clínicamente la enfermedad. Varios hechos sugieren que la causa del brote fue la inundación pluvial de la zona estudiada. Los resultados de este estudio resaltan la necesidad de una vigilancia activa de la leptospirosis ante desastres naturales como las inundaciones.In March-April 1998 in a neighborhood in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina, there was an outbreak of an acute disease characterized by fever, headaches, and intense myalgias. This article presents the studies surrounding this outbreak and the attempts to identify the source and the mode of transmission. The epidemiological, serological, and clinical findings indicated that the causative agent was Leptospira

  13. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  14. Norovirus distribution within an estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Jennifer; Vinjé, Jan; Guadagnoli, Dominic; Lipp, Erin K

    2009-09-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) has been studied extensively as an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. While oysters are a primary vehicle for infection, few studies have examined the wider distribution of NoV in the estuarine environment. Active shellfish-harvesting areas in Georgia were examined for the prevalence, genotype diversity, and concentrations of NoV in a variety of estuarine sample types over the course of 1 year. Of the 225 samples (9 oyster, 72 water, 72 63- to 200-microm plankton, and 72 >200-microm plankton) collected from 12 stations across two estuaries, 21 samples (9.3%) tested positive for NoV. By sample type, 55.0% (5/9) of oysters, 8.3% (6/72) of water samples, 11.1% (8/72) of 63- to 200-microm plankton samples, and 2.8% (2/72) of >200-microm plankton samples were positive for human NoV. The two NoV-positive >200-microm plankton samples, which contained mainly zooplankton, had the greatest quantity of NoV genomes (3.5 x 10(13) and 1.7 x 10(15) genomes g(-1)) of any sample tested. The majority, 90.5% (19/21), of the samples tested positive for genogroup I NoV, and only 9.5% (2/21) of the samples tested positive for genogroup II. The high concentrations of NoV in plankton samples compared to water and oyster samples were unexpected and provide new insights into the presence and distribution of human NoV in the water environment.

  15. Norovirus Distribution within an Estuarine Environment▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Jennifer; Vinjé, Jan; Guadagnoli, Dominic; Lipp, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) has been studied extensively as an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. While oysters are a primary vehicle for infection, few studies have examined the wider distribution of NoV in the estuarine environment. Active shellfish-harvesting areas in Georgia were examined for the prevalence, genotype diversity, and concentrations of NoV in a variety of estuarine sample types over the course of 1 year. Of the 225 samples (9 oyster, 72 water, 72 63- to 200-μm plankton, and 72 >200-μm plankton) collected from 12 stations across two estuaries, 21 samples (9.3%) tested positive for NoV. By sample type, 55.0% (5/9) of oysters, 8.3% (6/72) of water samples, 11.1% (8/72) of 63- to 200-μm plankton samples, and 2.8% (2/72) of >200-μm plankton samples were positive for human NoV. The two NoV-positive >200-μm plankton samples, which contained mainly zooplankton, had the greatest quantity of NoV genomes (3.5 × 1013 and 1.7 × 1015 genomes g−1) of any sample tested. The majority, 90.5% (19/21), of the samples tested positive for genogroup I NoV, and only 9.5% (2/21) of the samples tested positive for genogroup II. The high concentrations of NoV in plankton samples compared to water and oyster samples were unexpected and provide new insights into the presence and distribution of human NoV in the water environment. PMID:19581478

  16. Molecular evolution of GII-4 Norovirus strains.

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    Katherina Zakikhany

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Noroviruses (NoV are the major cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis and the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Genotype II-4 (GII-4 NoV has been shown to spread rapidly and is the most commonly detected strain worldwide, particularly in association with outbreaks. Previously, we have shown that circulating GII-4 NoV strains exist as populations of selectively neutral variants, and that the emergence of epidemic GII-4 NoV strains correlated with mutations in at least two key sites (Sites A and B within the P2 domain of the surface exposed major capsid protein (VP1. METHODOLOGY: We developed a rapid pyrosequencing method for screening of the two Sites A and B and a homology based modelling system was used to predict the effects of amino acid substitutions at these sites on the antigenic properties of the virus (defined as surface motif types. PRINCIPLE FINDING/CONCLUSION: Here, we describe the characterisation of amino acid diversity at Sites A and B for 1062 GII-4 NoV strains from clinical specimen associated with outbreak of gastroenteritis (2000-2011 and 250 GII-4 NoV sequences from Genbank. Our data identified a high diversity of different Site A and B site combinations at amino acid level and amino acid diversity was higher at Site B than Site A. Site A motifs could be grouped into 3 clusters based on similar surface motif types. We predict that Site A is a major epitope on the virus surface, responsible for defining the antigenic profile, and a more subtle role for Site B, maintaining minor antigenic variation within the virus population.

  17. Detection of novel GII.17 norovirus in Argentina, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiuseppe, Juan I; Gomes, Karina A; Hadad, María F; Parra, Gabriel I; Stupka, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    During the winter of 2014-2015 a novel GII.17 norovirus strain emerged as a cause of large gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia; displacing the long-term predominant strain, GII.4. Although sporadically detected, the emerging GII.17 virus was described in North America and Europe. In this study, we describe the presence of this novel strain in Argentina (South America), and provide new information on the genetic diversity of GII.17 noroviruses. Ten stool samples from individuals (1-88years old; median: 5years old) experiencing gastroenteritis symptoms from San Martín de los Andes, Argentina were tested for Norovirus using RT-PCR. Subsequently, Norovirus positive samples were analyzed by sequencing. Norovirus was found in four out of 10 samples received. Partial sequencing of the ORF2 was available for 3/4 samples: two samples belonged to genotype GII.4 and one to genotype GII.17 (Arg13099). Sequence analyses of the VP1 encoding region revealed that the GII.17 Argentinean strain presented characteristics from both, the new (cluster C), and older (cluster A and B) GII.17 strains. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the RdRp region showed that this strain was closely related to strains from genotypes GII.P3, GII.P13 and GII.P17; however, did not cluster within any of them. This study represents the first report of this emergent strain in South America, and presents further evidence of the genetic plasticity of the GII.17. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of LENTICULES™ as reference materials for noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, R; Lowther, J; Avant, J; Dancer, D; Lees, D; Russell, J

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the potential for LENTICULES™ to act as reference materials (RMs) for noroviruses (NoV) [genogroups I (GI) and II (GII)] by determining their homogeneity and stability characteristics. NoV used in this study originated from human faecal material, screened for the absence of other faecally transmitted pathogens. The norovirus strains present in the faecal material were characterized by sequencing, and samples containing GI and GII strains representative of genotypes commonly circulating in the community were selected. RMs were produced utilizing modified lenticulating technology. A batch comprising 500 LENTICULES™ containing both norovirus genogroups was produced according to ISO Guide 34. The batch was tested and quantified using an ISO 17025 accredited quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. Sufficient homogeneity was established using procedures described by Fearn and Thompson (2010), while stability at less than -15°C and ambient temperature (17-22°C) was assessed over 52 weeks and 7 days, respectively. Lenticulation was shown to be an effective means of preservation of detectable NoV. LENTICULES™ were sufficiently homogeneous and stable throughout medium-term frozen and short-term storage at room temperature to serve as RMs. Virus LENTICULES™ have the advantages of being easy to manipulate, provide assigned values and do not require the manipulation of high titre clinical material. The results of this study show that norovirus LENTICULES™ can be used as stable RMs for quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. They can be utilized as in-run positive extraction controls and potentially for method calibration and to enable more easy comparison of data generated by the variety of differing norovirus determination methods that have emerged in recent years. LENTICULES™ have the potential to provide essential elements of laboratory quality assurance systems for laboratories implementing these new methods for virus testing in foodstuffs and for

  19. High hydrostatic pressure inactivation of murine norovirus and human noroviruses on green onions and in salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sido, Robert F; Huang, Runze; Liu, Chuhan; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-02-02

    In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was evaluated as an intervention for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) in green onions and salsa. To determine the effect of water during HHP treatment on virus inactivation, a HuNoV surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), was inoculated onto green onions and then HHP-treated at 350MPa with or without water at 4 or 20°C. The presence of water enhanced HHP inactivation of MNV-1 on green onions at 4°C but not at 20°C. To test the temperature effect on HHP inactivation of MNV-1, inoculated green onions were HHP-treated at 300MPa at 1, 4 and 10°C. As the temperature decreased, MNV-1 became more sensitive to HHP treatment. HHP inactivation curves of MNV-1 on green onions and salsa were obtained at 300 or 350MPa for 0.5-3min at 1°C. All three inactivation curves showed a linear relationship between log reduction of MNV-1 and time. D values of HHP inactivation of MNV-1 on green onions were 1.10 and 0.61min at 300 and 350MPa, respectively. The D value of HHP inactivation of MNV-1 in salsa at 300MPa was 0.63min. HHP inactivation of HuNoV GI.1 and GII.4 on green onions and salsa was also conducted. To achieve >3 log reduction of HuNoV GI.1, HHP treatments for 2min at 1°C should be conducted at 600MPa and 500MPa for green onions and salsa, respectively. To achieve >3 log reduction of HuNoV GII.4, HHP treatments for 2min at 1°C should be conducted at 500MPa and 300MPa for green onions and salsa, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Murine Noroviruses Comprising a Single Genogroup Exhibit Biological Diversity despite Limited Sequence Divergence▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Thackray, Larissa B.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Chachu, Karen A.; Liu, Bo; Alegre, Eric R.; Henderson, Kenneth S.; Kelley, Scott T.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    Viruses within the genus Norovirus of the family Caliciviridae are the major cause of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human noroviruses are genetically diverse, with up to 57% divergence in capsid protein sequences, and comprise three genogroups. The significance of such genetic diversity is not yet understood. The discovery of murine norovirus (MNV) and its ability to productively infect cultured murine macrophages and dendritic cells has provided an opportunity to determine t...

  1. Evaluation of a new commercial assay for the detection of norovirus in stool samples

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Arcangeletti; Maria Cristina Medici; Maria del Pilar Esteban; Silvia Preti; Valeria Albonetti; Emanuel Merep Djouvoup; Giuseppe Dettori; Carlo Chezzi

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are important human pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis; they can hardly be propagated in any cell culture system and are often difficult to visualize by using electron microscopy (ME). These aspects, as well as the need of an accurate diagnosis justify the development of a number of rapid diagnostic methods aimed at improving the identification of noroviruses and based on the research of viral genomic sequences or, alternatively, of norovirus specific proteins. In this study ...

  2. Detection of norovirus infections in Canakkale with ELISA and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Aksu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Noroviruses are important agents of gastroenteritis worldwide in every age group. There is no large countrywide dataset available for norovirus infections in Turkey. This is the first investigation of noroviruses in Canakkale, and we aimed to compare commercial ELISA and real time RT-PCR assays in clinical use. Material and Methods: Fecal samples from 92 clinical gastroenteritis cases were collected and stored at -20 and deg;C. Norovirus antigen was investigated using RidaScreen ELISA and norovirus GI and GII molecular detection made with RealStar Norovirus RT-PCR kit 2.0. Results: We found that 16 (17.4% samples were positive for norovirus in our study group. Using ELISA, 10 samples were positive from 92 samples. In PCR analysis, internal control amplification failed for four samples. We found 15 of 88 samples positive for real time RT-PCR analysis; of these one was GI and 14 were GII. When we accepted PCR as the reference test, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were calculated as 60% and 98% respectively. Conclusion: Single cases of norovirus infection can be seen even in rural cities like Canakkale. There is a need to set up diagnostic capabilities for norovirus infections. ELISA has a low sensitivity, but this method is cheaper than RT-PCR and is not affected by PCR inhibitors. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 533-538

  3. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  4. Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Lindesmith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. Primarily organized by sequence homology into two major human genogroups defined by multiple genoclusters, the majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by viruses from the GII.4 genocluster, which was first recognized as the major epidemic strain in the mid-1990s. Previous studies by our laboratory and others indicate that some noroviruses readily infect individuals who carry a gene encoding a functional alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT2 and are designated "secretor-positive" to indicate that they express ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, a highly heterogeneous group of related carbohydrates on mucosal surfaces. Individuals with defects in the FUT2 gene are termed secretor-negative, do not express the appropriate HBGA necessary for docking, and are resistant to Norwalk infection. These data argue that FUT2 and other genes encoding enzymes that regulate processing of the HBGA carbohydrates function as susceptibility alleles. However, secretor-negative individuals can be infected with other norovirus strains, and reinfection with the GII.4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations.Phylogenetic analyses of the GII.4 capsid sequences suggested an epochal evolution over the last 20 y with periods of stasis followed by rapid evolution of novel epidemic strains. The epidemic strains show a linear relationship in time, whereby serial replacements emerge from the previous cluster. Five major evolutionary clusters were identified, and representative ORF2 capsid genes for each cluster were expressed

  5. Characteristics of Norovirus infection in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relić Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Norovirus (NoV, formerly Norwalk-like virus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans of all ages. It is known that 90% of viral gastroenteritis and about 60-85% of all outbreaks of gastroenteritis, especially in the territory of United States of America, Europe and Japan are caused by this virus. For the countries of the northern hemisphere, individual cases and outbreaks of acute NoV gastroenteritis appear in seasonal pattern, mainly during the winter months. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of acute gastroenteritis with the established NoV etiology in Serbia. Methods. The study group included 88 patients with the symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, throughout the year 2010 and 2011. From all the patients, stool samples were taken less than three days from the onset of symptoms. Detection of NoV in stool samples was performed by commercial qualitative immuno-chromatography assay. Statistical analysis included application of χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis's test, Spearman’s rank correlation test and logistic regression analysis. Results. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis caused by NoV were recorded to be the most common in children with the incidence of infection of 50% in the age group 0-15 years. Analysis of individual symptoms in the NoV proven infection, showed that diarrhea was the most common symptom, followed by vomiting especially in small children, while abdominal pain was most common in elderly (≥ 65 years. The presence of frequent vomiting, more than 4 times/day, indicated NoV infection in the women, while for men the infection was always presented with diarrhea. Conclusion. The obtained results confirmed that small children and elderly are the most susceptible to NoV infection and that out-breaks are more frequent in the winter months. Those who consumed food in restaurants and other public facilities were not at higher risk for NoV infection.

  6. Short- and long-term variations of norovirus concentrations in the Meuse river during a 2-year study period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westrell, Therese; Teunis, Peter F M; Berg, Harold H J L van den; Lodder, Willemijn J; Ketelaars, Henk; Stenström, Thor Axel; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Faecally impacted surface waters used for drinking water production may encompass risk for norovirus infections. To be able to assess a possible health risk, noroviruses should be quantified and fluctuations identified. In 2001, norovirus concentrations in the river Meuse displayed a seasonal

  7. Whole genome sequencing of fecal samples as a tool for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of norovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavelaar, Herjan H. J.; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Zoll, Jan; Melchers, Willem J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Norovirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis, causing yearly epidemics and hospital outbreaks resulting in a high burden on health care. Detection and characterization of norovirus directly from clinical samples could provide a powerful tool in infection control and norovirus

  8. Prospective characterization of norovirus compared with rotavirus acute diarrhea episodes in chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel L; Peña, Alfredo; Vergara, Rodrigo; Díaz, Janepsy; Mamani, Nora; Cortés, Hector; Lucero, Yalda; Vidal, Roberto; Osorio, Gonzalo; Santolaya, María Elena; Hermosilla, Germán; Prado, Valeria J

    2010-09-01

    Rotavirus and more recently noroviruses are recognized as main causes of moderate to severe acute diarrhea episodes (ADE) in children rotavirus ADE will aid in the decision-making process required to develop norovirus vaccines. Surveillance for ADE occurring in children rotavirus detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and noroviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. For ED and hospital rotavirus and norovirus ADE parents were instructed to monitor clinical findings associated with severity until the end of the episode. The 20-point Vesikari score was used to determine disease severity. Between July 2006 and October 2008 rotavirus and noroviruses were detected in 331 (26%) and 224 (18%) of 1913 ADE evaluated. The proportion of rotavirus-positive samples in hospital ward, ED, and outpatient clinic was 40%, 26% to 30%, and 13% compared with 18%, 17% to 19%, and 14% for noroviruses. Mean age and 25%-75% interquartile interval of children with rotavirus and norovirus ADE were remarkably similar, 15.6 months (9-20), and 15.5 months (9-19), respectively. Rotavirus cases displayed an autumn-winter peak followed 2 to 3 months later by the norovirus peak. The mean (interquartile) for the Vesikari score was 12.9 (11-15) and 11.9 (9-14.5) for rotavirus (N = 331) and norovirus (N = 224) ADE, respectively, P = 0.003. Compared with norovirus, rotavirus ADE were more common in the 11 to 16 severity score interval (P = 0.006), had a higher maximum stool output in a given day (P = 0.01) and more frequent fever (P fever did not differ between viruses. Mixed rotavirus and norovirus infections were uncommon (rotavirus and lower (P = 0.03) for noroviruses compared with older children. Noroviruses are a significant cause of moderate to severe endemic ADE in Chilean children. Although significantly less severe than rotavirus as a group, most norovirus episodes were moderate to severe clinically. An effective norovirus vaccine

  9. Serosurvey of veterinary conference participants for evidence of zoonotic exposure to canine norovirus – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita João

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses have emerged as the leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Person-to-person contact and consumption of contaminated food are considered the most important ways of transmission of noroviruses however zoonotic transmission has been suggested. Recently, noroviruses have been found in dogs which, unlike bovine and swine noroviruses, may present a higher risk of zoonotic transfer, given to the often close contacts between humans and pet dogs in many societies across the world. The present paper describes a seroepidemiologic study aiming to provide information on the exposure level of humans to canine norovirus. Methods/Design A case–control study was designed to address the potential exposure to canine norovirus based on the presence of antibodies against canine norovirus. Sera from veterinarians (a population repeatedly in close contact with dogs will be collected in an annual Veterinary Sciences Congress in Portugal. In addition, sera from general population will be obtained and used as controls for comparative purposes. All sera will be tested for the presence of canine norovirus antibodies using a virus-like particle-based enzyme immune assay. Risk factors for canine norovirus antibodies presence in veterinarians will be investigated through the delivery of an anonymized questionnaire to the participants. Discussion The present study aims to identify seropositive individuals to canine norovirus and to assess risk profiles among veterinary professionals with occupational exposure to dogs. To our knowledge this is the first study providing information on the potential zoonotic risk of canine norovirus, thus allowing the development of preventive measures and ascertaining potential risks for Public Health resulting from contact to dogs.

  10. Detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious pathogen that is commonly found in oysters growing in fecally contaminated waters. Norovirus outbreaks can cause the closure of oyster harvesting waters and acute gastroenteritis in humans associated with consumption of contaminated raw oysters. Extensive efforts and progresses have been made in detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks over the past decades. The main objective of this paper is to provide a literature review of methods and techniques for detecting and forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks and thereby to identify the future directions for improving the detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks. It is found that (1) norovirus outbreaks display strong seasonality with the outbreak peak occurring commonly in December-March in the U.S. and April-May in the Europe; (2) norovirus outbreaks are affected by multiple environmental factors, including but not limited to precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind, and salinity; (3) various modeling approaches may be employed to forecast norovirus outbreaks, including Bayesian models, regression models, Artificial Neural Networks, and process-based models; and (4) diverse techniques are available for near real-time detection of norovirus outbreaks, including multiplex PCR, seminested PCR, real-time PCR, quantitative PCR, and satellite remote sensing. The findings are important to the management of oyster growing waters and to future investigations into norovirus outbreaks. It is recommended that a combined approach of sensor-assisted real time monitoring and modeling-based forecasting should be utilized for an efficient and effective detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks caused by consumption of contaminated oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human norovirus transmission due to contaminated fresh fruit and vegetables

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    Radin Dragoslava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost any ready-to-eat fruit or vegetable that has been contaminated with pathogens, either from the environment, human or animal feces or through storage, processing and handling, could potentially cause disease. This problem is particularly associated with the occurrence of human intestinal viruses, especially noroviruses, which are of major epidemiological significance as a common cause of both epidemic and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Many outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis associated with fresh fruit and vegetables have been described. The rise in incidence of human norovirus outbreaks may be the result of increased consumption of fresh produce, availability of new commodities, export/import and transport around the globe, changes in production practices, improved reporting and detection methods. [PR Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  12. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  13. Norovirus Disease in Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care Facilities: Strategies for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingxi; Hall, Aron J; Kirk, Martyn D

    2017-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facility (LTCFs). This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge on norovirus infection in LTCFs with the aim of identifying potential strategies for management. LTCF residents are at greater risk of norovirus infection. Early identification of norovirus infection and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive therapy are required to reduce morbidity and mortality. Measures to prevent outbreaks and reduce the risk of norovirus infection in LTCFs include timely diagnosis and implementation of infection control interventions to limit virus transmission. Current guidelines for prevention and control are based on generic principles of infection control. Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays have been the gold standard for the rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses. With the recent breakthroughs of human norovirus in vitro culture, doors are now opened to evaluate the efficacy of environmental disinfectants and hand hygiene options. Additionally, development of licensed vaccines against noroviruses may provide another important tool for infection prevention among high-risk individuals.

  14. Emergence of the GII-4 Norovirus Sydney2012 strain in England, winter 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allen

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the commonest cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and is the main aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, particularly in semi-closed environments. Norovirus infections in England typically peak between December and March each year. The most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4 genocluster and in the previous two norovirus winter seasons the majority of GII-4 strains in circulation worldwide have been genetically similar to the GII-4 strain New Orleans 1805/2009/USA. At the beginning of the 2012/13 season a genetically distinct GII-4 strain (Sydney 2012/NSW0514/2012/AU was described which emerged worldwide during the winter of 2012/13. Here we describe the emergence of norovirus strains genetically related to Sydney2012 in England during the 2012/13 season to replace NewOrleans2009 strains as the most commonly detected variant of GII-4 norovirus in England. Furthermore, we demonstrate that whilst the emergence of Sydney2012 coincided with an early peak in the number of norovirus outbreaks, there was not an overall increase in norovirus activity compared to the previous season. Finally, we show that the Sydney2012 strain is associated with distinct genetic changes compared to the NewOrleans2009 strain, and these changes may have contributed to the emergence of the Sydney2012 strain.

  15. Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France

    OpenAIRE

    Polo, David; Schaeffer, Julien; Fournet, Nelly; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Mcleod, Catherine; Le Guyader, Soizick

    2016-01-01

    Using samples from oysters clearly implicated in human disease, we quantified norovirus levels by using digital PCR. Concentrations varied from 43 to 1,170 RNA copies/oyster. The analysis of frozen samples from the production area showed the presence of norovirus 2 weeks before consumption.

  16. Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, David; Schaeffer, Julien; Fournet, Nelly; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; McLeod, Catherine; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2016-12-01

    Using samples from oysters clearly implicated in human disease, we quantified norovirus levels by using digital PCR. Concentrations varied from 43 to 1,170 RNA copies/oyster. The analysis of frozen samples from the production area showed the presence of norovirus 2 weeks before consumption.

  17. Evaluation of air samplers and filter materials for collection and recovery of airborne norovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Kalevi Koponen, Ismo; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most efficient sampling method for quantitative PCR-based detection of airborne human norovirus (NoV). Methods and Results: A comparative experiment was conducted in an aerosol chamber using aerosolised murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for No...

  18. Sources and persistence of human noroviruses in fresh produce chains and associated public health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaelen, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322994365

    2014-01-01

    Human norovirus is a frequent cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, and viewed as the most common cause of foodborne disease. Numerous norovirus outbreaks associated with fresh produce, especially soft-berries and lettuce are described. Risk management strategies need to be improved in order to reduce

  19. Atmospheric cold plasma iactivation of norovirus surrogates and native microbiota on blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging, novel, nonthermal technology that can be used for surface decontamination of foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of the human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and Murine Norovirus (MNV), as well as for background microb...

  20. Burden of norovirus in healthcare facilities and strategies for outbreak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kambhampati; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); B.A. Lopman (Benjamin A.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNorovirus is the most frequently occurring cause of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages. It is also one of the most frequent causes of outbreaks in healthcare settings, affecting both long-term care facilities and acute care hospitals. Whereas norovirus

  1. Standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh SeHwan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus epidemiology and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. Therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. Currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among norovirus strains in clinical and environmental samples is reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Standardized positive controls used in RT-PCR assays to detect norovirus are designed to overcome the problem of false-negative results due to PCR inhibitors and suboptimal reaction conditions. Results In the current study, four types of RNA transcripts were produced from plasmids: norovirus GI-5 and GII-4 capsid regions with human rotavirus (VP7 gene derived fragment insertions, and norovirus GI-6 and GII-4 capsid regions with hepatitis A virus (VP1/P2A gene derived fragment insertions. These size-distinguishable products were used as positive controls under the RT-PCR assay conditions used to detect NoV in stool and groundwater samples. Their reliability and reproducibility was confirmed by multiple sets of experiments. Conclusions These standardized products may contribute to the reliable and accurate diagnosis by RT-PCR of norovirus outbreaks, when conducted by laboratories located in different regions.

  2. Norovirus genotype diversity associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in aged-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, L D; Dunbar, N L; Marshall, J A

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis. Vaccine strategies against norovirus are currently under consideration but depend on a detailed knowledge of the capsid genotypes. This study examined the incidence of norovirus outbreaks in residential aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia over one year (2013) and documented the (capsid) norovirus genotypes associated with these outbreaks. It was found that 65·0% of 206 outbreaks tested were associated with norovirus infection, thereby showing norovirus to be the major cause of viral gastroenteritis in residential aged-care facilities. Fifteen capsid (open reading frame 2) genotypes were identified as follows: GI.2 (0·9%), GI.3 (1·8%), GI.4 (3·7%), GI.6 (0·9%), GI.7 (0·9%), GI.8 (0·9%), GII.1 (0·9%), GII.2 (0·9%), GII.3 (1·8%), GII.4 (2009-like) (0·9%), GII.4 (2012) (48·6%), GII.4 (2012-like) (16·5%), GII.4 (unknown) (9·2%), GII.5 (2·8%), GII.6 (0·9%), GII.7 (0·9%), GII.13 (6·4%) and an as yet unclassified GII genotype (0·9%). Although GII.4 was the most common norovirus capsid genotype detected, the great diversity of norovirus genotypes in the elderly indicates vaccination strategies for this demographic are not straightforward.

  3. Norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes: the evaluation of infection control measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.H.; Vennema, H.; Heijne, J.C.; Jager, C.M. de; Morroy, G.; Kerkhof, J.H. van den; Coster, E.J. de; Wolters, B.A.; Waarbeek, H.L. ter; Fanoy, E.B.; Teunis, P.F.; Linde, R. van der; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Effective infection control measures during norovirus outbreaks are urgently needed in places where vulnerable individuals gather. In the present study, the effect of a number of measures was investigated in daily practice. Forty-nine Dutch nursing homes were monitored prospectively for norovirus

  4. Emergence of the GII-4 Norovirus Sydney2012 Strain in England, Winter 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David J.; Adams, Natalie L.; Aladin, Farah; Harris, John P.; Brown, David W. G.

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus is the commonest cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and is the main aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, particularly in semi-closed environments. Norovirus infections in England typically peak between December and March each year. The most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) genocluster and in the previous two norovirus winter seasons the majority of GII-4 strains in circulation worldwide have been genetically similar to the GII-4 strain New Orleans 1805/2009/USA. At the beginning of the 2012/13 season a genetically distinct GII-4 strain (Sydney 2012/NSW0514/2012/AU) was described which emerged worldwide during the winter of 2012/13. Here we describe the emergence of norovirus strains genetically related to Sydney2012 in England during the 2012/13 season to replace NewOrleans2009 strains as the most commonly detected variant of GII-4 norovirus in England. Furthermore, we demonstrate that whilst the emergence of Sydney2012 coincided with an early peak in the number of norovirus outbreaks, there was not an overall increase in norovirus activity compared to the previous season. Finally, we show that the Sydney2012 strain is associated with distinct genetic changes compared to the NewOrleans2009 strain, and these changes may have contributed to the emergence of the Sydney2012 strain. PMID:24551201

  5. Temperature-dependent persistence of human norovirus within oysters (Crassotrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterizes the persistence of human norovirus in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) held at different seawater temperatures. Oysters were contaminated with human norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk strain 8fIIa) by exposing them to virus contaminated water at 15 degrees C, and subsequently ho...

  6. [Norovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in northeastern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Artur; Pogorzelska, Elzbieta; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Rozkiewicz, Dorota; Ołdak, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Noroviruses belonging to the family of Caliciviridae are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in both children and adults. In the current study incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis was estimated in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis using commercially available ELISA tests. Epidemiological data were correlated with basic demographic findings. A hundred and forty nine children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled in the study. Screening for common viruses causing gastroenteritis: rotavirus and adenovirus was performed and than stool samples were frozen and stored in children were tested positive for Norowirus group two. In total noroviruses were found in 11.4% of children included in the study. Children with norovirus infection were 3 weeks to 15 years old (mean age 5.9 years). Seasonal peak of norovirus infection was seen in September through December. The infectious agent has not been identified in 43% of investigated children. Our results support important role of noroviruses as a causing agent of gastroenteritis in children in Northeastern Poland. The importance of noroviruses may grow as rotavirus infections are likely to be eliminated due to wide introduction of vaccine in the nearest future. Routine testing for noroviruses should be considered in clinical practice.

  7. Outbreak of Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 in the Canadian Province of Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jason J; Pettipas, Janice; Gaston, Daniel; Taylor, Robin; Hatchette, Todd F; Booth, Tim F; Mandes, Russell; McDermid, Andrew; Grudeski, Elsie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis, with GII.4 being the most common circulating genotype. Recently, outbreaks in China revealed that norovirus GII.17 GII.P17 had become predominant. Objective. This study aimed to characterize the distribution of norovirus genotypes circulating in Nova Scotia. Methods. Stool specimens were collected from gastrointestinal outbreaks in Nova Scotia between Jan 2014 and June 2015 and subjected to real-time RT-PCR. Norovirus-positive specimens were referred to the National Microbiology Laboratory for sequence-based genotyping. Results. The first norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 outbreak in Canada was identified, but no widespread activity was observed in Nova Scotia. Discussion. It is unknown whether GII.P17-GII.17 is more widespread in Canada since contributions to Canadian surveillance are too sparse to effectively monitor the epidemiology of emerging norovirus genotypes. Conclusions. Presence of norovirus GII.17:P17 in Canada highlights the need for more systematic surveillance to ensure that molecular targets used for laboratory detection are effective and help understand norovirus evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

  8. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in

  9. Novel Platform Technologies for Analysis of Norovirus Contamination of Sea Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of human norovirus (NoVs) replication in vitro would be a highly useful tool to virologists and immunologists. For this reason, we have searched for new approaches to determine viability of noroviruses in food samples (especially seafood). Our research team has multiple years of experien...

  10. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Disinfection kinetics of murine norovirus using chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Kim, Ju-Mi; Ko, Gwangpyo

    2010-05-01

    We determined the disinfection efficiency of chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) using murine norovirus (MNV) and coliphage MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus. Experiments were performed in oxidant demand-free buffer (pH 7.2) at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The extent of virus inactivation by a disinfectant was quantified using three different analytical methods: plaque, short template real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and long template RT-PCR assays. Rapid inactivation of MNV by both chlorine and chlorine dioxide was observed by the plaque assay. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct values of 0.314mg/Lmin and 0.247mg/Lmin were required for a 4-log reduction of MNV at 5 degrees C by chlorine and chlorine dioxide, respectively. Lower Ct values were required at 20 degrees C. Both long template and short template RT-PCR assays significantly underestimated the virus inactivation compared to the plaque assay. Our study demonstrates that adequate treatment of water with either chlorine or ClO(2) is likely to effectively control the waterborne transmission of human norovirus.

  12. Cysteine protease activation and apoptosis in Murine norovirus infection

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    Ettayebi Khalil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine norovirus (MNV serves as a model system for the study of norovirus infection. Recently it was shown that infection of RAW 264.7 cells involved a novel apoptotic pathway involving survivin. Results Using a different set of approaches, the up-regulation of caspases, DNA condensation/fragmentation, and membrane blebbing, all of which are markers of apoptosis, were confirmed. Live cell imaging and activity-based protein profiling showed that activation of caspase-like proteases occurred within two hours of infection, followed by morphological changes to the cells. MNV infection in the presence of caspase inhibitors proceeded via a distinct pathway of rapid cellular necrosis and reduced viral production. Affinity purification of activity-based protein profiling targets and identification by peptide mass fingerprinting showed that the cysteine protease cathepsin B was activated early in infection, establishing this protein as an upstream activator of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conclusion This work adds cathepsin B to the noncanonical programmed cell death induced by MNV, and provides data suggesting that the virus may induce apoptosis to expand the window of time for viral replication. This work also highlights the significant power of activity-based protein profiling in the study of viral pathogenesis.

  13. Norovirus outbreak associated with undercooked oysters and secondary household transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano-Sobsey, E; Sweat, D; Hall, A; Breedlove, F; Rodriguez, R; Greene, S; Pierce, A; Sobsey, M; Davies, M; Ledford, S L

    2012-02-01

    During December 2009, over 200 individuals reported gastrointestinal symptoms after dining at a North Carolina restaurant. An outbreak investigation included a case-control study of restaurant patrons, a secondary household transmission study, environmental assessment of the restaurant facilities and operations, and laboratory analysis of stool and food samples. Illness was primarily associated with consumption of steamed oysters (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 4·8-28) and 20% (8/41 households) reported secondary cases, with a secondary attack rate of 14% among the 70 susceptible household contacts. Norovirus RNA was detected in 3/5 stool specimens from ill patrons; sequencing of RT-PCR products from two of these specimens identified identical genogroup II genotype 12 sequences. Final cooked temperatures of the steamed oysters were generally inadequate to inactivate norovirus, ranging from 21°C to 74°C. Undercooked contaminated oysters pose a similar risk for norovirus illness as raw oysters and household contacts are at risk for secondary infection.

  14. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Nørrung, Birgit

    2007-03-20

    In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, detection in foods relies on molecular techniques such as Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on extracted viral RNA followed by PCR product confirmation by hybridisation and/or sequencing. However, in order to obtain a successful detection it is of great importance to remove the tissue inhibitors during the viral RNA extraction. To select the most efficient extraction procedure of oysters we have compared four protocols. A pool of digestive gland material from oyster samples was divided into 1.5 g portions and spiked with 10-fold dilutions of human faecal samples containing norovirus genogroup II. The samples were tested on three different occasions using four different sample treatment protocols. The protocols were assessed with regard to their ability to recover viral RNA and detect norovirus in spiked oysters and for their in-house reproducibility. One method using viral elution by a Mixer Mill Cell Disrupter resulted in a 10-fold better recovery than the other three protocols when an RT-seminested PCR (G2SKR/COG2F and G2SKR/G2SKF) detection approach was applied. Although less distinctive this was also the case when NoV was detected by a single round RT-PCR approach using the primers JV13i and JV12y. The second most efficient method was a method using chloroform extraction and polyethylene precipitation.

  15. In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin A.; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia A.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-30

    Human noroviruses (NoV) cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24 - 48 hours. The true nature of NoV pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models. Here we show, for the first time, that NoV can infect and replicate in an organoid, three-dimensional (3-D) model of human small intestinal epithelium (INT-407). Cellular differentiation for this model was achieved by growing the cells in 3-D on porous collagen I-coated microcarrier beads under conditions of physiological fluid shear in rotating wall vessel bioreactors. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization were employed to provide evidence of NoV infection. CPE and norovirus RNA was detected at each of the five cell passages for both genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts using differentiated monolayer cultures failed.

  16. Development of genetic programming-based model for predicting oyster norovirus outbreak risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenar, Shima Shamkhali; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2018-01-01

    Oyster norovirus outbreaks pose increasing risks to human health and seafood industry worldwide but exact causes of the outbreaks are rarely identified, making it highly unlikely to reduce the risks. This paper presents a genetic programming (GP) based approach to identifying the primary cause of oyster norovirus outbreaks and predicting oyster norovirus outbreaks in order to reduce the risks. In terms of the primary cause, it was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks were controlled by cumulative effects of antecedent environmental conditions characterized by low solar radiation, low water temperature, low gage height (the height of water above a gage datum), low salinity, heavy rainfall, and strong offshore wind. The six environmental variables were determined by using Random Forest (RF) and Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) methods within the framework of the GP approach. In terms of predicting norovirus outbreaks, a risk-based GP model was developed using the six environmental variables and various combinations of the variables with different time lags. The results of local and global sensitivity analyses showed that gage height, temperature, and solar radiation were by far the three most important environmental predictors for oyster norovirus outbreaks, though other variables were also important. Specifically, very low temperature and gage height significantly increased the risk of norovirus outbreaks while high solar radiation markedly reduced the risk, suggesting that low temperature and gage height were associated with the norovirus source while solar radiation was the primary sink of norovirus. The GP model was utilized to hindcast daily risks of oyster norovirus outbreaks along the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The daily hindcasting results indicated that the GP model was capable of hindcasting all historical oyster norovirus outbreaks from January 2002 to June 2014 in the Gulf of Mexico with only two false positive outbreaks for the 12.5-year period. The

  17. Prevalence and Molecular Genotyping of Noroviruses in Market Oysters, Mussels, and Cockles in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittigul, Leera; Thamjaroen, Anyarat; Chiawchan, Suwat; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Pombubpa, Kannika; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis associated with bivalve shellfish consumption. This study aimed to detect and characterize noroviruses in three bivalve shellfish species: oysters (Saccostrea forskali), cockles (Anadara nodifera), and mussels (Perna viridis). The virus concentration procedure (adsorption-twice elution-extraction) and a molecular method were employed to identify noroviruses in shellfish. RT-nested PCR was able to detect known norovirus GII.4 of 8.8 × 10(-2) genome copies/g of digestive tissues from oyster and cockle concentrates, whereas in mussel concentrates, the positive result was seen at 8.8 × 10(2) copies/g of digestive tissues. From August 2011 to July 2012, a total of 300 shellfish samples, including each of 100 samples from oysters, cockles, and mussels were collected and tested for noroviruses. Norovirus RNA was detected in 12.3 % of shellfish samples. Of the noroviruses, 7.7 % were of the genogroup (G) I, 2.6 % GII, and 2.0 % were mixed GI and GII. The detection rate of norovirus GI was 2.1 times higher than GII. With regards to the different shellfish species, 17 % of the oyster samples were positive, while 14.0 and 6.0 % were positive for noroviruses found in mussels and cockles, respectively. Norovirus contamination in the shellfish occurred throughout the year with the highest peak in September. Seventeen norovirus-positive PCR products were characterized upon a partial sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Based on phylogenetic analysis, five different genotypes of norovirus GI (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, and GI.9) and four different genotypes of GII (GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, and GII.4) were identified. These findings indicate the prevalence and distribution of noroviruses in three shellfish species. The high prevalence of noroviruses in oysters contributes to the optimization of monitoring plans to improve the preventive strategies of acute gastroenteritis.

  18. [Comparison of two nucleic acid extraction methods for norovirus in oysters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiao; Li, Hui; Deng, Xiaoling; Mo, Yanling; Fang, Ling; Ke, Changwen

    2013-04-01

    To explore a convenient and effective method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters suitable for long-term viral surveillance. Two methods, namely method A (glycine washing and polyethylene glycol precipitation of the virus followed by silica gel centrifugal column) and method B (protease K digestion followed by application of paramagnetic silicon) were compared for their performance in norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in naturally infected oysters and in oysters with induced infection. The two methods yielded comparable positive detection rates for the samples, but the recovery rate of the virus was higher with method B than with method A. Method B is a more convenient and rapid method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters and suitable for long-term surveillance of norovirus.

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VARIANT GII.b/HILVERSUM OF NOROVIRUS IN RETAIL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

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    G.M. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections world-wide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled and screened by an hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 10% of the samples, with the lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8% rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (16% and 12%, respectively, suggesting more efficient systems of purification and control being enacted by shellfish producers and suppliers of large retail chains. By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variant GII.b/Hilversum.

  20. Emergency Department Visit Data for Rapid Detection and Monitoring of Norovirus Activity, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, Sherry; Park, Soyoun; Trivedi, Tarak; Parashar, Umesh D.; Lopman, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, BioSense visits mapped by chief complaints of diarrhea and nausea/vomiting subsyndromes as a monthly proportion of all visits correlated strongly with reported norovirus outbreaks from 6 states during 2007–2010. Higher correlations were seen for diarrhea (R = 0.828–0.926) than for nausea/vomiting (R = 0.729–0.866) across multiple age groups. Diarrhea ED visit proportions exhibited winter seasonality attributable to norovirus; rotavirus contributed substantially for children norovirus season within 4 weeks of observed dates and could be reliable, timely indicators of norovirus activity. PMID:23876432

  1. Norovirus-related chronic diarrhea in a patient treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Anne-Marie; Henry, Benoit; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pothier, Pierre; Decroocq, Justine; Leblond, Véronique; Roos-Weil, Damien

    2014-05-06

    Norovirus infection is increasingly recognized as an important cause of persistent gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts and can be a potential cause of morbidity in these populations. Here, we report a case of norovirus-related chronic diarrhea occurring in a 62-year-old immunocompromised patient treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite different therapeutic strategies including tapering of immunosuppressive therapy and immunoglobulin administration, diarrhea unfortunately did not resolve and lasted for a total of more than twelve weeks with prolonged norovirus fecal excretion. Norovirus infection can occur in the setting of alemtuzumab treatment, even as a single agent, and should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute and chronic diarrhea in these immunocompromised patients. Although the administration of oral immunoglobulin has been described as a promising efficient therapy, this was not the case in our patient. Clinical trials are thus clearly warranted to better define risk factors and efficient therapies for norovirus infection in immunocompromised populations.

  2. Noroviruses as a Cause of Diarrhea in Immunocompromised Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Van, J N; Munoz, F M; Revell, P A; Kozinetz, C A; Krance, R A; Atmar, R L; Estes, M K; Koo, H L

    2015-07-01

    Case reports describe significant norovirus gastroenteritis morbidity in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated norovirus pathogenesis in prospectively enrolled solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with diarrhea who presented to Texas Children's Hospital and submitted stool for enteric testing. Noroviruses were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical outcomes of norovirus diarrhea and non-norovirus diarrhea patients, matched by transplanted organ type, were compared. Norovirus infection was identified in 25 (22%) of 116 patients, more frequently than other enteropathogens. Fifty percent of norovirus patients experienced diarrhea lasting ≥14 days, with median duration of 12.5 days (range 1-324 days); 29% developed diarrhea recurrence. Fifty-five percent of norovirus patients were hospitalized for diarrhea, with 27% requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. One HSCT recipient developed pneumatosis intestinalis. Three HSCT patients expired ≤6 months of norovirus diarrhea onset. Compared to non-norovirus diarrhea patients, norovirus patients experienced significantly more frequent ICU admission (27% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), greater serum creatinine rise (median 0.3 vs. 0.2 mg/dL, p = 0.01), and more weight loss (median 1.6 vs. 0.6 kg, p diarrhea in pediatric transplant patients and are associated with significant clinical complications. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. LAS GASTROENTERITIS VÍRICAS: UN PROBLEMA DE SALUD PÚBLICA

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    Angela Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las gastroenteritis agudas (GA constituyen un problema de salud importante, pudiendo estar causadas por bacterias, parásitos y virus enteropatógenos, entre los que se han reconocido hasta la actualidad rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y calicivirus. La frecuencia de rotavirus como causa de casos esporádicos de GA oscila entre el 17,3% y el 37,4%. Aunque se ha sugerido que la exposición común no tiene mucha importancia para la difusión de este virus, resulta difícil relacionar casos aparentemente esporádicos, por lo que probablemente haya brotes que no llegan a detectarse. Los astrovirus causan GA con una frecuencia que oscila entre un 2 y un 26% y se han descrito brotes en escuelas y guarderías, pero también en población adulta y en ancianos. La frecuencia con que se identifican los adenovirus 40 y 41 como causa de GA esporádica en niños no inmunodeprimidos oscila entre 0,7% y 31,5%, aunque probablemente haya subdetección debido a que la sensibilidad de las técnicas convencionales es baja. Los calicivirus se separan filogenéticamente en dos géneros: Norovirus y Sapovirus. Los Norovirus se asocian frecuentemente con brotes de GA transmitidos por agua y alimentos . Se estima que el 40% de los casos de GA por Norovirus están vehiculados por alimentos. En Suecia y en algunas zonas de Estados Unidos es la primera causa de brotes de toxiinfecciones alimentarias. Recientemente se han descrito en Canadà y Japón brotes de transmisión persona a persona y también de transmisión alimentaria causados por Sapovirus, afectando tanto a población infantil como adulta.

  4. Espacios Rurales ¿Crisis sistémica o brotes verdes? Entrevista con Luis Camarero.

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    Luis Camarero Rioja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista a Luis Camarero Rioja es Catedrático de Sociología de la UNED. Experto en sociología rural desde que iniciara en los años 90 su trayectoria como investigador en el Seminario de Estudios Rurales impulsado por Josechu Vicente-Mazariegos (UCM. Recibió el Premio Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias (1993, MAPA y el Premio de Tesis Doctorales (1993, Colegio de Sociólogos. Ha dirigido distintos proyectos de investigación dedicados especialmente a la visibilización del trabajo femenino en áreas rurales y a la sostenibilidad social en el mundo rural. Autor de numerosas publicaciones de referencia como Del éxodo rural y del éxodo urbano (1993. Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, La población rural de España. De los desequilibrios a la sostenibilidad social (2009. Barcelona: La Caixa o “Foreigners, Neighbours, Immigrants: Translocal mobilities in rural areas in Spain” en Translocal Ruralism, obra editada por Hedberg y Carmo (2012. London: Springer.

  5. Near Real-Time Surveillance of U.S. Norovirus Outbreaks by the Norovirus Sentinel Testing and Tracking Network - United States, August 2009-July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Wikswo, Mary E; Barclay, Leslie; Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Parashar, Umesh D; Vinjé, Jan; Hall, Aron J

    2017-02-24

    Norovirus is the leading cause of endemic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States (1). New variant strains of norovirus GII.4 emerge every 2-4 years (2-4) and are often associated with increased disease and health care visits (5-7). Since 2009, CDC has obtained epidemiologic data on norovirus outbreaks from state health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (8) and laboratory data through CaliciNet (9). NORS is a web-based platform for reporting waterborne, foodborne, and enteric disease outbreaks of all etiologies, including norovirus, to CDC. CaliciNet, a nationwide electronic surveillance system of local and state public health and regulatory agency laboratories, collects genetic sequences of norovirus strains associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks. Because these two independent reporting systems contain complementary data, integration of NORS and CaliciNet records could provide valuable public health information about norovirus outbreaks. However, reporting lags and inconsistent identification codes in NORS and CaliciNet records have been an obstacle to developing an integrated surveillance system.

  6. Resultados y retos en salud pública ante la alerta por Ébola: una perspectiva desde Cataluña

    OpenAIRE

    Mireia Jané; Mª José Vidal; Mar Maresma; Ana Martínez; Gloria Carmona; Ana Rodés; Nuria Torner; Josep Álvarez; Maria-Rosa Sala; Irene Barrabeig

    2017-01-01

    El brote de enfermedad por virus Ébola iniciado en Guinea Conakry y notificado a la Organización Mundial de la Salud en marzo de 2014 ha sido el mayor documentado hasta la fecha. Su extensión a países limítrofes y el riesgo de expansión fuera del continente africano hicieron que, en agosto de 2014, fuese declarado emergencia de salud pública internacional. En el marco de lo establecido por el Centro de Coordinación de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias, la Agencia de Salud Pública de Cataluña i...

  7. Ecoepidemiología de la infección por rickettsias en roedores, ectoparásitos y humanos en el noroeste de Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Quintero; Andrés Felipe Londoño; Díaz, Francisco J; Piedad Agudelo-Flórez; Margarita Arboleda; Juan David Rodas

    2013-01-01

    Introducción. Las rickettsias son bacterias patógenas usualmente transmitidas por ectoparásitos, como garrapatas, piojos o pulgas. En la última década se presentaron tres brotes de rickettsiosis con casos fatales en la región noroccidental de Antioquia y en un municipio limítrofe de Córdoba. Objetivo. Describir la ecología y la epidemiología de las infecciones por Rickettsia spp. en el Urabá antioqueño. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron muestras de 354 roedores y se recolectaron 839...

  8. Brote de dengue autóctono en el área metropolitana Buenos Aires: Experiencia del Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz Outbreak of indigenous dengue in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Experience of the F.J. Muñiz Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la epidemia de dengue que afectó a la República de Bolivia y provincias del norte argentino, se produjo por primera vez un brote de dengue autóctono en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires. A partir de enero de 2009 asistimos casos de dengue importado hasta la tercera semana de marzo, cuando aparecieron los primeros casos por transmisión local, tendencia que se mantuvo hasta mediados de mayo. La mayor concentración de casos autóctonos atendidos residía en la región oeste de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y en localidades de los partidos de 3 de Febrero y La Matanza, que limitan con ella. Existieron factores concurrentes para que se produjera este brote: alta densidad vectorial, viajeros provenientes de regiones epidémicas concentrados por su domicilio en las áreas donde luego se produjo la transmisión local. El 95% ingresaron en los primeros días de viremia y en un período climático caracterizado por temperaturas medias elevadas que se mantuvieron hasta mediados de otoño. De los nueve pacientes con signos de alarma para el desarrollo de dengue grave, siete fueron casos autóctonos que no tenían antecedentes de haber padecido previamente dengue. Se comunican los hallazgos clínicos y epidemiológicos y se analizan los factores que regularon la transmisión.As a consequence of the dengue epidemic in the Bolivian Republic and the northern provinces of Argentina, an outbreak of indigenous dengue occurred for the first time in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. Since January 2009 we assisted imported dengue cases coming from epidemic regions; later, around the end of March, and until middle autumn, indigenous cases appeared. The major concentration of these indigenous cases was in the west area of Buenos Aires City and in the neighboring localities 3 de Febrero and La Matanza. There were several factors that made the local transmission possible: a high vector density, people traveling from epidemic areas and clustering

  9. Análisis de un brote epidémico de brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero

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    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La notificación mediante el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de un número inusual de casos de Brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero a finales de 1996 hizo sospechar la existencia de un brote epidémico entre dicho colectivo profesional. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló la información disponible respecto a: 1 animales sacrificados en el matadero diagnosticados de brucelosis; 2 bajas laborales producidas y 3 datos de la mutualidad laboral relativos a los empleados del matadero con la enfermedad. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica a los trabajadores sobre los antecedentes de enfermedad, actividad laboral y riesgos no laborales (ingesta de leche o derivados sin higienizar. Las dependencias y actividades del matadero fueron inspeccionadas. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se estudió cada puesto de trabajo tomando como controles a los restantes empleados del matadero. Para su verificación se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. RESULTADOS: El brote epidémico de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores comenzó durante el mes de septiembre y duró hasta febrero del siguiente año. Las encuestas epidemiológicas descubrieron 28 trabajadores con síntomas sugestivos de la enfermedad, siendo los operarios del área de sacrificio del matadero quienes presentan la tasa de ataque más alta: 56%. En el estudio de casos y controles el riesgo más elevado se observó en dicho colectivo de trabajadores con una OR de 4,27 (IC 95%: 1,6-15 y p<0.01. Del mismo modo en el estudio de cohortes apreciamos que estos trabajadores presentan un RR de 2,5 (IC 95%: 1,5-4,3 cuando son comparados con el resto de trabajadores de la cohorte y de 8 (IC 95%: 2-30 si los comparamos con el colectivo de menor exposición. Los RR de los operarios de la limpieza y de la sala de despiece fueron de 6,56 (IC 95%: 1,6-27 para los primeros y de 4,77 (IC 95%: 1,1-21 para los segundos. Las fracciones etiológicas fueron del 87% para los de la zona de

  10. Determinación de tamaño de muestra de características del xilema de brote de aguacate mediante remuestreo

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-Castillo,Elizabeth; Barrientos-Priego,Alejandro Facundo; Rodríguez-Pérez,Juan Enrique; Reyes-Santamaría,María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el tamaño de muestra adecuado, para detectar diferencias estadísticas en análisis de varianza de los caracteres de xilema, en brotes anuales de aguacate. Para esto, fueron registradas en tres árboles con altura contrastante las variables frecuencia, área, perímetro y diámetro de los vasos del xilema. A partir de 50 observaciones de cada árbol, se realizaron 5.000 remuestreos no paramétricos, para cada repetición de 2 a 50 campos microscópicos. A par...

  11. Análisis espacial de un brote de leishmaniasis en el sur del Área metropolitana de la Comunidad de Madrid. 2009-2013

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    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad zoonótica endémica en España. El objetivo de este estudio es realizar un análisis espacial de los elementos claves del ciclo de la enfermedad, vectores, reservorios y casos humanos, en un brote comunitario declarado en cuatro municipios del sur del Área metropolitana de Madrid: Fuenlabrada, Getafe, Humanes de Madrid y Leganés.Se analizaron 485 casos de leishmaniasis, declarados en el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Comunidad de Madrid, con fecha de inicio de síntomas entre el 1 de julio de 2009 y el 30 de junio de 2013.La mayor parte de los casos se localizaron en el norte de Fuenlabrada. Los resultados del análisis espacial pusieron de manifiesto que, durante el periodo de estudio, la zona con mayor concentración de casos coincidió espacialmente con áreas residenciales periféricas inmediatas a espacios verdes con alta densidad de flebotomos y prevalencia relativamente elevada de leishmaniasis en lagomorfos. Esto informa de que la exposición principal ocurre en su entorno domiciliario o peridomiciliario.El estudio parece indicar que las infraestructuras viarias podrían haber tenido un papel decisivo en la distribución espacial del brote comportándose de diferentes maneras: barreras territoriales que aíslan en cierta medida a varios núcleos urbanos de la exposición al patógeno, vías de penetración del vector en el interior de otros núcleos o generadores de un entorno de hábitats idóneos para reservorios y vectores.El análisis espacial ha permitido orientar las actuaciones de prevención y control del brote y continúa siendo de gran utilidad en la evolución del mismo. Los sistemas de información geográfica son herramientas que ayudan a la comprensión de la génesis y evolución de los brotes de enfermedades infecciosas, así como al diseño de las intervenciones ambientales.

  12. Comparison of norovirus RNA levels in outbreak-related oysters with background environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Gustar, Nicole E; Hartnell, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Norovirus is the principal agent of bivalve shellfish-associated gastroenteric illness worldwide. Numerous studies using PCR have demonstrated norovirus contamination in a significant proportion of both oyster and other bivalve shellfish production areas and ready-to-eat products. By comparison, the number of epidemiologically confirmed shellfish-associated outbreaks is relatively low. This suggests that factors other than the simple presence or absence of virus RNA are important contributors to the amount of illness reported. This study compares norovirus RNA levels in oyster samples strongly linked to norovirus or norovirus-type illness with the levels typically found in commercial production areas (non-outbreak-related samples). A statistically significant difference between norovirus levels in the two sets of samples was observed. The geometric mean of the levels in outbreak samples (1,048 copies per g) was almost one order of magnitude higher than for positive non-outbreak-related samples (121 copies per g). Further, while none of the outbreak-related samples contained fewer than 152 copies per g, the majority of positive results for non-outbreak-related samples was below this level. These observations support the concept of a dose-response for norovirus RNA levels in shellfish and could help inform the establishment of threshold criteria for risk management.

  13. Acute norovirus gastroenteritis in children in a highly rotavirus-vaccinated population in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor S; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cavalcante, Sandra M M; Kirby, Andrew; Café, Lilian P; Souto, Maria J; Dolabella, Silvio S; de Assis, Matheus R; Fumian, Tulio M; Miagostovich, Marize P; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Cuevas, Luis E

    2017-03-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and an important etiological agent is norovirus. We describe the occurrence and characteristics of norovirus diarrhoea in children from Sergipe, Northeast-Brazil, over two consecutive periods of three years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. A cross sectional hospital-based survey conducted from October-2006 to September-2009 and from July-2011 to January-2013. Acute diarrhoea cases had a stool sample collected and tested for norovirus by RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. In total 280 (19.6%) of 1432 samples were norovirus positive, including 204 (18.3%) of 1113 samples collected during the first period and 76 (23.9%) of 318 collected during the second period. The proportion of children with norovirus infection increased significantly through the second study period (χ 2 for trend=6.7; p=0.009), was more frequent in rotavirus vaccinated and in younger children (pnorovirus-positive specimens, 188 (67.1%) were sequenced. Of these, 12 were genogroup I and 176 genogroup II. The main genotype was GII.4 (149/188, 79.3%), followed by GII.2 (6, 3.2%) and GII.6 (5, 2.6%). Norovirus annual detection rates increased over the study period. The detection of norovirus was higher among young children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Genetic Susceptibility to Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Strain Infections in Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-Tzu; Liu, Fu-Ping; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Huang, Chung-Guei; Yang, Shuan; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Lai, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of associations between the susceptibility to norovirus infections and histo-blood group antigens is not available in the Taiwanese population, in which the nonsecretor phenotype is absent. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in northern Taiwan from February 2013 to December 2014 when an epidemic of norovirus infection occurred. Cases were children norovirus infections. Controls were healthy children matched to the cases by age and gender. The norovirus genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction sequencing of the VP1 gene. The secretor status, Lewis antigen and ABO type were determined by characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the FUT2, FUT3 and ABO genes, respectively. A total of 147 case-control pairs were included. GII.4 Sydney strain was the major genotype and identified in 78.3% of the cases. The weak-secretor and Lewis-positive genotypes were less commonly identified in cases than in controls (5.4% vs. 23.1% and 79.6% vs. 89.8%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the secretor and Lewis-negative genotypes were both independent factors associated with increased risk of norovirus infections [matched odds ratio: 6.766, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.649-17.285, P norovirus infections (P > 0.05). The weak-secretor genotype and the Lewis antigen-positive genotype were both protective factors against severe norovirus gastroenteritis during the GII.4 Sydney strain epidemic in Taiwan.

  15. Environmental factors associated with childhood norovirus diarrhoea in León, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Dreps, S; Cuthbertson, C C; Bucardo, F; Vinje, J; Paniagua, M; Giebultowicz, S; Espinoza, F; Emch, M

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus is detected in one in five diarrhoea episodes in children, yet little is known about environmental risk factors associated with this disease, especially in low-income settings. The objective of this study was to examine environmental risk factors, and spatial and seasonal patterns of norovirus diarrhoea episodes in children in León, Nicaragua. We followed a population-based cohort of children under age 5 years for norovirus diarrhoea over a 1-year period. At baseline, characteristics of each household were recorded. Households were geocoded and spatial locations of garbage dumps, rivers, and markets were collected. In bivariate analysis we observed younger children and those with animals in their households were more likely to have experienced norovirus episodes. In adjusted models, younger children remained at higher risk for norovirus episodes, but only modest associations were observed with family and environmental characteristics. We next identified symptomatic children living in the same household and within 500 m buffer zones around the household of another child infected with the same genotype. Norovirus diarrhoea episodes peaked early in the rainy season. These findings contribute to our understanding of environmental factors and norovirus infection.

  16. Carlow Virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menton John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million. Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002–2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. Results Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3 which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1, in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu/NoV/GII/Carlow/2002/Ire genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. Conclusion Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  17. Evaluation of a new commercial assay for the detection of norovirus in stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Arcangeletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are important human pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis; they can hardly be propagated in any cell culture system and are often difficult to visualize by using electron microscopy (ME. These aspects, as well as the need of an accurate diagnosis justify the development of a number of rapid diagnostic methods aimed at improving the identification of noroviruses and based on the research of viral genomic sequences or, alternatively, of norovirus specific proteins. In this study 60 stool samples were analyzed by traditional techniques, such as cell culture (MT, and by rapid methods like ME and nested reverse transcriptase-polimerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR.A third rapid test, the immunochromatographic assay RIDA ®QUICK Norovirus (R-Biopharm for the research of norovirus proteins (belonging to genogroups I and II, was used retrospectively on the same samples stored at -80°C. The results obtained by using nRT-PCR (i.e. the most sensitive method and the immunochromatographic assay were compared, showing that 39 samples were positive and 21 negative in nRT-PCR, while only 28 (71.8% were positive with the immunochromatographic assay; among the negative samples, one resulted positive with RIDA ®QUICK Norovirus. The latter test proved to be appreciably sensitive, even if nRT-PCR still remains the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of norovirus. Nevertheless, the easy-to-use and cheaper immunochromatographic assay can be usefully applied as a screening test.

  18. Human Norovirus prevalence in Africa: a review of studies from 1990 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabue, Jean Pierre; Meader, Emma; Hunter, Paul R; Potgieter, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    To assess the contribution of Human Norovirus to diarrhoeal diseases in Africa. We conducted a systematic review of the PubMed and EMBASE databases for published articles of Human Norovirus in Africa between 1990 and 2013. Data were extracted from selected studies and analysed. A total of 208 eligible studies were identified, of which 55 (from 19 countries) met the inclusion criteria. Many cases were of sporadic gastroenteritis (70.9%) in children (82%), 65.4% of which were seen in an outpatient setting. Over half (59.4%) of the affected children were under 5 years of age. The pooled prevalence rate of Human NoV was 11% (95% CI 8-14%), and the meta-analysis indicated significant heterogeneity between the studies. However, the conditional negative binomial regression could not clearly find the factors affecting the Human NoV prevalence rates reported. A close relationship was found between Human Norovirus strains from environmental and clinical samples. Unreported sporadic gastroenteritis cases of Human Norovirus are common in Africa. Most are community-associated infections. Possible environmental transmission routes have been documented. Combined environmental and clinical studies are required for targeted actions to control transmission of Human Norovirus in Africa. Systematic surveillance of Human Norovirus is needed to measure the burden of Norovirus-induced gastroenteritis in Africa and support any requirements for vaccine development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhanced detection and study of murine norovirus-1 using a more efficient microglial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yuanan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, as well as human CHME-5, were tested comparatively for their sensitivity to murine norovirus-1. Results Except for CHME-5, all three murine-derived cell lines were susceptible to MNV infection. Viral infection of these cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using both viral plaque and replication assays, BV-2 and RAW 264.7 cells were determined to have comparable sensitivities to MNV-1 infection. Comparisons of cell growth characteristics, general laboratory handling and potential in-field applications suggest the use of BV-2 to be more advantageous. Conclusion Results obtained from these studies demonstrate that an immortalized microglial cell line can support MNV-1 replication and provides a more efficient method to detect and study murine noroviruses, facilitating future investigations using MNV-1 as a model to study, detect, and control Human Norovirus.

  20. Carlow virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Karen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million). Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002-2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. RESULTS: Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3) which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1), in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A) were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu\\/NoV\\/GII\\/Carlow\\/2002\\/Ire) genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. CONCLUSION: Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  1. Institutional risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes: a retrospective cohort study

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    Lee Krystal CK

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the institutional outbreaks of norovirus in Hong Kong occur in elderly homes, the proportion being 69% in 2006. Residents in elderly homes are a special population seriously affected by norovirus infections, it is necessary to investigate the risk factors of the norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes at the facility level. Methods A cohort of 748 elderly homes was followed up from January 2005 to December 2007; each elderly home was treated as one observation unit and the outcome event was the norovirus outbreak. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate the rate ratio (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the potential risk factors. Results A total of 276 norovirus outbreaks were confirmed during the study period; the outbreak rate was 12.2 (95% CI: 9.9-14.6 per 100 home-years; elderly homes with a larger capacity (RR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 (per 30-resident increment, a higher staff-to-resident ratio (RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3 (per 1/30 increment and better wheelchair accessibility (RR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2 were found to have an elevated norovirus outbreak rate in Hong Kong elderly homes; Elderly homes with partitions between beds had a lower rate of norovirus outbreaks (RR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8. Conclusions Elderly home capacity, staff-to-resident ratio and wheelchair accessibility were risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes. Partitions between beds were a protective factor of norovirus outbreaks. These results should be considered in the infection control in Hong Kong elderly homes.

  2. Analysis of norovirus outbreaks reveals the need for timely and extended microbiological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattner, F; Guyot, A; Henke-Gendo, C

    2015-12-01

    Norovirus outbreaks in hospitals remain a substantial threat despite many recommendations for prevention published recently. To analyse the factors contributing to onset of a norovirus outbreak in hospitals in order to identify new prevention options. Data from 71 norovirus outbreaks occurring in five German hospitals between 2002 and 2012 were analysed focusing on the start conditions: the weekday of outbreak, the time span between the first symptomatic cases and the outbreak onset date, the timing of a positive norovirus test result in an outbreak, and presence of concomitant Clostridium difficile infections. In 68 (96%) outbreaks index cases were identifiable. In 30 of 44 (68%) outbreaks the index case patient acquired norovirus infection in hospital. In 20% of all outbreaks, the index case was a staff member. Nine outbreaks were caused by not isolating contact patients during the incubation time after their exposure to a symptomatic case. Case numbers in norovirus outbreaks were lower when the norovirus test results were available before the outbreak onset (P = 0.028). In 30 of 46 (64%) norovirus outbreaks, C. difficile toxin tests were positive in up to ten patients. Co-infection or subsequent infection with norovirus and C. difficile in single patients occurred in nine (20%) outbreaks. Future prevention strategies should focus not only on patients but also on staff. Constant surveillance for new cases of diarrhoea and vomiting and timely adherence to contact precautions for all exposed persons is crucial in outbreak control, as is the need for extended microbiological testing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Conservation of carbohydrate binding interfaces: evidence of human HBGA selection in norovirus evolution.

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    Ming Tan

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses are the major viral pathogens of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. These genetically diverse viruses comprise two major genogroups (GI and GII and approximately 30 genotypes. Noroviruses recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs in a diverse, strain-specific manner. Recently the crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the GI Norwalk virus and the GII VA387 have been determined, which allows us to examine the genetic and structural relationships of the HBGA-binding interfaces of noroviruses with variable HBGA-binding patterns. Our hypothesis is that, if HBGAs are the viral receptors necessary for norovirus infection and spread, their binding interfaces should be under a selection pressure in the evolution of noroviruses.Structural comparison of the HBGA-binding interfaces of the two noroviruses has revealed shared features but significant differences in the location, sequence composition, and HBGA-binding modes. On the other hand, the primary sequences of the HBGA-binding interfaces are highly conserved among strains within each genogroup. The roles of critical residues within the binding sites have been verified by site-directed mutagenesis followed by functional analysis of strains with variable HBGA-binding patterns.Our data indicate that the human HBGAs are an important factor in norovirus evolution. Each of the two major genogroups represents an evolutionary lineage characterized by distinct genetic traits. Functional convergence of strains with the same HBGA targets subsequently resulted in acquisition of analogous HBGA binding interfaces in the two genogroups that share an overall structural similarity, despite their distinct locations and amino acid compositions. On the other hand, divergent evolution may have contributed to the observed overall differences between and within the two lineages. Thus, both divergent and convergent evolution, as well as the polymorphic human HBGAs, likely contribute to

  4. Modelling Estimates of Norovirus Disease in Patients with Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Jiang, Baoguo; Weil, John G; Lin, Jennifer H

    2016-01-01

    The burden of disease due to norovirus infection has been well described in the general United States population, but studies of norovirus occurrence among persons with chronic medical conditions have been limited mostly to the immunocompromised. We assessed the impact of norovirus gastroenteritis on health care utilization in US subjects with a range of chronic medical conditions. We performed a retrospective cohort study using MarketScan data from July 2002 to December 2013, comparing the rates of emergency department visits, outpatient visits and hospitalizations among patients with chronic conditions (renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, immunocompromising, gastrointestinal, hepatic/pancreatic and neurological conditions and diabetes) with those in a healthy population. We estimated the rates of these outcomes due to norovirus gastroenteritis using an indirect modelling approach whereby cases of gastroenteritis of unknown cause and not attributed to a range of other causes were assumed to be due to norovirus. Hospitalization rates for norovirus gastroenteritis were higher in all of the risk groups analyzed compared with data in otherwise healthy subjects, ranging from 3.2 per 10,000 person-years in persons with chronic respiratory conditions, to 23.1 per 10,000 person-years in persons with chronic renal conditions, compared to 2.1 per 10,000 among persons without chronic conditions. Over 51% of all norovirus hospitalizations occurred in the 37% of the population with some form of chronic medical condition. Outpatient visits for norovirus gastroenteritis were also increased in persons with chronic gastrointestinal or immunocompromising conditions. Norovirus gastroenteritis leads to significantly higher rates of healthcare utilization in patients with a chronic medical condition compared to patients without any such condition.

  5. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in Victoria, 2014 to 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A

    2017-03-31

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. This study examined the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare and non-healthcare settings in Victoria, Australia, over 2 years (2014-2015). Norovirus was detected in 65.7% and 60.4% of gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated for the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. There was a significant decline in the number of norovirus outbreaks in the period 2014 to 2015 although in both years norovirus outbreaks peaked in the latter part of the year. Norovirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 (capsid) genotypes identified included GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.6, GI.9, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 was the most common genotype detected. In addition, the following ORF 1/ORF 2 recombinant forms were confirmed: GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.Pb (GII.21)/GII.3, GII.Pe/GII.2 and GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012. A significant decline was noted in the chief norovirus strain GII.Pe/GII.4_Sydney_2012 between 2014 and 2015 but there was a re-emergence of a GII.P4_ NewOrleans _2009 norovirus strain. Outbreaks involving the GII.P17/GII.17 genotype were also detected for the first time in Victoria. GI genotypes circulating in Victoria for the 2 years 2014 and 2015 underwent a dramatic change between the 2 years of the survey. Many genotypes could occur in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings although GI.3, GII.6, and GII.4 were significantly more common in healthcare settings. The study emphasises the complex way in which norovirus circulates throughout the community.

  6. Modelling Estimates of Norovirus Disease in Patients with Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Verstraeten

    Full Text Available The burden of disease due to norovirus infection has been well described in the general United States population, but studies of norovirus occurrence among persons with chronic medical conditions have been limited mostly to the immunocompromised. We assessed the impact of norovirus gastroenteritis on health care utilization in US subjects with a range of chronic medical conditions.We performed a retrospective cohort study using MarketScan data from July 2002 to December 2013, comparing the rates of emergency department visits, outpatient visits and hospitalizations among patients with chronic conditions (renal, cardiovascular, respiratory, immunocompromising, gastrointestinal, hepatic/pancreatic and neurological conditions and diabetes with those in a healthy population. We estimated the rates of these outcomes due to norovirus gastroenteritis using an indirect modelling approach whereby cases of gastroenteritis of unknown cause and not attributed to a range of other causes were assumed to be due to norovirus.Hospitalization rates for norovirus gastroenteritis were higher in all of the risk groups analyzed compared with data in otherwise healthy subjects, ranging from 3.2 per 10,000 person-years in persons with chronic respiratory conditions, to 23.1 per 10,000 person-years in persons with chronic renal conditions, compared to 2.1 per 10,000 among persons without chronic conditions. Over 51% of all norovirus hospitalizations occurred in the 37% of the population with some form of chronic medical condition. Outpatient visits for norovirus gastroenteritis were also increased in persons with chronic gastrointestinal or immunocompromising conditions.Norovirus gastroenteritis leads to significantly higher rates of healthcare utilization in patients with a chronic medical condition compared to patients without any such condition.

  7. Norovirus Infection and Acquired Immunity in 8 Countries: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Saba; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Siguas Salas, Mery; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Mondal, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Platts-Mills, James; Samie, Amidou; Kabir, Furqan; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl J; Kalam, Adil; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lima, Ila; Ramdass, Rakhi; Lang, Dennis; George, Ajila; Zaidi, Anita K M; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric; Kosek, Margaret N

    2016-05-15

    Norovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life. A birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 countries contributed 7077 diarrheal stools for norovirus testing. A subset of 199 children contributed additional asymptomatic samples (2307) and diarrheal stools (770), which were used to derive incidence rates and evaluate evidence for acquired immunity. Across sites, 89% of children experienced at least 1 norovirus infection before 24 months, and 22.7% of all diarrheal stools were norovirus positive. Severity of norovirus-positive diarrhea was comparable to other enteropathogens, with the exception of rotavirus. Incidence of genogroup II (GII) infection was higher than genogroup I and peaked at 6-11 months across sites. Undernutrition was a risk factor for symptomatic norovirus infection, with an increase in 1 standard deviation of length-for-age z score associated with a 17% reduction (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, .72-.97]; P = .011) in the odds of experiencing diarrhea when norovirus was present, after accounting for genogroup, rotavirus vaccine, and age. Evidence of acquired immunity was observed among GII infections only: Children with prior GII infection were found to have a 27% reduction in the hazard of subsequent infection (hazard ratio, 0.727; P = .010). The high prevalence of norovirus across 8 sites in highly variable epidemiologic settings and demonstration of protective immunity for GII infections provide support for investment in vaccine development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Two-Year Systematic Study To Assess Norovirus Contamination in Oysters from Commercial Harvesting Areas in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustar, Nicole E.; Powell, Andrew L.; Hartnell, Rachel E.; Lees, David N.

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of bivalve shellfish with norovirus from human fecal sources is recognized as an important human health risk. Standardized quantitative methods for the detection of norovirus in molluscan shellfish are now available, and viral standards are being considered in the European Union and internationally. This 2-year systematic study aimed to investigate the impact of the application of these methods to the monitoring of norovirus contamination in oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four monthly samples of oysters from 39 United Kingdom production areas, chosen to represent a range of potential contamination risk, were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II by using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. Norovirus was detected in 76.2% (643/844) of samples, with all sites returning at least one positive result. Both prevalences (presence or absence) and norovirus levels varied markedly between sites. However, overall, a marked winter seasonality of contamination by both prevalence and quantity was observed. Correlations were found between norovirus contamination and potential risk indicators, including harvesting area classifications, Escherichia coli scores, and environmental temperatures. A predictive risk score for norovirus contamination was developed by using a combination of these factors. In summary, this study, the largest of its type undertaken to date, provides a systematic analysis of norovirus contamination in commercial oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. The data should assist risk managers to develop control strategies to reduce the risk of human illness resulting from norovirus contamination of bivalve molluscs. PMID:22685151

  9. Two-year systematic study to assess norovirus contamination in oysters from commercial harvesting areas in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Gustar, Nicole E; Powell, Andrew L; Hartnell, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2012-08-01

    The contamination of bivalve shellfish with norovirus from human fecal sources is recognized as an important human health risk. Standardized quantitative methods for the detection of norovirus in molluscan shellfish are now available, and viral standards are being considered in the European Union and internationally. This 2-year systematic study aimed to investigate the impact of the application of these methods to the monitoring of norovirus contamination in oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four monthly samples of oysters from 39 United Kingdom production areas, chosen to represent a range of potential contamination risk, were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II by using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. Norovirus was detected in 76.2% (643/844) of samples, with all sites returning at least one positive result. Both prevalences (presence or absence) and norovirus levels varied markedly between sites. However, overall, a marked winter seasonality of contamination by both prevalence and quantity was observed. Correlations were found between norovirus contamination and potential risk indicators, including harvesting area classifications, Escherichia coli scores, and environmental temperatures. A predictive risk score for norovirus contamination was developed by using a combination of these factors. In summary, this study, the largest of its type undertaken to date, provides a systematic analysis of norovirus contamination in commercial oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. The data should assist risk managers to develop control strategies to reduce the risk of human illness resulting from norovirus contamination of bivalve molluscs.

  10. Mechanisms of Antiviral Action of Plant Antimicrobials against Murine Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilling, Damian H.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID:24907316

  11. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ana; Dominguez, Angela; Torner, Nuria; Ruiz, Laura; Camps, Neus; Barrabeig, Irene; Arias, Cesar; Alvarez, Josep; Godoy, Pere; Balaña, Pilar Jorgina; Pumares, Analia; Bartolome, Rosa; Ferrer, Dolors; Perez, Unai; Pinto, Rosa; Buesa, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV); the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03) the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03) in bacterial outbreaks (8.6%) than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%). Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p < 0.001) Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions. PMID:18410687

  12. Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilling, Damian H; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R; Bright, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤ 35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Likely transmission of norovirus on an airplane, October 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirking, Hannah L; Cortes, Jennifer; Burrer, Sherry; Hall, Aron J; Cohen, Nicole J; Lipman, Harvey; Kim, Curi; Daly, Elizabeth R; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2010-05-01

    On 8 October 2008, members of a tour group experienced diarrhea and vomiting throughout an airplane flight from Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles, California, resulting in an emergency diversion 3 h after takeoff. An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the outbreak, assess whether transmission occurred on the airplane, and describe risk factors for transmission. Passengers and crew were contacted to obtain information about demographics, symptoms, locations on the airplane, and possible risk factors for transmission. Case patients were defined as passengers with vomiting or diarrhea (> or =3 loose stools in 24 h) and were asked to submit stool samples for norovirus testing by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-six (88%) of 41 tour group members were interviewed, and 15 (41%) met the case definition (peak date of illness onset, 8 October 2008). Of 106 passengers who were not tour group members, 85 (80%) were interviewed, and 7 (8%) met the case definition after the flight (peak date of illness onset, 10 October 2008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sitting in an aisle seat (adjusted relative risk, 11.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-84.9) and sitting near any tour group member (adjusted relative risk, 7.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-33.6) were associated with the development of illness. Norovirus genotype II was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in stool samples from case patients in both groups. Despite the short duration, transmission of norovirus likely occurred during the flight.

  14. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

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    Godoy Pere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV; the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03 the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03 in bacterial outbreaks (8.6% than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%. Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions.

  15. Persistent Norovirus Contamination of Groundwater Supplies in Two Waterborne Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2018-03-01

    Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures. Moreover, the long-term persistence of noro- and adenovirus genomes was investigated. Noroviruses were detected in water samples from both outbreaks after the intrusion of wastewater into the drinking water sources. In the outbreak I, the removal efficiency of norovirus genome (3.0 log 10 removal) in the sand filter of onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and during the transport through the soil into the groundwater well was lower than the removal efficiencies of E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, and spores of C. perfringens (6.2, 6.0, > 5.9, and > 4.8 log 10 removals, respectively). In the outbreak II, cleaning of massively contaminated groundwater well and drinking water distribution network proved challenging, and noro- and adenovirus genomes were detected up to 3 months (108 days). The long-term persistence study showed that noro- and adenovirus genomes can remain detectable in the contaminated water samples up to 1277 and 1343 days, respectively. This study highlights the transport and survival properties of enteric viruses in the environment explaining their potency to cause waterborne outbreaks.

  16. Un brote de beriberi en una cárcel colombiana

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    Fernando de la Hoz

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación de campo en Leticia (Amazonas con el fin de esclarecer la causa del fallecimiento de un joven recluso en la cárcel municipal. Después de revisar la evidencia clínica y epidemiológica, concluimos que la causa de muerte fue una insuficiencia cardiaca con gasto alto, causada muy probablemente por déficit de tiamina (beriberi húmedo. Se hallaron cuatro casos más de beriberi mixto con manifestaciones moderadas, que pasaron sin diagnóstico, dentro de los reclusos. La dieta suministrada regularmente a los internos solo cubría la mitad de los requerimientos diarios de tiamina para personas adultas expuestas a un clima tropical. Este es el segundo informe publicado recientemente en Colombia sobre casos de beriberi y debe servir para que se extremen la vigilancia y las medidas dietarias de control en poblaciones altamente expuestas tales como aquellas institucionalizadas.

  17. RNA Populations in Immunocompromised Patients as Reservoirs for Novel Norovirus Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Eric; Huynh, Jeremy; Barclay, Leslie; Lopman, Ben; Baric, Ralph; Chen, Luke F.; Vinjé, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by genogroup II.4 (GII.4). Novel GII.4 strains emerge every 2 to 4 years and replace older variants as the dominant norovirus. Novel variants emerge through a combination of recombination, genetic drift, and selection driven by population immunity, but the exact mechanism of how or where is not known. We detected two previously unknown novel GII.4 variants, termed GII.4 UNK1 and GII.4 UNK2, and a diverse norovirus population in fecal specimens from immunocompromised individuals with diarrhea after they had undergone bone marrow transplantation. We hypothesized that immunocompromised individuals can serve as reservoirs for novel norovirus variants. To test our hypothesis, metagenomic analysis of viral RNA populations was combined with a full-genome bioinformatic analysis of publicly available GII.4 norovirus sequences from 1974 to 2014 to identify converging sites. Variable sites were proportionally more likely to be within two amino acids (P norovirus genome and the number of positively selected sites.In conclusion, random mutations may have a positive impact on driving norovirus evolution, and immunocompromised individuals could serve as potential reservoirs for novel GII.4 strains. IMPORTANCE Norovirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the United States. Every 2 to 3 years novel norovirus variants emerge and replace dominant strains. The continual emergence of novel noroviruses is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic drift, population immunity, and recombination, but exactly how this emergence occurs remains unknown. In this study, we identified two novel GII.4 variants in immunocompromised bone marrow transplant patients. Using metagenomic and bioinformatic analysis, we showed that most genetic polymorphisms in the novel variants occur near 0 to 2 amino acids of positively selected sites, but the

  18. Membrane alterations induced by nonstructural proteins of human norovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Y Doerflinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (huNoV are the most frequent cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, particularly genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. The viral nonstructural (NS proteins encoded by the ORF1 polyprotein induce vesical clusters harboring the viral replication sites. Little is known so far about the ultrastructure of these replication organelles or the contribution of individual NS proteins to their biogenesis. We compared the ultrastructural changes induced by expression of norovirus ORF1 polyproteins with those induced upon infection with murine norovirus (MNV. Characteristic membrane alterations induced by ORF1 expression resembled those found in MNV infected cells, consisting of vesicle accumulations likely built from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER which included single membrane vesicles (SMVs, double membrane vesicles (DMVs and multi membrane vesicles (MMVs. In-depth analysis using electron tomography suggested that MMVs originate through the enwrapping of SMVs with tubular structures similar to mechanisms reported for picornaviruses. Expression of GII.4 NS1-2, NS3 and NS4 fused to GFP revealed distinct membrane alterations when analyzed by correlative light and electron microscopy. Expression of NS1-2 induced proliferation of smooth ER membranes forming long tubular structures that were affected by mutations in the active center of the putative NS1-2 hydrolase domain. NS3 was associated with ER membranes around lipid droplets (LDs and induced the formation of convoluted membranes, which were even more pronounced in case of NS4. Interestingly, NS4 was the only GII.4 protein capable of inducing SMV and DMV formation when expressed individually. Our work provides the first ultrastructural analysis of norovirus GII.4 induced vesicle clusters and suggests that their morphology and biogenesis is most similar to picornaviruses. We further identified NS4 as a key factor in the formation of membrane alterations of huNoV and

  19. Tres brotes de brucelosis investigados en un año de vigilancia de salud laboral en Ciudad Real Three outbreaks of brucellosis in a one-year period investigated by the occupational health service in Ciudad Real (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castell Monsalve

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos 3 brotes investigados por nuestro servicio de salud laboral en el periodo de 1 año. Dos de ellos, con 2 casos cada uno, en sendas queserías industriales, y el tercero en un laboratorio pecuario perteneciente a la administración autonómica, también con 2 casos. En las 2 queserías se encontraron numerosas oportunidades para que los trabajadores pudieran haberse infectado; se consideró como de mayor riesgo la zona de descarga de leche, y la no utilización de equipos de protección individual por los trabajadores, las deficiencias en los laboratorios y la falta de separación efectiva de las dependencias fueron también potencials factores de riesgo. Respecto al laboratorio pecuario, se hallaron al menos 13 deficiencias importantes que permitían la fácil transmisión del agente infeccioso. En España, el riesgo de adquirir una infección por Brucella en laboratorios o industrias queseras es importante, y las condiciones y medidas para evitarlo que actualmente existen no son efectivas.We describe 3 outbreaks of brucellosis investigated by our Occupational Health Service in a 1-year period. Two of these outbreaks, with 2 cases each, occurred in 2 cheese factories and the third outbreak, also with 2 cases, occurred in a cattle laboratory belonging to the local government. In both cheese factories, numerous opportunities for the workers to become infected were found. The greatest risk was considered to be the area for unloading milk, while failure to use personal protection equipment by workers, deficiencies in the laboratories, and the lack of effective separation between areas were also potential risk factors. In the cattle laboratory, we found at least 13 major risk factors that could allow brucellosis transmission. In Spain, there is a substantial risk of Brucella infection in laboratories or dairy factories and current preventive measures are ineffective.

  20. The sweet quartet: Binding of fucose to the norovirus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Leuthold, Mila M; Bowler, Matthew W; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-09-01

    Human noroviruses bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and this interaction is thought to be important for an infection. We identified two additional fucose-binding pockets (termed fucose-3/4 sites) on a genogroup II human (GII.10) norovirus-protruding (P) dimer using X-ray crystallography. Fucose-3/4 sites were located between two previously determined HBGA binding pockets (termed fucose-1/2 sites). We found that four fucose molecules were capable of binding altogether at fucose-1/2/3/4 sites on the P dimer, though the fucose molecules bound in a dose-dependent and step-wise manner. We also showed that HBGA B-trisaccharide molecules bound in a similar way at the fucose-1/2 sites. Interestingly, we discovered that the monomers of the P dimer were asymmetrical in an unliganded state and when a single B-trisaccharide molecule bound, but were symmetrical when two B-trisaccharide molecules bound. We postulate that the symmetrical dimers might favor HBGA binding interactions at fucose-1/2 sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Strain-Dependent Norovirus Bioaccumulation in Oysters ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Haifa; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Pendu, Jacques; Atmar, Robert L.; Crawford, Sue E.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main agents of gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Some NoV strains bind to shellfish tissues by using carbohydrate structures similar to their human ligands, leading to the hypothesis that such ligands may influence bioaccumulation. This study compares the bioaccumulation efficiencies and tissue distributions in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) of three strains from the two principal human norovirus genogroups. Clear differences between strains were observed. The GI.1 strain was the most efficiently concentrated strain. Bioaccumulation specifically occurred in digestive tissues in a dose-dependent manner, and its efficiency paralleled ligand expression, which was highest during the cold months. In comparison, the GII.4 strain was very poorly bioaccumulated and was recovered in almost all tissues without seasonal influence. The GII.3 strain presented an intermediate behavior, without seasonal effect and with less bioaccumulation efficiency than that of the GI.1 strain during the cold months. In addition, the GII.3 strain was transiently concentrated in gills and mantle before being almost specifically accumulated in digestive tissues. Carbohydrate ligand specificities of the strains at least partly explain the strain-dependent bioaccumulation characteristics. In particular, binding to the digestive-tube-specific ligand should contribute to bioaccumulation, whereas we hypothesize that binding to the sialic acid-containing ligand present in all tissues would contribute to retain virus particles in the gills or mantle and lead to rapid destruction. PMID:21441327

  2. Norovirus and other human enteric viruses in moroccan shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabbes, Laila; Ollivier, Joanna; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Rhaissi, Houria; Nourlil, Jalal; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Coast of Morocco. A total of 77 samples were collected from areas potentially contaminated by human sewage. Noroviruses were detected in 30 % of samples, with an equal representation of GI and GII strains, but were much more frequently found in cockles or clams than in oysters. The method used, including extraction efficiency controls, allowed the quantification of virus concentration. As in previous reports, results showed levels of contamination between 100 and 1,000 copies/g of digestive tissues. Sapoviruses were detected in 13 % of samples mainly in oyster and clam samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in two samples, with concentrations around 100 RNA copies/g of digestive tissues. Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus. This study highlights the interest of studying shellfish samples from different countries and different production areas. A better knowledge of shellfish contamination helps us to understand virus levels in shellfish and to improve shellfish safety, thus protecting consumers.

  3. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

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    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  4. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Norovirus Transmission in Food Establishments: Evaluating the Impact of Intervention Strategies and Food Employee Behavior on the Risk Associated with Norovirus in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Steven; Pouillot, Régis; Fanaselle, Wendy; Papafragkou, Efstathia; Liggans, Girvin; Williams, Laurie; Van Doren, Jane M

    2017-11-01

    We developed a quantitative risk assessment model using a discrete event framework to quantify and study the risk associated with norovirus transmission to consumers through food contaminated by infected food employees in a retail food setting. This study focused on the impact of ill food workers experiencing symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting and potential control measures for the transmission of norovirus to foods. The model examined the behavior of food employees regarding exclusion from work while ill and after symptom resolution and preventive measures limiting food contamination during preparation. The mean numbers of infected customers estimated for 21 scenarios were compared to the estimate for a baseline scenario representing current practices. Results show that prevention strategies examined could not prevent norovirus transmission to food when a symptomatic employee was present in the food establishment. Compliance with exclusion from work of symptomatic food employees is thus critical, with an estimated range of 75-226% of the baseline mean for full to no compliance, respectively. Results also suggest that efficient handwashing, handwashing frequency associated with gloving compliance, and elimination of contact between hands, faucets, and door handles in restrooms reduced the mean number of infected customers to 58%, 62%, and 75% of the baseline, respectively. This study provides quantitative data to evaluate the relative efficacy of policy and practices at retail to reduce norovirus illnesses and provides new insights into the interactions and interplay of prevention strategies and compliance in reducing transmission of foodborne norovirus. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Identification of a Broadly Cross-Reactive Epitope in the Inner Shell of the Norovirus Capsid.

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    Gabriel I Parra

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. They are diverse viruses, with at least six genogroups (GI-GVI and multiple genotypes defined by differences in the major capsid protein, VP1. This diversity has challenged the development of broadly cross-reactive vaccines as well as efficient detection methods. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (MAb raised against the capsid protein of a GII.3 norovirus strain. The MAb reacted with VLPs and denatured VP1 protein from GI, GII, GIV and GV noroviruses, and mapped to a linear epitope located in the inner shell domain. An alignment of all available VP1 sequences showed that the putative epitope (residues 52-56 is highly conserved across the genus Norovirus. This broadly cross-reactive MAb thus constitutes a valuable reagent for the diagnosis and study of these diverse viruses.

  6. Literature Reference for Noroviruses (Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004. 42(10): 4679–4685)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for of solid, particulate, aerosol, and water samples. This method is an assay for detection and quantitation of norovirus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

  7. Boerhaave's syndrome and tension pneumothorax secondary to Norovirus induced forceful emesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Søren; Eckardt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome or spontaneous esophageal perforation is a rare condition, with high mortality. We describe a case of Boerhaave's syndrome presenting with tension pneumothorax. The patient was infected with Norovirus and developed Boerhaave's syndrome, initially thought to be gastroenteritis...

  8. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  9. Evidence for asymptomatic norovirus infection transmission associated with swimming at a tropical beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming in fecally-contaminated natural waterbodies can result in gastrointestinal (GI) infections and associated symptoms. However, the pathogenic microorganisms responsible are often unidentified because studies nearly always rely on self-reported symptoms. Noroviruses have be...

  10. Burden of norovirus in healthcare facilities and strategies for outbreak control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, A.; Koopmans, M.; Lopman, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Norovirus is the most frequently occurring cause of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages. It is also one of the most frequent causes of outbreaks in healthcare settings, affecting both long-term care facilities and acute care hospitals. Whereas norovirus gastroenteritis is typically mild and resolves without medical attention, healthcare-associated infections often affect vulnerable populations, resulting in severe infections and disruption of healthcare services. Globally, most norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and residential care institutions are associated with genogroup II type 4 (GII.4) strains. Recent data demonstrate that excess mortality occurs during outbreak periods in healthcare facilities. Nosocomial outbreaks can result in large economic and societal costs. Current control measures for norovirus are largely based on general infection control principles, and treatment is mainly supportive and non-specific. While neither vaccines nor antiviral agents are currently available, both are being developed with encouraging results. PMID:25726433

  11. ESTUDIO DE UN BROTE EPIDÉMICO DE TOS FERINA EN CASTELLÓN

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    Francisco González Morán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fun da men to: A par tir de la de claración de va rios ca sos en un cen tro es co lar se ini cia el es tu dio de bro te con el ob je ti vo de ca rac te ri zar éste des de el pun to de vis ta de per sona, lu gar y tiem po; se cal cu la la efec ti vi dad de la va cu na, y se es tu dia la con cor dan cia en tre los ca sos y el re sul ta do po si ti vo del es tudio se ro ló gi co. Mé to dos: Se de fine caso a la per so na que pre sen ta tos per - sis ten te de dos se manas de du ra ción. Se rea li za es tu dio de la di - fu sión de la en fer me dad a tra vés de la cur va epi dé mi ca, y de la efec ti vi dad de la do sis de re fuer zo de la va cu na an ti per tus sis. La con cor dan cia en tre los ca sos y la se ro lo gía po si ti va se eva - lúa por el ín dice Kappa. Re sul ta dos: Entre los alum nos de va rios cen tros es colares y sus con vi vien tes se en cues ta a 130 per so nas, de los que 94 en - tran en la de fi ni ción de caso. La me dia de edad de los ca sos es 10,5 años, un 42,6% son va ro nes, el 84% es co la res, el 71,3% mues tra sig nos de in fección re ciente (IgM po si ti va, y el tiem - po me dio des de la úl ti ma do sis de va cu na an ti per tus sis es de 8,25 años. La efec ti vi dad de la do sis de re fuer zo de la va cu na es del 66%. La con cor dan cia en tre los ca sos y el re sul ta do po si ti - vo de la se ro lo gía mues tra un Kappa igual a 0,45. No se ais ló B. Per tus sis en las 25 mues tras de fro tis fa ríngeo. Conclusiones: Las au las y el me dio fa mi liar son un fac tor de di fu sión de la en fer me dad. La in clu sión de una do sis de re - fuer zo a los 18 me ses me jora la efec ti vi dad de la va cu na an ti - per tus sis. El ais la mien to de la B. Per tus sis es poco fre cuen te, y la se ro lo gía, pue de ser una al ter na ti va ante la sos pe cha clí ni ca de la en fer me dad.

  12. Efficacy of Neutral Electrolyzed Water for Inactivation of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Eric; Montazeri, Naim; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-08-15

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Persistence on surfaces and resistance to many conventional disinfectants contribute to widespread transmission of norovirus. We examined the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW; pH 7) for inactivation of human NoV GII.4 Sydney in suspension (ASTM method 1052-11) and on stainless steel surfaces (ASTM method 1053-11) with and without an additional soil load. The impact of the disinfectant on viral capsid was assessed using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR; with an RNase pretreatment), SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, and a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor-binding assay. These studies were done in parallel with those using Tulane virus (TuV), a cultivable human NoV surrogate. Neutral electrolyzed water at 250 ppm free available chlorine produced a 4.8- and 0.4-log 10 reduction in NoV genome copy number after 1 min in suspension and on stainless steel, respectively. Increasing the contact time on surfaces to 5, 10, 15, and 30 min reduced human NoV genomic copies by 0.5, 1.6, 2.4, and 5.0 log 10 and TuV infectious titers by 2.4, 3.0, 3.8, and 4.1 log 10 PFU, respectively. Increased soil load effectively eliminated antiviral efficacy regardless of testing method and virus. Exposure to NEW induced a near complete loss of receptor binding (5 ppm, 30 s), degradation of VP1 major capsid protein (250 ppm, 5 min), and increased virus particle aggregation (150 ppm, 30 min). Neutral electrolyzed water at 250 ppm shows promise as an antinoroviral disinfectant when used on precleaned stainless steel surfaces. IMPORTANCE Norovirus is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Transmission occurs by fecal-oral or vomitus-oral routes. The persistence of norovirus on contaminated environmental surfaces exacerbates its spread, as does its resistance to many conventional disinfectants. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the antinoroviral

  13. Environmental Surveillance of Norovirus Genogroups I and II for Sensitive Detection of Epidemic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Shinobu; Miura, Takayuki; Masago, Yoshifumi; Konta, Yoshimitsu; Tohma, Kentaro; Manaka, Takafumi; Liu, Xiaofang; Nakayama, Daisuke; Tanno, Takashi; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2017-05-01

    Sewage samples have been investigated to study the norovirus concentrations in sewage or the genotypes of noroviruses circulating in human populations. However, the statistical relationship between the concentration of the virus and the number of infected individuals and the clinical importance of genotypes or strains detected in sewage are unclear. In this study, we carried out both environmental and clinical surveillance of noroviruses for 3 years, 2013 to 2016. We performed cross-correlation analysis of the concentrations of norovirus GI or GII in sewage samples collected weekly and the reported number of gastroenteritis cases. Norovirus genotypes in sewage were also analyzed by pyrosequencing and compared with those identified in stool samples. The cross-correlation analysis found the peak coefficient ( R = 0.51) at a lag of zero, indicating that the variation in the GII concentration, expressed as the log 10 number of copies per milliliter, was coincident with that in the gastroenteritis cases. A total of 15 norovirus genotypes and up to 8 genotypes per sample were detected in sewage, which included all of the 13 genotypes identified in the stool samples except 2. GII.4 was most frequently detected in both sample types, followed by GII.17. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that a strain belonging to the GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 lineage had been introduced into the study area in the 2012-2013 season. An increase in GI.3 cases was observed in the 2015-2016 season, and sewage monitoring identified the presence of GI.3 in the previous season (2014-2015). Our results demonstrated that monitoring of noroviruses in sewage is useful for sensitive detection of epidemic variants in human populations. IMPORTANCE We obtained statistical evidence of the relationship between the variation in the norovirus GII concentration in sewage and that of gastroenteritis cases during the 3-year study period. Sewage sample analysis by a pyrosequencing approach enabled us to understand the

  14. Isolation and Analysis of Rare Norovirus Recombinants from Coinfected Mice Using Drop-Based Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huidan; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Kolawole, Abimbola O.; Rotem, Assaf; Serohijos, Adrian W. R.; Chang, Connie B.; Tao, Ye; Mehoke, Thomas S.; Han, Yulong; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Giacobbi, Nicholas S.; Feldman, Andrew B.; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Weitz, David A.; Wobus, Christiane E.

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are positive-sense RNA viruses that can cause severe, highly infectious gastroenteritis. HuNoV outbreaks are frequently associated with recombination between circulating strains. Strain genotyping and phylogenetic analyses show that noroviruses often recombine in a highly conserved region near the junction of the viral polyprotein (open reading frame 1 [ORF1]) and capsid (ORF2) genes and occasionally within the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene. Although geno...

  15. Epidemiological evaluation of sporadic cases of Norovirus infection in comunitary and hospitalized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Giordana Rimoldi; Cristina Pagani; Alessandra Lombardi; Elena Molteni; Carla Bossi; Claudia Tonielli; Mariarita Gismondo

    2009-01-01

    Surveillace of viral gastoenteritis infections is very poor in Italy, even if starting from 2004 Norovirus became one of the most causative agent of infections in all the seasons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the isolation of Norovirus both in hospitalizes patients and communitary patients. From October 2006 to March 2008 we examined 400 samples. Our results showed only 15 sporadic cases in pediatric, HIV comunitary patients. These cases were analyzed by using an ELISA screening (Biop...

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Norovirus in Young Children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkanya Nakjarung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the genetic diversity of noroviruses identified from a previous surveillance study conducted at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 2004 to 2006. In the previous study, 926 stool samples were collected from children aged 3–60 months with acute diarrhea (cases and without diarrhea (controls with reported 6.7% of cases and 3.2% of controls being positive for norovirus. The initial norovirus diagnostic assay was performed with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR which also distinguished between genogroups I and II (GI and GII. Norovirus infection was most commonly detected in children aged 12–23 months in both cases and controls. Norovirus Genotyping Tool and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the 3′ end of the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp and the capsid domain region were employed to assign genotypes of the norovirus strains. GII.4 was the most predominant capsid genotype detected at 39.5% followed by GII.6 at 14.9%. The GII.4 Hunter 2004 variant was the predominant strain detected. Six RdRP/capsid recombinants including GII.P7/GII.6, GII.P7/GII.14, GII.P7/GII.20, GII.P12/GII.13, GII.P17/GII.16, and GII.P21/GII.3 were also identified. This study of norovirus infection in young children in Cambodia suggests genetic diversity of norovirus as reported worldwide.

  17. Identifying human milk glycans that inhibit norovirus binding using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Piskarev, Vladimir E; Xia, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Jiang, Xi; Likhosherstov, Leonid M; Novikova, Olga S; Newburg, David S; Ratner, Daniel M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk glycans inhibit binding between norovirus and its host glycan receptor; such competitive inhibition by human milk glycans is associated with a reduced risk of infection. The relationship between the presence of specific structural motifs in the human milk glycan and its ability to inhibit binding by specific norovirus strains requires facile, accurate and miniaturized-binding assays. Toward this end, a high-throughput biosensor platform was developed based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) of glycan microarrays. The SPRi was validated, and its utility was tested, by measuring binding specificities between defined human milk glycan epitopes and the capsids of two common norovirus strains, VA387 and Norwalk. Human milk oligosaccharide (HMOS)-based neoglycoconjugates, including chemically derived neoglycoproteins and oligosaccharide-glycine derivatives, were used to represent polyvalent glycoconjugates and monovalent oligosaccharides, respectively, in human milk. SPRi binding results established that the glycan motifs that bind norovirus capsids depend upon strain; VA387 capsid interacts with two neoglycoproteins, whereas Norwalk capsid binds to a different set of HMOS motifs in the form of both polyvalent neoglycoproteins and monovalent oligosaccharides. SPRi competitive binding assays further demonstrated that specific norovirus-binding glycans are able to inhibit norovirus capsid binding to their host receptors. A polyvalent neoglycoconjugate with clustered carbohydrate moieties is required for the inhibition of VA387 capsid binding to host receptor glycans, whereas both monovalent oligosaccharides and polyvalent neoglycoconjugates are able to inhibit Norwalk capsid binding to its host receptor. Binding of HMOS and HMOS-based neoglycoconjugates to norovirus capsids depends upon the specific strain characteristics, implying that HMOS and their polyvalent derivatives are potential anti-adhesive agents for norovirus prophylaxis.

  18. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Lopman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from

  19. Multiple Norovirus Infections in a Birth Cohort in a Peruvian Periurban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Goel-Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Velasquez, Daniel; Cabrera, Lilia; Loli, Sebastian; Crabtree, Jean E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret; Checkley, William; Zimic, Mirko; Bern, Caryn; Cama, Vitaliano; Gilman, Robert H.; Xiao, L.; Kelleher, D.; Windle, H. J.; van Doorn, L. J.; Varela, M.; Verastegui, M.; Calderon, M.; Alva, A.; Roman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human noroviruses are among the most common enteropathogens globally, and are a leading cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. However, data measuring the impact of norovirus at the community level are sparse. Methods. We followed a birth cohort of children to estimate norovirus infection and diarrhea incidence in a Peruvian community. Stool samples from diarrheal episodes and randomly selected nondiarrheal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for norovirus genogroup and genotype. Excretion duration and rotavirus coinfection were evaluated in a subset of episodes. Results. Two hundred twenty and 189 children were followed to 1 and 2 years of age, respectively. By 1 year, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%–85%) experienced at least 1 norovirus infection and by 2 years, 71% (95% CI, 65%–77%) had at least 1 episode of norovirus-associated diarrhea. Genogroup II (GII) infections were 3 times more frequent than genogroup 1 (GI) infections. Eighteen genotypes were found; GII genotype 4 accounted for 41%. Median excretion duration was 34.5 days for GII vs 8.5 days for GI infection (P = .0006). Repeat infections by the same genogroup were common, but repeat infections by the same genotype were rare. Mean length-for-age z score at 12 months was lower among children with prior norovirus infection compared to uninfected children (coefficient: −0.33 [95% CI, −.65 to −.01]; P = .04); the effect persisted at 24 months. Conclusions. Norovirus infection occurs early in life and children experience serial infections with multiple genotypes, suggesting genotype-specific immunity. An effective vaccine would have a substantial impact on morbidity, but may need to target multiple genotypes. PMID:24300042

  20. Multiple clusters of norovirus among shellfish consumers linked to symptomatic oyster harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Galanis, Eleni; Mattison, Kirsten; Mykytczuk, Oksana; Buenaventura, Enrico; Wong, Julie; Prystajecky, Natalie; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Moreau, Dan; Youssef, André

    2012-09-01

    We describe the investigation of a norovirus outbreak associated with raw oyster consumption affecting 36 people in British Columbia, Canada, in 2010. Several genotypes were found in oysters, including an exact sequence match to clinical samples in regions B and C of the norovirus genome (genogroup I genotype 4). Traceback implicated a single remotely located harvest site probably contaminated by ill shellfish workers during harvesting activities. This outbreak resulted in three recalls, one public advisory, and closure of the harvest site.

  1. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Benjamin A.; Steele, Duncan; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care–acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from their current state

  2. Deep Sequencing of Norovirus Genomes Defines Evolutionary Patterns in an Urban Tropical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Matthew; Petrova, Velislava; Phan, My V. T.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Watson, Simon J.; Ong, Swee Hoe; Baker, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Norovirus is a highly transmissible infectious agent that causes epidemic gastroenteritis in susceptible children and adults. Norovirus infections can be severe and can be initiated from an exceptionally small number of viral particles. Detailed genome sequence data are useful for tracking norovirus transmission and evolution. To address this need, we have developed a whole-genome deep-sequencing method that generates entire genome sequences from small amounts of clinical specimens. This novel approach employs an algorithm for reverse transcription and PCR amplification primer design using all of the publically available norovirus sequence data. Deep sequencing and de novo assembly were used to generate norovirus genomes from a large set of diarrheal patients attending three hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, over a 2.5-year period. Positive-selection analysis and direct examination of protein changes in the virus over time identified codons in the regions encoding proteins VP1, p48 (NS1-2), and p22 (NS4) under positive selection and expands the known targets of norovirus evolutionary pressure. IMPORTANCE The high transmissibility and rapid evolutionary rate of norovirus, combined with a short-lived host immune responses, are thought to be the reasons why the virus causes the majority of pediatric viral diarrhea cases. The evolutionary patterns of this RNA virus have been described in detail for only a portion of the virus genome and never for a virus from a detailed urban tropical setting. We provide a detailed sequence description of the noroviruses circulating in three Ho Chi Minh City hospitals over a 2.5-year period. This study identified patterns of virus change in known sites of host immune response and identified three additional regions of the virus genome under selection that were not previously recognized. In addition, the method described here provides a robust full-genome sequencing platform for community-based virus surveillance. PMID

  3. Modeling and Mapping Oyster Norovirus Outbreak Risks in Gulf of Mexico Using NASA MODIS Aqua Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious virus and the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks such as oyster norovirus outbreaks. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent norovirus infection and no drug to treat it. This paper presents an integrated modeling and mapping framework for predicting the risk of norovirus outbreaks in oyster harvesting waters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The framework involves (1) the construction of three novel remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of sea surface salinity, sea surface temperature, and gage height (tide level) using NASA MODIS Aqua data; (2) the development of probability-based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the prediction of oyster norovirus outbreak risk, and (3) the application of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) for mapping norovirus outbreak risks in oyster harvesting areas in the Northern Gulf of Mexico using the remotely sensed NASA data, retrieved data from the three remote sensing algorithms, and the ANN model predictions. The three remote sensing algorithms are able to correctly retrieve 94.1% of sea surface salinity, 94.0% of sea surface temperature, and 77.8% of gage height observed along the US coast, including the Pacific coast, the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the Atlantic coast. The gage height, temperature, and salinity are the three most important explanatory variables of the ANN model in terms of spatially distributed input variables. The ANN model is capable of hindcasting/predicting all oyster norovirus outbreaks occurred in oyster growing areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast where environmental data are available. The integrated modeling and mapping framework makes it possible to map daily risks of norovirus outbreaks in all oyster harvesting waters and particularly the oyster growing areas where no in-situ environmental data are available, greatly improving the safety of seafood and reducing outbreaks of foodborne disease.

  4. Host genetic resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Elin; Akerlind, Britt; Johnsen, Christina

    2007-01-01

    A total of 61 individuals involved in five norovirus outbreaks in Denmark were genotyped at nucleotides 428 and 571 of the FUT2 gene, determining secretor status, i.e., the presence of ABH antigens in secretions and on mucosa. A strong correlation (P = 0.003) was found between the secretor...... phenotype and symptomatic disease, extending previous knowledge and confirming that nonsense mutations in the FUT2 gene provide protection against symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections....

  5. Nanobodies targeting norovirus capsid reveal functional epitopes and potential mechanisms of neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Hansman, Grant S

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for infection and cell entry. Antibodies that bind at the HBGA pocket and block attachment to HBGAs are believed to neutralize the virus. However, additional neutralization epitopes elsewhere on the capsid likely exist and impeding the intrinsic structural dynamics of the capsid could be equally important. In the current study, we investigated a panel of Nanobodies in order to probe functional epitopes that could trigger capsid rearrangement and/ or interfere with HBGA binding interactions. The precise binding sites of six Nanobodies (Nano-4, Nano-14, Nano-26, Nano-27, Nano-32, and Nano-42) were identified using X-ray crystallography. We showed that these Nanobodies bound on the top, side, and bottom of the norovirus protruding domain. The impact of Nanobody binding on norovirus capsid morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. We discovered that distinct Nanobody epitopes were associated with varied changes in particle structural integrity and assembly. Interestingly, certain Nanobody-induced capsid morphological changes lead to the capsid protein degradation and viral RNA exposure. Moreover, Nanobodies employed multiple inhibition mechanisms to prevent norovirus attachment to HBGAs, which included steric obstruction (Nano-14), allosteric interference (Nano-32), and violation of normal capsid morphology (Nano-26 and Nano-85). Finally, we showed that two Nanobodies (Nano-26 and Nano-85) not only compromised capsid integrity and inhibited VLPs attachment to HBGAs, but also recognized a broad panel of norovirus genotypes with high affinities. Consequently, Nano-26 and Nano-85 have a great potential to

  6. Multiple norovirus infections in a birth cohort in a Peruvian Periurban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Goel-Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Velasquez, Daniel; Cabrera, Lilia; Loli, Sebastian; Crabtree, Jean E; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret; Checkley, William; Zimic, Mirko; Bern, Caryn; Cama, Vitaliano; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-02-01

    Human noroviruses are among the most common enteropathogens globally, and are a leading cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. However, data measuring the impact of norovirus at the community level are sparse. We followed a birth cohort of children to estimate norovirus infection and diarrhea incidence in a Peruvian community. Stool samples from diarrheal episodes and randomly selected nondiarrheal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for norovirus genogroup and genotype. Excretion duration and rotavirus coinfection were evaluated in a subset of episodes. Two hundred twenty and 189 children were followed to 1 and 2 years of age, respectively. By 1 year, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%-85%) experienced at least 1 norovirus infection and by 2 years, 71% (95% CI, 65%-77%) had at least 1 episode of norovirus-associated diarrhea. Genogroup II (GII) infections were 3 times more frequent than genogroup 1 (GI) infections. Eighteen genotypes were found; GII genotype 4 accounted for 41%. Median excretion duration was 34.5 days for GII vs 8.5 days for GI infection (P = .0006). Repeat infections by the same genogroup were common, but repeat infections by the same genotype were rare. Mean length-for-age z score at 12 months was lower among children with prior norovirus infection compared to uninfected children (coefficient: -0.33 [95% CI, -.65 to -.01]; P = .04); the effect persisted at 24 months. Norovirus infection occurs early in life and children experience serial infections with multiple genotypes, suggesting genotype-specific immunity. An effective vaccine would have a substantial impact on morbidity, but may need to target multiple genotypes.

  7. Efficacy and Mechanisms of Murine Norovirus Inhibition by Pulsed-Light Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vimont, Allison; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed light is a nonthermal processing technology recognized by the FDA for killing microorganisms on food surfaces, with cumulative fluences up to 12 J cm−2. In this study, we investigated its efficacy for inactivating murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) as a human norovirus surrogate in phosphate-buffered saline, hard water, mineral water, turbid water, and sewage treatment effluent and on food contact surfaces, including high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and stainless steel, free or i...

  8. [Recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GI.3 in a small hotel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Jani; Hemminki, Kaisa; Pirnes, Aija; Roivainen, Merja; Al-Hello, Haider; Maunula, Leena; Kauppinen, Ari; Miettinen, Likka; Smit, Pieter W; Huusko, Sari; Toikkanen, Salla; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cases of gastroenteritis occurred in a small hotel. The causative agent of disease could not be detected. The cause and the source of the disease were established through epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnosis. The causative agent of the disease was norovirus GI.3. Norovirus GI was detected in the water from the well and on surfaces at the hotel. Both epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnostics are needed in resolving epidemics. Continuous development of laboratory methods is important.

  9. Application of Next-Generation Sequencing to Evaluate the Profile of Noroviruses in Pre- and Post-Depurated Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Saiki; Haruna, Mika; Goshima, Tomoko; Kanezashi, Hiromi; Okada, Tsukasa; Akimoto, Keiko

    2016-10-01

    The development of procedures for the efficient removal or inactivation of noroviruses from contaminated oysters is of great interest in oyster production. However, there is a critical limitation for evaluating the depuration efficacy of presently available procedures, as no suitable cell culture system currently exists to cultivate noroviruses. Thus, we applied a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to characterize norovirus genotypes in pre- and post-depurated oysters. As a result, we revealed the diversity of noroviruses in pre- and post-depurated oysters. Although the applied depuration procedure could reduce the number of bacterial agents to the level recommended by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, no significant changes were observed in the detection rate and the proportion of norovirus group (G) I and GII genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the profile of noroviruses in pre- and post-depurated oysters, specifically with respect to norovirus removal, using NGS; the findings imply that the removal of noroviruses from oysters through depuration is not presently sufficient. Further studies are needed to develop a more suitable depuration procedure for removing and/or inactivating noroviruses from contaminated oysters.

  10. Effect of High-Pressure Processing on Human Noroviruses in Laboratory-Contaminated Oysters by Bio-Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Saiki; Kanezashi, Hiromi; Goshima, Tomoko; Suto, Atsushi; Ueki, You; Sugawara, Naoko; Ito, Hiroshi; Zou, Bizhen; Uema, Masashi; Noda, Mamoru; Akimoto, Keiko

    2017-09-01

    The contamination of oysters with human noroviruses poses a human health risk, since oysters are often consumed raw. In this study, human norovirus genogroup II was allowed to bio-accumulate in oysters, and then the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on human noroviruses in oysters was determined through a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method with enzymatic pretreatment to distinguish infectious noroviruses. As a result, oysters could be artificially contaminated to a detectable level of norovirus genome by the reverse transcription-PCR. Concentrations of norovirus genome in laboratory-contaminated oysters were log normally distributed, as determined by the real-time PCR, suggesting that artificial contamination by bio-accumulation was successful. In two independent HPP trials, a 1.87 log10 and 1.99 log10 reduction of norovirus GII.17 genome concentration was observed after HPP at 400 MPa for 5 min at 25°C. These data suggest that HPP is a promising process of inactivation of infectious human noroviruses in oysters. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the effect of HPP on laboratory-contaminated noroviruses in oysters.

  11. Chronic norovirus infection among solid organ recipients in a tertiary care hospital, the Netherlands, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, J; van der Eijk, A A; Fraaij, P L A; Caliskan, K; Cransberg, K; Dalinghaus, M; Hoek, R A S; Metselaar, H J; Roodnat, J; Vennema, H; Koopmans, M P G

    2017-04-01

    Immunocompromised patients can suffer prolonged norovirus symptoms and virus shedding for many years. Little is known about the prevalence of chronic norovirus infection among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this study, 2182 SOT recipients were retrospectively tested for chronic norovirus infection. The first and last norovirus positive faecal samples of SOT recipients were sequenced to distinguish between persisting infection and re-infection. Patient charts were reviewed to obtain data on health status and treatments. In all, 101 of 2182 (4.6%) recipients were norovirus infected and 23 (22.8%) of these developed chronic norovirus infection. Chronic norovirus infection was found among allogeneic heart, kidney and lung transplant recipients. The median shedding period at the end of the study period was 218 days (range 32-1164 days). This study shows that chronic norovirus infection is not a rare phenomenon among SOT recipients in a tertiary-care hospital. Further research is needed to study the risk of norovirus transmission to other immunocompromised patients in the hospital and to the general population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Temperature-Dependent Persistence of Human Norovirus Within Oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsun; Kingsley, David H

    2016-06-01

    This study characterizes the persistence of human norovirus in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) held at different seawater temperatures. Oysters were contaminated with human norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk strain 8FIIa) by exposing them to virus-contaminated water at 15 °C, and subsequently holding them at 7, 15, and 25 °C for up to 6 weeks. Viral RNA was extracted from oyster tissue and hemocytes and quantitated by RT-qPCR. Norovirus was detected in hemocytes and oysters held at 7 and 15 °C for 6 weeks and in hemocytes and oysters held at 25 °C for up to 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results confirm that NoV is quite persistent within oysters and demonstrate that cooler water temperatures extend norovirus clearance times. This study suggests a need for substantial relay times to remove norovirus from contaminated shellfish and suggests that regulatory authorities should consider the effects of water temperature after a suspected episodic norovirus-contamination event.

  13. Colorimetric Detection of Norovirus in Oysters Samples through DNAzyme as Signaling Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batule, Bhagwan Sahebrao; Kim, Seong U; Mun, Hyoyoung; Choi, Changsun; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Min-Gon

    2018-01-30

    Worldwide, norovirus (NV) is one of the most associated cause of acute gastroenteritis, which leads nearly 50,000 child deaths every year in developing countries. Therefore, there is great demand to develop rapid, low-cost, and accurate detection assay for the foodborne norovirus infection in order to reduce mortality caused by norovirus. Considering importance of norovirus, we have demonstrated a highly sensitive and specific colorimetric detection method for analysis of human norovirus genogroups I and II (HuNoV GI and II) in oyster samples. This is the first report to employing colorimetric HRPzyme-integrated PCR for direct norovirus detection from the real shellfish samples. We found that the HRPzyme-integrated PCR method is more sensitive than gel-electrophoresis approach and could detect HuNoV GI and II genome upto one copy per milliliter. The specificity of the proposed method was successfully demonstrated for HuNoV GI and II. Further, we performed testing HuNoVs in the spiked oyster samples and the HRPzyme-integrated PCR method proved to be an ultrasensitive and selective method for detecting HuNoVs in the real samples. By integrating the proposed method with the portable PCR machine, it would be more reliable to improve food safety by detecting HuNoVs in the different types of shellfish such as oyster and mussel at the production field.

  14. Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Munalula Munjita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%. The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2% than asymptomatic children (9.2%. Genogroup II (GII was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7% and GI/GII (1.9%. The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%, GI.7 (33.3%, and GI.3 (21.3%. These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Woo; Collins, Nikail; Barclay, Leslie; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Lopman, Benjamin A; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses.

  16. Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates Induce Plant Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Sarah M; Bais, Harsh; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2017-08-01

    Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide with the majority of outbreaks linked to fresh produce and leafy greens. It is essential that we thoroughly understand the type of relationship and interactions that take place between plants and human norovirus to better utilize control strategies to reduce transmission of norovirus in the field onto plants harvested for human consumption. In this study the expression of gene markers for the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plant defense pathways was measured and compared in romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants that were inoculated with Murine Norovirus-1, Tulane Virus, human norovirus GII.4, or Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (control). Genes involving both the SA and JA pathways were expressed in both romaine lettuce and A. thaliana for all three viruses, as well as controls. Studies, including gene expression of SA- and JA-deficient A. thaliana mutant lines, suggest that the JA pathway is more likely involved in the plant immune response to human norovirus. This research provides the first pieces of information regarding how foodborne viruses interact with plants in the preharvest environment.

  17. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

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    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.Objective. To evaluate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents against 47 group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS strains, and to determine the presence of genes encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA and the M--protein serotypes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana, during a scarlet fever outbreak occurring between December 1999 and January 2000, among 137 children at Colegio Espíritu de América. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs were obtained by the semiautomated microdilution method. Automated DNA sequencing was used for analysis of sequence variation in genes encoding the M protein, and SpeA. Results. All strains were sensitive to

  18. Detección de un brote de hepatitis A en Ceuta a través del sistema de información microbiológica Detection of a hepatitis A outbreak in Ceuta [Spain] through a microbiological surveillance system

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    María Teresa Ortega-Maján

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El Servicio de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Ceuta comunicó al Centro Nacional de Epidemiología un aumento de casos de hepatitis A, detectado por el sistema de información microbiológica (SIM. Se investigó la posible existencia de un brote y se instauraron las medidas de control oportunas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y otro de casos y controles. La información sociodemográfica, clínica y sobre factores de riesgo se obtuvo mediante un cuestionario cumplimentado por vía telefónica. Resultados: Se identificaron 19 casos. En el estudio univariante se encontró una asociación entre enfermar y el consumo de verduras crudas (odds ratio [OR] = 9,3; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 1,5-57,6 y de navajas (OR = 55; IC del 95%: 4,3-703,4. En el análisis multivariante sólo se mantuvo la asociación con el consumo de navajas (OR = 36,1; IC del 95%: 2,4-530,4. Ninguno de los 3 restaurantes inspeccionados disponía de control de facturas ni albaranes. Conclusiones: Se confirmó un brote de hepatitis A asociado al consumo de navajas en domicilios y restaurantes. El SIM fue la herramienta fundamental para su detección.Background: The Public Health Department of Ceuta informed the Spanish National Epidemiology Center of an increase in hepatitis A cases detected by the microbiological surveillance system. We conducted a study to confirm the outbreak and to initiate control measures. Methods: A descriptive study and a case-control study were performed. A standardized telephone questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, symptoms, and risk factors. Results: Nineteen cases of hepatitis A were identified. Univariate analysis revealed an association between infection and eating raw vegetables (OR = 9.3; 95%CI: 1.5-57.6 or razor-shell (OR = 55; 95%CI: 4.3-703.4. In the logistic regression model, only razor-shell consumption remained a significant risk factor (OR = 36.1; 95%CI: 2

  19. Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation.

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    Lisa C Lindesmith

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the principal cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide with GII.4 strains accounting for 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic strains with altered antigenic potentials. To test if antigenic drift may contribute to GII.4 persistence, human memory B cells were immortalized and the resulting human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs characterized for reactivity to a panel of time-ordered GII.4 virus-like particles (VLPs. Reflecting the complex exposure history of the volunteer, human anti-GII.4 mAbs grouped into three VLP reactivity patterns; ancestral (1987-1997, contemporary (2004-2009, and broad (1987-2009. NVB 114 reacted exclusively to the earliest GII.4 VLPs by EIA and blockade. NVB 97 specifically bound and blocked only contemporary GII.4 VLPs, while NBV 111 and 43.9 exclusively reacted with and blocked variants of the GII.4.2006 Minerva strain. Three mAbs had broad GII.4 reactivity. Two, NVB 37.10 and 61.3, also detected other genogroup II VLPs by EIA but did not block any VLP interactions with carbohydrate ligands. NVB 71.4 cross-neutralized the panel of time-ordered GII.4 VLPs, as measured by VLP-carbohydrate blockade assays. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, two evolving, GII.4-specific, blockade epitopes were mapped. Amino acids 294-298 and 368-372 were required for binding NVB 114, 111 and 43.9 mAbs. Amino acids 393-395 were essential for binding NVB 97, supporting earlier correlations between antibody blockade escape and carbohydrate binding variation. These data inform VLP vaccine design, provide a strategy for expanding the cross-blockade potential of chimeric VLP vaccines, and identify an antibody with broadly neutralizing therapeutic potential for the treatment of human disease. Moreover, these data support the hypothesis that GII.4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing

  20. Prevalence of murine norovirus infection in Korean laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Rhan; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Kim, Dong Jae; Baek, Min-Won; Na, Yi-Rang; Han, Ju-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hak; Turner, Patricia V; Chung, Doo Hyun; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2011-05-01

    Currently, murine noroviruses (MNV) are the most prevalent viral pathogens identified in laboratory animal facilities. While several reports exist concerning the prevalence of MNV in North American research facilities, very few reports are available for other parts of the world, including Korea. This study evaluated the prevalence of MNV infection in 745 murine sera collected from 15 animal facilities in Korea by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive cases were subcategorized by murine strain/genetics, housing environments and animal sources. In summary, 6.6% of inbred/outbred mice purchased from commercial vendors were seropositive, 9.6% of in-house colonies were seropositive and 27.0% of genetically modified mice (GMM) were seropositive. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that they were homologous (100%) with MNV-4.

  1. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Keevil, C William

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) determined that Cu(II) and especially Cu(I) ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked), which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  2. Studies of epidemiology and seroprevalence of bovine noroviruses in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y; Batten, C A; Liu, B L; Lambden, P R; Elschner, M; Günther, H; Otto, P; Schnürch, P; Eichhorn, W; Herbst, W; Clarke, I N

    2003-06-01

    Jena virus (JV) is a bovine enteric calicivirus that causes diarrhea in calves. The virus is approximately 30 nm in diameter and has a surface morphology similar to the human Norwalk virus. The genome sequence of JV was recently described, and the virus has been assigned to the genus Norovirus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE: In the present study, the JV capsid gene encoded by open reading frame 2 was cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pFastBac 1, and this was used to transform Escherichia coli to generate a recombinant bacmid. Transfection of insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus DNA resulted in expression of the JV capsid protein. The recombinant JV capsid protein undergoes self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) similar to JV virions in size and appearance. JV VLPs were released into the cell culture supernatant, concentrated, and then purified by CsCl equilibrium gradient centrifugation. Purified JV VLPs were used to hyperimmunize laboratory animals. An antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and characterized initially with clinical specimens containing defined human noroviruses and bovine diarrheal samples from calves experimentally infected with JV; the ELISA was specific only for JV. The ELISA was used to screen 381 diarrheal samples collected from dairy herds in Thuringia, Hesse, and Bavaria, Germany, from 1999 to 2002; 34 of these samples (8.9%) were positive for JV infection. The unexpectedly high prevalence of JV was confirmed in a seroepidemiological study using 824 serum or plasma samples screened using an anti-JV ELISA, which showed that 99.1% of cattle from Thuringia have antibodies to JV.

  3. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

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    Steinmann Jörg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human norovirus (NoV causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes. Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.

  4. Using molecular epidemiology to trace transmission of nosocomial norovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhrie, Faizel H A; Beersma, Matthias F C; Wong, Albert; van der Veer, Bas; Vennema, Harry; Bogerman, Jolanda; Koopmans, Marion

    2011-02-01

    Nosocomial norovirus (NoV) infection is common and may lead to complications in vulnerable hospitalized patients. Understanding sources and modes of transmission of noroviruses within health care settings will support the design of evidence-based strategies for reducing introduction and further spread. We sequenced a highly variable segment of the genome to identify possible clusters in patients with and without acute gastroenteritis who were hospitalized in the period 2002-2007. Admission and sampling dates were used to separate patients with nosocomial infection from those without nosocomial infection. Epidemiological clustering retrieved 22 clusters, defined as ≥ 2 patients with nosocomial infection on the same ward within 5 days. In total, 264 patients (of 2,458 tested) were diagnosed with NoV infection, and 61% of the patient strains could be genotyped. Of those, 51% (n = 82) belonged to GII.4, 34% (n = 54) belonged to GII.3, and 15% (n = 24) belonged to other genotypes (GI.6B, GII.17, GII.7, and GII.2). In children's wards, GII.3 strains were associated with nosocomial spread more often than other viruses were, whereas in adults this was the case for GII.4 strains. Sequence alignment recognized 11 new clusters based on identical P2 domains (4 GII.3 and 7 GII.4 clusters), involving patients in different wards. This increased the total number of recognized clusters by 50%. Five of these clusters involved at least one outpatient, providing a possible target for improvement of infection control. We concluded that the use of sequence-based typing should be considered for identifying hidden nosocomial clusters of NoV infections within health care settings.

  5. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Warnes

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS determined that Cu(II and especially Cu(I ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked, which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  6. Virus sincicial respiratorio: presentación, manejo y prevención de un brote intrahospitalario en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales de Lima

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    T Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR es el principal patógeno causante de infecciones del tracto respiratorio bajo durante el primer año de vida y ocasiona un elevado índice de hospitalización en niños menores de 12 meses; la presentación clínica severa y su aparición como brotes epidemiológicos en las unidades con recién nacidos prematuros representa un riesgo elevado de morbimortalidad. Se realiza la presentación de dos casos y el análisis sobre la importancia del diagnóstico precoz, el manejo individualizado y las medidas de control de infecciones como factores que reducen la morbimortalidad en estas situaciones y previenen la diseminación de los casos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN.

  7. Infection of exposed patients during norovirus outbreaks: are there predictive parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, S; Pillukat, M H; Kossow, A; Pettke, A; Mellmann, A

    2017-05-01

    Norovirus outbreak management comprises isolation and cohorting of patients. In this context, exposed patients are preferably cohorted separately from symptomatic and unexposed asymptomatic patients, since they potentially develop symptoms of norovirus gastroenteritis. Whether routinely examined clinical or laboratory parameters can help to predict occurrence of gastroenteritis symptoms in those patients has not yet been examined. To evaluate routinely examined clinical and laboratory parameters as predictive values for the development of norovirus symptoms in exposed patients during outbreaks. Exposed patients during norovirus outbreaks were observed throughout a two-year period in the university hospital of Muenster. The development of laboratory-confirmed norovirus gastroenteritis symptoms was examined in exposed patients, and clinical as well as laboratory parameters prior to onset of the outbreak were compared in exposed symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. We detected 42 exposed patients within 10 outbreaks. Of these, 33 remained asymptomatic, whereas nine patients developed norovirus gastroenteritis. Exposed symptomatic patients were significantly older (50±10.51 vs 28±4.68 years), had significantly higher blood sodium concentration (142.5±1.48 vs 138.8±0.47mmol/L) and higher systolic blood pressure (119.3±3.84 vs 108.5±2.41mmHg). Development of symptoms among exposed patients was significantly associated with blood type O (75% vs 20%). In order to minimize patient-to-patient transmission within norovirus outbreaks in hospital, risk stratification of exposed patients is helpful. To achieve this, routinely detected clinical and laboratory parameters can be useful to predict development of symptoms in these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human norovirus binding to select bacteria representative of the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A; Moore, Matthew D; Outlaw, Janie; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports describe the ability of select bacterial strains to bind human norovirus, although the specificity of such interactions is unknown. The purpose of this work was to determine if a select group of bacterial species representative of human gut microbiota bind to human norovirus, and if so, to characterize the intensity and location of that binding. The bacteria screened included naturally occurring strains isolated from human stool (Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus faecium and Hafnia alvei) and select reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae). Binding in PBS was evaluated to three human norovirus strains (GII.4 New Orleans 2009 and Sydney 2012, GI.6) and two surrogate viruses (Tulane virus and Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV)) using a suspension assay format linked to RT-qPCR for quantification. The impact of different overnight culture media prior to washing on binding efficiency in PBS was also evaluated, and binding was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. All bacteria tested bound the representative human norovirus strains with high efficiency (90% binding efficiency) (p>0.05); there was selective binding for Tulane virus and no binding observed for TCV. Binding efficiency was highest when bacteria were cultured in minimal media (90% bound), but notably decreased when cultured in enriched media (1-3 log10 unbound or 0.01 -norovirus-bacteria binding occurred around the outer cell surfaces and pili structures, without apparent localization. The findings reported here further elucidate and inform the dynamics between human noroviruses and enteric bacteria with implications for norovirus pathogenesis.

  9. PROPAGACIÓN ASEXUAL DE AZUL DE MATA (Justicia tinctoria (OERST. D. N. GIBSON, FAM. ACANTHACEAE POR MEDIO DE ESTACAS

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    Carlos A. Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dosis de ácido indolbutírico (0, 500, 1000 o 1500 ppm, la posición de donde se toma la estaca (basal, medial o terminal, el tamaño de la estaca (6, 10 o 14 cm, la ausencia o presencia de hojas, y el tipo de sustrato (arena de río, fibra de coco o carbón de granza de arroz, sobre el enraizamiento de estacas de azul de mata bajo ambiente protegido. Las variables evaluadas fueron el porcentaje de brotación y de enraizamiento, número de brotes, cantidad y longitud de raíces. Las estacas terminales presentaron los mayores valores para todas las variables, excepto porcentaje de enraizamiento: mayor número de brotes (17,5, longitud (0,17 y cantidad de raíces (0,65 que las estacas mediales y basales, lo que estaría asociado a una mayor velocidad de enraizamiento. Las dosis de AIB 1000 y 1500 ppm indujeron una mayor cantidad de raíces por estaca (8,40 y 9,24 respectivamente que las dosis menores. Hubo mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento con 1000 ppm de AIB (69% que sin ese compuesto (41%. Al utilizar estacas sin hojas aumentó la magnitud de cada una de esas variables. Con arena se obtuvo una mayor brotación aérea (96%, enraizamiento (92% y longitud de raíz (5,1 cm que con los otros sustratos. Las estacas de 14 cm presentaron consistentemente, mayor número de brotes (3,71, raíces más largas (3,56 cm y en mayor número (10,71 que las de 10 y 6 cm.

  10. Evaluación de la definición de caso probable de dengue clásico durante el brote de dengue en Lima, 2005

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    José Juárez S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de la definición de caso probable de dengue clásico (DCPDC para la identificación de casos definitivos, durante el brote en el distrito de Comas, abril - mayo 2005. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico, no controlado de corte transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes procedentes de Comas que en el periodo de estudio presentaron sospecha de dengue y con resultados de aislamiento viral o ELISA IgM, según el tiempo de enfermedad (4 ó e5 días respectivamente realizados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se determinó la sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y negativo (VPN de la DCPDC y de los síntomas que la conforman, tomando como prueba de oro al aislamiento viral o ELISA IgM. Resultados:Se incluyeron 316 pacientes, de los cuales se confirmaron 137 (43,4% casos de dengue. Se detectaron 60 pacientes mediante aislamiento viral, la DCPDC en pacientes con cuatro o menos días de enfermedad presentó una S=85%, E=13,40%, VPP=13,18%, VPN= 74,29%. Se detectaron 77 pacientes con cinco o más días de enfermedad con IgM ELISA, la DCPDC en este grupo presentó S= 68,42, E= 16,28, VPP= 68,42, VPN= 46,67. Conclusiones: La DCPDC aplicada en el brote de dengue en Comas, al igual que los síntomas individuales que la conforman es sensible, pero poco específico.

  11. Comparison of norovirus genogroup I, II and IV seroprevalence among children in the Netherlands, 1963, 1983 and 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Beek (Janko); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); Xia, M. (Ming); Jiang, X. (Xi); J. Vinjé (Jan); M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); Holwerda, M. (Melle); Van Houten, M. (Marlies); A.-M. Buisman (Anne- Marie); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F.R.M. van der Klis (F. R M); H. Vennema (Harry); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNoroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and are a genetically diverse group of viruses. Since 2002, an increasing number of norovirus outbreaks have been reported globally, but it is not clear whether this increase has been caused by a higher awareness or

  12. EVALUATION OF MURINE NOROVIRUS, FELINE CALICIVIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, AND MS2 AS SURROGATES FOR HUMAN NOROVIRUS IN a Model of Viral Persistence in SURFACE Water AND GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are a significant cause of non bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate mod...

  13. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumian, Tulio Machado; da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Juliana; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the

  14. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004-2011.

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    Tulio Machado Fumian

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20 has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85% non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9; GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4; GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4; GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2; GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1; GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1; GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1; and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1. On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009 no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains

  15. Epidemiology and clinical features of rotavirus and norovirus infection among children in Ji'nan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Lintao; Sun, Jintang; Shao, Lihua; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Haihong; Ma, Lixian

    2013-10-08

    Acute gastroenteritis caused by bacteria, virus and parasite is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Rotavirus and norovirus have been recognized as the most common pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis among children. However, there is still no valuable data about infections of rotavirus and norovirus in children in Ji'nan, an eastern city in China. The aims of the present study are to determine the incidence of rotavirus and norovirus associated acute gastroenteritis in Ji'nan among children, to characterize rotavirus and norovirus strains circulating during this period; and to provide useful epidemiological and clinical data. Fecal specimens and clinical data were collected from 767 children (502 outpatients and 265 inpatients) under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea at Shandong University Qilu Hospital and Qilu children's Hospital in Ji'nan, China between February 2011 and January 2012. Virus RNA was extracted, amplified, electrophoresed, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to determine the prevalent genotypes. Chi-square and U test were used to compare characteristics of clinical manifestation in each group. Of the 767 specimens 263 (34.3%) were positive for rotavirus and 80 (10.4%) were positive for norovirus. Among 263 rotavirus positive cases, G3 (40.7%) was the most prevalent serotype, P[8] (46.8%) was the dominant genotype and G3P[8] (31.9%) was the most common combination. All of the norovirus strains belonged to GII genogroup including GII.3, GII.4 and GII.6, of which GII.4 (61.2%) was the predominant genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the GII.4 sequences showed that 18 GII.4 strains belonged to GII.4 2004-2006 cluster and 31 GII.4 strains were divided into GII.4 2006b cluster. A peak number of rotavirus infections was observed during the cold season from November to next January. Higher rates of norovirus infections were detected from September to November. Most patients with rotavirus and norovirus

  16. Epidemiology and clinical features of rotavirus and norovirus infection among children in Ji’nan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis caused by bacteria, virus and parasite is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Rotavirus and norovirus have been recognized as the most common pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis among children. However, there is still no valuable data about infections of rotavirus and norovirus in children in Ji’nan, an eastern city in China. The aims of the present study are to determine the incidence of rotavirus and norovirus associated acute gastroenteritis in Ji’nan among children, to characterize rotavirus and norovirus strains circulating during this period; and to provide useful epidemiological and clinical data. Methods Fecal specimens and clinical data were collected from 767 children (502 outpatients and 265 inpatients) under 5 years of age with acute diarrhea at Shandong University Qilu Hospital and Qilu children’s Hospital in Ji’nan, China between February 2011 and January 2012. Virus RNA was extracted, amplified, electrophoresed, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to determine the prevalent genotypes. Chi-square and U test were used to compare characteristics of clinical manifestation in each group. Results Of the 767 specimens 263 (34.3%) were positive for rotavirus and 80 (10.4%) were positive for norovirus. Among 263 rotavirus positive cases, G3 (40.7%) was the most prevalent serotype, P[8] (46.8%) was the dominant genotype and G3P[8] (31.9%) was the most common combination. All of the norovirus strains belonged to GII genogroup including GII.3, GII.4 and GII.6, of which GII.4 (61.2%) was the predominant genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the GII.4 sequences showed that 18 GII.4 strains belonged to GII.4 2004–2006 cluster and 31 GII.4 strains were divided into GII.4 2006b cluster. A peak number of rotavirus infections was observed during the cold season from November to next January. Higher rates of norovirus infections were detected from September to November. Most

  17. The Application of New Molecular Methods in the Investigation of a Waterborne Outbreak of Norovirus in Denmark, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Alphen, Lieke B.; Dorleans, Frederique; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    in order to control the outbreak. Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans 2009 variant was detected in 15 of 17 individual stool samples from 14 households. Norovirus genomic material from water samples was detected and quantified and sequencing of longer parts of the viral capsid region (>1000 nt) were applied...... to patient and water samples. All five purposely selected water samples tested positive for norovirus GII in levels up to 1.8×104 genomic units per 200 ml. Identical norovirus sequences were found in all 5 sequenced stool samples and 1 sequenced water sample, a second sequenced water sample showed 1 nt (... investigations strongly indicates the outbreak was caused by norovirus contamination of the water supply system....

  18. Characterization and inhibition of norovirus proteases of genogroups I and II using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kyeong-Ok [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States); Takahashi, Daisuke; Prakash, Om [Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kim, Yunjeong, E-mail: ykim@vet.ksu.edu [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Noroviruses are the major cause of food- or water-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. The norovirus protease that cleaves a large viral polyprotein to nonstructural proteins is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Noroviruses show high genetic diversity with at least five genogroups, GI-GV, of which GI and GII are responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in humans. We cloned and expressed proteases of Norwalk virus (GI) and MD145 virus (GII) and characterized the enzymatic activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates. We demonstrated that the GI and GII proteases cleaved the substrates derived from the naturally occurring cleavage site in the open reading frame (ORF) 1 of G1 norovirus with similar efficiency, and that enzymatic activity of both proteases was inhibited by commercial protease inhibitors including chymostatin. The interaction of chymostatin to Norwalk virus protease was validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  19. Estrategia de PCR múltiple para la caracterización molecular simultánea de Staphylococcus aureus y enterotoxinas estafilocócicas en aislamientos de brotes de origen alimentario

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    Aníbal A. Brizzio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La intoxicación alimentaria estafilocócica es la más frecuente de las intoxicaciones alimentarias. La acción de las enterotoxinas de Staphylococcus aureus en la luz intestinal provoca una importante pérdida de agua que origina vómitos y diarrea. Objetivo. Presentar una estrategia rápida, fiable y de bajo costo, basada en una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR múltiple para, simultáneamente, identificar S. aureus y detectar genes de las cinco enterotoxinas clásicas de S. aureus (sea, seb, sec, sed, see en cepas de Staphylococcus spp. aisladas de alimentos. Materiales y métodos. Se trabajó con aislamientos recuperados de 12 brotes de intoxicación alimentaria estafilocócica ocurridos en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. El aislamiento y la caracterización fenotípica se llevaron a cabo mediante procedimientos estándar. La evaluación genotípica se hizo por una PCR múltiple, utilizando simultáneamente cebadores para los genes nuc, sea-see y 16S rRNA. Resultados. En las cepas analizadas se detectó 58 % de portadoras de genes toxigénicos. Las toxinas sea y seb se encontraron en igual porcentaje (29 %, mientras que las sec, sed y see se encontraron en menor e idéntica proporción (14 %. No encontramos más de un tipo diferente de enterotoxinas de S. aureus en los aislamientos analizados. Conclusiones. La estrategia de PCR múltiple diseñada en este trabajo permitió identificar cepas de S. aureus y confirmar, al mismo tiempo, su enterotoxigenicidad. En estos momentos, nuestros esfuerzos están dirigidos a detectar los genes que codifican enterotoxinas distintas de las clásicas, a fin de conocer su incidencia en las intoxicaciones alimentarias estafilocócicas e investigar su relevancia en la salud pública de nuestro país.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i1.816

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sung-Geun; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp), ORF2 (1,623 bp), and ORF3 (807 bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  1. An outbreak of norovirus infection linked to oyster consumption at a UK restaurant, February 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kenneth; Morris, Jill; McCarthy, Noel; Saldana, Luisa; Lowther, James; Collinson, Andrew; Young, Michael

    2011-06-01

    We present the investigation of an outbreak of gastroenteritis at a UK restaurant incorporating both epidemiological and microbiological analysis. Structured postal questionnaires were sent to 30 diners who ate at the restaurant during the outbreak period (5-7 February 2010). Stool specimens collected from staff and diners were submitted for bacterial culture and norovirus testing, and 15 Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from the batch served during the outbreak period were tested for norovirus. A strong association was observed between illness and oyster consumption (odds ratio undefined, confidence interval: 11.7 to infinity, P = 0.00001). Multiple different sequences of norovirus RNA were present in both stool and oyster specimens, typical of a shellfish origin. Several contemporaneous norovirus outbreaks throughout the UK were linked to oysters, particularly, though not exclusively, those sourced from Carlingford Lough in Ireland (as in this study), which were subsequently withdrawn from distribution. Despite the risk to human health, there is significant uncertainty surrounding the quantitative correlation between oyster norovirus levels and consumer illness. Continued research should help further our understanding of this crucial correlation and identify ways in which viral depuration of oysters can be enhanced.

  2. Foodborne Norovirus State of Affairs in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias P. Papapanagiotou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v “risk dispersion” from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi both raw (oysters and berries and cooked (mussels food products can present a health risk to consumers. The information retrieved from the RASFF database on norovirus-contaminated food could prove helpful in the planning of future norovirus risk analysis endeavors.

  3. Foodborne Norovirus State of Affairs in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Elias P.

    2017-01-01

    The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i) Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii) France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii) Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv) Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v) “risk dispersion” from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi) both raw (oysters and berries) and cooked (mussels) food products can present a health risk to consumers. The information retrieved from the RASFF database on norovirus-contaminated food could prove helpful in the planning of future norovirus risk analysis endeavors. PMID:29186840

  4. A norovirus outbreak associated with consumption of NSW oysters: implications for quality assurance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppatz, Clare; Munnoch, Sally A; Worgan, Tory; Merritt, Tony D; Dalton, Craig; Kelly, Paul M; Durrheim, David N

    2008-03-01

    Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with raw shellfish consumption. In Australia there have been several reports of norovirus outbreaks associated with oysters despite the application of regulatory measures recommended by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. This study describes an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis following the consumption of New South Wales oysters. In September 2007, OzFoodNet conducted a cohort study of a gastroenteritis outbreak amongst people that had dined at a Port Macquarie restaurant. Illness was strongly associated with oyster consumption, with all cases having eaten oysters from the same lease (RR undefined, p Norovirus was detected in a faecal specimen. Although no pathogen was identified during the environmental investigation, the source oyster lease had been closed just prior to harvesting due to sewage contamination. Australian quality assurance programs do not routinely test oysters for viral contamination that pose a risk to human health. It is recommended that the feasibility of testing oysters for norovirus, particularly after known faecal contamination of oyster leases, be assessed.

  5. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4 was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp, ORF2 (1,623 bp, and ORF3 (807 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  6. Evaluation of Various Real-Time Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Assays for Norovirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ju Eun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Park, SungJun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2017-04-28

    Human noroviruses are widespread and contagious viruses causing nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (real-time RT-qPCR) is currently the gold standard for the sensitive and accurate detection of these pathogens and serves as a critical tool in outbreak prevention and control. Different surveillance teams, however, may use different assays, and variability in specimen conditions may lead to disagreement in results. Furthermore, the norovirus genome is highly variable and continuously evolving. These issues necessitate the re-examination of the real-time RT-qPCR's robustness in the context of accurate detection as well as the investigation of practical strategies to enhance assay performance. Four widely referenced real-time RT-qPCR assays (Assays A-D) were simultaneously performed to evaluate characteristics such as PCR efficiency, detection limit, and sensitivity and specificity with RT-PCR, and to assess the most accurate method for detecting norovirus genogroups I and II. Overall, Assay D was evaluated to be the most precise and accurate assay in this study. A ZEN internal quencher, which decreases nonspecific fluorescence during the PCR, was added to Assay D's probe, which further improved the assay performance. This study compared several detection assays for noroviruses, and an improvement strategy based on such comparisons provided useful characterizations of a highly optimized real-time RT-qPCR assay for norovirus detection.

  7. A norovirus detection architecture based on isothermal amplification and expanded genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaren, Ozlem; Bradley, Kevin M; Moussatche, Patricia; Hoshika, Shuichi; Yang, Zunyi; Zhu, Shu; Karst, Stephanie M; Benner, Steven A

    2016-11-01

    Noroviruses are the major cause of global viral gastroenteritis with short incubation times and small inoculums required for infection. This creates a need for a rapid molecular test for norovirus for early diagnosis, in the hope of preventing the spread of the disease. Non-chemists generally use off-the shelf reagents and natural DNA to create such tests, suffering from background noise that comes from adventitious DNA and RNA (collectively xNA) that is abundant in real biological samples, especially feces, a common location for norovirus. Here, we create an assay that combines artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS, which adds nucleotides to the four in standard xNA, pairing orthogonally to A:T and G:C) with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to amplify norovirus RNA at constant temperatures, without the power or instrument requirements of PCR cycling. This assay was then validated using feces contaminated with murine norovirus (MNV). Treating stool samples with ammonia extracts the MNV RNA, which is then amplified in an AEGIS-RT-LAMP where AEGIS segments are incorporated both into an internal LAMP primer and into a molecular beacon stem, the second lowering background signaling noise. This is coupled with RNase H nicking during sample amplification, allowing detection of as few as 10 copies of noroviral RNA in a stool sample, generating a fluorescent signal visible to human eye, all in a closed reaction vessel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Foodborne Norovirus State of Affairs in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Elias P

    2017-11-25

    The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i) Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii) France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii) Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv) Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v) "risk dispersion" from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi) both raw (oysters and berries) and cooked (mussels) food products can present a health risk to consumers. The information retrieved from the RASFF database on norovirus-contaminated food could prove helpful in the planning of future norovirus risk analysis endeavors.

  9. Epidemiological and molecular features of norovirus infections in Italian children affected with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, M C; Tummolo, F; Martella, V; Chezzi, C; Arcangeletti, M C; De Conto, F; Calderaro, A

    2014-11-01

    During a 5-year (2007-2011) surveillance period a total of 435 (15·34%) of 2834 stool specimens from children aged <14 years with acute gastroenteritis tested positive for norovirus and 217 strains were characterized upon partial sequence analysis of the polymerase gene as either genogroup (G)I or GII. Of the noroviruses, 99·2% were GII with the GII.P4 genotype being predominant (80%). GII.P4 variants (Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b, Apeldoorn 2008, New Orleans 2009) emerged sequentially during the study period. Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of 57 noroviruses revealed that 7·8% were recombinant (ORF1/ORF2) viruses including GII.P7_GII.6, GII.P16_GII.3, GII.P16_GII.13, GII.Pe_GII.2, and GII.Pe_GII.4, never identified before in Italy. GII.P1_GII.1, GII.P2_GII.1, GII.P3_GII.3 and GII.P6_GII.6 strains were also detected. Starting in 2011 a novel GII.4 norovirus with 3-4% nucleotide difference in the polymerase and capsid genes from variant GII.4 New Orleans 2009 was monitored in the local population. Since the epidemiology of norovirus changes rapidly, continuous surveillance is necessary to promptly identify the onset of novel types/variants.

  10. Economic Cost of Campylobacter, Norovirus and Rotavirus Disease in the United Kingdom.

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    Clarence C Tam

    Full Text Available To estimate the annual cost to patients, the health service and society of infectious intestinal disease (IID from Campylobacter, norovirus and rotavirus.Secondary data analysis.The United Kingdom population, 2008-9.Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers.The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008-9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m-£75m, norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m-£106m, rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m-£35m. The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m-£4.2m.Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses.

  11. Intranasal delivery of a bivalent norovirus vaccine formulated in an in situ gelling dry powder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan P Ball

    Full Text Available The global health community is beginning to understand the burden of norovirus-associated disease, which has a significant impact in both developed and developing countries. Norovirus virus like particle (VLP-based vaccines are currently under development and have been shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. In the present study, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac™ with an in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite™ extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of a bivalent vaccine formulation containing both GI and GII.4 norovirus VLPs. Dose-ranging studies were performed to identify the optimal antigen dosages based on systemic and mucosal immune responses in guinea pigs and determine any antigenic interference. A dose-dependent increase in systemic and mucosal immunogenicity against each of the VLPs were observed as well as a boosting effect for each VLP after the second dosing. A total antigen dose of ≥50 μg of each GI and GII.4 VLPs was determined to be the maximally immunogenic dose in guinea pigs. The immunogenicity results of this bivalent formulation, taken together with previous work on monovalent GelVac™ norovirus vaccine formulation, provides a basis for future development of this norovirus VLP vaccine.

  12. [Comparative analysis on clinical manifestations for gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Jia, Li-ying; Qian, Yuan; Chen, Dong-mei; Zhang, You; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2009-04-01

    To compare the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus in infants and young children in Beijing. Stool specimens were collected from infants and young children with acute diarrhea who visited the Affiliated Children's Hospital to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2002 to December 2006. Registration form was designed for clinical data collection for each patient from whom specimen was collected. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were used to detect rotavirus and Human norovirus, respectively. Among 779 stool specimens tested for rotavirus, 263 were positive (33.8%), and norovirus positive specimens were 79 out of 318 (24.8%) specimens tested. Most of the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by these two viruses were quite similar with no significant difference, except for fever. The seasonal distribution of these two viruses were different with the peak of rotavirus infection was in cold weather between October and January, as indicated by the peak of the positive rates of the virus detection. The infection of norovirus seemed no obvious peak in the year. Rotavirus is the most important pathogen for acute diarrhea among infants and young children while. Norovirus is also an important pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. No significant difference was found out for clinical manifestations for the gastroenteritis caused by these two viruses.

  13. Development of artificial intelligence approach to forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenar, Shima Shamkhali; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based model, called ANN-2Day model, for forecasting, managing and ultimately eliminating the growing risk of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The ANN-2Day model was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Toolbox in MATLAB Program and 15-years of epidemiological and environmental data for six independent environmental predictors including water temperature, solar radiation, gage height, salinity, wind, and rainfall. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks can be forecasted with two-day lead time using the ANN-2Day model and daily data of the six environmental predictors. Forecasting results of the ANN-2Day model indicated that the model was capable of reproducing 19years of historical oyster norovirus outbreaks along the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast with the positive predictive value of 76.82%, the negative predictive value of 100.00%, the sensitivity of 100.00%, the specificity of 99.84%, and the overall accuracy of 99.83%, respectively, demonstrating the efficacy of the ANN-2Day model in predicting the risk of norovirus outbreaks to human health. The 2-day lead time enables public health agencies and oyster harvesters to plan for management interventions and thus makes it possible to achieve a paradigm shift of their daily management and operation from primarily reacting to epidemic incidents of norovirus infection after they have occurred to eliminating (or at least reducing) the risk of costly incidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR results for norovirus in oysters and self-reported gastroenteric illness in restaurant customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Avant, Justin M; Gizynski, Krzysztof; Rangdale, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2010-02-01

    Norovirus is the principal agent of bivalve shellfish-associated gastroenteric illness worldwide. Numerous studies using PCR have demonstrated norovirus contamination in a significant proportion of both oyster and other bivalve shellfish production areas and ready-to-eat products. By comparison, the number of epidemiologically confirmed shellfish-associated outbreaks is relatively low. This study attempts to compare norovirus RNA detection in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and human health risk. Self-reported customer complaints of illness in a restaurant setting (screened for credible norovirus symptoms) were compared with presence and levels of norovirus as determined by real-time RT-PCR for the batch of oysters consumed. No illness was reported for batches consistently negative for norovirus by real-time RT-PCR. However, norovirus was detected in some batches for which no illness was reported. Overall presence or absence of norovirus showed a significant association with illness complaints. In addition, the batch with the highest norovirus RNA levels also resulted in the highest rate of reported illness, suggesting a linkage between virus RNA levels and health risks. This study suggests that detection of high levels of norovirus RNA in oysters is indicative of a significantly elevated health risk. However, illness may not necessarily be reported after detection of norovirus RNA at low levels.

  15. Epidemiology and clinical peculiarities of norovirus and rotavirus infection in hospitalized young children with acute diarrhea in Taiwan, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Yan; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Chang, Wan-Chi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Yang, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Sun-Lin; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2010-12-01

    Acute diarrhea is one of the most common morbidities in pediatrics worldwide. We conducted a study to investigate the incidence of norovirus in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Taiwan and its clinical peculiarity compared with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Between January and December, 2009, patients younger than 5 years and admitted to hospital with acute diarrhea were randomly selected; and their stool samples were collected and tested for presence of rotavirus and norovirus by enzyme immunoassay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of the enrolled patients were analyzed. A total of 989 cases were enrolled with a mean age of 21.6 ± 13.7 months and a male proportion of 56.0%. Rotavirus and norovirus was detected in 20.2% and 14.6% of all patients, respectively. Genogroup II was the predominant strain of norovirus (80.6%). Children aged 6-36 months accounted for the majority of patients positive for rotavirus and norovirus (73.0% and 81.3%, respectively). The incidences of norovirus and rotavirus infection were higher during winter and early spring. Most patients with rotavirus and norovirus diarrhea experienced vomiting (74.9%vs. 74.8%, respectively) and fever (94.7%vs. 71.3%, respectively). Most young diarrheal patients presenting with vomiting were likely to have norovirus or rotavirus infection. Patients with norovirus diarrhea experienced an absence of, or low-grade fever and longer duration of vomiting compared with those positive for rotavirus infection. A family history of current gastroenteritis may suggest the possibility of norovirus infection. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of norovirus infections among diarrhea outpatients in a diarrhea surveillance system in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Pan, Hao; Hu, Jiayu; Wu, Huanyu; Li, Jian; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Xi; Yuan, Zheng'an; Wu, Fan

    2015-04-15

    Norovirus is an important cause of gastroenteritis both in children and adults. In China, few studies have been conducted on adult populations. This study aimed to determine the contribution of norovirus to gastroenteritis, characterize the features of norovirus infections, compare them with other pathogens, and test the effectiveness of the surveillance system. A citywide surveillance network on diarrhea patients was established. Samples were collected with intervals from both children and adults among diarrhea outpatients in hospitals and tested for viruses using rRT-PCR and for bacteria in CDCs. Patient information was acquired through interviews and recorded into a dedicated online system. The Pearson χ2 test, multivariate logistic regression models and discriminant models were fitted into its comparisons with the non-norovirus group and other pathogens. Norovirus was detected in 22.91% of sampled diarrhea patients. The seasonal distribution of norovirus infections was different from non-norovirus patients (pfever (p=0.046, OR=0.758, 95% CI=0.577-0.996) and abdominal pain (p=0.018, OR=0.815, 95% CI=0.689-0.965). Children were more vulnerable to rotavirus (p=0.008, OR=1.637, 95% CI=1.136-2.358) and bacteria (p=0.027, OR=1.511, 95% CI=1.053-2.169) than norovirus. There was a seasonal difference between the GI and GII genotypes (protavirus and bacteria, children were less frequently affected by norovirus. Nausea and vomiting were typical of norovirus, whereas fever and abdominal pain were uncommon symptoms of this pathogen. GI and GII infections were centered in different seasons. Officials and clerks were more easily affected by GI than GII.

  17. Sensitive detection of norovirus using phage nanoparticle reporters in lateral-flow assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E V Hagström

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are recognized worldwide as the principal cause of acute, non-bacterial gastroenteritis, resulting in 19-21 million cases of disease every year in the United States. Noroviruses have a very low infectious dose, a short incubation period, high resistance to traditional disinfection techniques and multiple modes of transmission, making early, point-of-care detection essential for controlling the spread of the disease. The traditional diagnostic tools, electron microscopy, RT-PCR and ELISA require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and are considered too laborious and slow to be useful during severe outbreaks. In this paper we describe the development of a new, rapid and sensitive lateral-flow assay using labeled phage particles for the detection of the prototypical norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk, with a limit of detection of 107 virus-like particles per mL, one hundred-fold lower than a conventional gold nanoparticle lateral-flow assay using the same antibody pair.

  18. Sensitive Detection of Norovirus Using Phage Nanoparticle Reporters in Lateral-Flow Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Anna E. V.; Garvey, Gavin; Paterson, Andrew S.; Dhamane, Sagar; Adhikari, Meena; Estes, Mary K.; Strych, Ulrich; Kourentzi, Katerina; Atmar, Robert L.; Willson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized worldwide as the principal cause of acute, non-bacterial gastroenteritis, resulting in 19-21 million cases of disease every year in the United States. Noroviruses have a very low infectious dose, a short incubation period, high resistance to traditional disinfection techniques and multiple modes of transmission, making early, point-of-care detection essential for controlling the spread of the disease. The traditional diagnostic tools, electron microscopy, RT-PCR and ELISA require sophisticated and expensive instrumentation, and are considered too laborious and slow to be useful during severe outbreaks. In this paper we describe the development of a new, rapid and sensitive lateral-flow assay using labeled phage particles for the detection of the prototypical norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk), with a limit of detection of 107 virus-like particles per mL, one hundred-fold lower than a conventional gold nanoparticle lateral-flow assay using the same antibody pair. PMID:25978622

  19. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus in bivalve molluscs in Southern Italy

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    Giovanna Fusco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European Legislation has fixed microbiological, chemical and biotoxicological limits for shellfish but no limits for viruses. In the present study we report the results of an investigation on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Hepatitis A virus (HAV and Norovirus (NoV contamination in 59 bivalve shellfish collected during the years 2011-2012 in Southern Italy. All the samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis and of Solen marginatus were negative for HAV whereas 6.8% of them were positive for Norovirus GI (NoVGI and 11.9% positive for Norovirus GII (NoVGII. Samples were also negative for Salmonella spp., while 16 of them (27% were positive for E. coli. No correlation was found between E. coli and NoV contamination in bivalve molluscs. Moreover, the Competent Authorities are advised to take into serious consideration additional measures for the legislation in force in order to guarantee the consumer's health.

  20. Tulane Virus as a Potential Surrogate To Mimic Norovirus Behavior in Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouaz, Najoua; Schaeffer, Julien; Farkas, Tibor; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2015-08-01

    Oyster contamination by noroviruses is an important health and economic problem. The present study aimed to compare the behaviors of Norwalk virus (the prototype genogroup I norovirus) and two culturable viruses: Tulane virus and mengovirus. After bioaccumulation, tissue distributions were quite similar for Norwalk virus and Tulane virus, with the majority of viral particles detected in digestive tissues, while mengovirus was detected in large amounts in the gills and mantle as well as in digestive tissues. The levels of persistence of all three viruses over 8 days were comparable, but clear differences were observed over longer periods, with Norwalk and Tulane viruses displaying rather similar half-lives, unlike mengovirus, which was cleared more rapidly. These results indicate that Tulane virus may be a good surrogate for studying norovirus behavior in oysters, and they confirm the prolonged persistence of Norwalk virus in oyster tissues. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Series of Norovirus Outbreaks Caused by Consumption of Green Coral Lettuce, Denmark, April 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Jensen, Tenna

    2016-01-01

    over the polymerase and/or capsid gene areas. Implicated lettuce heads were collected and analysed for the presence of norovirus. Foods were traced-back and traced-forward and international alert systems applied. A total of 23 linked point-source outbreaks occurred over the course of one week. Fresh...... green coral lettuce (Lollo Bionda lettuce) had been consumed in all settings. In a cohort study including 234 participants a dish containing green lettuce was associated with illness. Norovirus of Genogroup I (GI) was detected in samples from 28 patients comprising eight of the outbreaks. Sequencing...... showed GI.P2-GI.2. GI norovirus was detected in one of 20 examined lettuce heads. All lettuce consumed was supplied by the same packer who in turn had bought the lettuce from a wholesaler in France. The two lots of lettuce came from two different growers in different parts of France. Green coral lettuce...

  2. [Isolation, identification and genetic analysis of a murine norovirus strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Mei; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Huang, Ren

    2014-07-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) was first discovered in mice in 2003. MNV is a member of the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae. It is one of the most important and prevalent pathogens of laboratory mice, and almost all mouse strains are susceptible to MNV infection. In this study, a MNV strain was isolated from the cecal contents of infected mice and identified by the cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, virus plaque assay, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay, electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and nucleotide sequencing. On infection, the RAW264.7 cell line showed obvious cytopathic effects within 24 to 48 hours post-inoculation, as infected cells became rounded, bright and shrunken, with ultimate disintegration of the cell sheet. After the isolation of the MNV virus, the virus was plaque-purified in RAW264.7 cells. The TCID50 of the virus was 10(5.25/0.1 mL. Electron microscopic observations of the purified virus showed the presence of spherical and non-enveloped viral particles that were 30 to 35 nm in diameter. According to the identification results, the isolate was named as MNV Guangzhou/K162/09/CHN. Thereafter, five overlapping gene fragments that covered the entire open reading frame (ORF) were amplified by RT-PCR, and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and 5'-UTR were amplified using the 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and the 5'-RACE method, respectively. Each of the gene fragments were cloned and sequenced, and whole genome sequences of the strain were obtained by assembling the cDNA fragment sequences. The results showed that the length of the complete genome was 7 380 nucleotides (GenBank accession number: HQ317203). The comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the isolate was performed against other MNV strains in the GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree based on VP1 nucleotide sequences was constructed using MEGA5.0 software. The homology of nucleotides between the MNV Guangzhou/K162

  3. Norovirus Outbreaks Among Colorado River Rafters in the Grand Canyon, Summer 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill-Collins, Anne; Gaither, Marlene; Gerba, Charles P; Kitajima, Masaaki; Iker, Brandon C; Stoehr, James D

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the incidence and causative agent of the recurrent outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) among different rafting groups on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park during the 2012 summer season. Confidential illness reports were completed by all individuals with symptoms of AGI, and samples of fecal matter and vomitus, surface swabs of rafting equipment, and environmental swabs at stops along the hiking corridor were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). During the active outbreak period between May 9 and July 9, 2012, 97 rafters (1.4%) from 10 trips (2.9% of all trips) declared AGI symptoms. AGI incidence within the 10 infected trips varied from 6% to 88%. Outbreaks occurred in 3 distinct temporal clusters that involved 2 different genogroups of norovirus. All available toilet fecal samples (5 samples) were positive for norovirus RNA: 1 with genogroup I (GI) and 4 with GII. The vomitus sample tested positive for GI. None of the fomite samples from rafting equipment or from the hiking corridors were confirmed for norovirus. The results suggest that norovirus may have been introduced by ill or asymptomatic individuals actively shedding the virus in their vomitus or feces, and spread within, or between, river trips by different modes of transmission. This study reinforces the importance of appropriate guidance and practice regarding norovirus prevention and the necessity of postoutbreak containment in relatively isolated groups of individuals. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a New Environmental Sampling Protocol for Detection of Human Norovirus on Inanimate Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Treffiletti, Aimee; Hrsak, Mario; Shugart, Jill; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inanimate surfaces are regarded as key vehicles for the spread of human norovirus during outbreaks. ISO method 15216 involves the use of cotton swabs for environmental sampling from food surfaces and fomites for the detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI) and GII. We evaluated the effects of the virus drying time (1, 8, 24, or 48 h), swab material (cotton, polyester, rayon, macrofoam, or an antistatic wipe), surface (stainless steel or a toilet seat), and area of the swabbed surface (25.8 cm2 to 645.0 cm2) on the recovery of human norovirus. Macrofoam swabs produced the highest rate of recovery of norovirus from surfaces as large as 645 cm2. The rates of recovery ranged from 2.2 to 36.0% for virus seeded on stainless-steel coupons (645.0 cm2) to 1.2 to 33.6% for toilet seat surfaces (700 cm2), with detection limits of 3.5 log10 and 4.0 log10 RNA copies. We used macrofoam swabs to collect environmental samples from several case cabins and common areas of a cruise ship where passengers had reported viral gastroenteritis symptoms. Seventeen (18.5%) of 92 samples tested positive for norovirus GII, and 4 samples could be sequenced and had identical GII.1 sequences. The viral loads of the swab samples from the cabins of the sick passengers ranged from 80 to 31,217 RNA copies, compared with 16 to 113 RNA copies for swab samples from public spaces. In conclusion, our swab protocol for norovirus may be a useful tool for outbreak investigations when no clinical samples are available to confirm the etiology. PMID:26116675

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the global seasonality of norovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharia M Ahmed

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. These pathogens are generally understood to exhibit a wintertime seasonality, though a systematic assessment of seasonal patterns has not been conducted in the era of modern diagnostics.We conducted a systematic review of the Pubmed Medline database for articles published between 1997 and 2011 to identify and extract data from articles reporting on monthly counts of norovirus. We conducted a descriptive analysis to document seasonal patterns of norovirus disease, and we also constructed multivariate linear models to identify factors associated with the strength of norovirus seasonality.The searched identified 293 unique articles, yielding 38 case and 29 outbreak data series. Within these data series, 52.7% of cases and 41.2% of outbreaks occurred in winter months, and 78.9% of cases and 71.0% of outbreaks occurred in cool months. Both case and outbreak studies showed an earlier peak in season-year 2002-03, but not in season-year 2006-07, years when new genogroup II type 4 variants emerged. For outbreaks, norovirus season strength was positively associated with average rainfall in the wettest month, and inversely associated with crude birth rate in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. For cases, none of the covariates examined was associated with season strength. When case and outbreaks were combined, average rainfall in the wettest month was positively associated with season strength.Norovirus is a wintertime phenomenon, at least in the temperate northern hemisphere where most data are available. Our results point to possible associations of season strength with rain in the wettest month and crude birth rate.

  6. Epidemiologic, Virologic, and Host Genetic Factors of Norovirus Outbreaks in Long-term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Veronica P; Cooper, Emilie M; Hardaker, Hope L; Lee, Lore E; Bierhoff, Marieke; Biggs, Christianne; Cieslak, Paul R; Hall, Aron J; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the Unites States, long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are the most common setting for norovirus outbreaks. These outbreaks provide a unique opportunity to better characterize the viral and host characteristics of norovirus disease. We enrolled 43 LTCFs prospectively to study the epidemiology, virology, and genetic host factors of naturally occurring norovirus outbreaks. Acute and convalescent stool, serum, and saliva samples from cases, exposed and nonexposed controls were collected. Norovirus infection was confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing of stool samples or 4-fold increase in serum antibody titers. The presence of histo-blood group antigens (secretor, ABO, and Lewis type) was determined in saliva. Sixty-two cases, 34 exposed controls, and 18 nonexposed controls from 10 norovirus outbreaks were enrolled. Forty-six percent of acute, 27% of convalescent case, and 11% of control stool samples tested norovirus positive. Outbreak genotypes were GII.4 (Den Haag, n = 3; New Orleans, n = 4; and Sydney, n = 2) and GI.1 (n = 1). Viral load in GII.4 Sydney outbreaks was significantly higher than in outbreaks caused by other genotypes; cases and controls shed similar amounts of virus. Forty-seven percent of cases shed virus for ≥ 21 days. Symptomatic infections with GII.4 Den Haag and GII.4 New Orleans were detected among nonsecretor individuals. Almost half of all symptomatic individuals shed virus for at least 21 days. Viral load was highest in GII.4 viruses that most recently emerged; these viruses also infect the nonsecretor population. These findings will help to guide development of targeted prevention and control measures in the elderly. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols.

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    Geun Woo Park

    Full Text Available Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis. Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90% of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%, 14 (100%, 3 (21.4% and 7 (50% of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were < 0.5 log10. To explain these differences, we sequenced the complete capsid gene of the 9 GII.4 strains and identified 17 amino acid substitutions in the P2 region among the 3 GII.4 variant viruses. When comparing with an additional set of 200 GII.4 VP1 sequences, only S310 and P396 were present in all GII.4 New Orleans viruses but not in the ethanol-sensitive GII.4 Sydney and GII.4 Den Haag viruses Our data demonstrate that alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses.

  8. Epidemiological evaluation of sporadic cases of Norovirus infection in comunitary and hospitalized patients

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    Sara Giordana Rimoldi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Surveillace of viral gastoenteritis infections is very poor in Italy, even if starting from 2004 Norovirus became one of the most causative agent of infections in all the seasons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the isolation of Norovirus both in hospitalizes patients and communitary patients. From October 2006 to March 2008 we examined 400 samples. Our results showed only 15 sporadic cases in pediatric, HIV comunitary patients. These cases were analyzed by using an ELISA screening (Biopharm and the results were confirmed with real time PCT (Argene.

  9. Norovirus epidemiology in community and health care settings and association with patient age, denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T; Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general....... In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ≥60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to No...

  10. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  11. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Shioda

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries.Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR.Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25% and 159 (30% were positive for norovirus, 13 (4% and 31 (6% for sapovirus, and 28 (8% and 18 (3% for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87% in Lwak and 140 (88% in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116, followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440 and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879. For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera compared to cases aged ≥5 years.Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8-3.3 million, 0.45-0.54 million, and 0.77-0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in Kenya.

  12. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Human disease outbreaks caused by norovirus (NoV) following consumption of contaminated raspberries are an increasing problem. An efficient method to decontaminate the fragile raspberries and the equipment used for processing would be an important step in ensuring food safety. A potential surface...... treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts...

  13. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of Noroviruses among Adults in an Endemic Setting, Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2004-2011.

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    Sarah-Blythe Ballard

    Full Text Available Successful vaccination strategies against norovirus will require understanding the burden of disease and relevant genotypes in populations. However, few data are available from cohort studies of adults living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC.We conducted a nested case-control study within a Peruvian military cohort to characterize the burden of norovirus infection, predominant genotypes, and associated symptoms from 2004 through 2011. Randomly selected case and control stools were tested for norovirus, bacteria, and parasites. The odds ratio of the association between norovirus infection and diarrhea was estimated using multiple logistic regression and co-infection adjusted attributable fractions were calculated.Of the 3,818 cohort study participants, 624 developed diarrhea. Overall and norovirus-associated diarrhea incidence rates were 42.3 and 6.0 per 100 person-years, respectively. The most prevalent norovirus genogroup was GII (72.5%, 29/40, which was associated with diarrhea (AOR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3-8.7, P = 0.012. The co-infection adjusted GII attributable fraction was 6.4%.Norovirus was a frequent cause of diarrhea in an adult population followed longitudinally in an LMIC setting. Vaccine strategies should consider targeting adults in endemic settings and special populations that could serve as community transmission sources.

  14. Evaluation of the updated RIDA®QUICK (Version N1402) immunochromatographic assay for the detection of norovirus in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Dunbar, Natalie L; Marshall, John A

    2015-10-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of the R-Biopharm RIDA(®)QUICK (N1402) immunochromatography assay for norovirus detection was examined using fecal material from Australian gastroenteritis incidents. The study involved the analysis of 3 groups of specimens; group 1 comprised 100 norovirus open reading frame (ORF) 1 RT-PCR positive specimens; group 2 comprised 100 ORF 1 RT-PCR norovirus negative specimens and group 3 comprised 12 specimens containing common gastroenteritis viruses other than norovirus. The RIDA(®)QUICK (N1402) assay detected both GI and GII norovirus and had an overall sensitivity of 87%. Genotype analysis of the capsid region of the genome (ORF 2) indicated the RIDA(®)QUICK (N1402) assay could detect a range of genotypes including GI.1, GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GII.3, GII.4 (including variants GII.4 (2009-like), GII.4 (2012), GII.4 (2012-like) and GII.4 (unknown)), GII.6, GII.13 and GII.21. The assay had good sensitivity for both GI and GII norovirus. The assay had a specificity of 97% and did not cross react with a number of common fecal viruses. However, one of eight rotavirus positive, norovirus negative specimens gave a positive result; rotavirus cannot be taken as the cause of such a false positive but cannot be excluded either. The kit was quick and easy to use and would be valuable in point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of four virus recovery methods for detecting noroviruses on fresh lettuce, sliced ham, and frozen raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Maija; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-08-01

    Although noroviruses play a significant role in causing foodborne illness in developed countries, no standardised method for detecting noroviruses in foodstuffs is currently available. This study compared four virus recovery methods based on ultrafiltration, immunomagnetic separation, ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation techniques using identical real-time RT-PCR protocols for detection of RNA in eluates from lettuce, sliced ham and raspberries inoculated artificially with genogroup II norovirus. Noroviruses in all the food source matrices were successfully detected by all four methods. Ultracentrifugation yielded the highest recovery efficiencies in lettuce and ham, whereas PEG precipitation recovered the highest yield of noroviruses from raspberries. The repeatability of the results and the applicability of the methods to all food matrices were best with PEG precipitation, which had average virus recoveries of 19%, 47% and 28% for lettuce, ham and raspberries (viral RNA in dilution 1:10), respectively. In each case, a tenfold dilution of the extracted RNA clearly reduced the level of PCR inhibitors, which were released from raspberries in particular. The results of this study show that the detection of noroviruses in food is challenging, and more efforts to develop sensitive methods are still needed to detect noroviruses in food containing viruses in low numbers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serial foodborne norovirus outbreaks associated with multiple genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Huang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoV have been recognized as an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide during the past three decades. In the spring of 2012, a series of foodborne outbreaks in tourist groups were reported to Xiamen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Among a total of 268 tourists in 7 groups, the prevalence rate of acute gastroenteritis was 16.0% (43/268. Twenty-three feces or anal swabs were collected for laboratory tests of causative agents, no bacterial pathogen was identified, while 22 of them were positive for NoV RNA. In addition, thirteen NoV fragments were recovered from positive specimens and sequenced, belonging to five genotypes such as GI.3, GI.4, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.14, respectively. However, NoV fragments obtained from locally infected patients showed distinct genotypes. Therefore, epidemiological investigation and laboratory analyses demonstrated that the serial foodborne NoV outbreaks in tourists were co-infection of multiple genotypes induced acute gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant.

  17. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  18. Molecular characterization of norovirus GII strains identified in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donia, Domenica; Cenko, Fabian; Divizia, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are considered as the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in all groups of age. In the last decade the number of NoV outbreaks worldwide is increasing. Data published by the systems of NoV surveillance show the GII.4 strain as the human predominant genotype circulating worldwide and new genetic variants of GII.4 were associated with epidemic events. In Albania the economy transformation has damaged significantly the environment and a large circulation of enteric viruses was reported in the past with the presence of NoV among the genotyped strains. This study aimed to characterize, by molecular analysis, the NoV GII strains detected in Albania during two time periods: in 2010 from the outbreak occurred in Ballsh and in 2002-2003 from sporadic cases of diarrhoea. A total of 21 Nov GII strains were characterized. The NoV GII.4 was genotyped more frequently and it was related closely to the pandemic variants recorded in GenBank. During 2002-2003, six NoV GII recombinant strains have been characterized. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Prevalence of Norovirus in returning international travelers with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löscher Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high incidence of diarrhea in traveling populations. Norovirus (NV infection is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with 7% of all diarrhea related deaths in the US. However, data on the overall prevalence of NV infection in traveling populations is limited. Furthermore, the prevalence of NV amongst travelers returning to Europe has not been reported. This study determined the prevalence of NV among international travelers returning to Germany from over 50 destinations in and outside Europe. Methods Stool samples of a total of 104 patients with a recent ( Results In our cohort, NV infection was detected in 15.7% of returning travelers with diarrhea. The closer to the date of return symptoms appeared, the higher the incidence of NV, ranging as high as 21.2% within the first four days after return. Conclusions In our cohort, NV infection was shown to be frequent among returning travelers especially in those with diarrhea, with over 1/5 of diarrhea patients tested positive for NV within the first four days after their return to Germany. Due to this prevalence, routine testing for NV infection and hygienic precautions may be warranted in this group. This is especially applicable to patients at an increased risk of spreading the disease, such as healthcare workers, teachers or food-handlers.

  20. Localization of norovirus and poliovirus in Pacific oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C; Hay, B; Grant, C; Greening, G; Day, D

    2009-04-01

    To examine the uptake and tissue distribution of norovirus (NoV) and poliovirus (PV) experimentally bioaccumulated in feeding Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Pacific oysters were allowed to bioaccumulated either PV or NoV under tidally synchronized feeding conditions in laboratory tanks. Oysters were then either fixed and paraffin wax embedded prior to localizing virus within tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC), or they were dissected into digestive tract (stomach, intestine and digestive diverticula), gill and labial palp tissues, and the viral load determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Both PV and NoV immunoreactivities were predominantly found in the lumen and within cells of the digestive tract tissues; however, PV was also found within cells of nondigestive tract tissues, and in the gills and labial palp. Quantitative RT-PCR of tissue extracts corroborate the immunohistochemical data in that the major site for virus localization is the gut, but significant amounts of viral RNA were identified in the gills and labial palp. The human enteric viruses, PV and NoV, are readily bioaccumulated by feeding Pacific oysters and that some of the virus is internalized within cells of both digestive and nondigestive tissues. Oysters that have been virally contaminated even after depuration (cleaning) in uncontaminated seawater could pose a human health risk if consumed.

  1. Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Jina; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Changsun

    2014-12-01

    Fermented seafood is popular in Asian countries. This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from 3.62 log10 colony-forming units/g at 0 DPF to 8.77 log10 colony-forming units/g at 15 DPF during oyster fermentation supplemented with 5% NaCl supplementation, and the pH decreased gradually from 5.38 at 0 DPF to 4.17 at 15 DPF. During oyster fermentation, α-amylase, proteinase, and lipase were produced at higher levels in 5% salted oysters than in 10% salted oysters (P oysters could contribute to a reduction in foodborne viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Defining cell culture conditions to improve human norovirus infectivity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartholomew, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valdez, Catherine O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valentine, Nancy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dohnalkova, Alice [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ozanich, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Significant difficulties remain for determining whether human noroviruses (hNoV) recovered from water, food, and environmental samples are infectious. Three-dimensional tissue culture of human intestinal cells has shown promise in developing an infectivity assay, but reproducibility, even within a single laboratory, remains problematic. From the literature and our observations, we hypothesized that the common factors that leads to more reproducible hNoV infectivity in vitro requires that the cell line be 1) of human gastrointestinal origin, 2) expresses apical microvilli, and 3) be a positive secretor cell line. The C2BBe1 cell line, which is a brush-border producing clone of Caco-2, meets these three criteria. When challenged with Genogroup II viruses, we observed a 2 Log10 increase in viral RNA titer. A passage experiment with GII viruses showed evidence of the ability to propagate hNoV by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and microscopy. Using 3-D C2BBe1 cells improves reproducibility of the infectivity assay for hNoV, but the assay can still be variable. Two sources of variability include the cells themselves (mixed phenotypes of small and large intestine) and initial titer measurements using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that measures all RNA vs. plaque assays that measure infectious virus.

  3. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standardized method is required when national studies on virus occurrence in environmental and drinking waters utilize multiple analytical laboratories. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Method 1615 was developed with the goal of providing such a standard for measuring Enterovirus and Norovirus in these waters. Virus is concentrated from water using an electropositive filter, eluted from the filter surface with beef extract, and then concentrated further using organic flocculation. Herein we present the protocol from Method 1615 for filter elution, secondary concentration, and measurement of total culturable viruses. A portion of the concentrated eluate from each sample is inoculated onto ten replicate flasks of Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cells. The number of flasks demonstrating cytopathic effects is used to quantify the most probable number (MPN) of infectious units per liter. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. Laboratories must meet defined performance standards. Method 1615 was evaluated by examining virus recovery from reagent-grade and ground waters seeded with Sabin poliovirus type 3. Mean poliovirus recoveries with the total culturable assay were 111% in reagent grade water and 58% in groundwaters. EPA Method 1615 is being used by a number of national and international labs. This paper and the accompanying video will provide training oppo

  4. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the other was coinfected with porcine circovirus and PoNoV. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed that the PoNoV positive alone strain was a recombinant new genotype strain. Experimental infection of miniature pigs with fecal suspensions confirmed that this strain can cause gastroenteritis in piglets. Conclusion This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV.

  5. Rapid Detection of Human Norovirus in Frozen Raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Maija; Maunula, Leena

    2017-10-10

    Raspberries have lately caused several human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we developed and evaluated for HuNoV reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection in frozen raspberries extraction methods that have equal sensitivity but are less time-consuming than widely used methods based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. One method was applied to stored frozen raspberries linked to previous HuNoV outbreaks and berries on sale. In the virus elution-based Method 1, sparkling water eluted viruses most efficiently from the berries. Method 2, based on direct nucleic acid extraction with minor PEG supplement, yielded the highest number of positive findings (4 out of 9) at low virus concentration level of 100 genome copies HuNoV genogroup II per 25 g raspberries. Both methods showed approximately equal sensitivity to a method including PEG precipitation and chloroform-butanol purification. Two naturally contaminated berry samples linked to HuNoV outbreaks in 2006 and 2009 were still positive for HuNoV genogroup I, but all berry products purchased from a local store remained negative for HuNoV. In conclusion, this study presents two efficient and rapid methods which can be used in urgent HuNoV outbreak investigations, since the results of the virus analysis are available in a few hours.

  6. A Dual Chicken IgY Against Rotavirus and Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of the two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8* particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8* as a surface insertion. Approximately 45 mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8* antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and a therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8* based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830

  7. Evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays for detection and quantification of norovirus genogroups I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprom, Kitwadee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Diraphat, Pornphan; Kittigul, Leera

    2017-04-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) is a promising molecular method for the detection of noroviruses. In this study, the performance of three TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays was assessed, which were one commercially available real-time RT-PCR kit (assay A: Norovirus Real Time RT-PCR kit) and two in-house real-time RT-PCR assays (assay B: LightCycler RNA Master Hybprobe and assay C: RealTime ready RNA Virus Master). Assays A and B showed higher sensitivity than assay C for norovirus GI, while they all had the same sensitivity (10 3 DNA copies/mL) for GII DNA standard controls. Assay B had the highest efficiency for both genogroups. No cross-reactivity was observed among GI and GII noroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. The detection rates of these assays in GI and GII norovirus-positive fecal samples were not significantly different. However, the mean quantification cycle (Cq) value of assay B for GII was lower than assays A and C with statistical significance (P-value, 0.000). All three real-time RT-PCR assays could detect a variety of noroviruses including GI.2, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.17, and GII.21. This study suggests assay B as a suitable assay for the detection and quantification of noroviruses GI and GII due to good analytical sensitivity and higher performance to amplify norovirus on DNA standard controls and clinical samples.

  8. 76 FR 65200 - Risk Assessment on Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish: Request for Comments and for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... treatment, water temperature in bivalve molluscan shellfish growing and harvest areas, harvest season, post... growth, harvest, and post-harvest processing. This risk assessment will focus on oysters, clams, and... include epidemiology of norovirus illness, pre-harvest preventive practice and controls, post- harvest...

  9. Assessing the waterborne risk of a norovirus infection for military personnel in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/154314986; de Man, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341752231

    Norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks are known to occur when people occupy limited space, often under poor hygienic conditions. These situations have been described for both civilians (e.g. cruise ships) or military personnel in operational situations. However, little is known regarding the NoV

  10. Norovirus outbreak associated with a hotel in the west of Ireland, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A; Fitzgerald, R; Whyte, D; Fitzgerald, A; Beggan, E; O'Connell, N; Greally, T

    2007-07-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal disease (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea) occurred among a party of wedding guests, staff and other guests in a hotel in the west of Ireland, in October 2006. Upon notification, a multi-disciplinary outbreak control team was convened to investigate and control the outbreak. In all, 98 people were ascertained ill. The median duration of illness was 48 hours. The attack rate ranged between 48 and 85%. The hotel voluntarily notified health authorities and co-operated fully with investigation and control measures. Strict prevention and control measures were instituted promptly, including air ventilation, enhanced hand hygiene, isolation of cases, temporary "cooked food only", temporary alternative accommodation and specialised cleaning. Three cases of norovirus infection were laboratory-confirmed. There was no evidence of food- or water-borne transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings indicated person-to-person transmission of norovirus. This report highlights the potential for large social gatherings to facilitate the spread of viral gastroenteritis by person-to-person transmission and via contaminated environment. Effective community management of this outbreak appears to have prevented its having an impact on local acute hospital services. The authors conclude that in addition to the existing national guidelines on the management of outbreaks of norovirus in healthcare settings, agreed guidelines for the management of norovirus outbreaks in the hotel and tourism industry are needed in Ireland.

  11. Unrecognized norovirus infections in health care institutions and their clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); F.H.A. Sukhrie (Faizel); J. Bogerman (Jolanda); L. Verhoef; M.M. de Melo (Mariana ); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNoroviruses (NoVs) have emerged as the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis (GE) in humans. Although diagnostic facilities have greatly improved, significant underdiagnosis of NoV in hospitals may still occur, thereby increasing clinical burden and nosocomial spread. We evaluated

  12. Immune mechanisms responsible for vaccination against and clearance of mucosal and lymphatic norovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Chachu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cardinal manifestations of viral immunity are efficient clearance of acute infection and the capacity to vaccinate against secondary viral exposure. For noroviruses, the contributions of T cells to viral clearance and vaccination have not been elucidated. We report here that both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required for efficient clearance of primary murine norovirus (MNV infection from the intestine and intestinal lymph nodes. Further, long-lasting protective immunity was generated by oral live virus vaccination. Systemic vaccination with the MNV capsid protein also effectively protected against mucosal challenge, while vaccination with the capsid protein of the distantly related human Lordsdale virus provided partial protection. Fully effective vaccination required a broad immune response including CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and B cells, but the importance of specific immune cell types varied between the intestine and intestinal lymph nodes. Perforin, but not interferon gamma, was required for clearance of MNV infection by adoptively transferred T lymphocytes from vaccinated hosts. These studies prove the feasibility of both mucosal and systemic vaccination against mucosal norovirus infection, demonstrate tissue specificity of norovirus immune cells, and indicate that efficient vaccination strategies should induce potent CD4 and CD8 T cell responses.

  13. Norovirus GII.17 as Major Epidemic Strain in Italy, Winter 2015–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Simona; Bonura, Floriana; Cappa, Vincenzo; Muli, Sara Li; Pepe, Arcangelo; Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Calderaro, Adriana; Di Bernardo, Francesca; Dones, Piera; Morea, Anna; Loconsole, Daniela; Catella, Cristiana; Terio, Valentina; Bànyai, Krisztiàn; Chironna, Maria; Martella, Vito

    2017-01-01

    In winter 2015–16, norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 emerged as a cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in children in Italy. Median patient age was higher for those with GII.17 than GII.4 infection (55 vs. 24 months), suggesting limited cross-protection for older children. PMID:28628440

  14. Norovirus outbreaks linked to oyster consumption in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Dusch, V; Ethelberg, S; Harris, J; Hjertqvist, M; Jourdan-da Silva, N; Koller, A; Lenglet, A; Lisby, M; Vold, L

    2010-03-25

    This paper reports on several simultaneous outbreaks of norovirus infection linked to the consumption of raw oysters. Since January 2010, 334 cases in 65 clusters were reported from five European countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark. The article describes the available epidemiological and microbiological evidence of these outbreaks.

  15. Two New Zealand outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis linked to commercially farmed oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Richard; Dymond, Nicky; Bell, Anita; Thornley, Craig; Buik, Hans; Cumming, David; Petersen, Nicole

    2011-12-16

    We report on the investigations of two gastroenteritis outbreaks, which were linked to a common source. Retrospective cohort studies were conducted for two gastroenteritis outbreaks which occurred in Auckland and in Waikato. Faecal samples and samples of oyster meat were analysed. Environmental surveys of implicated areas were conducted. 10 out of 16 people who had eaten at a catered event in Auckland, and 3 out of 15 people who had eaten at a Waikato restaurant, experienced gastroenteritis. The symptoms, duration of illness and incubation periods were consistent with norovirus gastroenteritis in both outbreaks. The consumption of oysters was strongly associated with an increased risk of illness. Faecal samples were positive for norovirus. Oysters from both outbreaks were traced back to the same growing area. Samples of oyster meat from one of the restaurants and from the growing area were positive for norovirus. The growing area was closed for further investigation. A pipe from a waste water treatment plant was later found to be leaking partially treated effluent into a stream discharging near the implicated growing area. Investigation of these two outbreaks led to the discovery of a common source of norovirus at a commercial oyster growing area.

  16. A norovirus oyster-related outbreak in a nursing home in France, January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loury, P; Le Guyader, F S; Le Saux, J C; Ambert-Balay, K; Parrot, P; Hubert, B

    2015-09-01

    The presence of norovirus in shellfish is a public health concern in Europe. Here, we report the results of an investigation into a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak following a festive lunch which affected 84 (57%) residents and staff members of a nursing home in January 2012 in France. Individuals who had eaten oysters had a significantly higher risk of developing symptoms in the following 2·5 days than those who had not, the risk increasing with the amount eaten [relative risk 2·2 (1·0-4·6) and 3·3 (1·6-6·6) for 3-4 and 5-12 oysters, respectively]. In healthy individuals during those days, 29 (32%) subsequently became ill, most of whom were staff members performing activities in close contact with residents. Genogroup II noroviruses were detected in faecal samples, in a sample of uneaten oysters and in oysters from the production area. Identifying a norovirus's infectious dose may facilitate the health-related management of contaminated shellfish.

  17. A gnotobiotic pig model for determining human norovirus inactivation by high-pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for over 90 percent of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and accounts for 60 percent of foodborne illness in the US. Currently, the infectivity of human NoVs is poorly understood due to the lack of a cell culture system. In this study, w...

  18. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    . The objective of the study was therefore to examine the exposure of the workers to aerosolised microorganisms. Sampling of inhalable endotoxin, bacteria, moulds and viruses was performed on one occasion using personal samplers. Noroviruses (NoVs) and endotoxin were detected at concentrations that could pose...

  19. Alternative methods to determine infectivity of Tulane virus: a surrogate for human norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturable animal caliciviruses are widely-used as surrogates for human norovirus (HuNoV), which can not replicate in cells. The infectivity of a culturable virus was traditionally determined by plaque assay and/or 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay, both of which are time-consuming ...

  20. Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus – end of the GII.4 era?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); J. van Beek (Janko); H. Vennema (Harry); A.T. Podkolzin; J. Hewitt (Joanne); F. Bucardo; K.E. Templeton; J. Mans; J. Nordgren; G. Reuter (Gabor); M. Lynch; L.D. Rasmussen; N. Iritani; M.C. Chan; Vito Martella; K. Ambert-Balay; J. Vinjé (Jan); P.A. White; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the winter of 2014/15 a novel GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus strain (GII.17 Kawasaki 2014) emerged, as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China and Japan. Since their emergence these novel GII.P17-GII.17 viruses have replaced the previously dominant GII.4 genotype Sydney 2012

  1. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  2. A Novel system for evaluating the interaction between human norovirus and receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are major pathogens for acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Recombinant HuNoV viral capsid proteins and/or P particles...

  3. Epidemiology and molecular characteristics of norovirus GII.4 Sydney outbreaks in Taiwan, January 2012-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Tzy; Chen, Hsieh-Cheng; Yen, Catherine; Wu, Ching-Yi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Park, YoungBin; Hall, Aron J; Vinjé, Jan; Huang, Jason C; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, a new norovirus GII.4 variant (GII.4 Sydney) emerged and caused the majority of the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America. We examined the epidemiologic and molecular virologic characteristics of reported acute gastroenteritis outbreaks determined to be caused by norovirus in Taiwan from January 2012 to December 2013. A total of 253 (45.7%) of 552 reported acute gastroenteritis outbreaks tested positive for norovirus, of which 165 (65.5%) were typed as GII.4 Sydney. GII.4 Sydney outbreaks were reported from all geographic areas of Taiwan and occurred most frequently in schools (35.8%) and long-term care facilities (24.2%). Person-to-person transmission was identified in 116 (70.3%) of the outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length ORF2 of eight specimens indicated that GII.4 Sydney strains detected in Taiwan were closely related to strains detected globally. Continued outbreak surveillance and strain typing are needed to provide information on epidemiologic and virologic trends of novel norovirus strains. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  5. The Effect of Heat and Free Chlorine Treatments on the Surface Properties of Murine Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brié, Adrien; Razafimahefa, Ravo; Loutreul, Julie; Robert, Aurélie; Gantzer, Christophe; Boudaud, Nicolas; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    Heat and free chlorine are among the most efficient and commonly used treatments to inactivate enteric viruses, but their global inactivation mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. These treatments have been shown to affect at least the capsid proteins of viruses and thus may affect the surface properties (i.e. electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity) of such particles. Our aim was to study the effects of heat and free chlorine on surface properties for a murine norovirus chosen as surrogate for human norovirus. No changes in the surface properties were observed with our methods for murine norovirus exposed to free chlorine. Only the heat treatment led to major changes in the surface properties of the virus with the expression of hydrophobic domains at the surface of the particles after exposure to a temperature of 55 °C. No modification of the expression of hydrophobic domains occurred after exposure to 60 °C, and the low hydrophobic state exhibited by infectious and inactivated particles after exposure to 60 °C appeared to be irreversible for inactivated particles only, which may provide a means to discriminate infectious from inactivated murine noroviruses. When exposed to a temperature of 72 °C or to free chlorine at a concentration of 50 mg/L, the genome became available for RNases.

  6. Inactivation of human norovirus in contaminated oysters and clams by high-hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the most frequent causative agent of foodborne disease associated with shellfish consumption. In this study, the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of NoV was determined. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) NoV were inoculated into oyster ho...

  7. Persistence and elimination of human norovirus in food and on food contact surfaces: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This critical review addresses the persistence of human norovirus (NoV) in water, shellfish, processed meats, soils and organic wastes; on berries, herbs, vegetables, fruits and salads; and on food contact surfaces. The review focuses on studies using NoV; information from studies involving only su...

  8. Predictors of formation of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract after norovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Ermolenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is the development of an informationally significant mathematical and statistical model for predicting the development of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in children after a norovirus infection.55 children with norovirus infection aged 1 to 7 years (mean age 2,8±0,2 years, boys – 25, girls – 30 in a hospital and within 12 months after acute infection were observed due to development of a mathematical discriminant model of the prognosis for the formation of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (FDGIT with the purpose of their subsequent prevention. Statistically significant differences in the prognosis «probability of development of FDGIT» and «the lack of probability of FDGIT» were found on the following grounds: duration of preservation of norovirus infection symptoms (p=0,056, detection of opportunistic microorganisms in the intestinal microbiota in titles not less than 5 lg CFU/g (p=0,02, detection of bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine (p=0,001. These signs can be considered as a determinant of the probability of development of FDGIT. This model based on the available definition of informative clinical and laboratory signs characterizing the severity of the disease and the state of the intestinal microbiota of patients with norovirus infection. The information capacity of a statistically significant model (p<0.01 is 86,8%. 

  9. Estimating the Burden of Medically Attended Norovirus Gastroenteritis: Modeling Linked Primary Care and Hospitalization Datasets.

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    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cattaert, Tom; Harris, John; Lopman, Ben; Tam, Clarence C; Ferreira, Germano

    2017-11-15

    Norovirus is the leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial acute gastroenteritis. Routine testing for norovirus is seldom undertaken, and diagnosis is mainly based on presenting symptoms. This makes understanding the burden of medically attended norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis (MA-NGE) and targeting care and prevention strategies challenging. We used linked population-based healthcare datasets (Clinical Practice Research Datalink General Practice OnLine Database linked with Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) to model the incidence of MA-NGE associated with primary care consultations or hospitalizations according to age groups in England in the period July 2007-June 2013. Mean annual incidence rates of MA-NGE were 4.9/1000 person-years and 0.7/1000 person-years for episodes involving primary care or hospitalizations, respectively. Incidence rates were highest in children aged norovirus-attributable gastroenteritis hospitalization rates were second highest in adults aged >65 years (1.7/1000 person-years). In this particular study, the burden of MA-NGE estimated from healthcare datasets was higher than previously estimated in small cohort studies in England. Routinely collected primary care and hospitalization datasets are useful resources to estimate and monitor the burden of MA-NGE in a population over time.

  10. An outbreak of norovirus infection in a long-term care facility in Brazil

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    Fernando Gatti de Menezes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a norovirus outbreak in a Brazilian longtermcare facility from July 8 to 29, 2005. Methods: In thefirst 48 to 72 hours after onset of symptoms in inpatients andemployees, the main infection control strategies were staffeducation, emphasis on hand washing, implementing contactprecautions up to 48-72 hours after resolution of symptoms,complete cleaning of the rooms and exclusion of symptomaticemployees from work until 48-72 hours after resolution of theirsymptoms. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of thenorovirus infections were described based on chart review.Results: The incidence among inpatients and employees was41.3% and 16.25%, respectively. The main symptom was diarrhea,affecting 100% of inpatients and employees. Forty-four percent ofspecimens were positive by RIDASCREEN® Norovirus analyses,and identified as norovirus genogroup GII. Seventy percent ofinpatients were women and their age range was 51-98 years.Inpatients had in average two comorbid conditions – 87.3% withcardiovascular or chronic pulmonary condition and 47.6% withdementia. There was not relapse or death. Conclusions: The earlyinfection-control measures associated to surveillance are requiredto keep long-term care facilities free of noroviruses and to protectthose who are most vulnerable.

  11. A norovirus GII.P21 outbreak in a boarding school, Austria 2014

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    Yung-Ching Lin

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The kebab prepared by norovirus-positive restaurant workers was the most likely source of the outbreak. It is recommended that food handlers comply strictly with hand hygiene and avoid bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food to minimize the risk of food-borne infection.

  12. 77 FR 19534 - Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Norovirus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Norovirus Serological Reagents; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  13. Brote de leptospirosis en terneros en recría en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Leptospirosis outbreak in calves from Corrientes Province, Argentina

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    María G. Draghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis es una enfermedad infecciosa que produce importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción ganadera. Los signos característicos de la enfermedad son aborto, muerte embrionaria, muerte de terneros de pocos días de vida y mastitis. Se describe un brote de leptospirosis en terneros en actividad de recría. Se realizaron estudios histopatológicos, de hemoparásitos, inmunofluorescencia y cultivos bacterianos. Se aisló Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona a partir de muestras de los terneros muertos.Leptospirosis is an infectious disease resulting in significant economic losses in livestock production. This disease causes abortion, embryo death, death of calves within the first few days of life and mastitis. We report a leptospirosis outbreak in calf growing and fattening. Histopathological and hemoparasite studies, immunofluorescence, and bacterial cultures were performed. A strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona was isolated from samples collected from dead calves.

  14. [Study on pollutant pathway of norovirus contamination in oysters].

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    Saito, Koichi; Sato, Naoto; Takahashi, Akemi; Tsutsumi, Reiko; Sato, Shigehiro

    2006-07-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) cause human gastroenteritis through person-to-person transmission and via contaminated foods. In food poisoning, a major suspected cause is the consumption of raw oysters. We detected NVs from environmental water and oysters around a closed gulf where oysters are cultivated. We collected oyster and water samples once or twice a month for 30 months from October 2001 to March 2004. We then studied monthly changes in virus occurrence and in genetic relationships among 208 NVs isolated from water and oyster samples and from the feces of children suffering from acute gastroenteritis during the same period in the same region. In the analysis of untreated water flowing into farm sewage, NVs were detected year round. In other water samples -processed sewage, river water, and seawater-, oysters, and children's feces, NVs were detected mainly in winter. A comparison of NV nucleotide sequences showed genetic diversity, but some strains predominated in certain winter seasons. These predominant strains were detected across sample materials. In 2002/03, an identical strain was detected in sewage, river water, seawater, oysters, and feces. We also found that NV genetic types changed at the beginning of the season, in November or December, in both 2001/02 and 2002/03. This study showed a clear relationship between NVs detected in children's feces and those in environmental water and oysters. These results support the idea that NVs are transmitted from the feces of infected persons to oysters by the flow of water through farm sewage, rivers, and the sea, finally accumulating in the mid-gut gland of oysters.

  15. Molecular analysis of an oyster-related norovirus outbreak.

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    Nenonen, Nancy P; Hannoun, Charles; Olsson, Margareta B; Bergström, Tomas

    2009-06-01

    Contaminated raw oysters were implicated in a severe outbreak of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis affecting 30 restaurant guests. To define the outbreak source by using molecular methods to characterize NoV strains detected in patient and oyster samples. Molecular epidemiological studies based on nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of patient and oyster NoV strains, and comparison to background dataset. NoV genotype (G) I.1 was detected in the one patient stool analyzed by in-house TaqMan real time RT-PCR and classical nested RT-PCR targeting NoV RNA-dependent polymerase (RdRp, 285 nt), and by nested RT-PCR targeting RdRp-capsid-poly(A)-3' (3085 nt). Patient strain showed >or=99% similarity (285 nt) with three NoV strains detected in two of five oysters examined by classical nested RT-PCR (RdRp). A third oyster tested positive for NoV GII.3. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of patient and oyster strains related to this outbreak with GI.1 strains from previous local outbreaks, and mussel studies. Sequence data revealed >or=99% similarity (285 nt) between NoV GI.1 strains detected in patient stool and suspect oysters, linking the contaminated oysters to the outbreak. Identification of human NoV GI and GII strains in oysters indicated contamination of human fecal origin, presumably from inappropriate storage in the harbor. Comparative long-fragment analysis of the patient strain revealed 99% similarity (3085 nt) with NoV GI.1 strains detected in previous outbreaks and environmental mussel studies from West Sweden, 87% with M87661 (Norwalk68) and 96% with L23828 (SRSV-KY-89/89/J). These results indicated considerable genomic stability of NoV GI.1 strains over time.

  16. Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity.

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    Hao Fang

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.

  17. Pet dogs--a transmission route for human noroviruses?

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    Summa, Maija; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Maunula, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide in all age groups. Virus transmission can occur via the faecal-oral route from person to person or via contaminated food, water, or surfaces. The most common NoV strains circulating among humans belong to genogroup GII. Thus far, to our knowledge, no HuNoVs have been detected in pets. We investigated whether pet dogs could serve as carriers for HuNoVs and thereby transmit the infection to humans. Ninety-two faecal samples of indoor pet dogs were obtained. The main criteria for sample collection were that the dog or humans in the household had suffered from diarrhoea or vomiting. All samples were screened for HuNoV genogroups GI, GII, and GIV by real-time one-step RT-PCR. We detected HuNoV in four faecal samples from pet dogs that had been in direct contact with symptomatic persons. Three of the positive samples contained genotype GII.4 variant 2006b or 2008 and one GII.12. All NoV-positive dogs lived in households with small children and two dogs showed mild symptoms. Our results suggest that HuNoVs can survive in the canine gastrointestinal tract. Whether these viruses can replicate in dogs remains unresolved, but an association of pet dogs playing a role in transmission of NoVs that infect humans is obvious. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Single-Chain Antibodies that Specifically Bind GI Noroviruses.

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    Amy M Hurwitz

    Full Text Available Norovirus infections commonly lead to outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and spread quickly, resulting in many health and economic challenges prior to diagnosis. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are therefore essential to identify infections and to guide the appropriate clinical responses at the point-of-care. Existing tools, including RT-PCR and enzyme immunoassays, pose several limitations based on the significant time, equipment and expertise required to elicit results. Immunochromatographic assays available for use at the point-of-care have poor sensitivity and specificity, especially for genogroup I noroviruses, thus requiring confirmation of results with more sensitive testing methods. Therefore, there is a clear need for novel reagents to help achieve quick and reliable results. In this study, we have identified two novel single-chain antibodies (scFvs-named NJT-R3-A2 and NJT-R3-A3-that effectively detect GI.1 and GI.7 virus-like particles (VLPs through selection of a phage display library against the P-domain of the GI.1 major capsid protein. The limits of detection by each scFv for GI.1 and GI.7 are 0.1 and 0.2 ng, and 6.25 and 25 ng, respectively. They detect VLPs with strong specificity in multiple diagnostic formats, including ELISAs and membrane-based dot blots, and in the context of norovirus-negative stool suspensions. The scFvs also detect native virions effectively in norovirus-positive clinical stool samples. Purified scFvs bind to GI.1 and GI.7 VLPs with equilibrium constant (KD values of 27 nM and 49 nM, respectively. Overall, the phage-based scFv reagents identified and characterized here show utility for detecting GI.1 and GI.7 noroviruses in multiple diagnostic assay formats with strong specificity and sensitivity, indicating promise for integration into existing point-of-care tests to improve future diagnostics.

  19. Emergence and predominance of norovirus GII.17 in Huzhou, China, 2014-2015.

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    Han, Jiankang; Ji, Lei; Shen, Yuehua; Wu, Xiaofang; Xu, Deshun; Chen, Liping

    2015-09-11

    Norovirus (NoV) has been recognized as the leading cause of both outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults worldwide. Stool samples collected from outpatients with clinical symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups at the First People's Hospital in Huzhou, Huzhou, China between March 2014 and February 2015 were analyzed to gain insight into the epidemiology and genetic variation in NoV strains circulating in China. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) was performed for Norovirus detection. RT-PCR were used for genomic amplification and sequencing. Genogroup and genotype were assigned using the NoV Noronet typing tool and the strains were named according to the time of isolation. The phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA 5. Of the 809 specimens, 193 (23.9 %) were positive for NoV, with GII.4 and GII.17 the most commonly identified strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of five recombinant strains in Huzhou. Recombinants GII.P13/GII.17 and GII.P12/GII.4 were newly detected in China. The GII.P13/GII.17 recombinant was first identified in October 2014 and steadily replaced GII.Pe/GII.4 (GII.4 Sydney 2012) as the predominant circulating NoV genotype. This is the first report of the detection of GII.17 in the Huzhou area and of a NoV genotype being detected in greater numbers than GII.4. Furthermore, our results indicated that following the emergence of GII.17 in October 2014, it steadily replaced the previous circulating GII.4 Sydney2012 strain, which was the dominant circulating genotype for the past 2 years. As norovirus are the important cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis, continuous and comprehensive study of the norovirus strains involved in large and cost-effective acute gastroenteritis would help understanding the molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections and development of improved prevention and control measures.

  20. Deep sequencing of phage-displayed peptide libraries reveals sequence motif that detects norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Amy M; Huang, Wanzhi; Estes, Mary K; Atmar, Robert L; Palzkill, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Norovirus infections are the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and result in about 21 million new cases and $2 billion in costs per year in the United States. Existing diagnostics have limited feasibility for point-of-care applications, so there is a clear need for more reliable, rapid, and simple-to-use diagnostic tools in order to contain outbreaks and prevent inappropriate treatments. In this study, a combination of phage display technology, deep sequencing and computational analysis was used to identify 12-mer peptides with specific binding to norovirus genotype GI.1 virus-like particles (VLPs). After biopanning, phage populations were sequenced and analyzed to identify a consensus peptide motif-YRSWXP. Two 12-mer peptides containing this sequence, NV-O-R5-3 and NV-O-R5-6, were further characterized to evaluate the motif's functional ability to detect VLPs and virus. Results indicated that these peptides effectively detect GI.1 VLPs in solid-phase peptide arrays, ELISAs and dot blots. Further, their specificity for the S-domain of the major capsid protein enables them to detect a wide range of GI and GII norovirus genotypes. Both peptides were able to detect virus in norovirus-positive clinical stool samples. Overall, the work reported here demonstrates the application of phage display coupled with next generation sequencing and computational analysis to uncover peptides with specific binding ability to a target protein for diagnostic applications. Further, the reagents characterized here can be integrated into existing diagnostic formats to detect clinically relevant genotypes of norovirus in stool. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Role of Food Handlers in Norovirus Outbreaks in London and South East England, 2013 to 2015.

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    Rumble, C; Addiman, S; Balasegaram, S; Chima, K; Ready, D; Heard, J; Alexander, E

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks caused by norovirus infection are common and occur throughout the year. Outbreaks can be related to food outlets either through a contaminated food source or an infected food handler. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers are potentially implicated in outbreaks, but evidence of transmission is limited. To understand potential food handler transmission in outbreak scenarios, epidemiological and microbiological data on possible and confirmed norovirus outbreaks reported in London and South East England in a 2-year period were reviewed. One hundred eighty-six outbreaks were associated with a food outlet or registered caterer in this period. These occurred throughout the year with peaks in quarter 1 of study years. A case series of 17 outbreaks investigated by the local field epidemiological service were evaluated further, representing more than 606 cases. In five outbreaks, symptomatic food handlers were tested and found positive for norovirus. In four outbreaks, symptomatic food handlers were not tested. Asymptomatic food handlers were tested in three outbreaks but positive for norovirus in one only. Environmental sampling did not identify the causative agent conclusively in any of the outbreaks included in this analysis. Food sampling identified norovirus in one outbreak. Recommendations from this study include for outbreak investigations to encourage testing of symptomatic food handlers and for food and environmental samples to be taken as soon as possible. In addition, sampling of asymptomatic food handlers should be considered when possible. However, in light of the complexity in conclusively identifying a source of infection, general measures to improve hand hygiene are recommended, with specific education among food handlers about the potential for foodborne pathogen transmission during asymptomatic infection, as well as reinforcing the importance of self-exclusion from food handling activities when symptomatic.

  2. Norovirus contamination and the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in Pacific oyster: A transcriptomics study.

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    Ma, Liping; Su, Laijin; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Deqing; Duan, Delin

    2017-07-01

    Noroviruses are the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These viruses remain stable in oysters, suggesting an active mechanism for virus concentration. In this study, a deep RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of Pacific oysters at different time points after inoculation with norovirus (GII.4). We obtained a maximum of 65, 294, 698 clean sample reads. When aligned to the reference genome, the average mapping ratio of clean data was approximately 65%. In the samples harvested at 12, 24, and 48 h after contamination, 2,223, 2,990, and 2020 genes, respectively, were differentially expressed in contaminated and non-contaminated oyster digestive tissues, including 500, 1748, and 1039 up-regulated and 1723, 1242, and 981 down-regulated genes, respectively. In particular, FUT2 and B3GNT4, genes encoding the signaling components of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, were significantly up-regulated in contaminated samples. In addition, we found up-regulation of some immune- and disease-related genes in the MHC I pathway (PA28, HSP 70, HSP90, CANX, BRp57, and CALR) and MHC II pathway (GILT, CTSBLS, RFX, and NFY), although NoVs did not cause diseases in the oysters. We detected two types of HBGA-like molecules with positive-to-negative ratios similar to type A and H1 HBGA-like molecules in digestive tissues that were significantly higher in norovirus-contaminated than in non-contaminated oysters. Thus, our transcriptome data analysis indicated that a human pathogen (GII.4 Norovirus) was likely concentrated in the digestive tissues of oysters via HBGA-like molecules that were synthesized by the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway. The identified differentially expressed genes also provide potential candidates for functional analysis to identify genes involved in the accumulation of noroviruses in oysters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards the development of a combined Norovirus and sediment transport model for coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, K.; O'Kane, J. P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Sewage effluent in coastal waters used for oyster culture poses a risk to human health. The primary pathogen in outbreaks of gastroenteritis following consumption of raw oysters is the Norovirus or "winter vomiting bug". The Norovirus is a highly infectious RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family. It has a long survival time in coastal waters (T90 = 30 days in winter). Oysters selectively concentrate Norovirus in their digestive ducts. The virus cannot be removed by conventional depuration. The primary goal of the research is to quantify the risk of Norovirus infection in coastal waters through physically-based high-resolution numerical modelling. Cork Harbour and Clew Bay in Ireland provide case studies for the research. The models simulate a number of complex physical, chemical and biological processes which influence the transport and decay of the virus as well as its bioaccumulation in oyster tissue. The current phase of the research is concerned with the adsorption of the virus to suspended sediment in the water column. Adsorbed viruses may be taken out of the water column when sedimentation occurs and, subsequently, be added to it with resuspension of the bed sediment. Preliminary simulations of the Norovirus-sediment model indicate that suspended sediment can influence the transport of the virus in coastal waters when a high sediment-water partitioning coefficient is used and the model is run under calm environmental conditions. In this instance a certain fraction of the adsorbed viruses are taken out of the water column by sedimentation and end up locked in the bed sediment. Subsequently, under storm conditions, a large number of viruses in the bed are released into the water column by erosion of the bed and a risk of contamination occurs at a time different to when the viruses were initially released into the body of water.

  4. Slow Clearance of Norovirus following Infection with Emerging Variants of Genotype GII.4 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Lars; Nordén, Rickard; Westin, Johan; Lindh, Magnus; Andersson, Lars-Magnus

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of new norovirus genotype GII.4 strains is associated with widespread norovirus epidemics. Extended periods of viral shedding can contribute to the epidemic potential of norovirus. To describe the duration of viral shedding in infections with novel emerging GII.4 strains versus infections with previously circulating strains, we performed a prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with norovirus gastroenteritis during separate winter seasons. Rectal swab samples were obtained at the time of inclusion and weekly during follow-ups. The subgenotype strain was determined from capsid sequences. The outcome was defined by the detection of virus for >14 days (slow clearance) or by the detection of negative samples within 14 days (rapid clearance). Two major epidemic GII.4 strains emerged during the study period, GII.4 New Orleans 2009, in 2010, and GII.4 Sydney 2012, in 2012. From these two seasons, sequences were available from 24 cases where the duration of shedding could be determined. The median age of the patients was 83 years and 50% were women. The majority of patients were infected with virus that clustered with the respective season's epidemic strain ( n = 19), whereas 5 patients had previously circulating strains (3 were Den Haag 2006b, in 2010, and 2 were New Orleans 2009, in 2012). Among the patients infected with an epidemic strain, the proportion who shed virus for >14 days was significantly higher (16/19 [84%] versus 1/5 [20%], P = 0.01). In summary, a slow clearance of norovirus from stool was more common in infections with novel epidemic GII.4 strains. This suggests that the average duration of shedding may be longer during seasons when new GII.4 strains have emerged. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Outbreak of norovirus infection among river rafters associated with packaged delicatessen meat, Grand Canyon, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Mark; Barzilay, Ezra; Kramer, Adam; Camp, Brendan; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Escudero-Abarca, Blanca; Derrick, Greg; White, Patricia; Gerba, Charles; Higgins, Charles; Vinje, Jan; Glass, Roger; Lynch, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is often transmitted by infected food handlers at the point of service, whereas reports of food contamination before wholesale distribution are rare. In September 2005, we investigated reports of gastroenteritis among rafters who went on unrelated trips on the Colorado River. We surveyed all companies that launched rafting trips during the period from 14 August through 19 September 2005 to identify trips in which > or =3 rafters became ill. We conducted a case-control study. Case patients were persons who experienced diarrhea or vomiting that commenced < or =72 h after the trip launch; control subjects were persons who did not become ill < or =72 h after launch. We tested stool samples and food specimens for norovirus. We performed a traceback investigation of the suspected food vehicle and inspected the implicated processing plant. Three or more rafters developed gastroenteritis during 13 (14%) of 91 trips, for a total of 137 ill persons. Of the 57 case patients who became ill < or =72 h after trip launch, 55 (96%) reported eating delicatessen meat, compared with 75 (79%) of 95 control subjects (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-66.7). All delicatessen meat eaten by case patients came from 1 batch purchased from 1 processing plant and had been sliced, vacuum-packed, and frozen (temperature, -23 degrees C) for 7-28 days. An employee sliced this batch with bare hands 1 day after recovery from gastroenteritis. Identical norovirus sequences were identified in stool specimens obtained from rafters on 3 different trips; 2 of 5 meat packages also tested positive for norovirus by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and DNA hybridi