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Sample records for brote por salmonella

  1. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

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    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  2. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis among hospital workers

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    Ma. Eugenia Chávez-de la Peña

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  3. Brote de toxiinfección alimentaria por salmonella entérica en un establecimiento de restauración colectiva

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    Rosa Ma. Carbó Malonda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Se describe un brote de toxiinfección alimentaria por Salmonella enteritidis ocurrido en dos salones de banquetes con ocho grupos de comensales afectados. El objeto de la investigación fue determinar el alimento vehículo de transmisión de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se analizaron los procesos de elaboración de los alimentos susceptibles de haber causado el brote. La asociación de los alimentos con la enfermedad se analizó mediante un diseño de casos y controles. Se calcularon las Odds Ratio ajustadas (ORa y sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95% por regresión logística. Resultados: El número de comensales fue 1.771, distribuidos en 13 grupos durante tres días consecutivos. Se encuestó a 629 personas (36%. El número de casos probables fue de 250, 61 confirmados por salmonella enterica. El biscuit glasé (postre con huevo crudo sin tratamiento térmico presentó la Odds Ratio ajustada más alta (ORa = 20,40; IC95%:7,52-55,30 y fue positivo a Salmonella enterica serotipo enteritidis. Conclusiones: Existe evidencia epidemiológica y de laboratorio de que el biscuit glacé fue el alimento contaminado que causó el brote. La investigación destacó como factores contribuyentes la utilización de huevo crudo, la producción en grandes cantidades y con antelación al consumo del alimento.

  4. Brote causado por Escherichia coli en Chalco, México

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    Cortés-Ortiz Iliana Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el agente causal del brote de diarrea asociado con el desbordamiento del canal de aguas negras en Chalco. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y transversal, efectuado en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE, de la Secretaría de Salud, con 1 550 hisopos rectales para el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de V. cholerae y enterobacterias, obtenidos de la población del Valle de Chalco, que presentó diarrea y vómito durante el desastre natural acontecido el 31 de mayo de 2000. El análisis de los resultados se efectuó por la diferencia entre las proporciones de dos poblaciones (prueba de Ji cuadrada. Las cepas de E. coli se hibridaron por "colony blot" para los grupos ETEC, EIEC, EPEC y EHEC. Resultados. El 0.45% correspondió a Salmonella: S. agona, S. infantis, S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. typhimurium; 0.06% a Shigella flexneri 3a, y 76.6% a E. coli: 62.2% a ETEC (44.6 % con LT, 11.2% con ST, y 44.1% con ambas sondas, 0.84% a EIEC (sonda ial, 0.84% a EPEC (sonda bundle-forming pilus BFP, 0.08% a E. coli enterohemorrágica no-O157:H7 (sonda pCVD419, y 36.02% no hibridó. No se encontró asociación entre E. coli patógena con la edad y género. Conclusiones. Escherichia coli podría ser responsable del brote de diarrea. Es importante conocer el agente etiológico del brote para encaminar las estrategias en el estudio y control sanitario del mismo.

  5. Osteomielitis por salmonella

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  6. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público

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    Godoy P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.

  7. Brote de gastroenteritis por virus Norwalk en una residencia de ancianos de Granada

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    Almagro Nievas Diego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los brotes de gastroenteritis aguda de origen vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal-Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15-18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  8. Brote causado por Escherichia coli en Chalco, México Outbreak caused by Escherichia coli in Chalco, México

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    Iliana Alejandra Cortés-Ortiz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el agente causal del brote de diarrea asociado con el desbordamiento del canal de aguas negras en Chalco. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y transversal, efectuado en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE, de la Secretaría de Salud, con 1 550 hisopos rectales para el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de V. cholerae y enterobacterias, obtenidos de la población del Valle de Chalco, que presentó diarrea y vómito durante el desastre natural acontecido el 31 de mayo de 2000. El análisis de los resultados se efectuó por la diferencia entre las proporciones de dos poblaciones (prueba de Ji cuadrada. Las cepas de E. coli se hibridaron por "colony blot" para los grupos ETEC, EIEC, EPEC y EHEC. Resultados. El 0.45% correspondió a Salmonella: S. agona, S. infantis, S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. typhimurium; 0.06% a Shigella flexneri 3a, y 76.6% a E. coli: 62.2% a ETEC (44.6 % con LT, 11.2% con ST, y 44.1% con ambas sondas, 0.84% a EIEC (sonda ial, 0.84% a EPEC (sonda bundle-forming pilus BFP, 0.08% a E. coli enterohemorrágica no-O157:H7 (sonda pCVD419, y 36.02% no hibridó. No se encontró asociación entre E. coli patógena con la edad y género. Conclusiones. Escherichia coli podría ser responsable del brote de diarrea. Es importante conocer el agente etiológico del brote para encaminar las estrategias en el estudio y control sanitario del mismo.Objective. To identify the etiologic agent responsible for a disease outbreak following an overflow of sewage water in Valle de Chalco, Mexico. Material and Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out. Rectal samples were collected from the population of Chalco valley, who suffered from diarrhea and vomiting during a natural disaster that took place on May 31, 2000. The Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (Epidemic Reference and Diagnosis Institute, InDRE, Ministry of Health, received 1521 rectal

  9. Brote de faringoamigdalitis de origen alimentario por estreptococo betahemolítico A

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    Juan Nieto Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Aunque no son frecuentes, algunos autores han comunicado brotes de faringoamigdalitis de origen alimentario. El 11 de mayo de 2010 se notificó a la Red de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía (SVEA que había personas con cuadro de faringoamigdalitis que tenían en común haber asistido a una comunión celebrada el día 8. El objetivo de este trabajo es la caracterización epidemiológica del brote. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de casos notificados y análisis de casos control por exposición a los alimentos implicados. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, sintomatología y fecha de inicio de síntomas. Fuentes de información fueron los registros del SVEA e historia digital individual (DIRAYA. Se calcularon frecuencias, tasas de ataque, y análisis bayesiano de comparación de diferencia de proporciones de enfermar para un intervalo de probabilidad o credibilidad (IP del 95%. Resultados: De 130 asistentes a una celebración se detectaron 41 casos de faringoamigdalitis (tasa ataque 31,5% y se aisló en frotis Estreptococo betahemolítico A. El grupo de edad más afectado fue el de 25-44 años: 16 (39,0%;hubo más afectación de las mujeres 24 (68,6% mujeres. La ensaladilla de huevo presentó una probabilidad mayor del 80% P(Δ>0,10 y Δ>0,15 para un IP del 95% de enfermar tras su consumo y la probabilidad de tener menos riesgo de no enfermar. Conclusiones: Se trató de un brote por estreptococo betahemolítico A. El análisis epidemiológico evidenció exposición a fuente única y común, siendo plausible la hipótesis del origen alimentario, posiblemente por la ensaladilla de huevo contaminada por algún manipulador de alimentos. Como factores contribuyentes se identificaron inadecuadas medidas higiénico-sanitarias en la manipulación y conservación de los alimentos.

  10. BROTE DE GASTROENTERITIS POR VIRUS NORWALK EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS DE GRANADA

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    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal- Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15- 18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- isolates associated with an outbreak of food-borne disease in Paz de Rio, Boyacá, Colombia, in 2010 = Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Salmonella Typhimurium variante 5- asociada a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el municipio de Paz de Río, Boyacá, 2010 = Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Salmonella Typhimurium variante 5- asociada a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el municipio de Paz de Río, Boyacá, 2010

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    Díaz Osorio, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimuri-um variant 5- is a pathogen closely related to animals, especially pigeons, which has been also associ- ated in rare cases with sporadic infections in humans. However, epidemiological surveillance systems have enabled the detection of this variant in human out- breaks. Objective: To characterize by means of phenotypic and genotypic techniques the isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- associated with an outbreak of food-borne disease in Paz de Rio, Boyacá, Colombia (2010, in order to establish their molecular relationships. Materials and methods: Twelve isolates of Salmonella -spp., were analyzed by biochemical, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE with Xball Blnl enzymes was used to establish their molecular relationships Results: All isolates were confirmed as Salmonella spp. They were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin and sensitive to the rest of antibiotics tested. Eleven isolates were identified as Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- and grouped in COIN10.JPX.X01.0168 pattern using the enzyme Xball two isolates in this group were confirmed using the enzyme Blnl with the COIN10.JPX.A26.0002 pattern. One isolate was identified as Salmonella Typhimurium with COIN10.JPX.X01.0221 pattern with the enzyme Xbal Conclusion: This is the first outbreak in Colombia of foodborne illness epidemiologically associated with isolates of Typhimurium variant 5 -, which Epidemiologic Sur were phenotypically and genetically related.

  12. Brote de diarrea por Shigella en Coto Brus: Costa Rica,de octubre a diciembre del 2001

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    Azalea Espinoza Aguirre

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción Coto Brus,cantón cafetalero localizado en la zona fronteriza con Panamá,reportó,en noviembre del 2001,dos defunciones en menores de un año por Shigella flexnnery ,debido a un brote de diarrea.Se inició la investigación para determinar la magnitud y el mecanismo de transmisión del brote y recomendar acciones para prevenir nuevos casos. Métodos Se revisaron 2862 hojas de consultas por diarrea en el Hospital de Coto Brus,de enero a noviembre del 2001,para caracterizar el brote.Se tomaron muestras de agua para el cultivo bacteriológico y coprocultivos.Para determinar el mecanismo de transmisión de Shigella ,se realizó un estudio caso-control.Un caso fue toda persona de Coto Brus,referida al hospital del lugar por diarrea y que presentó un coprocultivo positivo por Shigella ,del 1 ºal 15 diciembre del 2001. Se calcularon OR(IC95%a variables socio-laborales y condiciones higiénicas. Resultados De 29 coprocultivos enviados se aislaron 19 por Shigella flexneri. Factores de riesgo como: no lavarse las manos antes de comer presentó un OR=4,80;IC(1,28-18,73,para recolectores de café el OR=4,17(1,09-16,73y contactar con una persona con diarrea OR=4,36(IC95%=1,08- 18,27.Las muestras de agua no reportaron contaminación con el agente.La propagación persona a persona fue identificada como mecanismo de transmisión. Conclusiones Deficientes condiciones de saneamiento en las fincas cafetaleras y las malas prácticas higiénicas facilitaron la transmisión de Shigella entre los recolectores de café.Se recomendó supervisar la actividad cafetalera por los Ministerios de Salud y Trabajo para garantizar condiciones de saneamiento básicas y promover prácticas higiénicas en los trabadores durante la época de recolección del café.

  13. Brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones transmitidas por alimentos en Costa Rica, 2005

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    Hilda Ma Bolaños-Acuña

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: En la actualidad, las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, incluyendo las diarreas e intoxicaciones, constituyen uno de los problemas de salud pública de mayor importancia a nivel mundial, ya que ocasionan alta morbilidad y mortalidad, generan grandes costos a los servicios de salud, pérdidas económicas, demandas y pérdida de confianza de los consumidores. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la información disponible en el Centro Nacional de Referencia en Bacteriología del INCIENSA (CNRB, de los brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias ocurridos en 2005, en los que se refirieron muestras clínicas o de alimentos, para identificar los agentes y vehículos de infección asociados. Materiales y métodos:Se realizó el análisis descriptivo de la información epidemiológica y de laboratorio disponible en el CNRB en relación con los brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias ocurridos en 2005. Resultados:Durante el período el CNRB documentó 23 brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias, para un total aproximado de 819 afectados, en su mayoría procedentes de la gran área metropolitana. Trece de los brotes fueron intrafamiliares (diez de ellos debidos a especies y serotipos de Shigella; sin embargo, el mayor número de enfermos se presentó en los brotes comunitarios y los que se produjeron en poblaciones cautivas, asociados a rotavirus, Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica y Clostridium perfringens productor de toxina A, con 518, 138 y 54 enfermos, respectivamente. Conclusión:Estos hallazgos evidencian deficiencias en la cadena de transporte, conservación y manipulación de los alimentos, así como en la higiene personal, y pueden ser de utilidad para la implementación de intervenciones inmediatas.

  14. Reflexión sobre los modelos para el estudio de los brotes de rabia humana por murciélago

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    Schneider Maria Cristina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una reflexión sobre cuál de los posibles modelos en salud pública contribuiría más para el entendimiento de la ocurrencia de brotes de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos. En un primer momento se hace una breve revisión sobre los modelos más utilizados para analizar nuestro objeto de estudio. Posteriormente se presenta la investigación de un brote de rabia humana transmitida por murciélagos con base en el modelo epidemiológico social. Este mismo brote se analiza nuevamente utilizando como marco teórico la teoría de sistemas complejos, como forma de un ejercicio teórico-práctico para intentar una aproximación a esta teoría, como un posible modelo para estudiar el problema presentado.

  15. Brote de diarrea debido a intoxicación por alimentos en una empresa X. San José, Costa Rica, del 8 al 9 de julio 2003

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    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre; Hilda Ramírez Fernández; Henry Wasserman Teitelbaum

    2007-01-01

    El 9 de julio del 2003, se informó al Ministerio de Salud, la existencia de un brote de diarrea en una empresa X, en San José. Se investigó el brote, con el objetivo de verificar su magnitud, determinar factores de riesgo y mecanismo de transmisión, también recomendar medidas de prevención y control, a las autoridades de salud. Se revisaron 40 expedientes clínicos de pacientes atendidos por diarrea, en el consultorio de la empresa. Se definió como caso a todo funcionario, que pres...

  16. Brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones transmitidas por alimentos en Costa Rica, 2005

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    Hilda Ma Bolaños-Acuña

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: En la actualidad, las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, incluyendo las diarreas e intoxicaciones, constituyen uno de los problemas de salud pública de mayor importancia a nivel mundial, ya que ocasionan alta morbilidad y mortalidad, generan grandes costos a los servicios de salud, pérdidas económicas, demandas y pérdida de confianza de los consumidores. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la información disponible en el Centro Nacional de Referencia en Bacteriología del INCIENSA (CNRB, de los brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias ocurridos en 2005, en los que se refirieron muestras clínicas o de alimentos, para identificar los agentes y vehículos de infección asociados. Materiales y métodos:Se realizó el análisis descriptivo de la información epidemiológica y de laboratorio disponible en el CNRB en relación con los brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias ocurridos en 2005. Resultados:Durante el período el CNRB documentó 23 brotes de diarrea e intoxicaciones alimentarias, para un total aproximado de 819 afectados, en su mayoría procedentes de la gran área metropolitana. Trece de los brotes fueron intrafamiliares (diez de ellos debidos a especies y serotipos de Shigella; sin embargo, el mayor número de enfermos se presentó en los brotes comunitarios y los que se produjeron en poblaciones cautivas, asociados a rotavirus, Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica y Clostridium perfringens productor de toxina A, con 518, 138 y 54 enfermos, respectivamente. Conclusión:Estos hallazgos evidencian deficiencias en la cadena de transporte, conservación y manipulación de los alimentos, así como en la higiene personal, y pueden ser de utilidad para la implementación de intervenciones inmediatas.Justification and objective:Food borne diseases ncluding diarrhea and food poisoning represent one of the major public health problems worldwide, since they cause high morbidity and mortality

  17. Brote de infección por norovirus del Grupo II en un centro de entrenamiento militar, Perú 2013

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    Mariana Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos un brote de norovirus (NoV ocurrido en un centro de entrenamiento militar peruano. Trece muestras de heces tomadas de casos iniciales resultaron positivas a NoV GII por RT-PCR. Se realizó un estudio caso-control para determinar factoresasociados a la infección. Se identificó 164 casos probables(tasa de ataqueclínica: 45,2%. El único factor asociado a la infecciónfue el "haber compartido habitación con un caso" (ORa=1,7; IC95% 1,1 a 2,7. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos sugieren que el virus fue propagado persona a persona. Futuras investigaciones de brotes de diarrea en el Perú deberían considerar al NoV como un agente etiológico

  18. Brote de infección por norovirus del Grupo II en un centro de entrenamiento militar, Perú 2013

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    Mariana Ramos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos un brote de norovirus (NoV ocurrido en un centro de entrenamiento militar peruano. Trece muestras de heces tomadas de casos iniciales resultaron positivas a NoV GII por RT-PCR. Se realizó un estudio caso-control para determinar factoresasociados a la infección. Se identificó 164 casos probables(tasa de ataqueclínica: 45,2%. El único factor asociado a la infecciónfue el "haber compartido habitación con un caso" (ORa=1,7; IC95% 1,1 a 2,7. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos sugieren que el virus fue propagado persona a persona. Futuras investigaciones de brotes de diarrea en el Perú deberían considerar al NoV como un agente etiológico

  19. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

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    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.

  20. Brote de Fiebre Hemorrágica por el virus del Ébola en Uganda Hemorrhagic Fever outbreak due to Ebola virus in Uganda

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    MªC. Aríñez Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Uganda se está llevando a cabo la Misión de la Unión Europea (EUTM Somalia, en la que participan efectivos de las Fuerzas Armadas españolas. En mayo de 2011 el Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda notificó un brote de fiebre hemorrágica por el virus del bola a 70 km de distancia de Kampala. El caso índice y único caso confirmado, fue una niña de 12 años que falleció. La investigación epidemiológica se llevó a cabo por un equipo internacional que incluyó personal del Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda y de la OMS. Tras mantener la vigilancia del brote durante un tiempo igual a dos veces el periodo de incubación y no confirmar otros casos, fue declarado finalizado el brote el 17 de junio de 2011. Se distribuyó información sobre el brote y recomendaciones de actuación tanto a profesionales de la salud como a la población general.The European Mission (EUTM Somalia is being conducted in Uganda. Military personnel of the Spanish Armed Forces participate in that mission. On 13 May 2011, The Ministry of Health of Uganda notified a case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a district 70 kilometers far from Kampala. The index case and only confirmed case, was a 12-year-old girl who finally died. Epidemiologic surveillance was conducted by an international team including representatives of the Ugandan Ministry of Health and WHO. The Ministry of Health of Uganda declared the end of the outbreak on the 17 June 2011, since the epidemiological investigations, including twofold the incubation period surveillance, did not confirm new cases. Guidelines to control the outbreak and information on the disease were distributed to health professionals and general population.

  1. Brote por pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar-Compte Diana; Jacquemin Benedicte; Díaz-González Adriana; Velásquez Consuelo; Volkow Patricia

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del ...

  2. Brote por pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas

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    Vilar-Compte Diana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del personal de salud. Se efectuó un análisis de casos y controles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 13 infecciones tardías del sitio quirúrgico por P aeruginosa. La Pseudomona se aisló de las narinas de la enfermera y de las gasas que ella misma colocaba sobre la mesa de mayo, pero no de los paquetes de gasas cerrados del área de curaciones ambulatoria de tumores mamarios. El 14 de abril de 2000 se transfirió a la enfermera a otra área y se instauraron medidas estrictas para el control de infecciones. Después de esta fecha se diagnosticaron cuatro casos más. La radioterapia fue el único factor de riesgo asociado con la infección (RM=5.1, IC 95%=1.1-28.4. CONCLUSIONES: El brote probablemente estuvo causado en un inicio por una fuente común y se extendió por infección cruzada entre las pacientes. Las prácticas deficientes detectadas en el manejo de heridas y drenajes condujo a instaurar medidas preventivas específicas.

  3. Investigación de vectores y reservorios en brote de Chagas agudo por posible transmisión oral en Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia

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    Hugo Soto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene un registro de 11 casos de Chagas agudo y 80 casos por contaminación oral con Trypanosoma cruzi. Este trabajo analiza los hallazgos entomológicos y parasitológicos del brote de Aguachica, Cesar, en 2010. Un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud y de universidades regionales realizó las pruebas de laboratorio a los pacientes y el estudio del foco de transmisión. Se detectaron 11 casos agudos de enfermedad de Chagas en una sola familia con vivienda sin triatominos domiciliados y, Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus y dos Didelphis marsupialis infectados con T. cruzi en palmas de Attalea butyracea y Elaeis oleifera del área urbana de Aguachica. Se analiza la participación del R. pallescens y el rol de las palmas en el ciclo silvestre de T. cruzi y para la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas. Incursiones esporádicas de R. pallescens, P. geniculatus y E. cuspidatus silvestres desde palmas cercanas al domicilio humano pueden provocar brotes cada vez más frecuentes de Chagas oral.

  4. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio López; Jorge Neira; María Alejandra Morales; Cintia Fabbri; María Laura D´Agostino; Teresa Zitto

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y p...

  5. Brote de diarrea debido a intoxicación por alimentos en una empresa X. San José, Costa Rica, del 8 al 9 de julio 2003

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    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El 9 de julio del 2003, se informó al Ministerio de Salud, la existencia de un brote de diarrea en una empresa X, en San José. Se investigó el brote, con el objetivo de verificar su magnitud, determinar factores de riesgo y mecanismo de transmisión, también recomendar medidas de prevención y control, a las autoridades de salud. Se revisaron 40 expedientes clínicos de pacientes atendidos por diarrea, en el consultorio de la empresa. Se definió como caso a todo funcionario, que presentó más de 2 deposiciones semilíquidas, y que consumió alimentos del comedor de la empresa, el 8 julio del 2003. Se tomaron coprocultivos, muestras de alimentos consumidos, y se enviaron a un laboratorio privado para el análisis. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, y se aplicó un cuestionario. Se calcularon los riesgos relativos (RR, con intervalos de confianza del 95%, las tasas de ataque y porcentajes para los alimentos servidos. El 100% de los casos presentaron diarrea, sin fiebre. A los coprocultivos y a las muestras de alimentos, no se les buscó Clostridium perfringens. Las muestras de agua no reportaron contaminación fecal. El alimento sospechoso: cerdo con piña, presentó un RR=1,94;IC:95%(1,26-2,96. El período de incubación y la descripción de la enfermedad coincidieron con una intoxicación por Clostridium perfringens, por lo que, se asoció el brote al alimento sospechoso. Como en la empresa X se desconocían los procedimientos a seguir ante un brote de diarrea, causado por alimentos, se recomendó a los encargados de epidemiología del Área Rectora de Salud, capacitar en el abordaje de las intoxicaciones causadas por alimentos; a las empresas bajo su responsabilidad, que cuentan con establecimientos de alimentación.On July the 9th., 2003, an outbreak in company X was notified to the Ministry of Public Health in San José. This outbreak was investigated with the purposes of verifying its magnitude, determining risk

  6. Brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply

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    P. Godoy

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La potabilidad del agua induce a descartar el posible origen hídrico de los brotes. El objetivo fue investigar un brote de gastroenteritis por agua potable de suministro público. Métodos: Después de la notificación de un brote de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Baqueira (Valle de Arán se diseñó un estudio epidemiológico de cohortes retrospectivo. Mediante un muestreo sistemático se eligió a 87 personas hospedadas en los hoteles y a 62 alojadas en diferentes apartamentos. Se recogió información sobre 4 factores (consumo de agua de la red, bocadillos, agua y alimentos en las pistas de esquí y presencia de síntomas. Se determinó la existencia de cloro, se analizó el agua de la red y se realizó un coprocultivo a 4 enfermos. La implicación de cada factor se determinó con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: La incidencia de gastroenteritis fue del 51,0% (76/149. Los porcentajes de los síntomas fueron los siguientes: fiebre, 27,0%; diarrea, 87,5%; náuseas, 50,7%; vómitos, 30,3%, y dolor abdominal, 80,0%. El único factor que presentó un riesgo estadísticamente significativo fue el consumo de agua de la red (RR = 11,0; IC del 95%, 1,6-74,7. La calificación sanitaria del agua fue de potabilidad. Se observó un defecto de situación del clorador en el depósito, que fue corregido. Se recomendó incrementar aún más las concentraciones de cloro, lo cual se acompañó de una disminución de los casos. Los coprocultivos de los 4 enfermos fueron negativos para las enterobacterias investigadas. Conclusiones: El estudio demuestra la posibilidad de presentación de brotes hídricos por agua cualificada como potable y sugiere la necesidad de mejorar la investigación microbiológica (determinación de protozoos y virus en este tipo de brotes.Introduction: The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of

  7. Brote epidémico de dermatitis por la oruga procesionaria del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) en escolares Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    F. Artola-Bordás; A. Arnedo-Pena; M. A. Romeu-García; J. B. Bellido-Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Fundamento. Describir un brote de dermatitis por exposición a las orugas procesionarias del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) ocurrido el 15 de marzo del 2006 en escolares, que realizaron una estancia vacacional en una masía rural a 2 Km de Villahermosa del Río (Castellón). Métodos. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal que incluyó a los setenta escolares, de 10 años de edad, y a 3 profesores procedentes de Castellón. Se empleó un cuestionario específico para ser cumplimentado por los...

  8. Brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas Outbreak of postmastectomy wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ambulatory surgical care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Vilar-Compte; Benedicte Jacquemin; Adriana Díaz-González; Consuelo Velásquez; Patricia Volkow

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del ...

  9. Brote de psitacosis en Granada

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    Ma Teresa León Espinosa de los Monteros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La psitacosis se puede transmitir de pájaros infectados a seres humanos, siendo causa de neumonía atípica. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar origen de un brote de psitacosis, las características de los sujetos expuestos, y describir las medidas para controlarlo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo. Comunicación al Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Delegación de Agricultura, realizándose las actuaciones pertinentes (inspección, toma de muestras, desinfección e inmovilización cautelar de aves, clausura del establecimiento; definición de caso y encuesta epidemiológica. Análisis de frecuencias. Resultados: 17 personas tuvieron contacto con animales sospechosos (53% varones/47% mujeres, de ellos 9 (edad media: 30 presentaron síntomas (100% fiebre, cuadro pseudogripal 44,4%. Se realizó serología para C. psitacci a 11 de los 17 sujetos expuestos (68,75%, resultando positiva en dos de ellos (18,18%. En el estudio de tejido pulmonar del fallecido se comprobó la presencia de DNA de C. psitacci. La confirmación diagnóstica entre personas sintomáticas fue del 33% (3/9. La Delegación de Agricultura impuso cuarentena a 22 núcleos zoológicos. De las 70 muestras tomadas (60: cloacas de animales y 10 aves, presentaron antígeno positivo 7 (10%, siendo la detección de ácidos nucleicos por PCR positiva en una de ellas. Conclusiones: La exposición a aves enfermas en los establecimientos implicados originó el brote, siendo el foco común de contagio de carácter laboral. La adecuada coordinación/colaboración entre las Delegaciones de Salud y Agricultura permitió evitar la aparición de casos nuevos.

  10. El papel del agua para consumo humano en los brotes de diarrea reportados en el período 1999 - 2001 en Costa Rica

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    Carmen Valiente

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio recopila los resultados de veintidos brotes de diarrea reportados en Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre marzo 1999 y marzo del 2001, con el objetivo de evaluar el papel del agua para consumo humano como canal de transmisión de los potenciales agentes causantes; para lograrlo se estableció un "Sistema Cualitativo de Valoración del Grado de Importancia del Agua para Consumo Humano en la Transmisión de las Diarreas". Los resultados indican que cinco brotes (22.7% se clasifican en la categoría 1, es decir, el agua tuvo un 100% de responsabilidad en la transmisión del agente etiológico; ya que este se aisló tanto en las heces de los pacientes como en el agua para consumo de las poblaciones respectivas. Dos brotes se ubicaron en la categoría 11 (9.1 %; en este caso, aunque se aislaron los mismos géneros bacterianos en las heces y el agua, diferían en la especie o en alguna otra característica. En diez brotes no se logró aislar el agente patógeno en el agua de consumo (45.0%; sin embargo, las poblaciones afectadas utilizaban agua de calidad no potable, por eso se sitúan en la categoría III. En la categoría IV se clasificó solo un brote (4.5%, ya que no se pudo comprobar la presencia del agente patógeno en el agua de consumo y esta no presentaba contaminación fecal (catalogada como potable, pero se aislaron bacterias patógenas oportunistas en las fuentes de abastecimiento. En la categoría V se ubican cuatro brotes (18.2%, pues las poblaciones afectadas usaban agua potable pero no se logró aislar ningún patógeno oportunista en el preciado líquido. Otro aporte de este trabajo es que demuestra que la mayoría de los brotes de diarrea se presentan en la época de verano, principalmente en los meses de febrero y marzo. Además, en el 36.0% de los brotes se aisló la bacteria Shigella (flexneri y sonnei, seguida por Aeromonas (hydrophila y caviae en el 14%. En uno de los brotes se aisló Salmonella

  11. Brote de gastroenteritis por el consumo de agua de suministro público causado por Shigella sonnei Waterborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei caused by consumption of public supply water

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Godoy; Rosa Bartolomé; Joan Torres; Lina Espinet; Amàlia Escobar; Carmen Nuin; Ángela Domínguez

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: Investigar un brote de gastroenteritis que afectó a la población de València d'Àneu (Lleida). Métodos: Estudio de cohortes sobre el consumo de agua de la red, de agua embotellada y de agua de manantiales. La cohorte se elaboró mediante contacto telefónico con todos los números privados del municipio. Se encuestó al 58,3% de la población censada (105/180) sobre diferentes consumos de agua, número de vasos consumidos diariamente y sintomatología. Se tomaron muestras de agua de la red...

  12. Brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de heridas quirúrgicas, en pacientes posmastectomizadas Outbreak of postmastectomy wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ambulatory surgical care setting

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    Diana Vilar-Compte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en el área de atención ambulatoria de herida quirúrgica, en pacientes posmastectomizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre el 13 de marzo y el 18 de mayo de 2000 se definió como caso a las pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de la Ciudad de México, mastectomizadas con infección quirúrgica por P aeruginosa resistente a ciprofloxacina y gentamicina. Se tomaron cultivos de los antisépticos, del material de curaciones, del agua y del personal de salud. Se efectuó un análisis de casos y controles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 13 infecciones tardías del sitio quirúrgico por P aeruginosa. La Pseudomona se aisló de las narinas de la enfermera y de las gasas que ella misma colocaba sobre la mesa de mayo, pero no de los paquetes de gasas cerrados del área de curaciones ambulatoria de tumores mamarios. El 14 de abril de 2000 se transfirió a la enfermera a otra área y se instauraron medidas estrictas para el control de infecciones. Después de esta fecha se diagnosticaron cuatro casos más. La radioterapia fue el único factor de riesgo asociado con la infección (RM=5.1, IC 95%=1.1-28.4. CONCLUSIONES: El brote probablemente estuvo causado en un inicio por una fuente común y se extendió por infección cruzada entre las pacientes. Las prácticas deficientes detectadas en el manejo de heridas y drenajes condujo a instaurar medidas preventivas específicas.OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in postmastectomy wounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were patients with a surgical infection caused by P. aeruginosa resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin seen between March 13, 2000 and May 18, 2000, at Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City. Specimens for culturing were taken from faucets, antiseptics, and tap water, as well as from healthcare workers. A case-control analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Thirteen late surgical infections were caused

  13. Brote epidémico de dermatitis por la oruga procesionaria del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa en escolares Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa in schoolchildren

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    F. Artola-Bordás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Describir un brote de dermatitis por exposición a las orugas procesionarias del pino (Thaumetopoea pityocampa ocurrido el 15 de marzo del 2006 en escolares, que realizaron una estancia vacacional en una masía rural a 2 Km de Villahermosa del Río (Castellón. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal que incluyó a los setenta escolares, de 10 años de edad, y a 3 profesores procedentes de Castellón. Se empleó un cuestionario específico para ser cumplimentado por los escolares. Resultados. Seis casos de dermatitis (tasa de ataque 8,6%: 6/70 ocurrieron después del baño en la piscina climatizada de la masía al secarse con toallas, que habían dejado fuera del recinto de la piscina, y la Thaumetopoea pityocampa se deslizó sobre ellas. Los casos precisaron atención médica con administración de antihistamínicos, corticoides y duchas de agua fría. El riesgo de sufrir el cuadro por contacto con la Thaumetopoea pityocampa fue muy alto (Odds Ratio = 157,2; Intervalo de confianza del 95% 18,4-∞. Se recogieron Thaumetopoea pityocampa en las inmediaciones de la piscina y se observaron sus nidos en pinos próximos. Conclusiones. La presencia de Thaumetopoea pityocampa en zonas próximas a albergues rurales puede ser causa de brotes epidémicos y se requiere educación sanitaria de los escolares y eliminación de los nidos de Thaumetopoea pityocampa en las inmediaciones de estos albergues.Background. To describe a dermatitis outbreak caused by exposure to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa that took place on March 15th, 2006, in schoolchildren during their stay at a rural farm holiday centre in Villahermosa del Río (Castellón. Methods. A cross sectional epidemiological study was carried out on seventy schoolchildren, average age 10 years, and 3 teachers from Castellón. A specific questionnaire was used to be filled in by the schoolchildren. Results. Six cases of dermatitis (attack rate 8

  14. ESTUDIO COMPARADO DE INFECCIÓN POR SALMONELLA Y CAMPYLOBACTER EN HUESCA. 1996-1999

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    Ignacio Pérez Ciordia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Los g neros Salmonella y Campylobacter son los principales agentes bacterianos causantes de enteritis en el hombre en los pa ses desarrollados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar las caracter sticas descriptivas de los casos de infecci n por Salmonella y por Campylobacter y describir su tendencia y variaci n estacional en la provincia de Huesca para el per odo 1996-1999 M todo: Las fuentes de informaci n han sido los Laboratorios Microbiol gicos Hospitalarios (LMH que realizan anal ticas de coprocultivo tanto de enfermos ambulatorios como hospitalarios. Se toma el municipio como unidad de referencia para representar la distribuci n espacial. Para el estudio de la tendencia se utiliza un modelo determinista multiplicativo, agrupando los datos en per odos cuatrisemanales Resultados: Se han recogido un total de 781 casos de infecci n por Salmonella y 654 casos de infecci n por Campylobacter, con unas tasas medias anuales de 95 y 79,5 105 habitantes respectivamente. La enteritis por Campylobacter se presenta mayoritariamente en menores de 5 a os (73,4 %, contra el 35,5 % para la salmonelosis. La situaci n se invierte en el caso de porcentaje de ingreso hospitalario; as , el ingreso por salmonelosis es casi 5 veces superior. Ambos g neros presentan una clara estacionalidad, con un pico pronunciado en el mes de agosto. Conclusiones: Se observa una tendencia ascendente en el n mero de aislamientos positivos para ambos microorganismos y una clara estacionalidad en la poca estival.

  15. Determinación de factores de riesgo intrahospitalario en un brote por Pseudomonas aeruginosa en la sala de Ciren, Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, octubre de 1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia González

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La sala de cuidado intensivo de recién nacidos es una de las áreas más críticas dentro de los hospitales porque alberga niños con muchos factores de riesgo para adquirir infecciones tales como bajo peso al nacer, inmunosupresión y exposición a procedimientos invasivos, determinando larga estancia hospitalaria. La frecuencia de patógenos en estas salas ha aumentado en las últimas décadas entre otras cosas como resultado de la supervivencia de niños con bajo peso al nacer. Las tasas de infección nosocomial varían de acuerdo con los informes presentados por las diferentes instituciones y ciudades. En EstadosUnidos aparece un rango de 5.9-30.4 de 100 pacientes egresados, en comparación con las tasas de México en dos hospitales pediátricos con unas tasas de 25% y 34%. En la sala de Cuidados Intensivos del Recién Nacidos del Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, la tasa era en 1994 de 12% y para 1995 aumentó a 15% por 100 egresos hospitalarios. Teniendo en cuenta la tasa de incidencia de densidad en donde se manejan los días de estancia en este hospital, ésta osciló entre 25 y 30 por mil días de estancia mensual para 1997 y 1998.

  16. Caso clínico: Brote agudo de Psoriasis en un infectado por el VIH Clinical case: severe attack of psoriasis in an HIV infected patient

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    J.M. Sobrón

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La Psoriasis, que parece no tener una mayor prevalencia en infectados por el VIH, sí que presenta en su evolución en estos casos diferencias significativas ligadas no solo a la inmunodepresión, sino también a la propia acción del virus sobre los factores que influyen en la agudización de la psoriasis, como la estimulación de los queratinocitos, favorecer la presencia de infecciones en la piel, o la liberación de sustancia P que favorece igualmente el incremento queratinocítico. Se presenta un caso clínico y su expresión gráfica a través de las imágenes acompañantes.Psoriasis, which does not appear to have greater prevalence amongst HIV+ patients, does however present in its progress significant differences in these cases that are not only linked to immunodepression, but also to action of the virus itself on factors that aggravate psoriasis, such as the stimulation of keratinocytes, the favouring of skin infections, or the liberation of substance P, which also encourages growth in keratinocytes. A clinical case is presented along with explanatory imagess

  17. Brote de influenza en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. 2002

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    Julio Mayca P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicar un brote de influenza basado en la notificación de un probable brote de infección respiratoria en diciembre de 2002 por el Centro de Salud Nueva Requena (Pucallpa. Estudio transversal analítico que incluyó casos con fiebre no mayor de 72 horas, y por lo menos dos síntomas relacionados. Se tomó hisopado nasal-faríngeo, detectándose mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI: influenza A, B, adenovirus, parainfluenza y virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR. Se recolectaron 14 muestras, reportándose principalmente fiebre (92,8%, rinorrea (92,8% y tos (42,8% Se encontró influenza B y parainfluenza 2 en 05 casos. Los diagnósticos encontrados coinciden con la literatura nacional. Es necesario implementar un sistema de vigilancia, descentralizando el diagnóstico laboratorial y las campañas educativas poblacionales.

  18. Estudio comparado de infección por Salmonella y Campylobacter en Huesca. 1996-1999

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    Pérez-Ciordia Ignacio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Los géneros Salmonella y Campylobacter son los principales agentes bacterianos causantes de enteritis en el hombre en los países desarrollados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar las características descriptivas de los casos de infección por Salmonella y por Campylobacter y describir su tendencia y variación estacional en la provincia de Huesca para el período 1996-1999 Método: Las fuentes de información han sido los Laboratorios Microbiológicos Hospitalarios (LMH que realizan analíticas de coprocultivo tanto de enfermos ambulatorios como hospitalarios. Se toma el municipio como unidad de referencia para representar la distribución espacial. Para el estudio de la tendencia se utiliza un modelo determinista multiplicativo, agrupando los datos en períodos cuatrisemanales Resultados: Se han recogido un total de 781 casos de infección por Salmonella y 654 casos de infección por Campylobacter, con unas tasas medias anuales de 95 y 79,5 × 10(5 habitantes respectivamente. La enteritis por Campylobacter se presenta mayoritariamente en menores de 5 años (73,4 %, contra el 35,5 % para la salmonelosis. La situación se invierte en el caso de porcentaje de ingreso hospitalario; así, el ingreso por salmonelosis es casi 5 veces superior. Ambos géneros presentan una clara estacionalidad, con un pico pronunciado en el mes de agosto. Conclusiones: Se observa una tendencia ascendente en el número de aislamientos positivos para ambos microorganismos y una clara estacionalidad en la época estival.

  19. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

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    Horacio López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

  20. Brote de gastroenteritis por el consumo de agua de suministro público causado por Shigella sonnei Waterborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei caused by consumption of public supply water

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    Pere Godoy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Investigar un brote de gastroenteritis que afectó a la población de València d'Àneu (Lleida. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes sobre el consumo de agua de la red, de agua embotellada y de agua de manantiales. La cohorte se elaboró mediante contacto telefónico con todos los números privados del municipio. Se encuestó al 58,3% de la población censada (105/180 sobre diferentes consumos de agua, número de vasos consumidos diariamente y sintomatología. Se tomaron muestras de agua de la red municipal y de heces de diez enfermos. La implicación de cada agua consumida se estudió con el riesgo relativo (RR y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%. Resultados: La tasa de ataque global fue del 64,8% (68/105. La curva epidémica fue concordante con una exposición de 6 días. Resultó implicado el consumo de agua de suministro público (RR=4,2; IC95%: 1,5-11,9. Además, se constató una relación dosis-respuesta (χ²=34,1; p Objective: To investigate a waterborne outbreak in the population of València d'Àneu (Lleida, Spain. Methods: A cohort study of consumption of mains water, bottled water and spring water was carried out. The sample was obtained by telephone contact with all private numbers in the municipality. We surveyed 58.3% of the population census (105/180 for water consumption, number of glasses drunk daily and symptoms. The water supply in the municipal system was sampled, and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in the stool samples of 10 patients was determined. The association of each type of water was studied with estimation of relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The overall attack rate was 64.8% (68/105. The epidemic curve was consistent with an exposure of 6 days. Consumption of public supply water was associated with gastroenteritis (RR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.5-11.9. In addition, a dose-response relationship was found (χ²=34.1; p <0.001. There was a higher risk of illness in consumers of 2

  1. Investigación de un brote de fiebre de origen desconocido en una localidad colombiana del Caribe.

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    José Laguado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar un estudio serológico de un brote de fiebre tropical de origen desconocido (FOD en una zona del departamento de Córdoba, donde hay agentes etiológicos comunes de la región como Plasmodium, Leptospira, Rickettsia, Salmonella, Brucella y Orienta. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: En el municipio de Chimá (Córdoba se presentó un brote de FOD. Los casos se recopilaron de un grupo de 209 pacientes sintomáticos que asistieron a la consulta. De ellos, en 89 (42.6% se obtuvo información clínica, epidemiológica y exámenes paraclínicos. Para establecer la causa de la FOD, se hicieron estudios serológicos y de laboratorio para leptospirosis, dengue, salmonelosis, rickettsiosis, Orienta, brucelosis y malaria. RESULTADOS: Los siguientes síntomas y signos se presentaron en 30.4% del total de la población estudiada: cefalea (66%, artralgias (40% fiebre y cefalea (62.9%. A pesar de serologías positivas para Rickettsia, Salmonella y Leptospira, se consideró que la causa de la FOD en la población fue una infección aguda producida por un flavivirus y que se sospechó como dengue. La positividad de anticuerpos anti-dengue IgM fue en 45% de los casos (40/89. La IgG se encontró en 89% de los pacientes antes negativos para IgM. Además, 44% de los pacientes fueron positivos para IgG e IgM; 30% de los casos se presentaron asociados con Leptospira (n=8, pero no se pudo determinar si estas infecciones fueron recientes o pasadas. CONCLUSIÓN: Después de un estudio epidemiológico, serológico y de laboratorio de siete enfermedades tropicales, se estableció que el brote de FOD se debió presumiblemente al virus de dengue.

  2. Investigación de un brote de fiebre de origen desconocido en una localidad colombiana del Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laguado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Realizar un estudio serológico de un brote de fiebre tropical de origen desconocido (FOD en una zona del departamento de Córdoba, donde hay agentes etiológicos comunes de la región como Plasmodium, Leptospira, Rickettsia, Salmonella, Brucella y Orienta. Materiales y métodos. En el municipio de Chimá (Córdoba se presentó un brote de FOD. Los casos se recopilaron de un grupo de 209 pacientes sintomáticos que asistieron a la consulta. De ellos, en 89 (42.6% se obtuvo información clínica, epidemiológica y exámenes paraclínicos. Para establecer la causa de la FOD, se hicieron estudios serológicos y de laboratorio para leptospirosis, dengue, salmonelosis, rickettsiosis, Orienta, brucelosis y malaria. Resultados. Los siguientes síntomas y signos se presentaron en 30.4% del total de la población estudiada: cefalea (66%, artralgias (40% fiebre y cefalea (62.9%. A pesar de serologías positivas para Rickettsia, Salmonella y Leptospira, se consideró que la causa de la FOD en la población fue una infección aguda producida por un flavivirus y que se sospechó como dengue. La positividad de anticuerpos anti-dengue IgM fue en 45% de los casos (40/89. La IgG se encontró en 89% de los pacientes antes negativos para IgM. Además, 44% de los pacientes fueron positivos para IgG e IgM; 30% de los casos se presentaron asociados con Leptospira (n=8, pero no se pudo determinar si estas infecciones fueron recientes o pasadas. Conclusión. Después de un estudio epidemiológico, serológico y de laboratorio de siete enfermedades tropicales, se estableció que el brote de FOD se debió presumiblemente al virus de dengue.

  3. Calidad sanitaria de jugos de nopal, persistencia de Salmonella typhimurium y respuesta de defensa de nopal verdura.

    OpenAIRE

    Landa Salgado, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Durante las últimas dos décadas las infecciones por Salmonella se han registrado entre las enfermedades más frecuentes, afectando a personas de todas las edades y condiciones sociales y causando numerosas hospitalizaciones y muerte de personas por el consumo de frutas y hortalizas frescas. En frutas, en 2011 el Centro para el Control de Enfermedades y Prevención en EUA reportó un brote de infección por S. Agona asociado con el consumo de papaya fresca en el que 106 personas resultaron afectad...

  4. Salmonella causada por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías (Salmonella Infections Caused by Reptiles and Amphibians in Childcare Centers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-07

    Traducción al español de la entrevista con el Dr. Neil Vora, funcionario del EIS de los CDC, sobre su artículo acerca de las infecciones por Salmonella causadas por reptiles y anfibios en guarderías.  Created: 2/7/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2013.

  5. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio López; Jorge Neira; María Alejandra Morales; Cintia Fabbri; María Laura D´Agostino; Teresa Zitto

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y p...

  6. Identificación de una nueva área de infección por Rickettsias del grupo typhi: estudio de un brote de tifus en Huánuco

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    Rosa Mostorino E

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Investigar un brote de síndrome febril en el distrito de Punchao mediante una evaluación clínica, laboratorial y entomológica para conocer los factores asociados a la aparición de dicho brote. Materiales y métodos: Debido al reporte de tres pacientes con cuadro clínico febril asociado a cefalea, mialgias y postración en la semana epidemiológica Nº41 del año 2000, procedentes del distrito de Punchao, Humalíes, Huánuco y ante la información de presentación inusual de pacientes febriles en la última semana en dicho lugar, se decidió investigar la naturaleza y características del brote. Se definió como caso a todo paciente con cuadro febril agudo y uno de estos síntomas: cefalea, mialgias o postración; procediéndose a la búsqueda activa de éstos y a la evaluación de presencia de anticuerpos para rickettsias en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. Se capturaron roedores y se colectaron ectoparásitos en las viviendas (roedores, animales domésticos y humanos, a fin de identificar la presencia de Rickettsias en ellos mediante IFI, aislamiento o PCR. Resultados: No se logró el aislamiento del agente causal. Se evidenció circulación de la Rickettsia sp. (serología positiva tanto en humanos (en casos y en no casos como en roedores. Se evidenció mayor presencia de malos hábitos de aseo y condiciones inadecuadas de saneamiento básico en los casos (respecto a los no casos y una disminución de los casos luego del inicio de las medidas de control. Conclusiones: Las evidencias encontradas permitieron identificar un brote de tifus en Punchao, no pudiéndose determinar la especie involucrada debido a que no se aisló el agente causal.

  7. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz

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    Valadés F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p < 0,001. Se aisló el virus en las 4 muestras de vesículas estudiadas y la serología (IgM fue positiva en los 9 sueros estudiados. El coste total de brote fue de 927,21 e, con una media de 12,53 e por caso, y 205 días de pérdida escolar. Conclusión: Se confirmó la existencia de un brote de varicela en el colegio de la localidad de Herrera del Duque, con transmisión persona a persona, que afectó a niños de entre uno y 9 años. La elevada

  8. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked to Small Turtles More Reports, Publications, and Communication Materials Surveillance Salmonella Atlas MMWR Articles References Communication ... Infections Linked to Red and Black Pepper/Italian-Style Meats 2006 through 2009 Outbreaks Saintpaul Infections Linked ...

  9. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rb1)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Beatriz Tavares Costa; Iazzetti Antônio V.; Ferrarini Maria Aparecida G.; Campos Sandra O.; Iazzetti Marco Antônio; Carlesse Fabianne A.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico...

  10. DETERMINACIÓN DE Salmonella Typhimurium EN COMPOST INOCULADO ARTIFICIALMENTE EMPLEADO EN UN CULTIVO DE LECHUGA

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Maria Mercedes; Torres Francy Elaine; Gutierrez Edna; Rodriguez Diana Marcela; Lopez Maritza; Carrascal Ana Karina

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovariedad Typhimurium, se ha asociado a brotes por el consumo de frutas y vegetales contaminadas a partir de agua de riego, manipuladores, bioabono y suelo. En esta investigación se inoculó artificialmente un bioabono aplicado a un cultivo de lechuga para determinar la capacidad de transferencia a las plantas, así como establecer el efecto del uso de cubiertas de polietileno en la protección del cultivo frente a este patógeno. Para ello, se utilizaron plántulas de lechu...

  11. Brote nosocomial y comunitario de queratoconjuntivitis epidémica en Navarra

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    Salcedo Miqueleiz Asunción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La queratoconjuntivitis epidémica (QCE es una infección aguda, generalmente bilateral, que se presenta de forma esporádica o en brotes a partir de una fuente de infección común, que puede ser una consulta de oftalmología o una piscina. La queratitis puede evolucionar hacia la formación de lesiones subepiteliales cornéales que pueden persistir durante varios meses. El objetivo de este trabaji fue la descripción de un brote de queratoconjuntivitis epidémica ocurrido en Navarra (España entre Abril y Agosto de 1996 que afectó al menos a 266 personas MÉTODOS: Descripción del brote, definición de caso clínico, investigación microbiológica, e investigación epidemiológica del brote mediante encuesta. RESULTADOS: En la investigación epidemiológica destaca la existencia de 2 consultas de oftalmología como mecanismo de transmisión de la enfermedad en 47 de los 116 pacientes investigados. La diseminación de la enfermedad en el entorno de los pacientes se pudo conocer en 119 casos, de éstos, 62 se consideraron casos secundarios. El diagnóstico etiológico del brote se realizó a los 11 días de iniciada la investigación microbiológica, aislándose adenovirus en muestras conjuntivales de 8 de los 19 pacientes investigados. CONCLUSIONES: Las medidas de prevención instauradas para el control del brote y la eficacia de las mismas se pone de manifiesto por la reducción paulatina de casos.

  12. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative non-spore forming rods belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonellosis is a zoonotic and foodborne illness that is usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route estimated to be responsible for 1.4 million cases of human infections in 2009 in...

  13. Salmonella spp. in hospitalized children with diarrheic disease Salmonella spp. en niños hospitalizados por enfermedad diarreica: un estudios de casos y controles

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    Ludy Eunice Jaimes Vivas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 1988 and 1995, 1468 s,rool cultures were performed in children hosplfalized with diarrheic disease, at a University Hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Salmonella spp was isolated from 324 (22.1%. Positive and negative children were compared: Significant associations were found between the presence of Salmonella and the following characteristics: Age between 1 and 12 months (Odds Ratio 1.63; persistent diarrhea (OR 1.45; disentery (OR 2.25; previous use of antibiotics (OR 1.4; presence of abundant white or red blood cells in stools on direct examination (OR 2.07 and 1.94 respectively. Negative significant association was found between Salmonella presence and age from 12-24 months (OR 0.62 and diarrhea duration of less than 4 days (OR 0.64. Entre 1988 y 1995 se hicieron 1.468 coprocultivos a niños hospitalizados por enfermedades diarreicas en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; se aisló Salmonella spp. en 324 (22.1%. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los factores asociados con la presencia de Salmonella spp. Para ello se compararon las características de los niños con coprocultivo positivo para Salmonella spp. Con las de aquéllos en quienes el resultado fue negativo, mediante la determinación de la razón de disparidad con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia de Salmonella spp. Y la edad comprendida entre uno y doce meses: Razón de disparidad (RD 1.63 (intervalo de confianza de195% (IC 95% 1.24-2.14; la diarrea persistente, RD 1.45 (IC 95% 1.09-1.9.3; la disentería: RD 2.25 (IC 95% 1.61-3.15; la utilización previa de antibióticos: RD 1.40 (IC 95% 1.08- 1.80; la presencia de leucocitos y eritrocitos abundantes en el examen directo de materias fecales: RD 2.07 (IC 95% 1.53-2.79 y RD 1.94 (IC 95% 1.34-2.82, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación negativa estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia de Salmonella

  14. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a rural population, spread person to person contact Brote de gastroenteritis aguda en una población rural por transmisión de persona a persona

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    Sonia Garrido Almagro

    2004-12-01

    ón logística.Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en la variable sexo y de consumo de cualquier tipo de agua (red y embotellada. La curva epidémica no refleja un comienzo explosivo. En el cálculo de la OR ajustada destaca la relación causal los antecedentes familiares de padecer la enfermedad (OR ajustada= 5,32; IC-95% 1,23- 22,93; p=0,025. La inspección de la red de agua estaba bien y no se remitieron muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis.Conclusiones: Se trata de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda de base poblacional, de etiología desconocida y con mecanismo de transmisión de persona a persona.

  15. Megadosis de metilprednisolona oral frente a intravenosa para el brote de esclerosis múltiple comparación de la eficacia clínica y radiológica /

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo Tello, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    La mayoría de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM) sufrirán, sobretodo al principio de su enfermedad, episodios subagudos de déficit neurológico (brotes), de los que se recuperarán en mayor o menor medida. Minimizar el riesgo de padecer un brote es el pilar en el que se basan las terapias actuales para la EM, pero ninguna de las disponibles es capaz de evitarlo por completo, por lo que el tratamiento adecuado del brote, que persigue acortar su duración y mejorar su recuperación, sigue s...

  16. LA BRUCELOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD PROFESIONAL: ESTUDIO DE UN BROTE DE TRANSMISION AEREA EN UN MATADERO

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    Ma. Elena Rodríguez Valín

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. Métodos: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. Conclusiones: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  17. La brucelosis como enfermedad profesional: estudio de un brote de transmision aerea en un matadero

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    Rodríguez Valín Mª Elena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La aparición de un número elevado de casos de brucelosis entre los trabajadores de un matadero en Zaragoza, en el que se sacrificaba ganado ovino procedente de las campañas de saneamiento ganadero, hizo iniciar una investigación para esclarecer el origen del brote. MÉTODOS: El estudio se estructuró en tres partes: 1 Descripción del brote; 2 Estudio de la estructura y actividad del matadero en cuanto al número de animales sacrificados, carga de trabajo del personal y riesgo por zona de trabajo y 3 Estudio de casos y controles no apareado. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de ataque por secciones de trabajo. El análisis del sacrificio reveló una variación concomitante entre las curvas de sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento y la epidémica. El estudio de casos y controles no reveló diferencias significativas para los siguientes factores de riesgo: trabajo en zona de riesgo, uso de medidas de protección y realización de cortes y heridas. CONCLUSIONES: El brote está relacionado con el sacrificio de ovino de saneamiento. El que no se observaran diferencias significativas por secciones o por trabajar en la zona de riesgo es compatible con una exposición generalizada. Tampoco se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores respecto a la realización de cortes y heridas o el uso de medidas de protección, lo que da importancia a la transmisión aérea.

  18. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis): EFEITO DOS EXTRATOS ETANÓLICOS E AQUOSO INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY EXTRACTS (Rosmarinus officinalis): EFFECT OF WATER AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres; Alonso Salustiano Pereira; Magdala Alencar Teixeiras; Paulo César Stringheta

    2007-01-01

    Estudou-se os efeitos inibidores do extrato etanólico e do extrato aquoso de alecrim, obtidos em Soxhlet e após aquecimento a 121°C por 10 minutos respectivamente, sobre sete espécies de Salmonella isoladas de frangos. Determinou-se a presença do princípio ativo bactericida do alecrim nos extratos aquoso e etanólico, sua concentração com efeito inibidor sobre Salmonella, “in vitro”, e a ocorrência de um possível sin...

  19. ¿Qué hacemos ante un brote de escabiosis en un hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Maestre Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La escabiosis o sarna es una enfermedad de la piel producida por Sarcoptes scabiei; puede ir aumentando el número de casos, hasta llegar a producir verdaderas epidemias¹. Se procede a describir las actuaciones del Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales de un hospital ante un brote de escabiosis ocurrido en una planta de hospitalización, con afectación de trabajadores sanitarios, tras el contacto con un paciente fuente (sospecha clínica y epidemiológica de escabiosis.

  20. BROTES EPIDÉMICOS DE SARAMPIÓN EN ANDALUCÍA DURANTE EL PERÍODO 2010-2015

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    Carmen Montaño Remacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía (SVEA es el encargado de vigilar e investigar urgentemente cualquier notificación de sospecha de sarampión y otras enfermedades de declaración obligatoria y alertas. El objetivo del artículo es describir las características epidemiológi-cas de los brotes de sarampión ocurridos en Andalucía en los últimos cinco años (2010-2015 así como las medidas de actuación llevadas a cabo durante los mismos. En el periodo estudiado se notificaron tres brotes. El primero de ellos comenzó en Granada en 2010 en población contraria a la vacunación. Las medidas de control adoptadas fueron las recogidas en el protocolo de sarampión del SVEA (aislamiento de casos, identificación e inmunización de contactos, entre las que se incluyeron acciones judiciales ante la negativa de un determinado colectivo a vacunar a sus hijos. El segundo brote comen-zó en Sevilla en 2011 en una de las zonas denominadas “con necesidades de transformación social” y se extendió por toda la provincia. A partir de aquel brote se introdujo de forma rutinaria la revisión de las coberturas vacunales dentro del sistema de vigilancia, identificando a los grupos más vulnerables. Durante el primer semestre de 2015 ha habido un pequeño brote en Granada con 15 casos. Se controló rápidamente debido a la actuación precoz en la mayoría de los casos, a la instauración de las medidas correspondientes en centros sanitarios y escolares y a la alta cobertura vacunal de la población.

  1. Prevención de la infección por Salmonella enterica subespecie enterica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis en pollos mediante un bacteriófago Prevention of Salmonella enterica subspecie enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis infection in chickens using a bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Borie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Salmonella Enteritidis son una causa importante de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, epidemiológicamente asociada al consumo de productos derivados de las aves. Ya que el tratamiento con antimicrobianos causa la aparición de cepas multirresistentes, los fagos pueden ser usados como método alternativo para controlar S. Enteritidis en la industria avícola. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del bacteriófago f3αSE sobre la incidencia de S. Enteritidis en pollos. Se formaron 5 grupos de 15 pollos broiler de 10 días de edad; los grupos experimentales A y B recibieron vía oral 1 ml del fago, conteniendo 10(6 y 10(7 UFP/dosis, respectivamente. Dos horas después, las aves fueron desafiadas con 1 mi de S. Enteritidis (4 x 10(6 UFC/dosis. El grupo C sólo recibió fagos (10(7 UFP/dosis y el grupo D sólo S. Enteritidis (4 x 10(6 UFC/dosis; el grupo E no recibió tratamiento y constituyó el grupo control sano. Diez días postinfección, los pollos recibieron eutanasia por inhalación de gas, obteniéndose por cada ave muestras de intestino y órganos para el reaislamiento de la cepa desafío y del fago. La incidencia de infección por S. Enteritidis se redujo en el grupo que recibió 10(7 UFP/dosis (p = 0,028 (7/15 aves del bacteriófago, no así en el grupo que recibió la dosis de 10(6 UFP (p = 0,061 (8/15 aves. La disminución de la incidencia de 5. Enteritidis en pollos, lograda mediante el fago f3αSE, permite considerarlo como una posible alternativa al uso de antimicrobianos en el control de Salmonella.Infections caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis are an important cause of foodborne diseases, epidemiologically associated with the consumption of poultry products. Since antibiotic treatments cause the appearance of multiresistant strains, phages can be used as an alternative method for controlling S. Enteritidis in the poultry industry

  2. Brote de criptosporidiosis en Guadarrama (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rodríguez-Salinas Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En la primavera de 1998 hubo un brote de gastroenteritis aguda en Guadarrama (Comunidad de Madrid, España que afectó sobre todo a niños en edad preescolar. Métodos: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y analítico (casos y controles del brote. Se tomaron muestras para estudio microbiológico de las heces de los afectados. Se inspeccionó el sistema de captación de agua de consumo de propiedad municipal y se tomaron muestras para análisis microbiológico. Resultados: Veintiún niños/as de 0 a 5 años presentaron diarrea líquida de más de 5 días de duración. Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el consumo de agua del grifo y la gastroenteritis [OR=5,73 (1,18-43,30; p<0,05]. No se halló asociación con otras variables investigadas. Se detectaron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium parvum en heces de ocho de las personas afectadas. Se observaron deficiencias en el sistema de captación y depuración de agua de consumo público de propiedad municipal pero no se encontraron ooquistes en los análisis del agua. Conclusiones: Los resultados de la investigación epidemiológica sustentan que el origen del brote de gastroenteritis por Cryptosporidium parvum fue el agua del grifo. Aunque no se detectó este parásito en los análisis de agua, esto es explicable por las dificultades que entraña esta técnica. En la revisión bibliográfica, no se han hallado descripciones de brotes epidémicos similares en nuestro país, pero según algunos informes, no son infrecuentes en países de nuestro entorno. Por tanto, Cryptosporidium parvum debería ser tenido en cuenta en el diagnóstico y manejo de estas situaciones.

  3. Presence of salmonella enteritidis in poultry products and its impact on public health Presencia de Salmonella serovariedad Enteritidis en productos de origen avícola y su repercusión en salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Mantilla Anaya

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Enteritidis or Salmonella enteritidis, when it is artificially named as being a species (1, is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in cases of food poisoning; some authors consider it to be the most important agent on a world-wide basis. Outbreaks are associated with the intake of different kinds of food, but poultry products are most commonly involved. This agent‘s transmission occurs as a consequence of inadequately cooked chicken and eggs or during cross-contamination with other food. Salmonella Enteritidis and other serovars which produce food poisoning in humans, occasionally cause clinical disease in poultry (avian parathyphosis or loss of weight-gain, and can generate asymptomatic carriers, which can contribute to the transmission (transovarial, during laying or storage. Globalisation, the open market and the poultry industry‘s growth have increased the intake and distribution of chicken, eggs and their subproducts and, therefore, the possibility of Salmonella spp transmission. Considering the public health importance of this agent, epidemiological studies contributing to the control and prevention of this zoonosis must be carried out. La salmonella serovariedad enteriditis (salmonella enterica subespecie enterica serovariedad Enteritidis, o Salmonella enteritidis cuando se la nombra artificialmente como especie (1 es una de las causas más comunes de gastroenteritis por intoxicación de origen alimentario en humanos, considera da por algunos autores como la más importante en todo el mundo. La presentación de brotes puede involucrar el consumo de diversos alimentos, pero los productos de origen avícola son los más frecuentemente implicados. La transmisión del microorganismo es consecuencia de la cocción inadecuada del pollo y los huevos o de la contaminación cruzada con otros alimentos. La Salmonella Enteritidis y otras

  4. PLAN DE VIGILANCIA DE BROTES EPIDÉMICOS RECIENTES DE SARAMPIÓN Y RUBEOLA EN CATALUÑA

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    Mireia Jané

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El sarampión y la rubeola son dos enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. En Cataluña, desde 1988, se administra a todos los niños y niñas dos dosis de vacuna antirubeola y antisarampión con altas coberturas vacunales. Desde 1990 se lleva a cabo el Programa de eliminación del sarampión en Cataluña que contempla alcanzar y mantener un nivel elevado de inmunidad en la po-blación mediante coberturas vacunales altas, una vigilancia epidemiológica intensa y una respuesta inmediata ante la aparición de un caso o un brote. La tasa de sarampión se situó en 2014 en 1,9 casos/100.000 habitantes, des-tacando los brotes recientes de 2006, 2011, 2013 y 2014, que afectaron a 381, 289, 31 y 124 personas respectivamente. Todos los brotes fueron des-encadenados por un caso importado. En el 2011 y 2014 el 6% y 5,5% de los afectados fueron profesionales de la salud. En todos los brotes se observó una amplia variedad genotípica. En el caso del Programa de eliminación de la rubeola, desde el 2002 ha habido 68 casos confirmados de rubeola post-natal y 5 casos de rubeola congénita confirmada. En la vigilancia y control del sarampión y la rubeola, además de reforzar las coberturas vacunales, es esencial la declaración urgente, antes de las 24 horas, de la sospecha y la confirmación por parte del laboratorio de los casos declarados. Respecto a las coberturas vacunales, destaca la necesidad de reforzar la vacunación en el grupo de profesionales de la salud al igual que en otros colectivos no vacunados. En este sentido se aconseja vacunar a todas las personas nacidas después de 1966 que no estén correctamente vacunadas con dos dosis de triple vírica. Asimismo es de destacar que el avance en el estudio de los genotipos aislados permite identificar diversas importaciones procedentes de otros países europeos con brotes activos, aspecto que facilita la vigilancia de estas enfermedades.

  5. ANÁLISIS DE UN BROTE DE SARAMPIÓN EN UNA BARRIADA DE LA PROVINCIA DE SEVILLA, ESPAÑA

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    Antonio Luna Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: En 2011 en Sevilla (España un brote de Sarampión afec- tó a 1.759 personas. Comenzó en la Barriada de Santa Isabel, San Juan de Az- nalfarache (Sevilla, donde reside una comunidad Romaní. El objetivo del trabajo es describir epidemiologicamente el brote en la localidad y calcular el riesgo de enfermar por sarampión de los residentes en la barriada Santa Isa- bel. Método: Se diseñó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo. Se consideró población expuesta a los residentes en la barriada de Santa Isabel y no ex- puesta a la del resto del municipio. Las fuentes de datos fueron: el Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía, el Ayuntamiento del municipio y el Sistema de Vi- gilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía. Se describió el brote y se calcularon incidencias y el Riesgo Relativo. Los casos fueron confirmados por criterios clínicos, de laboratorio y/o epidemiológicos. Resultados: En la barriada los casos se concentraron entre el colectivo etario de entre 2 y 19 años, mientras que en el resto de la localidad se produ- jo en menores de 2 y mayores de 19 años. La incidencia global del brote fue de 0,98 por 1.000 habitantes. En San Juan de 4,94 . Entre los expuestos fue de 23,15 y de 2,1 en los no expuestos. En el colectivo de 2 a 19 años la inciden- cia fue 89,58 por 1.000 habitantes en la Barriada y de 5,33 por 1.000 habitan- tes en el resto de la localidad. Conclusiones: El brote afectó en mayor medida a menores de 20 años, a población no vacunada y residente en la Barriada Santa Isabel. El riesgo de enfermar de Sarampión en la Barriada fue de 11 y de 17 en el colectivo entre 2 y 19 años. Precisamos elaborar estrategias que reduzcan las desigualdades en salud que acompañan a algunos brotes epidémicos.

  6. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: EFEITO DOS EXTRATOS ETANÓLICOS E AQUOSO INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY EXTRACTS (Rosmarinus officinalis: EFFECT OF WATER AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se os efeitos inibidores do extrato etanólico e do extrato aquoso de alecrim, obtidos em Soxhlet e após aquecimento a 121°C por 10 minutos respectivamente, sobre sete espécies de Salmonella isoladas de frangos. Determinou-se a presença do princípio ativo bactericida do alecrim nos extratos aquoso e etanólico, sua concentração com efeito inibidor sobre Salmonella, “in vitro”, e a ocorrência de um possível sinergismo entre o extrato de alecrim e os componentes do meio. Verificou-se que o princípio ativo inibidor do alecrim concentra-se no extrato etanólico e que este efeito é obtido quando o extrato é esterilizado junto com o caldo de soja tríptica, ocorrendo sinergismo entre o extrato e os componentes do meio.

    Inhibitory effects presented by ethyl alcoholic and aquous extracts of rosemary were analyzed, obtained in Soxhlet and after heating at 121°C for 10 minutes, respectively, on seven species of Salmonella isolated from chicken. The presence of bactericidal active principle of rosemary in aquous and ethyl alcoholic extracts, its concentration with inhibitory effect on Salmonella, ";in vitro”, and the occurrence of a possible synergism between rosemary extract and milieu components. It was verified that inhibitory active principle of rosemary is concentrated in the ethyl alcoholic extract and that this effect is obtained when extract is sterilized together with triptyc soy broth, occurring synergism between extract and milieu components.

  7. Agentes bacterianos asociados a brotes de Enfermedades Trasmitidas por Alimentos (ETA en Camagüey, Cuba, durante el período 2000-2008 - Bacterial agents associated to foodborne outbreaks in Camagüey, Cuba, in the period 2000-2008

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    Rodríguez Torrens, Herlinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara establecer la incidencia de los agentes bacterianos en los brotes de ETA en la ciudad de Camagüey, se procesó la información recogida en la Sección de Microbiología Sanitaria del Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología correspondiente al período 2000-2008.SummaryIn order to establish the incidence of bacterial agents related with foodborne outbreaks occurred in the city of Camagüey, was processed all the information located at the Sanitary Microbiology Section submitted to the Provincial Center of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology, corresponding to the period 2000-2008.

  8. Salmonella enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellosis; Nontyphoidal salmonella; Food poisoning - salmonella; Gastroenteritis - salmonella ... Salmonella infection is one of the most common types of food poisoning . It occurs when you swallow ...

  9. Orquiepididimite em carneiro por Salmonella enterica sub-diarizonae: primeiro caso na América do Sul Orchiepididymitis in ram by Salmonella enterica sub diarizonae: first case in South America

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    E.C.C. Celeghini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso de orquiepididimite associado com infecção por Salmonella enterica subespécie diarizonae em carneiro da raça Santa Inês de quatro anos de idade, vasectomizado. Ao exame clínico reprodutivo, o animal mostrou aumento severo do conteúdo escrotal, sendo o testículo direito maior do que o esquerdo e a cauda do epidídimo direita maior do que a esquerda. A consistência testicular, avaliada em escala de 1 a 5, foi 5 para o testículo direito e 2,5 para o esquerdo; o órgão apresentava-se muito sensível ao toque. Na ultrassonografia foram observadas estruturas anecoicas/hipoecoicas circulares na cauda do epidídimo, sugestivas de abscessos; alguns pontos hiperecogênicos no parênquima testicular, sugerindo lesões de calcificação; e todo o testículo direito rodeado por imagem hipoecoica, indicativa de edema. Uma das estruturas da cauda do epidídimo direita foi puncionada, encontrando-se exsudato purulento, o qual foi enviado para exame microbiológico, sendo isolada e identificada Salmonella enterica subespécie diarizonae. O carneiro foi submetido a orquiepididectomia, e o órgão foi caracterizado macroscopicamente por adesões fibrosas entre as camadas escrotais, coexistência de abscessos epididimários e degeneração testicular. A Salmonella enterica subespécie diarizonae deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de infecção genital em ovinos.The objective of this manuscript was to report a case of orchiepididymitis associated with Salmonella enterica subespécie diarizonae infection in a vasectomized 4-year-old Santa Inês ram. In the clinical-reproductive examination, the animal showed a severe enlargement of the scrotal contents, being the right testicle larger than left, and the right epididymal cauda was higher than the left. The testicular consistency, evaluated in a scale from 1 to 5, was 5 to the right and 2.5 to the left, and the organ was very sensitive to the touch. In

  10. Vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, 1993-2001 Surveillance of foodborne diseases in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina, 1993 - 2001

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    Silvana Di Pietro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 39 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos que afectaron a 958 personas en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, en el período 1993- 2001. Se identifican los agentes causales, los alimentos involucrados, los sitios de ocurrencia, los factores de riesgo involucrados y los mecanismos de notificación empleados. Salmonella spp (38%, Trichinella spiralis (15%, Escherichia coli (13% y Staphylococcus aureus (15% resultaron los agentes más frecuentes en los brotes. Salmonella spp. también produjo el mayor número de casos (52%. Los principales alimentos involucrados resultaron cárneos (36%, quesos (10%, fiambres y sándwiches (10%, postres (10% y helados (8%. El mayor número de casos, por su parte, fue causado por la ingestión de helados (37%. Con relación al origen de los alimentos, 41% de los brotes fueron causados por comidas elaboradas en los domicilios, 23% en establecimientos comerciales, 13% en fiestas familiares, 8% en fiestas comunitarias y 8% en restaurantes de hoteles. En el 28% de los brotes fue identificado el agente etiológico por análisis epidemiológico exclusivamente, en el 64% se logró el aislamiento del agente, mientras que en el 8% de los casos no se logró el diagnóstico definitivo. Se analiza el valor de la encuesta epidemiológica en los estudios de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, la necesidad de fortalecer el sistema de notificación médica de casos y brotes y la importancia de las buenas prácticas en la manipulación de alimentos.A total of 39 outbreaks of foodborne diseases affecting 958 people in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina between 1993 and 2001 are described and evaluated. The main causal agents were identified involving food, sites of occurrence, risk factors and notification system used. Salmonella spp (38%, Trichinella spiralis (15%, Escherichia coli (13% and Staphylococcus aureus (15% were the most frequent agents present in outbreaks. Salmonella spp produced the

  11. Descripción de un brote de enfisema y edema pulmonar agudo del bovino (EPAB) en Parral (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    H. URRUTIA; C. BREVIS; M. QUEZADA; S. DONOSO

    1997-01-01

    Se describe un brote de enfisema y edema alveolar agudo del bovino (EPAB) ocurrido en la zona centro-sur a fines del verano de 1995. Los animales Frisón negro, de aproximadamente 2 años de edad, fueron afectados después de cambiarse de una pradera fibrosa a una suculenta de alfalfa. La mortalidad por esta causa fue de un 23%. Las principales lesiones encontradas en la necropsia fueron enfisema y edema intersticial intenso del pulmón, lo cual fue corroborado histopatológicamente, encontrándose...

  12. Antagonistic and protective effects against Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium by Lactobacillus murinus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice Efeitos antagonista e protetor contra Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhimurium por Lactobacillus murinus no trato digestivo de camundongos gnotobióticos

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    Ana Luiza Sampaio Vasconcelos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, production of antagonistic substances by Lactobacillus murinus against enteropathogenic bacteria was evaluated in vivo as well as a possible protective effect against an oral challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium using a gnotobiotic animal model. A higher mean survival time (P No presente estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonistas por Lactobacillus murinus contra bactérias enteropatogênicas foi avaliada in vivo assim como um possível efeito protetor contra um desafio oral com Salmonella Typhimurium utilizando um modelo animal gnotobiótico. Um maior tempo médio de sobrevida (P < 0,05 foi observado nos animais associados com L. murinus (7,89 ± 3,83 dias quando comparado com os controles (4,44 ± 0,73 dias. Lactobacillus murinus exerceu um potente efeito antagonista in vivo contra S. sonnei e com menos intensidade contra S. Typhimurium como revelado pelos halos de inibição ao redor das fezes dos animais associados com L. murinus. Os diâmetros dos halos de inibição ao redor dos conteúdos intestinais aumentaram ao longo do trato digestivo, seguindo proporcionalmente os níveis populacionais de L. murinus nas respectivas porções intestinais. Concluindo, o presente estudo mostra que a associação com L. murinus em camundongos gnotobióticos retarda a morte após um desafio oral com S. Typhimurium e que compostos inibitórios difusíveis obtidos em ensaios in vitro foram também produzidos in vivo e podem ser responsáveis por este efeito.

  13. Brotes de leptospirosis humana en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba Human leptospirosis outbreak in the district of Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

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    Miguel Suárez Hernández

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los brotes de leptospirosis ocurridos en la provincia de Ciego de Ávila en el periodo de 1980 a 1995. En la etapa se notifican 40 brotes. Las actividades principales vinculadas a los mismos fueron la atención al cultivo de la caña de azúcar, al cultivo del plátano, el baño en río y las inundaciones. Se nota un incremento de brotes a partir del mes de junio. En los meses de octubre y noviembre se reportan las mayores incidencias. Los grupos de edades que más casos aportaron fueron de 10-14 años, 15-19 años y 30-34 años. El sexo más afectado fue el masculino. Los grupos más afectados fueron los estudiantes, pobladores urbanos y trabajadores agrícolas cañeros. De los 40 brotes, 21 fueron confirmados por medio de la prueba de microaglutinación y 19 por la prueba hemolitica, siendo los serogrupos más frecuentes Pomona y Australis.Forty leptospirosis outbreaks occurred in Ciego de Avila province from 1980 to 1995. The main events involved in the outbreaks were floods, bathing in rivers and activities related to sugar cane and banana cultivation. The number of cases increased after June, with higher incidences reported in October and November. The most affected age groups were 10-14 years, 15-19 years and 30-34 years. Men were more affected than women. Students, people residing in the urban zone and farmers were the most affected groups. A total of 21 outbreaks out of 40 were confirmed by the microagglutination test and the remaining 19 by the hemolytic test. Pomona and Australis were the serogroups most frequently detected by microagglutination.

  14. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

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    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976. A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente desempenho do metanol, não sendo contudo recomendada a utilização em produtos alimentares em virtude da sua toxidez. Também o etanol apresentou elevados índices de extração, sem os inconvenientes associados ao uso do metanol, sendo por isto o solvente indicado para a continuidade do estudo proposto.

    Aiming to obtain a rosemary extract in organic solvent to be used in Salmonella inhibition, in food, were tested four kinds of solvents, namely: methane alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and hexane. It was used the recommended technique for lipids determination in extracts determination according to the analytic rules used by Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Analysis results showed an excellent performance for methane alcohol, but its use is not recommended in feed products due to its toxicity. Ethyl alcohol presented also elevated extraction indexes without inconvenients associated to methane alcohol use, by this reason being a solvent indicated for continuity to the proposed study.

  15. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1) Samonella septicemia associated with interleukin 12 receptor b1 (IL-12Rbeta1) deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Tavares Costa Carvalho; Antônio V. Iazzetti; Maria Aparecida G Ferrarini; Sandra O. Campos; Marco Antônio Iazzetti; Fabianne A.M.C. Carlesse

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico...

  16. Brote de encefalitis de San Luis en el Área Metropolitana Buenos Aires

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    Alfredo Seijo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hallazgos epidemiológicos y clínicos de 13 enfermos con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, con transmisión entre enero y marzo de 2010, en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires (AMBA. Los 13 enfermos, promedio de edad 38 años, tuvieron un comienzo agudo caracterizado por hipertermia y cefalea. Entre los días dos y diez de iniciados los síntomas, 7/13 enfermos tuvieron signos y síntomas de compromiso neurológico caracterizado por meningitis sin signos encefálicos en 1/7. En 6/7 los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron: rigidez de nuca, desorientación temporoespacial, fotofobia, confusión y alteración del lenguaje. Dos resonancias magnéticas y un electroencefalograma presentaron signos de afectación de lóbulos temporales. El líquido cefalorraquídeo se caracterizó por pleocitosis con predominio de células mononucleadas, glucorraquia normal y discreto aumento de proteínas. No hubo casos fatales. En 6/13 pacientes la sospecha clínica inicial fue dengue. Por la agrupación espacial y temporal de los casos puede considerarse un brote epidémico, el primero conocido en el AMBA, ya que no se había notificado previamente la circulación epidémica del virus.

  17. DETERMINACIÓN DE Salmonella Typhimurium EN COMPOST INOCULADO ARTIFICIALMENTE EMPLEADO EN UN CULTIVO DE LECHUGA

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    Martinez Maria Mercedes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovariedad Typhimurium, se ha asociado a brotes por el consumo de frutas y vegetales contaminadas a partir de agua de riego, manipuladores, bioabono y suelo. En esta investigación se inoculó artificialmente un bioabono aplicado a un cultivo de lechuga para determinar la capacidad de transferencia a las plantas, así como establecer el efecto del uso de cubiertas de polietileno en la protección del cultivo frente a este patógeno. Para ello, se utilizaron plántulas de lechuga de ocho semanas y se establecieron cuatro tratamientos y dos controles: T1 y T2, con y sin cubierta de polietileno respectivamente, contenían una concentración de Salmonella enterica Serovariedad Typhimurium ATCC 13176 inoculada en el compost en concentración de 0,04 mo/g, T3 y T4 con y sin cubierta de polietileno respectivamente con 100 mo/g de compost y finalmente C1 y C2 con y sin cubierta pero sin inoculación. El seguimiento del microorganismo en suelo se realizó durante las ocho semanas del cultivo, mediante la técnica de NMP/4 g (EPA, 2006 al cabo de este tiempo se evaluó el total de plantas cultivadas mediante la misma técnica. Se determinó que Salmonella enterica serovariedad Typhimurium ATCC 13176 se transmite a la lechuga, a partir del bioabono contaminado (OR=2,53 sin importar la concentración inicial del microorganismo en el bioabono; así mismo se encontró que existe asociación entre la contaminación y la condición de cubierta del cultivo (p=0,002. Por otra parte, al analizar las raíces no se encontró asociación de transmisión.

  18. Infecção por Salmonella typhimurium de origem hídrica em garça gigante (Casmerodius albus egretta, em sua vida livre no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Maria do Amparo Queiroz de Freitas

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available De uma mortandade de garças de vida livre, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foi isolada Salmonella typhimurium por hemocultura de material proveniente de uma ave que se mostrava enferma e que à necrópsia não apresentavam lesões a na tomopa tológicas. A Salmonella typhimurium foi também isolada de água de um lago existente no Jardim Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro, onde as aves tinham acesso permanente. Durante a mortandade das aves foi observada uma hepatite necrótica na qual havia colônias bacterianas, tesões atribuídas a esta salmonelose.In a fatal dissease among wild herons (Casmerodius albus egretta, the authors isolated Salmonella typhimurium from tissues. The observations were made in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the infected fowls showed depression (Fig. 1 and 2. The principal gross lesions ocurred in the liver where hepatomegalia and miliary necrosis were observed (Fig. 3. The microscopic examination of the liver showed miliary necrosis centrally occupied by colonies of bacteria (Fig. 4 and 5. The authors isolated also Salmonella typhimurium from waterofa lake where the fowls had access every day. This is the first observation of infection by Salmonella typhimurium in herons (Casmerodius albus egretta according the literature consulted.

  19. BROTE DE SARAMPIÓN EN CAMPO DE GIBRALTAR, CÁDIZ, DURANTE EL PERÍODO FEBRERO-JULIO 2008

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    Juan Nieto Vera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El 4 de febrero de 2008 se notificó a la Red de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Andalucía (SVEA, 2 casos de sarampión vinculados epidemiológicamente, 2 tripulantes del Fast-Ferry Jaime I de la Compañía Balearia, que realiza la línea de Algeciras - Tánger. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar epidemiológicamente el brote de ámbito poblacional detectado en la Comarca Campo de Gibraltar, las medidas de control implementadas y la efectividad vacunal. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de casos notificados. Se analizan las variables edad, sexo, municipio de residencia, sintomatología, fecha de inicio, colectivos implicados, estado vacunal previo, intervenciones realizadas, genotipo del virus, y efectividad vacunal. Fuentes de información los registros del SVEA, programa de vacunas e historia digital individual (Diraya. Se calcularon tasas x 105 por grupo de edad y medidas de frecuencia. Para comparación de efectividad vacunal se utilizó test Chi2. Resultados: Se confirmaron 155 casos de sarampión, 88.4% por laboratorio. Grupos de edad mas afectados menores de 2 años (19% y de 21 a 40 (51%. El 54.2% varones. El 72,14% no estaban vacunados. Se aisló virus sarampión Genotipo D4 importado. La efectividad vacunal era superior al 99%. Conclusiones: Se confirma un brote por virus del sarampión importado. Mas de la mitad de los casos no estaban vacunados. La disminución de la incidencia en vacunados hace necesario recomendar campañas de Cacht - Up que aumenten las coberturas para evitar la aparición de estos brotes vacunales.

  20. Tipificación molecular del virus dengue 3 durante el brote epidémico de dengue clásico en Lima, Perú, 2005

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    Enrique Mamani Z

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar mediante trascripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR y sitios específicos de restricción - reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RSS-PCR al agente causal del brote epidémico presentado en el distrito de Comas, Lima en abril del año 2005. Materiales y métodos: veinte muestras de suero colectadas durante el brote de dengue fueron procesados por RT-PCR para determinar el serotipo, esta técnica se realizó en un solo paso. Luego se aplicó la técnica RSS-PCR para la identificación del genotipo circulante y se corroboraron los resultados posteriormente con aislamiento viral y secuenciamiento. Resultados: El análisis del RTPCR del ARN extraído de las muestras presentó un producto amplificado de 290pb que corresponden al dengue serotipo 3 (DEN 3. El análisis de los productos de RSS-PCR del ARN extraído a partir de aislamientos de DEN 3 correspondió al patrón C, incluido en el genotipo III. Los aislamientos de los virus dengue 3 en líneas celulares C6/36, tipificadas por IFI y el secuenciamiento genético confirmaron los resultados obtenidos por las pruebas previamente descritas. Conclusión: Durante el brote epidémico de dengue clásico en Lima, circuló el genotipo III del virus DEN 3.

  1. Prevention of Salmonella infection by contact using intestinal flora of adult birds and/or a mixture of organic acids Controle da transmissão de Salmonella por contato entre aves de exploração comercial pelo uso de flora intestinal de aves adultas e/ou uma mistura de ácidos orgânicos

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    Gláucia Helaine de Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the ability of competitive exclusion and a mixture of organic acids to prevent Salmonella infection by contact between newly hatched chicks. A bird infected with Salmonella was placed in a box containing non-infected birds, previously treated with a broth culture of faeces of adult birds (CE and/or a mixture of organic acids. The number of Salmonella organisms in the caeca of the contact birds was estimated at 4 and 8 days post-challenge. The birds were infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis (both repeated 5 times, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Infantis (3 repetitions. The same approach was used to test the mixture of organic acids alone. In this case the birds received feed containing 0.8% of a mixture of formic acid (70% and propionic acid (30%. Also, a third trial was carried out with birds inoculated with the broth culture of faeces and fed with feed containing the mixture of organic acids. Appropriate controls were included. Whereas the birds from the control groups and the groups treated with the mixture of organic acids were heavily infected with Salmonella, those pre-treated with CE or CE plus the mixture of organic acids had no viable cells per gram of caecal contents.O presente trabalho avaliou a prevenção da disseminação de quatro sorotipos de Salmonella, de interesse em avicultura e saúde pública (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Infantis e Salmonella Enteritidis, entre aves recém-nascidas, com o intuito de diminuir a disseminação de salmonelas em rebanhos avícolas por aves que contraíram a infecção pela via vertical. Analisou-se experimentalmente a administração de microbiota intestinal de aves adultas em aves recém-nascidas, a incorporação de uma mistura de ácidos orgânicos na ração e a associação desses dois tratamentos, em grupos onde colocou-se uma ave infectada, para provocar a transmissão por contato. A microbiota

  2. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Salmonella Reading and Salmonella Abony Infections linked to Alfalfa Sprouts Advice to Consumers & Retailers Case Count Maps ... Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Salmonella Infections Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts from One Contaminated Seed Lot Advice to ...

  3. Brote de varicela en el Servicio de Oncología de hombres del Hospital San Juan de Dios, febrero-abril de 2004, San José, Costa Rica

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    Sócrates Vargas-Naranjo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo:La infección intrahospitalaria por varicela en adultos es infrecuente, a pesar de ser una enfermedad altamente contagiosa. Es reconocido que en adultos se presentan las tasas de letalidad más altas y por ello es importante analizar las características del presente brote y así determinar cuáles factores contribuyeron a que ocurriera, para recomendar acciones dirigidas a la prevención de un brote similar. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para identificar los factores asociados al brote por varicela en el hospital. La prueba de U de Mann-Whitney se utilizó para valorar diferencias entre casos y controles según edad, contacto entre pacientes, estancia hospitalaria y grupo de cama. El cálculo de los Odds Ratio ayudó a determinar la posible asociación entre las variables y la presentación de la enfermedad. Se recomendó la cuarentena del Servicio. Resultados:El primer caso de varicela ocurrió en febrero, al tercer día de su ingreso al hospital. Posteriormente, se presentaron 5 casos más. Al analizar las variables estudiadas, la curva epidémica y el período de incubación, la variable contacto entre los pacientes fue la más importante para mantener la existencia del brote p < 0,05; R = 25; [IC95%]=2,3 - 275,7. Conclusión:Se confirmó la transmisión persona-persona de la varicela como fuente principal de contagio en el hospital. Si bien la cuarentena permitió detener el brote, se deben tomar medidas más prácticas y menos costosas, que prevengan la aparición de un brote similar.

  4. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

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    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  5. INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY EXTRACTS (Rosmarinus officinalis): EFFECT OF WATER AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis): EFEITO DOS EXTRATOS ETANÓLICOS E AQUOSO

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Stringheta; Magdala Alencar Teixeiras; Alonso Salustiano Pereira; Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitory effects presented by ethyl alcoholic and aquous extracts of rosemary were analyzed, obtained in Soxhlet and after heating at 121°C for 10 minutes, respectively, on seven species of Salmonella isolated from chicken. The presence of bactericidal active principle of rosemary in aquous and ethyl alcoholic extracts, its concentration with inhibitory effect on Salmonella, ";in vitro”, and the occurrence of a p...

  6. El hospital ante un brote prolongado de legionelosis The hospital faced with a prolonged Legionella outbreak

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    Juan Antonio Fernández

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los recursos asistenciales utilizados en pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía por Legionella durante un brote ocurrido en Alcoy y compararlos con los empleados en otras neumonías. Métodos y resultados: Mediante un protocolo, se analiza y compara a 177 pacientes con neumonía por Legionella con 180 pacientes ingresados por otras neumonías, y se describe su tratamiento y los recursos empleados. La claritromicina fue el antibiótico más utilizado en ambos grupos. La estancia hospitalaria fue similar, pero los requerimientos de ventilación mecánica y cuidados intensivos fueron superiores para Legionella. La hospitalización domiciliaria se utilizó con éxito en un 15,6% de los pacientes con Legionella y en un 11,3% de los demás. El uso de oxigenoterapia domiciliaria al alta fue menor para Legionella (7,8% que para el resto de neumonías (16,7%. Conclusiones: Se destaca la mayor necesidad de ventilación mecánica en la neumonía por Legionella y los buenos resultados de la hospitalización domiciliaria dentro de los nuevos sistemas de gestión.Objective: To describe the health resources used in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia during an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Alcoy (Spain, and to compare them with those used in other forms of pneumonia. Methods and results: Using a clinical protocol, 177 Legionella pneumonia patients were compared with 180 patients hospitalized for other types of pneumonia. Data on therapy and the resources used were collected. The most common antibiotic treatment in both groups was clarithromycin, but intensive care and mechanical ventilation requirements were greater in Legionella pneumonia. Home-based hospital care was successfully used in 15.6% of patients with Legionella pneumonia and in 11.3% of those with other types of pneumonia. Home oxygen therapy after discharge was less frequent in the Legionella pneumonia group (7.8% than in the group with non

  7. Infecção por Salmonella typhimurium de origem hídrica em garça gigante (Casmerodius albus egretta, em sua vida livre no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Maria do Amparo Queiroz de Freitas

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available De uma mortandade de garças de vida livre, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foi isolada Salmonella typhimurium por hemocultura de material proveniente de uma ave que se mostrava enferma e que à necrópsia não apresentavam lesões a na tomopa tológicas. A Salmonella typhimurium foi também isolada de água de um lago existente no Jardim Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro, onde as aves tinham acesso permanente. Durante a mortandade das aves foi observada uma hepatite necrótica na qual havia colônias bacterianas, tesões atribuídas a esta salmonelose.

  8. Arteritis with left carotid artery thrombosis produced by Salmonella enteritides. Study with CT, MR and angiography with digital subtraction. Arteritis con trombosis carotidea izquierda por Salmonella enteritidis. Estudio con TC, RM y angiografia con sustraccion digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribarren Marin, M.A.; Fernandez Cruz, J.; Serrano Gotarredona, P.; Reyes Dominguez, M.J. (Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Sevilla (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    We present a case of suppurative arteritis of left common carotid artery produced by Salmonella enteritides in a 66-year-old man. We show the findings obtained by CT, MR and selective arteriography of the supra-aortic branches. We review this uncommon disorder. (Author)

  9. Estudio de un brote de bacteremia secundaria asociada con nutrición parenteral en una unidad de recién nacidos de tercer nivel.

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    Jaime A. del Río

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ante la evidencia de un brote de bacteremia secundaria neonatal, en la Unidad de Recién Nacidos, Hospital de Caldas, Manizales, se realizó un estudio de casos y controles 1:4, para determinar la asociación de factores de riesgo importantes para los pediatras como nutrición parenteral, terapia respiratoria, tubo orotraqueal, cámara cefálica, parto vaginal, la aplicación de hemoderivado, remisión de otra unidad, leche materna por sonda, peso y edad. Como definición de caso se adoptó la clínica con por lo menos dos hemocultivos positivos, patógeno de piel hemocultivado y germen aislado en sangre sin foco definido. Los 19 controles se tomaron al azar de los recién nacidos que se encontraban hospitalizados por otras causas diferentes o relacionadas con la patología. Se realizó una regresión logística paso a paso, para determinar los eventos causales. Los gérmenes hemocultivados fueron Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, E. aerogenes y E. cloacae. La edad promedio de los casos fue 30.6 semanas, en los controles 36.6 meses (p 0.2 NS. Peso promedio de los casos 1,385 g contra 2,621 g en los controles. Se encontró asociada la nutrición parenteral con el brote OR=15 (IC=1-482 p 0.027 S. Otros factores como la edad y el peso fueron de confusión. En cuanto a la nutrición parenteral, se corroboró su implicación, porque al revisar de inmediato el proceso de nutrición parenteral se encontró que los productos sobrantes se estaban almacenando y reutilizando hasta por 30 días.

  10. Brote de norovirus en Mallorca asociado al consumo de ostras Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain associated with oyster consumption

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    Antònia Galmés Truyols

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la investigación de un brote de gastroenteritis por norovirus asociado al consumo de ostras. Se encuestaron 346 expuestos (266 afectados. Solamente se enviaron 14 muestras de heces de pacientes al Centro Nacional de Microbiología. Se mandaron ostras recogidas en el lugar de producción al Centro Nacional de Alimentación. Las ostras cumplían los parámetros microbiológicos de calidad aplicables antes de la comercialización, que no incluyen investigación de virus. El análisis epidemiológico asoció la aparición de la enfermedad al consumo de ostras (odds ratio [OR]=60,4; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 26,2-139,3 y de navajas (OR=3,13; IC95%: 1,4-6,9. Los análisis microbiológicos identificaron norovirus en los afectados, pero no en las ostras que habían estado sometidas a un tiempo mayor de depuración que las consumidas. Es necesario un control riguroso de los alimentos de especial riesgo para la transmisión de norovirus y disponer de recursos de laboratorio para investigar brotes alimentarios por norovirus.We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR=60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3 and razor shells (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9. Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the

  11. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven;

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  12. Discriminação de sorovares de Salmonella spp. isolados de carcaças de frango por REP e ERIC-PCR e fagotipagem do sorovar Enteriditis Discrimination of Salmonella serovars isolated from chicken meat by REP and ERIC-PCR and phagotyping of Enteriditis sorovar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Alcocer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonelose é a infecção bacteriana de origem alimentar mais freqüente no Paraná, Brasil, e os surtos estão associados, principalmente, ao consumo de ovos, carne de aves e derivados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os sorovares de Salmonella isolados de carcaças de frango e caracterizá-los molecularmente por REP e ERIC-PCR, assim como identificar os fagotipos de Salmonella Enteriditis. Dos 25 isolados de Salmonella spp. analisados, 18 foram identificados como Enteriditis, 4 como Braenderup, 2 como Worthington e 1 como infantis. Dos 18 isolados de Enteriditis, 14 foram PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 e 1 RDNC, por se tratar de colônia rugosa. REP-PCR forneceu padrão eletroforético distinto de 10 a 13 bandas distribuídas entre 120 e 2072 pb para cada sorovar diferente testado. A ERIC-PCR mostrou um padrão de 4 a 5 bandas entre 180 e 1000 pb e foi menos discriminativa quando comparada à REP-PCR. Os resultados encontrados confirmaram que a fagotipagem é uma ferramenta útil e discriminativa para o sorovar Enteriditis. Apesar do pequeno número de sorovares testados, os resultados sugerem que a REP-PCR parece ser um método atrativo a ser utilizado no futuro para a discriminação preliminar de sorovares de Salmonella.Salmonellosis is the most prevalent bacterial food-borne disease in the State of Paraná, Brazil, and the outbreaks are often associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this study was to serotype Salmonella strains isolated from chicken carcasses and characterize them molecularly using REP and ERIC-PCR. The phage types of Salmonella Enteriditis were also identified. Of the 25 Salmonella strains analysed, 18 were identified as Enteriditis, 4 as Braenderup, 2 as Worthington and 1 as infantis. Of the 18 Enteriditis isolates, 14 were PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 and 1 "reacted, but did not conform" - RDNC. Distinct REP-PCR profiles with 10 to 13 fragments distributed between 120 and 2072 pb were easily obtained for

  13. Regeneración in vitro de brotes de Polianthes tuberosa L. a partir de yemas vegetativas de la inflorescencia y de tejido de cormo

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    Fanny Hernández-Mendoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polianthes tuberosa L. es una planta endémica de México, comercialmente se cultiva para flor de corte, y, además, es utilizada en la industria farmacéutica y del perfume. Tradicionalmente, los productores la propagan utilizando los cormos, lo que ha ocasionado que el cultivo presente poca variabilidad genética y posiblemente, por esta razón solo se conocen cultivares con flores blancas. Con base en lo anterior el objetivo de la presente investigación consistió en establecer la metodología práctica y competitiva para propagar in vitro Polianthes tuberosa L. Las yemas y pequeños segmentos de tejido de cormo fueron colocadas sobre la superficie del medio de cultivo, base GC (comunicación personal Guillermo Carrillo con las sales inorgánicas del medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog (1962 por litro, 50 mL de agua de coco, 20 g de sacarosa, 6.4 g de agar y el pH fue ajustado a 5.7. Con este medio básico se prepararon medios de cultivo que contenían bencilaminopurina (BAP, ácido naftalenacético (ANA, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, ácido indolacético (AIA, y cinetina. La formación de brotes que dieron origen a las plántulas ocurrió mediante, la regeneración directa de la yema floral la cual al crecer forma sólo una plántula y a partir del tejido de la base de la yema, de esta región se obtuvieron hasta seis brotes por yema en el medio que contiene BAP, 4.5 mg y ANA, 0.1 mg, del cual la regeneración de brotes fue mayor (56.1 %. En el caso de cormo el problema fue la contaminación llegando en algunos casos hasta el 100 % de los cultivos. Es de resaltar la importancia de poder lograr la regeneración masiva in vitro de plantas de nardo a partir de yemas florales.

  14. Detecção rápida de Salmonella Enteritidis em alimentos por ensaio imunoenzimático ELISA Rapid detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in food by ELISA assay

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    Iliana Alcocer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O método convencional de detecção de Salmonella spp., além de trabalhoso, consome longo tempo, necessitando-se normalmente de 4 a 5 dias para a confirmação da presença dessa bactéria no alimento. Portanto, o emprego de métodos rápidos e simples é importante para o diagnóstico laboratorial de toxinfecção alimentar e para o controle de qualidade. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi a padronização de ensaio imunoenzimático-ELISA para detecção de Salmonella Enteritidis em alimentos. O ensaio utilizou anticorpos policlonais para flagelina produzidos em coelho. O anti-soro apresentou pouca reação cruzada com os sorotipos de Salmonella e as diferentes espécies de enterobactérias testadas. A sensibilidade do ensaio foi de 10(4 células/mL, quando testado em cultivo puro. O conjugado peroxidase manteve-se estável durante dois meses a 4ºC e o seu uso deve ser exclusivamente durante este tempo. O ensaio padronizado apresentou simplicidade e rapidez, com sensibilidade de 1 célula/25g de maionese de batata e cenoura, após enriquecimento em água peptonada tamponada durante 24 horas a 37°C, sem necessidade de enriquecimento seletivo.Traditional cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in foods is a labour-intensive and time-consuming, taking 4 to 5 days for the final results to be known. Therefore, simplified and rapid methods are required for both diagnosis of foodborne diseases and microbiological food quality control. The aim of this study was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in foods. The assay used a polyclonal detector antibody to flagelin raised in rabbit. The anti-sera obtained showed slight cross-reactions to others Salmonella serotypes and Enterobacteriaceae species tested. The method sensitivity was of 10(4 cells/mL of pure culture. The horseradish peroxidase conjugate was stable up to two months at 4ºC and for this reason it should be used

  15. Brote de varicela en Herrera del Duque (Badajoz Chickenpox outbreak in Herrera del Duque, Badajoz, Spain

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    F.J. Valadés

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La varicela es una enfermedad de distribución mundial con una elevada morbilidad y pocas complicaciones, aunque puede presentar cuadros clínicos graves en inmunodeprimidos y adultos sanos. El objeto de este estudio es identificar y describir las características y los costes de un brote epidémico en Extremadura, cuya tasa anual de casos declarados al sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO oscila en alrededor de 5 por 1.000 habitantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con búsqueda activa de casos entre los meses de noviembre del año 2000 y marzo de 2001, y de la susceptibilidad de la cohorte escolarizada del colegio de Herrera del Duque (Badajoz. Las definiciones de casos fueron recogidas de los protocolos de la Red de Vigilancia de la comunidad extremeña. La confirmación microbiológica se realizó por aislamiento del virus y por presencia de marcadores IgM e IgG en el suero del enfermo. Se analizaron los costes tangibles directos e indirectos y los no tangibles del brote. Resultados: De los 75 casos identificados, 71 (94,7% eran niños de entre uno y 9 años, predominando el sexo masculino. La tasa de ataque fue de 18,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes, y del 68,2% en convivientes menores de 10 años. La evolución fue benigna, sin ingresos hospitalarios ni complicaciones. Se encontró un 71,6% de niños susceptibles en los de entre 3 y 8 años. Se analizó una posible agregación temporal de casos en el colegio, obteniéndose un riesgo relativo (RR de 5,01 (p Introduction: Chickenpox is a worldwide disease with high morbidity but few complications, although complications can be sevre in immunocompromised individuals and healthy adults. The annual chickenpox rate declared to the National Notification Disease Surveillance System is approximately 5 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in Extremadura (Spain. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics and cost of an epidemic outbreak of chickenpox

  16. Estudio de un brote epidémico de tos ferina en Castellón

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    González Morán Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A partir de la declaración de varios casos en un centro escolar se inicia el estudio de brote con el objetivo de caracterizar éste desde el punto de vista de persona, lugar y tiempo; se calcula la efectividad de la vacuna, y se estudia la concordancia entre los casos y el resultado positivo del estudio serológico. Métodos: Se define caso a la persona que presenta tos persistente de dos semanas de duración. Se realiza estudio de la difusión de la enfermedad a través de la curva epidémica, y de la efectividad de la dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna antipertussis. La concordancia entre los casos y la serología positiva se evalúa por el índice Kappa. Resultados: Entre los alumnos de varios centros escolares y sus convivientes se encuesta a 130 personas, de los que 94 entran en la definición de caso. La media de edad de los casos es 10,5 años, un 42,6% son varones, el 84% escolares, el 71,3% muestra signos de infección reciente (IgM positiva, y el tiempo medio desde la última dosis de vacuna antipertussis es de 8,25 años. La efectividad de la dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna es del 66%. La concordancia entre los casos y el resultado positivo de la serología muestra un Kappa igual a 0,45. No se aisló B. Pertussis en las 25 muestras de frotis faríngeo. Conclusiones: Las aulas y el medio familiar son un factor de difusión de la enfermedad. La inclusión de una dosis de refuerzo a los 18 meses mejora la efectividad de la vacuna antipertussis. El aislamiento de la B. Pertussis es poco frecuente, y la serología, puede ser una alternativa ante la sospecha clínica de la enfermedad.

  17. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis): OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis) EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres; Alonso Salustiano Pereira; Magdala Alencar Teixeiras; Paulo César Stringheta

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976). A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente des...

  18. Descripción de un brote de enfisema y edema pulmonar agudo del bovino (EPAB en Parral (Chile

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    H. URRUTIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un brote de enfisema y edema alveolar agudo del bovino (EPAB ocurrido en la zona centro-sur a fines del verano de 1995. Los animales Frisón negro, de aproximadamente 2 años de edad, fueron afectados después de cambiarse de una pradera fibrosa a una suculenta de alfalfa. La mortalidad por esta causa fue de un 23%. Las principales lesiones encontradas en la necropsia fueron enfisema y edema intersticial intenso del pulmón, lo cual fue corroborado histopatológicamente, encontrándose a nivel pulmonar una hiperplasia de neumocitos tipo II y membranas hialinas. Se practicó tratamiento sintomático al inicio del cuadro, el cual no fue efectivoAn outbreak of acute bovine pulmonary oedema and emphysema (ABPE, which occurred in the south central Chile at the end of the summer of 1995, is described. The Friesian cattle, approximately 2 years old, which were affected presented severe signs of expiratory dyspnoea after they were moved from a fibrous pasture to one which was lush with alfalfa. Mortality rate was 23%. The main lesions found in the necropsy were severe interstitial emphysema and oedema of the lungs. These were corroborated by histopathological findings in the lungs which showed an hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes as well as the presence of hyaline membranes. Syntomatic treatment was given at the outset of the diseases. But did not have any positive results

  19. DETERMINACIÓN DE Salmonella Typhimurium EN COMPOST INOCULADO ARTIFICIALMENTE EMPLEADO EN UN CULTIVO DE LECHUGA Salmonella Typhimurium determination in compost artificially inoculated in a lettuce crop

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    DIANA MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovariedad Typhimurium, se ha asociado a brotes por el consumo de frutas y vegetales contaminadas a partir de agua de riego, manipuladores, bioabono y suelo. En esta investigación se inoculó artificialmente un bioabono aplicado a un cultivo de lechuga para determinar la capacidad de transferencia a las plantas, así como establecer el efecto del uso de cubiertas de polietileno en la protección del cultivo frente a este patógeno. Para ello, se utilizaron plántulas de lechuga de ocho semanas y se establecieron cuatro tratamientos y dos controles: T1 y T2, con y sin cubierta de polietileno respectivamente, contenían una concentración de Salmonella enterica Serovariedad Typhimurium ATCC 13176 inoculada en el compost en concentración de 0,04 mo/g, T3 y T4 con y sin cubierta de polietileno respectivamente con 100 mo/g de compost y finalmente C1 y C2 con y sin cubierta pero sin inoculación. El seguimiento del microorganismo en suelo se realizó durante las ocho semanas del cultivo, mediante la técnica de NMP/4 g (EPA, 2006 al cabo de este tiempo se evaluó el total de plantas cultivadas mediante la misma técnica. Se determinó que Salmonella enterica serovariedad Typhimurium ATCC 13176 se transmite a la lechuga, a partir del bioabono contaminado (OR=2,53 sin importar la concentración inicial del microorganismo en el bioabono; así mismo se encontró que existe asociación entre la contaminación y la condición de cubierta del cultivo (p=0,002. Por otra parte, al analizar las raíces no se encontró asociación de transmisión.Salmonella enterica serovariedad Typhimurium, has been associated with outbreaks because of the ingestion of fruits and vegetables and those outbreaks have been related due to contamination sources like irrigation water, farm workers influence and the soil itself. In this investigation it was artificially inoculated in a compost and later applied to a lettuce crop, in order to determine the

  20. Determinación de tamaño de muestra de características del xilema de brote de aguacate mediante remuestreo

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    Elizabeth Meza-Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el tamaño de muestra adecuado, para detectar diferencias estadísticas en análisis de varianza de los caracteres de xilema, en brotes anuales de aguacate. Para esto, fueron registradas en tres árboles con altura contrastante las variables frecuencia, área, perímetro y diámetro de los vasos del xilema. A partir de 50 observaciones de cada árbol, se realizaron 5.000 remuestreos no paramétricos, para cada repetición de 2 a 50 campos microscópicos. A partir del tamaño de muestra de 15 repeticiones, las desviaciones en los cinco estadísticos son mínimas, por lo que se propone como el mínimo para el muestreo de dichas variables.

  1. Posibles Brotes de Zoonosis relacionadas a Huracanes (artículo de opinión)

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Rivera

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad es frecuente la presentación de fenómenos naturales con pérdidas potenciales o reales para los intereses humanos, alteraciones atribuidas al cambio climático y al calentabiento global. Esto es importante porque determina cambios en las rutas de las aves migratorias, potencialmente transmisoras de enfermedades como la influenza aviar, diferentes zoonosis y algunas enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes. Se presentan algunos datos sobre brotes que contextualizan la amenaza pote...

  2. Aspectos microbiologicos e epidemiologicos dos surtos causados por Salmonella sp em criações não industriais de Gallus gallus domesticus no Estado do Parana

    OpenAIRE

    Biesdorf, Sonia Maria

    2012-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar a participação de Salmonella sp como causa de mortalidade entre as aves domésticas das criações caseiras no Estado do Paraná, foram analisadas, no período de 1987 a 1991, 671 amostras de aves, obtendo-se 7,0% de isolamento positivo, totalizando 47 cepas do microrganismo. Foram encontrados três sorovares causando doença, entre os quais, S.gallinarum (82,9%) responsável pela maioria dos surtos, seguido pela S.pullorum (12,7%) e S.enteritidis (4,2%). Vale ressaltar qu...

  3. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina

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    Pedraza-Avilés Alberto González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.

  4. Aplicación del teorema del umbral estocástico de Whittle a un brote de varicela Application of Whittle's stochastic threshold theorem to a chickenpox outbreak

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    Doracelly Hincapié Palacio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar el ritmo reproductivo básico en un brote de varicela, aplicar el teorema umbral estocástico para estimar la probabilidad de la ocurrencia del brote e identificar medidas preventivas. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en una guardería de 16 niños, con 13 susceptibles, un infectado inicial y dos niños inmunes por antecedente de enfermedad. Se partió de un modelo estocástico: susceptible - infectado - removido. Se estimó el ritmo de reproducción básico de la enfermedad R0, usando un método de máxima verosimilitud basado en el conocimiento de la distribución de probabilidades para el tamaño total de la epidemia y haciendo una aproximación de epidemia casi-completa. Con el R0 obtenido se aplicó el teorema de umbral estocástico para obtener algunas medidas preventivas que podrían impedir la irrupción del brote de varicela. RESULTADOS: Cada infectado inicial produjo tres casos nuevos de infección, requiriendo para impedir el brote, una cobertura mínima de vacunación del 62%, o disminuir en 62% el contacto entre miembros del grupo o aumentar en 170% la remoción de infectados. CONCLUSIONES: El teorema del umbral estocástico permite identificar medidas que se podrían implementar para prevenir y controlar brotes de varicela. Aunque la distribución del tamaño de la epidemia en forma bimodal con similar probabilidad de ocurrencia de brotes grandes y pequeños, señala la incertidumbre del proceso epidémico en grupos pequeños, requiriéndose un estrecho seguimiento de los brotes en tales grupos.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the basic reproductive rate of a chickenpox outbreak, to apply the stochastic threshold theorem to estimate the probability of an outbreak occurrence and to identify preventive measures. METHODS: The study was carried out in a daycare center comprising 16 children, 13 susceptible, one infected and two children with acquired immunity by previous disease. A stochastic susceptible - infected - removed

  5. Teething and nutritional condition in children between 5 and 13 years. Brote dentario y estado nutricional en niños de 5 a 13 años

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    Juan J. Apolinaire Pennini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.Fundamento: Durante las últimas décadas se ha hecho cada vez más evidente que la nutrición desempeña un papel importante en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de los tejidos de la cavidad bucal y principalmente de los dientes. Objetivo: Caracterizar el brote dentario en la dentición permanente y su relación con la nutrición en niños de 5 a 13 años. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, de corte transversal desarrollado en un universo constituido por 1003 niños del Área II de Cienfuegos, del que se seleccionó una muestra de 330 ni

  6. Micropropagación de plantas de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal a partir de brotes axilares Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shoots

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    Ariadne Vegas García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shootsTítulo corto: Micropropagación de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal.Resumen: Se estandarizaron las condiciones de iniciación, multiplicación, enraizamiento y aclimatización de plantas hermafroditas de lechosa cv Maradol provenientes de brotes axilares, producidos en recipientes de inmersión temporal RITA®. En cada envase, contentivo de 200 ml de medio de cultivo líquido de Fitch, se colocaron cuatro brotes de 2 a 3 cm de longitud. Los biorreactores se conectaron a tres líneas de inmersión de 5, 2 y 1 min cada 4h y se colocaron 6 envases en promedio por línea, en condiciones de fotoperíodo de 16 h. Transcurridos 30 a 45 días, se cuantificaron los brotes y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tamaño: < 2 cm (pequeños, entre 2 a 3 cm (medianos,  ˃ 3 cm con y sin raíz (grandes. Los dos primeros tipos de brotes se continuaron multiplicando en los mismos medios; y los más elongados se aclimatizaron utilizando el Sistema Autotrófico Hidropónico (SAH. Se determinó la sanidad y la fidelidad de las plantas producidas mediante pruebas de ELISA y RAPD, respectivamente. Durante un periodo de 6 meses se reciclaron un total de 47 recipientes, los cuales produjeron 1.091 brotes: 377  pequeños; 482 medianos; 175 grandes sin raíz y 57 con raíz. Usando el SAH se obtuvo 89,5% de plantas aclimatizadas cuando se usaron brotes enraizados, y 41,6% a partir de brotes sin  raíces. Con la combinación de las técnicas RITA y SAH se logró un sistema continuo y eficiente de producción de plantas sanas y fieles al tipo, en comparación con los métodos convencionales de micropropagación y aclimatización.Palabras clave: Carica papaya, RITA®, sistema autotrófico, estabilidad genética.Abstract: We standardized initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization conditions of papaya cv Maradol hermaphrodite plants from axillary

  7. Efectos de la cobertura vacunal previa en la dinamica de un brote de sarampion

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    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La eficacia de una vacuna debería medirse mediante ensayos clínicos controlados, no obstante, aspectos éticos lo impiden. Orenstein sugiere que se estime la eficacia de una vacuna mediante, entre otros métodos, el estudio de los brotes epidémicos de la enfermedad caso de ser posible. El presente estudio plantea el cálculo de la eficacia vacunal en el terreno y de los efectos protectores de un programa de vacunación mediante el análisis de un brote epidémico de sarampión. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo. La población de estudio la constituyó el grupo de niños nacidos en el municipio de Aznalcollar (localidad de 5.571 habitantes perteneciente al Distrito Sanitario Aljarafe-Sevilla entre dos brotes epidémicos de sarampión ocurridos en dicha localidad en los años 1986 y 1994. Se excluyeron de la cohorte a aquellos niños que a comienzos del brote de 1994 no habían cumplido la edad de vacunación y también a quienes tuvieron exposición anterior al virus, es decir los nacidos antes y durante la epidemia de 1986. El estudio incluyó a vacunados y no vacunados. Todos los casos cumplían los criterios diagnósticos establecidos. A todos los niños en seguimiento se les revisó sus antecedentes vacunales. Tras el cálculo de las tasas de ataque en vacunados y no vacunados, se determinaron la eficacia vacunal y los efectos indirectos totales y medios del programa de vacunación. RESULTADOS: La vacuna resultó eficaz en el 91'5 % de los vacunados. El programa de vacunación produjo una reducción del número de casos en los no vacunados del 78'9%, del 98% en los vacunados y del 92% en el conjunto de la cohorte estudiada, siendo la cobertura vacunal de la misma del 66'4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los efectos de la vacunación y la eficacia vacunal pueden y deben ser calculados aprovechando la aparición de brotes epidémicos caso de ser posible. Se recomienda incrementar las coberturas de vacunación de la poblaci

  8. Brote de legionelosis asociado a un balneario Legionella outbreak at a spa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serrano Ibarbia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 el inicio de la temporada de actividad de un balneario en Gipuzkoa coincidió con la detección de un brote de legionelosis asociado al mismo, lo cual condujo al cierre de la instalación y al estudio epidemiológico -casos y controles- y ambiental oportunos. Se definió como caso toda persona que durante su estancia en el balneario o durante los 10 días siguientes presentará neumonía o un cuadro febril compatible con fiebre de Pontiac.El estudio ambiental incluyó la inspección del balneario y entorno y muestreos de los sistemas sanitarios de agua y de los elementos de hidroterapia.De las 287 personas encuestadas de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, el 12.5% cumplían con la definición de caso; 9 casos presentaron neumonía y 26 fiebre de Pontiac. La curva epidémica se inició el 7 de mayo, alcanzando un pico los días 14 y 15 de mayo y finalizando el día 20. El riesgo de enfermar ajustado por edad, sexo y consumo de tabaco se asoció con la duración de la estancia en el balneario (OR=118.5, 95% I.C: 18.7-750.2 y con el uso de una piscina (OR=10.5, 95% I.C: 1.3-82.6. Se detecto L. pneumophila serogrupo1 en recuentos superiores a 103 ufc/l en diversos puntos de la red de hidroterapia y en la ducha de la habitación de uno de los enfermos. El análisis por electroforesis en campos pulsados de una muestra biológica y muestras ambientales permitió la confirmación genotípica. El establecimiento se abrió al público tras realizar un tratamiento de choque y comprobar que transcurridos 15 días no se detectó L. pneumophila en las muestras ambientales.The start of seasonal activity at a spa in Guipuzcoa coincided with the detection of an associated legionnaire outbreak in 1998. This led to the closure of the premises and to the carrying out of opportune environmental and epidemiological studies. The latter included case-control study. A case was defined as a person who, either during his stay or in a period of 10 days thereafter

  9. Regeneración de brotes adventicios en hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivadas in vitro Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

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    Trujillo Sánchez Reinaldo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de brotes adventicios es una etapa clave para la aplicación de las técnicas de ingeniería gené­tica. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo el desarrollo de un procedimiento para la regeneración de brotes por organogénesis a partir de hojas de microesquejes o brotes de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivados in vi­tro. Para ello se estudiaron algunos de los principales factores que afectan la regeneración de brotes, tales como la concentración de reguladores del crecimiento (citoquinina, el estado fisiológico del explante y la he­rida. En todos los experimentos se utilizaron como explantes hojas de vitroplantas de guayaba de la variedad Enana Roja Cubana EEA18-40 de diferentes subcultivos. El mejor resultado se alcanzó con una concentración de 0,75 mg/L de 6-bencilaminopurina como suplemento hormonal del medio MS. Se comprobó que para las hojas provenientes de microesquejes con mayor número de subcultivo y tomadas de la parte inferior de los brotes, el potencial morfogenético disminuye significativamente (p60% y el mayor número de brotes por explante promedio (>3 se alcanzó al realizar varias heridas en forma de punteaduras en el nervio central de las hojas. Este protocolo de regeneración constituye una importante herramienta que puede ser empleada para futuros estudios de transformación genética en esta especie. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos, explantes de hoja, reguladores de crecimiento, organogénesis, guayaba.Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used

  10. Estudio histopatológico entre ratones infectados con Salmonella typhi sin vacunar y vacunados por diferentes vías con las vacunas polisacarídica y de células enteras

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    Juan F. Infante

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La fiebre tifoidea constituye una enfermedad propia del hombre. La misma es causada por Salmonella typhi y produce una respuesta inflamatoria en el tracto intestinal. Con el fin de establecer su control por vacunación el Instituto Finlay ha desarrollado una vacuna a partir del polisacárido capsular Vi. Para su estudio experimental no existe un modelo animal que reproduzca los síntomas y la patogenia de la enfermedad. El desarrollo de modelos experimentales y los estudios histopatológicos aportan informaciones al conocimiento de la enfermedad y a la interpretación de los procesos inmunológicos. Nos propusimos caracterizar el cuadro histopatológico en los ratones utilizados en las pruebas de potencia de la vacuna antitifoídica basada en polisacárido Vi purificado y su comparación con la vacuna de células enteras. Se utilizaron 240 ratones de ambos sexos pertenecientes a la línea C57BL/6 procedentes del Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio (CENPALAB, con un peso comprendido entre 18 y 22 g. Se evaluó la protección comparativa entre las vías intraperitoneal y subcutánea utilizando dos inmunógenos, a partir del polisacárido Vi y con la variante de células enteras. Se logró una considerable eficacia en ratón C57BL/6 para reproducir las lesiones compatibles con Salmonella typhi en hígado y bazo. La sobrevivencia del grupo no vacunado fue de un 15%. La sobrevivencia de los ratones correspondientes al grupo vacunado con polisacárido Vi osciló entre 90% y 100% para ambas vías, mientras que los vacunados con células enteras variaron entre 50% y 100% para la vía subcutánea y entre 60% y 100% para la vía intraperitoneal todo lo cual evidencia la superioridad de la vacuna a partir del polisacárido capsular Vi sobre la variante de células enteras en la especie ratón C57BL/6

  11. Posibles Brotes de Zoonosis relacionadas a Huracanes (artículo de opinión

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    Oscar Rivera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad es frecuente la presentación de fenómenos naturales con pérdidas potenciales o reales para los intereses humanos, alteraciones atribuidas al cambio climático y al calentabiento global. Esto es importante porque determina cambios en las rutas de las aves migratorias, potencialmente transmisoras de enfermedades como la influenza aviar, diferentes zoonosis y algunas enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes. Se presentan algunos datos sobre brotes que contextualizan la amenaza potencial para América Latina.

  12. Inativação termoquímica de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella enterica Enteritidis por óleos essenciais

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    Alcilene de Abreu Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle do crescimento microbiano tanto na indústria de alimentos quanto em ambientes hospitalares é de extrema importância. Entretanto, observa-se aumento da resistência dos microrganismos aos desinfetantes mais empregados, observando-se a necessidade de estudos com novos antimicrobianos. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e a curva de morte termoquímica de soluções desinfetantes de óleos essenciais sobre Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella Enteritidis. Foram utilizados os óleos essenciais de Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Elettaria cardamomum (cardamomo, Eugenia caryophyllus (cravo botão e Foeniculum vulgare dulce (funcho doce. As concentrações mínimas inibitórias foram determinadas utilizando-se a técnica de diluição em placas. As concentrações testadas foram de (%: 0,00; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; e 5,0. Escherichia coli foi a única bactéria sensível a todos os óleos em concentrações abaixo de 5%. Cravo da índia não inibiu o crescimento de S. aureus nas concentrações testadas. Somente o óleo essencial de tomilho inibiu o crescimento de Salmonella Enteritidis. Observando-se as curvas de morte termoquímica de S. aureus, nota-se que a solução desinfetante contendo óleo essencial de tomilho foi a mais eficiente, tanto a 25 quanto a 40°C, sendo necessário apenas 10min. de contato para não serem mais detectadas células viáveis. A solução desinfetante contendo 0,25% de óleo essencial de tomilho, tanto a 25 quanto a 40°C, eliminou as células de S. Enteritidis após10min. de contato. Já pra E. coli , os melhores resultados foram obtidos com as soluções desinfetantes contendo óleos essenciais de funcho doce e cravo da índia a 25 e 40°C e tomilho a 40°C. Todos os tratamentos, exceto aqueles contendo óleo essencial de cardamomo, reduziram o número de células viáveis das bactérias testadas em pelo menos 5 ciclos log, sendo

  13. Brote de dengue autóctono en el área metropolitana Buenos Aires: Experiencia del Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz Outbreak of indigenous dengue in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Experience of the F.J. Muñiz Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Seijo; Yamila Romer; Manuel Espinosa; Jessica Monroig; Sergio Giamperetti; Diego Ameri; Leslie Antonelli

    2009-01-01

    Como consecuencia de la epidemia de dengue que afectó a la República de Bolivia y provincias del norte argentino, se produjo por primera vez un brote de dengue autóctono en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires. A partir de enero de 2009 asistimos casos de dengue importado hasta la tercera semana de marzo, cuando aparecieron los primeros casos por transmisión local, tendencia que se mantuvo hasta mediados de mayo. La mayor concentración de casos autóctonos atendidos residía en la región oeste de...

  14. Estimulación de cardenólidos en brotes de Digitalis purpurea L. cultivados in vitro mediante elicitores

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    Naivy Lisbet Pérez-Alonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Stimulation of cardenolides production in Digitalis purpurea L. shoot cultures by elicitors additionTítulo corto: Elicitores en la producción de cardenólidosResumen: Digitalis purpurea L. es una de las principales fuentes de cardenólidos tales como digoxina y digitoxina. Estos fármacos son ampliamente usados en la disfunción cardíaca y para regular las arritmias del corazón. El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de tres elicitores en el cultivo de brotes de Digitalis purpurea var. Roter Berggold para incrementar la producción in vitro de cardenólidos. La elicitación es una estrategia para incrementar la producción de biomasa y metabolitos secundarios en el cultivo in vitro. Los elicitores evaluados fueron ChitoPlant (0,001; 0,01; 0,1 g.L-1; SilioPlant (0,01; 0,1; 1,0 g.L-1 y Jasmonato de metilo (60, 80 y 100 µM, descritos por primera vez para el incremento de cardenólidos. Se demostró que la elicitación es una estrategia viable para el incremento de cardenólidos en brotes de D. purpurea. El ChitoPlant®, redujo la altura sin afectación en el resto de las variables morfológicas evaluadas. Además indujo un incremento significativo en el contenido de cardenólidos. El SilioPlant® (0,01 g.L-1 no provocó afectaciones en la biomasa e incrementó significativamente la síntesis de cardenólidos en los brotes en 3,6 y 6,9 veces el contenido de digoxina y digitoxina respectivamente. La elicitación con el jasmonato de metilo provocó una reducción de la biomasa. Los contenidos de digoxina y digitoxina se incrementaron ligera y significativamente con 80 y 100 µM de jasmonato de metilo respectivamente. El mejor resultado integral se obtuvo con 0,01 g.L-1 de SilioPlant, el cual indujo la mayor producción neta de cardenólidos por frasco de cultivo (4,72 µg digoxina y 88,27 µg digitoxina. Palabras clave: chitoplant, digitoxina, digoxina, jasmonato de metilo, silioplantAbstract:

  15. Análise da contaminação por Salmonella em ovos do tipo colonial através da reação em cadeia da polimerase Analysis of Salmonella in free-range eggs through polymerase chain reaction

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    Maristela Lovato Flôres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de poedeiras comerciais infectadas por salmonelas tem sido um dos pontos fortes da profilaxia e conseqüente redução de surtos de salmonelose em humanos associados ao consumo de ovos, sendo que a análise dos ovos pode ser mais um dos pontos de detecção da infecção, que, muitas vezes, cursa sem sinais clínicos. A Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR parece ser uma estratégia útil para detecção de Salmonella, pois vários autores têm utilizado a PCR para verificar a presença da bactéria em carnes, fezes, tecidos, sangue, leite e ovos, com diferentes metodologias de manipulação das amostras. Foram analisados 360 ovos, procedentes de dez propriedades rurais, produtoras de ovos tipo colonial, no distrito de Camobi, em Santa Maria - RS. Os ovos foram divididos em grupos de seis, totalizando sessenta amostras. O exame bacteriológico foi realizado conforme metodologia preconizada pelas normas técnicas e a metodologia de extração de DNA pelo fenol-clorofórmio. A PCR foi realizada para a amplificação de um fragmento de DNA de 284 pb. A análise dos resultados não demonstrou diferença significativa entre a PCR e o bacteriológico. Todas as amostras positivas ao bacteriológico foram positivas na PCR, sendo que essa última detectou duas amostras a mais, devido a sua alta sensibilidade e especificidade, especialmente quando é sabido que os ovos apresentam uma população microbiana mista que, muitas vezes, impede o isolamento adequado das salmonelas no bacteriológico pela competição com a flora bacteriana normalmente presente.The identification of salmonella infection in commercial poultry has been one of the strong points of prophylaxis and consequent reduction of salmonellosis outbreaks in humans associated to consumption of eggs, considering that the analysis of the eggs can be one more point of detection of infection, which for many times appear without clinical signs. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR

  16. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Salmonella Reading and Salmonella Abony Infections linked to Alfalfa Sprouts Advice to Consumers & Retailers Case Count Maps ... Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Salmonella Infections Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts from One Contaminated Seed Lot Advice to ...

  17. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... live. How do people get Salmonella infections from reptiles and amphibians? Reptiles and amphibians might have Salmonella ...

  18. Estudio de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a brotes comunitarios de legionelosis Study of refrigeration towers associated with community outbreaks of legionellosis

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    Albert Pérez Lleonart

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a un brote comunitario de legionelosis según sus características de mantenimiento y la calidad del agua. Método: Comparar los datos recogidos entre los 4 tipos de torres de refrigeración: control 1, control 2, probable y confirmada. Se han estudiado un total de 184 torres de refrigeración asociadas a 17 brotes comunitarios de legionelosis de la provincia de Barcelona durante el año 2004, de las cuales 112 son control 1, 54 control 2, 8 probables y 10 confirmadas. Resultados: Las torres confirmadas se caracterizan por: niveles elevados de conductividad, aerobios totales, dureza cálcica, sólidos totales en disolución, temperatura y turbidez; concentraciones de cloro deficientes (Objetive: To evaluate the factors of risk of the risk cooling towers associated to a community outbreak of legionellosis according to its characteristics of maintenance and the quality of the water with the purpose of improving the systems of prevention of this one disease. Method: To compare the piece of information gathered between the 4 types of cooling towers: control 1, control 2, probable and confirmed. A total of 184 cooling towers have been studied associated to 17 community outbreak of legionellosis of the province of Barcelona (Spain during the year 2004, of which 112 are control 1, 54 control 2, 8 probable and 10 confirmed. Results: The confirmed towers are characterized by: high levels of conductivity, total aerobes, calcic hardness, total solids in dissolution, temperature and turbidity; low levels of chlorine (< 2 ppm; of use hypochlorite as disinfectant in a 10%; greater degree of breach of the revision program and cleaning of the internal elements of the tower (tray, stuffed and separating of drops; degree of performance of the periodic disinfections and the cleaning of deposits of the 100%. A 47% of the investigated towers do not use the previous treatments of the

  19. Características clínico-epidemiológicas de un brote de influenza A en personal militar de Trujillo, Perú 2008 Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of an influenza outbreak in military personnel-Trujillo, Peru, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Chávez; V Alberto Laguna-Torres; Burga, Ana M.; Merly Sovero; Rollin Cruz; Juan Pérez; María Gamero; Jane Ríos; Tadeusz Kochel

    2010-01-01

    Se describe un brote de infección respiratoria febril aguda en una unidad militar de Trujillo, Perú. Se usó la definición de caso de síndrome gripal del Ministerio de Salud, se tomó hisopado nasal para prueba rápida de influenza (PRI) e hisopado faríngeo para aislamiento viral en cultivo celular. La genotipificación de influenza A fue por secuenciamiento genético de una región del gen de hemaglutinina teniendo como base la cepa vacunal de 2008. Se presentaron 59 casos entre el 01 y 08 de abri...

  20. RECUPERAÇÃO DE SALMONELLA SPP. EM MANGA (MANGIFERA INDICA) CV. TOMMY ATKINS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Belém de Oliveira Vilar; Maria Fernanda Pontes Penteado Moretzhon de Castro; Ana Carolina Rezende; Ana Lúcia Penteado; Flávio Luís Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. é um patógeno que se destaca como agente responsável por doenças veiculadas por alimentos. Alguns estudos demonstram que o consumo de manga contaminada foi responsável por alguns destes surtos. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a eficiência de diferentes metodologias para a recuperação de Salmonella em manga (Mangifera indica) cv. Tommy Atkins. Para o estudo, as mangas foram artificialmente contaminadas com um pool de Salmonella contendo culturas de Salmonella Typ...

  1. Brote de encefalitis de San Luis en el Área Metropolitana Buenos Aires Outbreack of St. Luis encephalitis in the Metropolitan Buenos Aires Area

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    Alfredo Seijo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hallazgos epidemiológicos y clínicos de 13 enfermos con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, con transmisión entre enero y marzo de 2010, en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires (AMBA. Los 13 enfermos, promedio de edad 38 años, tuvieron un comienzo agudo caracterizado por hipertermia y cefalea. Entre los días dos y diez de iniciados los síntomas, 7/13 enfermos tuvieron signos y síntomas de compromiso neurológico caracterizado por meningitis sin signos encefálicos en 1/7. En 6/7 los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron: rigidez de nuca, desorientación temporoespacial, fotofobia, confusión y alteración del lenguaje. Dos resonancias magnéticas y un electroencefalograma presentaron signos de afectación de lóbulos temporales. El líquido cefalorraquídeo se caracterizó por pleocitosis con predominio de células mononucleadas, glucorraquia normal y discreto aumento de proteínas. No hubo casos fatales. En 6/13 pacientes la sospecha clínica inicial fue dengue. Por la agrupación espacial y temporal de los casos puede considerarse un brote epidémico, el primero conocido en el AMBA, ya que no se había notificado previamente la circulación epidémica del virus.We describe the epidemiological and clinical findings of 13 patients with diagnosis of infection by St. Louis encephalitis virus, transmitted between January and March 2010 in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (AMBA. Thirteen patients, average age 38 years, had an acute onset with hyperthermia and headache. Between days two and ten of the onset of symptoms, 7/13 patients had signs and symptoms of neurological involvement. This was characterized by meningitis without encephalic sings in 1/7 and in 6/7 the most frequent findings were: stiff neck, disorientation, photophobia, confusion and language impairment. Two MR and one EEG revealed signs of involvement of temporal lobes. The cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis with predominance of

  2. Response of first attack of inflammatory bowel disease requiring hospital admission to steroid therapy Respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo del primer brote de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal que requiere ingreso hospitalario

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    M. Abu-Suboh Abadía

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: corticoid administration is the usual treatment of Crohn' disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC attacks. How-ever, information available on response rates and their predictive factors is scarce. Objective: to establish response to steroidal treatment in an homogeneous group of patients with CD or UC during their first admission to hospital. Methods: restrospective analysis of 86 patients who received systemic steroidal treatment for a severe flare-up during their first hospital admission between 1995 and 2000. Patients were treated per protocol with fluid therapy, absolute diet, IV 6-methyl-prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, and enoxaparin at prophylactic doses. Clinical response at 30 days was considered good in case of complete remission, and poor in case of partial or absent remission. Univariate and multivariate analyses according to non-parametric statistics were performed for sociodemographic and biologic variables. Results: 45 patients with CD and 41 with UC were included. Good response rates were 64.4% for CD and 60.9% for UC. The univariate analysis showed that patients with good response have shorter evolution times and fewer previous flare-ups (p Introducción: la administración de corticoides constituye el tratamiento habitual de los brotes de enfermedad de Crohn (EC y colitis ulcerosa (CU. Sin embargo, existe poca información sobre las tasas de respuesta y los factores que puedan predecirla. Objetivo: determinar la respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo en un grupo homogéneo de pacientes de EC y CU que ingresan por primera vez en el hospital. Métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 86 pacientes que en su primer ingreso hospitalario recibieron tratamiento esteroideo sistémico por brote grave de EC o CU entre 1995 y 2000. Fueron tratados de forma protocolizada con sueroterapia, dieta absoluta, 6-metil-prednisolona 1 mg/kg/día IV y enoxaparina a dosis profilácticas. Se ha considerado la respuesta clínica a los 30 días como

  3. Herramientas para afrontar las situaciones de crisis en un brote de gastroenteritis aguda en un colegio público Practical lessons from the risk management of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a public school

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    Áurea Morillo-García

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo describimos las reflexiones y conclusiones extraídas del análisis de un brote de gastroenteritis en un centro escolar, que ocasionó una crisis de salud pública. El análisis realizado tuvo como base la metodología de las matrices de "debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades" (DAFO. Se describe la epidemiología de los sucesos y decisiones tomadas, basadas en aspectos operativos durante una situación de crisis. Incluye la experiencia del equipo responsable del brote, las relaciones con otras entidades y la gestión de la información. Las dificultades encontradas por el equipo coordinador consistieron en el retraso de la declaración, la falta de formación de algunas entidades implicadas y el mal uso de los circuitos establecidos. Es necesario un entrenamiento específico en los actuales protocolos de manejo de crisis y fomentar la mejora continua de los circuitos de coordinación mediante la autoevaluación y actualización de conocimientos y recursos.We present our reflections on the management of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak in a public school, which caused a public health crisis, and the conclusions drawn from this experience. The methodology of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis was used. This article describes the epidemiology of the incident and the policy decisions made, but focuses on operational aspects of outbreak management. The experience of the outbreak control team, liaison with other organizations, and data management are discussed. The difficulties encountered by the outbreak team related to delay in declaring in the outbreak, lack of training in some of the entities involved, and incorrect use of the surveillance circuits. Current protocols and specific action plans for the management of outbreaks should be improved through self-evaluation and updating of resources and knowledge.

  4. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp aislada de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Quesada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar la información disponible sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella spp de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en América Latina. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios epidemiológicos observacionales realizados en América Latina entre los años 2003 y 2014 en las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS. Se excluyeron estudios realizados como parte de estudio de brotes o casos de infecciones en humanos. Tres revisores de forma independiente participaron en la selección de estudios. Además, se realizó la evaluación de calidad a los estudios incluidos. Resultados. Un total de 25 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los estudios incluidos fueron realizados en Brasil, México, Colombia, Argentina y Venezuela. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp se obtuvieron principalmente de alimentos de origen avícola, porcino y vacuno, siendo Salmonella typhimurium y Salmonella enteritidis los serotipos que se aislaron con mayor frecuencia (17 y 11 estudios, respectivamente. En 23 de los estudios, Salmonella spp fue resistente a más de un antibiótico, incluyendo ácido nalidíxico, estreptomicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, ampicilina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina y cefalosporinas. Conclusiones. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp obtenidos de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en los países analizados presentan con frecuencia resistencia a múltiples antibióticos. Es importante que más países en América Latina realicen y publiquen estudios sobre la resistencia de Salmonella spp para establecer y monitorear estrategias de control adecuadas.

  5. Descripción de los tres primeros brotes de gripe A (H1N1 2009 notificados en prisiones de España Description of the first three notified outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1 2009 in Spanish prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gómez-Pintado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: describir los tres primeros brotes de gripe A (H1N1 2009 notificados entre julio y septiembre de 2009 en las prisiones españolas. Metodología: Se definió brote como la aparición de tres o más casos con síntomas gripales y con vínculo epidemiológico en el mismo módulo de una prisión. Los brotes son notificados mediante cuestionario específico. El análisis realizado por las variables sexo, edad, fecha de notificación, duración de los brotes, factores de riesgo y características clínicas se presenta en forma de números absolutos, porcentajes y tasas de ataque y el estudio de la difusión de la enfermedad a través de las curvas epidémicas. Resultados: Se notifican tres brotes desde las prisiones de Alcalá-Meco con 85 varones afectados, Pamplona (18 varones afectados y Jaén (12 mujeres afectadas con una tasa de ataque global que varía entre el 7,1% y el 17,9%. La duración de los brotes varía entre 8 y 35 días, y la mediana de duración de la enfermedad es de 3 días. Sólo ingresaron 4 internos que fueron dados de alta por mejoría. Los hombres son mas jóvenes (pAim: This study describes three reported outbreaks of influenza H1N1 2009 in Spanish prisons between july and september 2009. Methods: An outbreak was defined as the appearance of three or more cases with influenza symptoms and with an epidemiological link in the same module of a prison. The outbreaks were reported using a specific questionnaire. The analysis, which used variables of gender, age, date of notification, duration of outbreak, risk factors and clinical features are presented as absolute numbers, percentages and attack rates, while study of the diffusion of the illness is expressed as epidemic curves. Results: Three outbreaks were reported at the prisons of Alcala-Meco (85 affected males, Pamplona (18 affected males and Jaen (12 affected females with an overall attack rate that ranged from 7.1% to 17.9%. Duration of the outbreaks was between 8

  6. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of...) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' This CPG is obsolete. DATES: The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA issued the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog...

  7. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza-Avilés Alberto González; Ortiz-Zaragoza Catalina; Mota-Vázquez Ricardo; Dickinson-Bannack Ma Eloísa; Dávila-Mendoza Rocío; Fernández-Ortega Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA). Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA) y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron po...

  8. Estudio de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a brotes comunitarios de legionelosis Study of refrigeration towers associated with community outbreaks of legionellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Pérez Lleonart; Susana Chacón Villanueva; Fernando Parrilla Valero

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo de las torres de refrigeración asociadas a un brote comunitario de legionelosis según sus características de mantenimiento y la calidad del agua. Método: Comparar los datos recogidos entre los 4 tipos de torres de refrigeración: control 1, control 2, probable y confirmada. Se han estudiado un total de 184 torres de refrigeración asociadas a 17 brotes comunitarios de legionelosis de la provincia de Barcelona durante el año 2004, de las cuales 112 son co...

  9. Características clínicas y moleculares de un brote de influenza en dos bases militares, Tumbes- Perú, 2007

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    Tatiana Saldarriaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir un brote de Influenza en dos bases militares en Tumbes, Perú. Material y métodos. Se utilizó la definición de caso de síndrome gripal del Ministerio de Salud en casos con menos de cinco días de inicio de síntomas. Se tomó hisopado nasal para la prueba rápida de Influenza (PRI e hisopado faríngeo para aislamiento viral en tres líneas celulares (MDCK, VERO, LLCMK2. Para la genotipificación de Influenza B se usó un secuenciamiento parcial de la región de hemaglutinina de 898 pares de bases teniendo como base la cepa de la vacuna del 2007 (B/Florida/4/2006 y para el tipo A se analizó 958 pares de bases teniendo como referencia la cepa vacunal del 2007 (A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2. Resultados. Se tomó 124 hisopados, 20 de la base militar (BM # 1 y 104 de la BM # 2. La PRI identificó a 41 casos positivos: Flu B: 27, Flu A: 02, Flu: 12, con 62% de sensibilidad y 100% de especificidad. Finalmente, 66 casos fueron confirmados por cultivo celular, 54 Flu B y 12 Flu A. Los aislamientos de Tumbes fueron genéticamente similares con la cepa B/Texas/4/ 2006 (n=34 y A/Texas/91/2007 (H3N2/ (n=7. Los síntomas más comunes fueron fiebre, cefalea, malestar general, tos, dolor de garganta, mialgias y rinorrea. Las medidas de control consistieron en el aislamiento de los casos identificados y el uso de mascarillas. Conclusiones. Se confirmó 66 casos de Influenza por cultivo celular. Los aislamientos tuvieron la mayor similitud genética con las cepas denominadas B/Texas/4/2006 y A/Texas/91/2007 (H3N2.

  10. Estudio de un brote de leptospirosis en Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch y potencialidad profiláctica de vax-SPIRAL®

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    Mariela Naranjo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En Honduras, uno de los países de Centroamérica más afectados por el huracán Mitch, debido a las fuertes lluvias e inundaciones, se crearon las condiciones idóneas para el desarrollo de un brote de leptospirosis. Un grupo de especialistas cubanos realizamos un estudio a 68 pacientes con un cuadro clínico epidemiológico sospechoso de leptospirosis entre los pobladores del Departamento de Puerto Cortés, una las regiones más comprometidas. A todos los pacientes se les tomó una muestra de sangre para hemocultivo y obtención de suero. Se empleó la técnica de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para la identificación de las cepas de leptospira y para evaluar la protección conferida por vax-SPIRAL® (vacuna antileptospirósica cubana frente al reto con la cepa aislada y se verificó la prevalencia de leptospiras en los riñones e hígado. Se observó un predominio de pacientes del sexo masculino, en un grupo entre 15-49 años. Los municipios de este Departamento con un mayor número de casos fueron San Pedro Sula, La Lima y Chamelecón. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, cefalea, mialgias, malestar general, entre otros. Más del 80% de los individuos manifestaron la presencia de roedores en sus viviendas y que tuvieron contacto con aguas estancadas y animales domésticos. La cepa aislada del hemocultivo positivo fue del serogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae, muy virulento en el modelo animal empleado. Se evidenció el 100% de protección de los hámsteres inmunizados con vax-SPIRAL® y retados con la cepa de Honduras. El análisis macroscópico de los órganos de los animales inmunizados que sobrevivieron al reto al 100%, reveló la ausencia de signos característicos de la infección.

  11. Determinación de la relación clonal de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi recuperados en el programa de vigilancia por el laboratorio de EDA en Colombia durante el período 1997-2003 mediante la electroforesis en campo pulsado

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    Hidalgo Marylin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La tipificación molecular de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi es necesaria para complementar los análisis epidemiológicos de las fiebres entéricas en Colombia. El objetivo del trabajo fue establecer la relación genética de los aislamientos de Salmonella typhi y paratyphi recuperados durante el período 1997-2003, en varias regiones del país. Se utilizaron 58 aislamientos de S. typhi, tres de S. paratyphi A, dos de S. paratyphi B y 1 de S. paratyphi C, recibidos por el programa de vigilancia de EDA del Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS. Para determinar la relación genética se empleó la electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado y se calculó un dendrograma; para evaluar la asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos obtenidos y las características de los aislamientos, como datos
    demográficos de los pacientes, tipo de muestra, año y procedencia, se utilizó un análisis de correspondencias. Los datos de S. typhi se analizaron en conjunto con 15  islamientos tipificados anteriormente en el INS. Se obtuvieron 36 patrones electroforéticos, 31/36 (86,1%, representados en 68/73 (93,1% aislamientos, estuvieron relacionados genéticamente. Los patrones S.Ty0001 y S.Ty0012 predominaron en el país. En el análisis de correspondencias, no se encontró asociación entre los patrones electroforéticos y las características de los aislamientos. Los aislamientos de S. paratyphi A estuvieron relacionados genéticamente mientras que los de S. paratyphi B no guardaron relación. A pesar de la considerable heterogeneidad de los aislamientos colombianos de Salmonella typhi, definida por el número de patrones electroforéticos, la mayoría de ellos guardan una relación genética, sugiriendo un origen común de los mismos.

  12. Construcción de mutantes de Salmonella enterica por inactivación de los genes invG/invE y ssaJ/ssaK de las islas de patogenicidad 1 y 2

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    Judith Velasco

    2010-10-01

    To understand the genetic basis of Salmonella pathogenicity mechanisms, various methods have been described to manipulate and generate mutant genomic DNA with specific characteristics. In this study we report the construction of mutants from several serotypes of S. enterica, substitution and inactivation of genes invG/invE in SPI-1 gene and ssaJ/ssaK in SPI-2 by the technique of phage λ Red recombinase, as described by Datsenko and Wanner (2000. The gene deletion in SPI-1 and SPI-2 encodes proteins involved in the formation of type III secretion systems responsible for the invasion and intracellular survival of S. enterica in the host cells. The results of this work will allow in vivo studies to evaluate the possible attenuation of virulence of the mutant strains, as well as to provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by these bacteria. Moreover, this technique is recommended to efficiently generate mutants of different serotypes of S. enterica in order to study the chromosomal genes and their products. Key words: red recombinasa, mutation, pathogenicity islands, Salmonella enterica.

  13. Patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis FT 13a y Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko en pollos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Ruiz Flores; Fernando Constantino Casas; José Antonio Quintana López; Carlos Cedillo Peláez; Odette Urquiza Bravo

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la patogenia de Salmonella enteritidis fagotipo 13a (SE FT 13a) y de Salmonella enteritidis biovar Issatschenko fagotipo 6a (SI) en pollitos de engorda de cuatro días de edad. Veintiocho aves por tratamiento fueron inoculadas con dosis de 1 × 108 (SE FT 13a) y 1 × 109 (SI), respectivamente, y 14 pollitos fueron inoculados con solución salina fi siológica (SSF), como testigos negativos. Se tomaron muestras de hígado, bazo, corazón, pulmón, buche,...

  14. The adaptive value of shoot differentiation in deciduous trees and its evolutionary relevance Valor adaptativo de la diferenciación de brotes en árboles deciduos y su relevancia evolutiva

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    Veit M. Dörken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pronounced long shoot/short shoot differentiation is typical for deciduous angiosperm trees. It also occurs in a number of gymnosperms and very few evergreen angiosperm trees. The study of 719 angiosperm tree species (602 deciduous and 117 evergreen species demonstrated that the deciduous condition is nearly always associated with shoot differentiation. Detailed measurements in 38 angiosperms showed that the leaf area of an entire short shoot equals the leaf area of a single long shoot leaf of the same species and individual. In the few cases where the leaf area of the short shoot is slightly larger than that of a single long-shoot leaf, the short shoot leaves shade each other and the projection of the short shoot equals the area of a single long shoot leaf. Calculations of the stem biomass needed to expose a given assimilatory surface show two interesting aspects. First, the stem biomass (dry weight to expose leaf surface is about 10 times less in short shoots than in long shoots. Second, this biomass in long shoots and short shoots appears to be species independent. Regarding shoot structure efficiency, leaf size and shape do not matter. Some evergreen species resemble in all parameters more to deciduous species than to typical evergreen species. Phytogeographical data as well as morphological data suggest that these atypical evergreen species are derived from deciduous ancestors. As measured parameters differ markedly between all gymnosperms, except Ginkgo, and angiosperms, we suppose that the evolutionary pathway leading to shoot differentiation was different for gymnosperms and angiosperms.En Angiospermas arbóreas deciduas, es común encontrar un alto grado de diferenciación entre brotes largos y brotes cortos. También se presenta esta característica en un número de gimnospermas y en muy pocas angiospermas arbóreas siempreverdes. El estudio de 719 especies de angiospermas arbóreas (602 deciduas y 117 siempreverdes demostró que la

  15. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  16. Galler-induced reduction of shoot growth and fruit production in the shrub Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae Insectos cecidómidos reducen el crecimiento de brotes y la producción de frutos en el arbusto Colliguaja integerrima (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFREDO L. GONZÁLES

    2005-09-01

    huevos depositados por el cecidómido y el número de cecidias entre arbustos. La producción de frutos se relacionó inversamente con el número de cecidias, pero no presentó asociación significativa con la altura del arbusto, su cobertura ni con el número de brotes. Brotes sin cecidias fueron más largos que los con cecidias. El tratamiento químico produjo un efecto positivo retrasado sobre la reproducción de la planta. Una vez transcurridos 24 meses de iniciado el experimento químico, el número de frutos fue mayor en las ramas experimentales que en las ramas control (con cecidias. De igual manera, la remoción mecánica de cecidias aumentó la producción de frutos en comparación a las ramas control en la siguiente estación reproductiva del arbusto. Estos resultados indican que el cecidómido reduce el crecimiento de los brotes y tiene un efecto negativo retardado sobre la producción de frutos de C. integerrima. Como la probabilidad de detectar cecidias nuevas fue mayor en los arbustos previamente infectados, es posible que el proceso de reinfección de cuenta de los efectos negativos acumulativos del insecto sobre el desempeño de la planta

  17. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  18. Patogénesis de las infecciones producidas por rickettsias en las Américas

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    Gustavo Valbuena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia fue el segundo país en reportar rickettsiosis en Latino América (en el año de 1.937; el primero fue Brasil. Estos primeros casos reportados correspondieron a un brote de fiebre de las Montañas Rocosas que ocurrió en la localidad de Tobia, Cundinamarca (1. Además, hasta mediados de los años 40 del siglo pasado, el tifo epidémico (causado por R. prowazekii era endémico en muchas ciudades de Colombia, incluyendo Bogotá.

  19. Frecuencia de presentación de enfermedades zoonósicas y transmitidas por alimentos en el municipio Boyeros de Ciudad de la Habana (Techniques base for the analysis of risks of zoonotic illnesses and transmitted by foods in the Boyeros municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra Maylin Soca Pérez MSc

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de las zoonosis y enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA en el sector humano y animal, así como la influencia entre ambos, fue analizado el municipio Boyeros de Ciudad de La Habana entre el 1995 – 2003 para las zoonosis y el 1998 – 2003 para las ETA. Los datos fueron tomados del Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria y del Centro de Higiene y Epidemiología Municipales, y se tuvieron en cuenta en el sector humano aspectos como: zoonosis generales presentadas, número de confirmados por año y área de salud, relación de los casos afectados con el riesgo ocupacional, y para las ETA número de brotes, total de afectados y principales agentes productores de las enfermedades, entre otros. Para las zoonosis en animales se estudió la especie, total de afectados y número de focos por año y área de salud. Para procesar los datos se ustilizaron tablas de distribución de frecuencia, y cálculo de las tasas de fallecidos, entre otros. La Leptospirosis resultó ser la zoonosis más frecuente para hombres y animales, estando asociada fundamentalmente a grupos sin riesgos laborales. Los principales agentes productores de ETA fueron Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin y Eshericha colli, asociados fundamentalmente a los factores de riesgo: manipulación de los alimentos y tiempo de conservación – temperatura, entre otros. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren un bajo nivel de información y la necesidad de incrementar los niveles de gestión de estas enfermedades tanto para la salud animal como la salud pública. The present paper work was carried out at Boyeros municipality in Habana City. It was characterized, and one data base were made, about diseases transmitted by food and zoonotic desease. The relative incidence of the zoonotic deseases in the period ( 1995-2003 was determined, being Leptospirosis the most frequent in animals and human beings as well, the behaviour of the deseases transmitted

  20. Brote de varicela en el Servicio de Oncología de hombres del Hospital San Juan de Dios, febrero-abril de 2004, San José, Costa Rica Chicken pox outbreak in the male Oncology Ward at he Hospital San Juan de Dios Hospital, febrero-abril de 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sócrates Vargas-Naranjo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo:La infección intrahospitalaria por varicela en adultos es infrecuente, a pesar de ser una enfermedad altamente contagiosa. Es reconocido que en adultos se presentan las tasas de letalidad más altas y por ello es importante analizar las características del presente brote y así determinar cuáles factores contribuyeron a que ocurriera, para recomendar acciones dirigidas a la prevención de un brote similar. Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles para identificar los factores asociados al brote por varicela en el hospital. La prueba de U de Mann-Whitney se utilizó para valorar diferencias entre casos y controles según edad, contacto entre pacientes, estancia hospitalaria y grupo de cama. El cálculo de los Odds Ratio ayudó a determinar la posible asociación entre las variables y la presentación de la enfermedad. Se recomendó la cuarentena del Servicio. Resultados:El primer caso de varicela ocurrió en febrero, al tercer día de su ingreso al hospital. Posteriormente, se presentaron 5 casos más. Al analizar las variables estudiadas, la curva epidémica y el período de incubación, la variable contacto entre los pacientes fue la más importante para mantener la existencia del brote p Aim: Varicella ’s infection is not common in adults ’ hospital, in spite of being a highly contagious illness. Since in adults, death rates are higher, it is important to analyze the characteristics of the present outbreak. We tried to determine risk factors that contributed to its existence in order to recommend measures to prevent future varicella outbreaks. Methods:A case and contols study was designed to identify factors associated to a varicella outbreak in the hospital. The U test of Mann-Whitney valued differences between cases and controls according to age, contact among patients hospital stay and bed group. Odds Ratio determined the possible association between the variables and the presentation of the

  1. Brote de dengue en San Jose de Guaribe, Venezuela: reporte preliminar Outbreak of dengue in San José of Guaribe, Venezuela: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alajandro Caraballo

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos nuestra experiencia de un brote de dengue en el Municipio San José de Guaribe, Estado Guárico a mediados de Septiembre y comienzo de Octubre de 1990. Un total de 97 casos sin muertes y el estudio serológico en una muestra problacional mostró virus tipo 2. La pronta intervención y la efectividad de las medidas de control, una atención médica oportuna y un diagnóstico scrológico temprano contribuyeron al control del brote. Esta es la primera descripción de un brote de dengue en el Estado Guárico, Venezuela.An outbreak of dengue in the Municipality San Jose of Guaribe, Guarico State about the middle of September and to beginning October 1990 is reported. A total 97 cases without death and the Serologic study in a population sample showed type 2 virus. The quick intervention, the effectiveness of the measures of control, one attention medical opportune and the early Serologic diagnostic to contribute of the outbreak control. This is the first description of a dengue outbreak in the Guarico State, Venezuela.

  2. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y microbiológica del brote de diarrea asociado a Clostridium difficile, ocurrido en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la enfermedad diarreica asociada a Clostridium difficile (EDACD es la causa más importante de diarrea nosocomial en el mundo. En Costa Rica, se presentó recientemente un brote de EDACD en el Hospital San Juan de Dios de San José, hospital de tercer nivel con 700 camas. En el estudio se analizan las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con EDACD atendidos entre noviembre de 2008 y junio de 2009. Pacientes y métodos: se definió como caso de EDACD un paciente con cuadro diarréico con detección de ELISA positiva por toxina A de C. difficile en heces. Se realizó un análisis de la incidencia anual desde 2004 de EDACD, y de la incidencia mensual de EDACD en 2009 en el HSJD, así como un estudio observacional y retrospectivo de 112 expedientes médicos correspondientes a pacientes con el diagnóstico de EDACD atendidos en el Hospital, en el periodo comprendido entre el 15 de noviembre de 2008 y el 15 de junio de 2009. El análisis de los datos se efectuó mediante pruebas estadísticas descriptivas y medidas de asociación. Resultados: la incidencia de EDACD aumentó desde finales de 2008, y alcanzó su pico máximo en abril de 2009, cuando se implementaron medidas sanitarias que disminuyeron en un 75% el número de pacientes en 8 meses. De los 112 expedientes médicos revisados, 63 (56% fueron hombres. La edad promedio fue de 65,33 años; 103 (92% pacientes desarrollaron su enfermedad mientras estuvieron hospitalizados; el tiempo promedio de internamiento fue de 18,6 días. Solo el 9% no presentó ninguna comorbilidad. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron: HTA y DM tipo 2, con un 57,5% y un 39,8%, respectivamente, y enfermedad neuropsiquiátrica en un 29,2%. El 96% (107 pacientes había recibido tres o más antibióticos antes del inicio de la diarrea. La duración promedio de la antibióticoterapia fue de 32 días por paciente. En promedio, la duración de la diarrea fue de 10,2 d

  3. Efecto de Biobras-6 y el MH-5 en la induccion de callos y brotes en lechuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Núñez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto que dos análogos espirostánicos de brasinoesteroides denominados comercialmente Biobras-6 y MH-5, ejercen en la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa var. Brasil 221, se ejecutaron dos experimentos de laboratorio. En el primero, se adicionaron ambos análogos, en dos concentraciones (0.001 y 0.01 mg.L-1, al medio de cultivo basal MS que contenía 6-BAP 0.1 mg.L-1, mientras que en el segundo experimento, se adicionaron los productos en ambas concentraciones, pero la concentración de citoquinina se redujo a la mitad. En ambos casos, se utilizó como tratamiento control el medio de cultivo MS en presencia de 6-BAP 0.1 mg.L-1. Los resultados demostraron que el Biobras-6 y el MH-5 estimularon la formación de callos y brotes a partir de cotiledones solamente cuando se añadieron, a determinadas concentraciones, al medio de cultivo con la presencia de 6-BAP 0.1 mg.L-1.

  4. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  5. Brote de dengue autóctono en el área metropolitana Buenos Aires: Experiencia del Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz Outbreak of indigenous dengue in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Experience of the F.J. Muñiz Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la epidemia de dengue que afectó a la República de Bolivia y provincias del norte argentino, se produjo por primera vez un brote de dengue autóctono en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires. A partir de enero de 2009 asistimos casos de dengue importado hasta la tercera semana de marzo, cuando aparecieron los primeros casos por transmisión local, tendencia que se mantuvo hasta mediados de mayo. La mayor concentración de casos autóctonos atendidos residía en la región oeste de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y en localidades de los partidos de 3 de Febrero y La Matanza, que limitan con ella. Existieron factores concurrentes para que se produjera este brote: alta densidad vectorial, viajeros provenientes de regiones epidémicas concentrados por su domicilio en las áreas donde luego se produjo la transmisión local. El 95% ingresaron en los primeros días de viremia y en un período climático caracterizado por temperaturas medias elevadas que se mantuvieron hasta mediados de otoño. De los nueve pacientes con signos de alarma para el desarrollo de dengue grave, siete fueron casos autóctonos que no tenían antecedentes de haber padecido previamente dengue. Se comunican los hallazgos clínicos y epidemiológicos y se analizan los factores que regularon la transmisión.As a consequence of the dengue epidemic in the Bolivian Republic and the northern provinces of Argentina, an outbreak of indigenous dengue occurred for the first time in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. Since January 2009 we assisted imported dengue cases coming from epidemic regions; later, around the end of March, and until middle autumn, indigenous cases appeared. The major concentration of these indigenous cases was in the west area of Buenos Aires City and in the neighboring localities 3 de Febrero and La Matanza. There were several factors that made the local transmission possible: a high vector density, people traveling from epidemic areas and clustering

  6. Brote intrahospitalario de escabiasis, a partir de un caso de sarna noruega Nosocomial outbreak of scabies from a Norwegian scabies case

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    Ramón Fajardo-Velázquez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir un brote intrahospitalario de escabiasis ocurrido en la Ciudad de México, en agosto de 1999, como resultado de exposición a un caso de sarna noruega no diagnosticado oportunamente. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Después de revisar el caso índice, instituimos aislamiento del paciente e identificamos casos secundarios de escabiasis entre pacientes hospitalizados, empleados que laboraban en el área afectada y sus familiares. Sólo individuos que padecían lesiones dérmicas y prurito fueron incluidos como casos infestados. Se establecieron medidas de control, como aislamiento de contacto, manejo apropiado de ropas contaminadas y tratamiento tópico. RESULTADOS: Un paciente con SIDA (caso índice de sarna noruega que cursaba con desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico severo fue admitido en el Hospital de Infectología, del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, del 19 de julio al 20 de agosto de 1999, en la Ciudad de México. Veintiocho días después de su admisión emergieron casos de escabiasis entre los trabajadores de la salud; entonces, se sospechó de escabiasis noruega, lo que se confirmó por evidencia microscópica de los parásitos en una preparación de escamas del caso pista. Identificamos 48 casos secundarios con sarna clínica: 71% trabajadores de la salud, principalmente enfermeras (79%, 23% familiares de trabajadores y 6% pacientes. El periodo de incubación promedio fue de 15 días (intervalo 12 a 27. Aunque con mayor frecuencia las lesiones involucraron extremidades superiores (60%, las manos fueron respetadas. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo demuestra no sólo las dificultades para diagnosticar la escabiasis noruega en el hospedero inmunosuprimido, sino también la importancia de estar seguros de que los trabajadores de la salud cumplan con las precauciones estándar en todo momentoOBJECTIVE: To describe a nosocomial outbreak of scabies occurred in August 1999, resulting from exposure to

  7. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  8. Análisis de un brote epidémico de brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero

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    Luna Sánchez Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La notificación mediante el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de un número inusual de casos de Brucelosis en trabajadores de un matadero a finales de 1996 hizo sospechar la existencia de un brote epidémico entre dicho colectivo profesional. MÉTODOS: Se recopiló la información disponible respecto a: 1 animales sacrificados en el matadero diagnosticados de brucelosis; 2 bajas laborales producidas y 3 datos de la mutualidad laboral relativos a los empleados del matadero con la enfermedad. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica a los trabajadores sobre los antecedentes de enfermedad, actividad laboral y riesgos no laborales (ingesta de leche o derivados sin higienizar. Las dependencias y actividades del matadero fueron inspeccionadas. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles. Se estudió cada puesto de trabajo tomando como controles a los restantes empleados del matadero. Para su verificación se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes. RESULTADOS: El brote epidémico de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores comenzó durante el mes de septiembre y duró hasta febrero del siguiente año. Las encuestas epidemiológicas descubrieron 28 trabajadores con síntomas sugestivos de la enfermedad, siendo los operarios del área de sacrificio del matadero quienes presentan la tasa de ataque más alta: 56%. En el estudio de casos y controles el riesgo más elevado se observó en dicho colectivo de trabajadores con una OR de 4,27 (IC 95%: 1,6-15 y p<0.01. Del mismo modo en el estudio de cohortes apreciamos que estos trabajadores presentan un RR de 2,5 (IC 95%: 1,5-4,3 cuando son comparados con el resto de trabajadores de la cohorte y de 8 (IC 95%: 2-30 si los comparamos con el colectivo de menor exposición. Los RR de los operarios de la limpieza y de la sala de despiece fueron de 6,56 (IC 95%: 1,6-27 para los primeros y de 4,77 (IC 95%: 1,1-21 para los segundos. Las fracciones etiológicas fueron del 87% para los de la zona de

  9. Análisis espacial de un brote de leishmaniasis en el sur del Área metropolitana de la Comunidad de Madrid. 2009-2013

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    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad zoonótica endémica en España. El objetivo de este estudio es realizar un análisis espacial de los elementos claves del ciclo de la enfermedad, vectores, reservorios y casos humanos, en un brote comunitario declarado en cuatro municipios del sur del Área metropolitana de Madrid: Fuenlabrada, Getafe, Humanes de Madrid y Leganés.Se analizaron 485 casos de leishmaniasis, declarados en el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Comunidad de Madrid, con fecha de inicio de síntomas entre el 1 de julio de 2009 y el 30 de junio de 2013.La mayor parte de los casos se localizaron en el norte de Fuenlabrada. Los resultados del análisis espacial pusieron de manifiesto que, durante el periodo de estudio, la zona con mayor concentración de casos coincidió espacialmente con áreas residenciales periféricas inmediatas a espacios verdes con alta densidad de flebotomos y prevalencia relativamente elevada de leishmaniasis en lagomorfos. Esto informa de que la exposición principal ocurre en su entorno domiciliario o peridomiciliario.El estudio parece indicar que las infraestructuras viarias podrían haber tenido un papel decisivo en la distribución espacial del brote comportándose de diferentes maneras: barreras territoriales que aíslan en cierta medida a varios núcleos urbanos de la exposición al patógeno, vías de penetración del vector en el interior de otros núcleos o generadores de un entorno de hábitats idóneos para reservorios y vectores.El análisis espacial ha permitido orientar las actuaciones de prevención y control del brote y continúa siendo de gran utilidad en la evolución del mismo. Los sistemas de información geográfica son herramientas que ayudan a la comprensión de la génesis y evolución de los brotes de enfermedades infecciosas, así como al diseño de las intervenciones ambientales.

  10. Cell lines and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge R de; Hendriks H; Garssen J; Universteit Utrecht, afdeling; MGB; LPI

    2001-01-01

    In human gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella, transepithelial migration of neutrophils follows the attachment of bacteria to epithelial tissue. This migration of neutrophils is stimulated by the release of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (Il -8), from the epithelial cells. We have dev

  11. Iron ERRs with Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Ferric C.; Weiss, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The hormone hepcidin promotes iron sequestration by macrophages. A recent study by Kim et al (2014) implicates the orphan receptor ERRγ in the regulation of hepcidin production and suggests that targeting the ERRγ-hepcidin axis may be beneficial during infection with the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella.

  12. Tres brotes de brucelosis investigados en un año de vigilancia de salud laboral en Ciudad Real Three outbreaks of brucellosis in a one-year period investigated by the occupational health service in Ciudad Real (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castell Monsalve

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos 3 brotes investigados por nuestro servicio de salud laboral en el periodo de 1 año. Dos de ellos, con 2 casos cada uno, en sendas queserías industriales, y el tercero en un laboratorio pecuario perteneciente a la administración autonómica, también con 2 casos. En las 2 queserías se encontraron numerosas oportunidades para que los trabajadores pudieran haberse infectado; se consideró como de mayor riesgo la zona de descarga de leche, y la no utilización de equipos de protección individual por los trabajadores, las deficiencias en los laboratorios y la falta de separación efectiva de las dependencias fueron también potencials factores de riesgo. Respecto al laboratorio pecuario, se hallaron al menos 13 deficiencias importantes que permitían la fácil transmisión del agente infeccioso. En España, el riesgo de adquirir una infección por Brucella en laboratorios o industrias queseras es importante, y las condiciones y medidas para evitarlo que actualmente existen no son efectivas.We describe 3 outbreaks of brucellosis investigated by our Occupational Health Service in a 1-year period. Two of these outbreaks, with 2 cases each, occurred in 2 cheese factories and the third outbreak, also with 2 cases, occurred in a cattle laboratory belonging to the local government. In both cheese factories, numerous opportunities for the workers to become infected were found. The greatest risk was considered to be the area for unloading milk, while failure to use personal protection equipment by workers, deficiencies in the laboratories, and the lack of effective separation between areas were also potential risk factors. In the cattle laboratory, we found at least 13 major risk factors that could allow brucellosis transmission. In Spain, there is a substantial risk of Brucella infection in laboratories or dairy factories and current preventive measures are ineffective.

  13. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on raw poultry using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Pucciarelli

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w to determine the destruction of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chicken carcasses, in relation to the time of heating at two power settings: high (power level 10 and medium (power level 6; The relationship between heating time and temperature was also been studied. The destruction was 6.4 log cycles at time 95 sec for the high power level, and 5 log cycles at time 140 sec for medium power setting. After 110 sec for higher power level, no survival of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in samples (100g, but at 140 sec for medium power level, these food pathogens were still present.Foi investigado o efeito do aquecimento por microondas sobre Salmonella Enteritidis inoculada em frangos frescos usando um forno de microondas doméstico (800 W para determinar a destruição da Salmonella Enteritidis isolada a partir de carcaças de frangos, em relação com o tempo de aquecimento a dois níveis de potência: alta (nível 10 e média ( nível 6; a relação entre tempo de aquecimento e temperatura também foi estudada. A destruição foi de 6 log em 95 s de tempo para o nível alto e 5 log em 140 s de tempo para o nível médio de potência. Depois de 110 s no nível de potência alta, não foi detectada sobrevivência de Salmonella Enteritidis em amostras de 100g de peso, porém, depois de 140 s a potência média, esse patôgeno nos alimentos ainda permanecia.

  14. ESTUDIO DE UN BROTE EPIDÉMICO DE TOS FERINA EN CASTELLÓN

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    Francisco González Morán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fun da men to: A par tir de la de claración de va rios ca sos en un cen tro es co lar se ini cia el es tu dio de bro te con el ob je ti vo de ca rac te ri zar éste des de el pun to de vis ta de per sona, lu gar y tiem po; se cal cu la la efec ti vi dad de la va cu na, y se es tu dia la con cor dan cia en tre los ca sos y el re sul ta do po si ti vo del es tudio se ro ló gi co. Mé to dos: Se de fine caso a la per so na que pre sen ta tos per - sis ten te de dos se manas de du ra ción. Se rea li za es tu dio de la di - fu sión de la en fer me dad a tra vés de la cur va epi dé mi ca, y de la efec ti vi dad de la do sis de re fuer zo de la va cu na an ti per tus sis. La con cor dan cia en tre los ca sos y la se ro lo gía po si ti va se eva - lúa por el ín dice Kappa. Re sul ta dos: Entre los alum nos de va rios cen tros es colares y sus con vi vien tes se en cues ta a 130 per so nas, de los que 94 en - tran en la de fi ni ción de caso. La me dia de edad de los ca sos es 10,5 años, un 42,6% son va ro nes, el 84% es co la res, el 71,3% mues tra sig nos de in fección re ciente (IgM po si ti va, y el tiem - po me dio des de la úl ti ma do sis de va cu na an ti per tus sis es de 8,25 años. La efec ti vi dad de la do sis de re fuer zo de la va cu na es del 66%. La con cor dan cia en tre los ca sos y el re sul ta do po si ti - vo de la se ro lo gía mues tra un Kappa igual a 0,45. No se ais ló B. Per tus sis en las 25 mues tras de fro tis fa ríngeo. Conclusiones: Las au las y el me dio fa mi liar son un fac tor de di fu sión de la en fer me dad. La in clu sión de una do sis de re - fuer zo a los 18 me ses me jora la efec ti vi dad de la va cu na an ti - per tus sis. El ais la mien to de la B. Per tus sis es poco fre cuen te, y la se ro lo gía, pue de ser una al ter na ti va ante la sos pe cha clí ni ca de la en fer me dad.

  15. RECUPERAÇÃO DE SALMONELLA SPP. EM MANGA (MANGIFERA INDICA CV. TOMMY ATKINS

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    Silvana Belém de Oliveira Vilar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. é um patógeno que se destaca como agente responsável por doenças veiculadas por alimentos. Alguns estudos demonstram que o consumo de manga contaminada foi responsável por alguns destes surtos. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a eficiência de diferentes metodologias para a recuperação de Salmonella em manga (Mangifera indica cv. Tommy Atkins. Para o estudo, as mangas foram artificialmente contaminadas com um pool de Salmonella contendo culturas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis e Salmonella Brasil. Foram ccomparados dois métodos de recuperação: Esfregaço de Superfície (Swab e Fragmento do Fruto. A contagem foi realizada de duas maneiras: por Semeadura em Superfície em meio MLCB e pela metodologia de Duas Camadas de Ágar (ágar não seletivo + sobrecamada de ágar seletivo utilizando-se neste caso os meios de cultura TSA +MLCB ou TSA + XLD. Após análise estatística dos dados obtidos por Análise de Variância e Teste de Tukey observou-se que houve diferenças e que os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando se utilizou a combinação do Fragmento do Fruto, com a recuperação nos meios TSA + MLCB. Concluiu-se que esse método foi eficiente na recuperação de cepas de Salmonella artificialmente inoculadas em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins no estádio de maturação 2.

  16. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

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    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.Objective. To evaluate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents against 47 group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS strains, and to determine the presence of genes encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA and the M--protein serotypes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana, during a scarlet fever outbreak occurring between December 1999 and January 2000, among 137 children at Colegio Espíritu de América. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs were obtained by the semiautomated microdilution method. Automated DNA sequencing was used for analysis of sequence variation in genes encoding the M protein, and SpeA. Results. All strains were sensitive to

  17. Waardevermindering pluimveevlees besmet met Salmonella enteritidis en Salmonella typhymurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    De doelstelling van het onderzoek is om de waardevermindering van met Salmonella enteritidis (S.e.) en Salmonella typhymurium (S.t.) besmet pluimveevlees van vleeskuikens te bepalen. Hoe hoog is de opbrengstenderving en hoe hoog zijn de extra kosten van maatregelen voor de slachterij of uitsnijderij

  18. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

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    Márcio G. Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%, Salmonella enterica (22,6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%, Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%, Salmonella Newport (5,7%, Salmonella Dublin (3,8%, Salmonella Agona (3,8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3,8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1,8% foram os sorotipos encontrados. Ciprofloxacina (100,0%, norfloxacina (100,0% e gentamicina (100,0% foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos, enquanto a maior resistência das linhagens foi observada para ceftiofur (28,5% e florfenicol (7,0%. As linhagens foram isoladas de animais com enterite, infecção do trato urinário, septicemia, piometra, pneumonia e conjuntivite. Ressalta-se para o predomínio do sorovar Typhimurium nas diferentes manifestações da salmonelose nos animais. Destaca-se, também, a identificação de sorotipos nos animais que também são observados em casos de salmonelose em humanosThe serotype characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological findings were evaluated in 53 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from 41 dogs, nine horses and three cattle presenting different clinical manifestations between 1997 at 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45.3%, Salmonella enterica (22.6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7.5%, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12i (5.7%, Salmonella Newport (5.7%, Salmonella Dublin (3.8%, Salmonella Agona (3.8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3.8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1.8% were the more common serotypes. Ciprofloxacin (100.0%, norfloxacin (100.0% and gentamicin (100.0% were more effective drugs while resistance of isolates was observed to ceftiofur (28.5% and florfenicol (7.0%. The strains were isolated from animals with enteritis, urinary tract infections

  19. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  20. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  1. por valores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

  2. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  3. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie L

  4. Produção e purificação de anticorpos policlonais para Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae Production and purification of polyclonal antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Ono

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e purificar anticorpos policlonais específicos para Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae. O anti-soro foi produzido em coelhos, empregando-se flagelina purificada. O título e a especificidade foram determinados através do ensaio imunoenzimático - ELISA e a purificação por cromatografia de afinidade com sepharose Proteína A. As suspensões bacterianas foram cultivadas em cinco diferentes meios de cultura (infusão de cérebro coração - BHI, caldo tripticase soja, caldo lactosado, caldo nutriente - CN e água peptonada. Observou-se que dependendo do meio o título do anti-soro pode variar e os melhores resultados foram obtidos com BHI e CN. O anti-soro foi específico para Salmonella Enteritidis, apresentando porcentagens de reações cruzadas com Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Infantis e Salmonella Newport de 16,0, 11,9 e 6,4%, respectivamente. Menores porcentagens foram obtidas com outras enterobactérias testadas. Esses resultados indicam a possibilidade da utilização desses anticorpos na padronização de ensaios imunológicos para a detecção de Salmonella EnteritidisThe purpose of this study was to produce and to purify specific polyclonal antibodies for Salmonella Enteritidis (Enterobacteriaceae. The anti-serum was raised in rabbits using purified flagelin. Anti-serum titer and specificity were determined by an immunoassay - ELISA and its purification was performed by sepharose protein A affinity chromatography. The bacteria suspensions were cultivated in five different media (brain heart infusion - BHI, tripticase soy broth, nutrient broth - NB, peptone water. Results have showed that anti-serum titers varied depending on which media type was used and BHI and NB media yielded the most significant results. The anti-serum produced was specific for Salmonella Enteritidis. Its cross-reactivity with Salmonella Thyphimurium, Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Newport were 16.0, 11

  5. Evaluación de la definición de caso probable de dengue clásico durante el brote de dengue en Lima, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juárez S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de la definición de caso probable de dengue clásico (DCPDC para la identificación de casos definitivos, durante el brote en el distrito de Comas, abril - mayo 2005. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico, no controlado de corte transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes procedentes de Comas que en el periodo de estudio presentaron sospecha de dengue y con resultados de aislamiento viral o ELISA IgM, según el tiempo de enfermedad (4 ó e5 días respectivamente realizados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se determinó la sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y negativo (VPN de la DCPDC y de los síntomas que la conforman, tomando como prueba de oro al aislamiento viral o ELISA IgM. Resultados:Se incluyeron 316 pacientes, de los cuales se confirmaron 137 (43,4% casos de dengue. Se detectaron 60 pacientes mediante aislamiento viral, la DCPDC en pacientes con cuatro o menos días de enfermedad presentó una S=85%, E=13,40%, VPP=13,18%, VPN= 74,29%. Se detectaron 77 pacientes con cinco o más días de enfermedad con IgM ELISA, la DCPDC en este grupo presentó S= 68,42, E= 16,28, VPP= 68,42, VPN= 46,67. Conclusiones: La DCPDC aplicada en el brote de dengue en Comas, al igual que los síntomas individuales que la conforman es sensible, pero poco específico.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To establish the phylogenetic relationships between the subspecies of Salmonella enterica (official name Salmonella choleraesuis), Salmonella bongori and related members of Enterobacteriaceae, sequence comparison of rRNA was performed by maximum-likelihood analysis. The two Salmonella species were...

  7. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo;

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  8. Salmonella control programs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Henrik C; Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.

  9. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

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    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  10. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence...

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella serovars from captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence...

  12. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de Salmonella Enteritidis sobre a colonização e o desenvolvimento do trato intestinal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso em perus. Um total de 135 perus de corte de 1 dia foi distribuído em três tratamentos: controle; perus oriundos de ovos inoculados com Salmonella Enteritidis via casca e perus desafiados com água de bebida com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aos 10, 20 e 28 dias, avaliaram-se as variáveis de desempenho e coletaram-se amostras para avaliação bacteriana, biometria e histomorfometria. Realizaram-se também, nos dias 1, 15 e 28 de idade, coletas de mecônio/excretas de todas as aves. A colonização intestinal aumentou durante a fase inicial quando Salmonella foi inoculada via casca. O intestino apresentou maior peso ao 1º, 10º e 28º dias quando Salmonella esteve presente, sem diferença no comprimento. Salmonella Enteritidis foi capaz de colonizar o trato intestinal, estabelecer infecção, reduzir o desempenho das aves e modificar as estruturas celulares do intestino. A contaminação da casca do ovo antes da incubação propiciou a ocorrência de infecções ao nascimento, e a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis persistiu até 28 dias de idade. A inoculação de Salmonella pela água de bebida gerou aves infectadas, porém com menor nível de infecção com o avançar da idade. O desempenho de aves inoculadas com Salmonella Enteritidis é menor e isso confirma potenciais prejuízos para a produção avícola.The effects of Salmonella Enteritidis on the colonization and development of the intestinal tract, feed conversion and weight gain were evaluated. A total of 135 day old turkeys were assigned to three treatments: control; turkeys from eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis via shell and turkeys challenged with drinking water with Salmonella Enteritidis. At 10, 20 and 28 days, the performance variables were evaluated and samples were collected to perform bacterial

  13. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto

    2008-06-01

    . Nevertheless, they must be associated with general hygiene and disinfection practices in poultry husbandry.Salmonella Enteritidis é um dos agentes responsáveis por toxinfecção alimentar em humanos e tem sido associada a alimentos de origem avícola. Entre os métodos disponíveis para o seu controle está a vacinação de poedeiras e matrizes com vacinas inativadas (bacterinas. Os resultados a respeito da proteção das bacterinas contra Salmonella Enteritidis em aves são variados. Face à inexistência de dados referentes ao uso dessas vacinas no Brasil, realizou-se o presente trabalho. Foram utilizadas 400 pintinhas de uma linhagem de postura leve. Na 8º semana de idade, as aves foram divididas em quatro grupos (V1, V2, V3 e CG. Três diferentes bacterinas comerciais foram administradas às aves do V1, V2 e V3 em duas doses, na 8º e 16º semanas de vida; as do CG não receberam vacina. Treze aves por grupo foram infectadas com Salmonella Enteritidis nas 20º, 25º e 31º semanas. No 2º dia após cada desafio foram sacrificadas três aves por grupo, para contagem de Salmonella Enteritidis em fígado, baço, conteúdo cecal e pesquisa do microrganismo no ovário. Suabes de cloaca foram realizados dois dias pós-infecção (dpi e duas vezes por semana. Todos os ovos foram examinados. Após a ausência de Salmonella Enteritidis em quatro suabes de cloaca consecutivos, esse microrganismo foi pesquisado em fígado, conteúdo cecal e ovário. Não houve diferença da contagem de Salmonella Enteritidis nos órgãos. O conteúdo cecal das aves do V1 teve menos Salmonella que as do CG. As aves do V3 excretaram menos Salmonella em fezes e ovos. Conforme os resultados observados no V3, é possível reduzir excreção de Salmonella Enteritidis com o uso de bacterinas; contudo, deve ser utilizado de forma complementar a boas práticas de manejo, limpeza e desinfecção.

  14. Descripción de un brote de dermatofitosis en bovinos en el trópico mexicano - Report of a dermatophytosis outbreak in cattle in the mexican tropic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge, García Márquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este informe se describen los hallazgos clínicos y patológicos de un brote de dermatofitosis en bovinos (Suizo/Cebú en la zona tropical de Tomatlán, Jalisco, México.AbstractThis report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a dermatophytosis outbreak in bovines (Swizz/Zebu in the tropical zone of Tomatlan, Jalisco, Mexico.

  15. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

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    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  17. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte II: Medidas clínicas y preventivas Outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part II: Clinical and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Base de Camp "Arena" en Herat (Afganistán presentó durante los pasados meses de julio y agosto de 2009 un total de 121 casos de gripe A H1N1, 22 de ellos casos confirmados y el resto diagnosticados por "vínculo epidemiológico". Presentamos en el presente artículo las medidas clínicas y preventivas que fueron tomadas en la Base, en el intento de controlar el número de casos y asegurar la operatividad de la Base y el cumplimiento de la misión encomendada al contingente. Se revisan las características de la Base, las medidas tomadas con los pacientes, las medidas tomadas con los contactos, reflejando las dos distintas organizaciones que se realizaron al inicio del brote y posteriormente, las medidas generales tomadas en la Base y las medidas especiales características por tratarse de una unidad militar en una Zona de Operaciones. Finalmente realizamos una reflexión sobre algunas de las medidas tomadas.The Base Camp "Arena" in Herat (Afghanistan presented during the months of July and August 2009 a total of 121 cases of Flu A H1N1 (22 confirmed cases and the rest were diagnosed by epidemiological link. We present in this article the clinical and preventive measures taken at the base in an attempt to control the number of cases and ensure the operability of the base and fulfilling the mission entrusted to the quota. We review the characteristics of the Base, measures taken with patients, the measures taken with the contacts reflecting the two different organizations taken initially and during the second period that conducted at the outset of the outbreak, the general measures taken on the base and special measures because it features of a military unit in an area of operations. Finally we perform a reflection of some taken actions.

  18. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  19. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks. PMID:25899620

  20. Genetic and molecular analysis of the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    García Quintanilla, Meritxell de Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium posee un plásmido de gran tamaño (93 Kb) llamado plásmido de virulencia o pSLT. Dicho plásmido contiene el locus spv, esencial para la infección sistémica en roedores. El plásmido fue presumiblemente adquirido por el hospedador ancestral de Salmonella mediante conjugación. En la mayoría de las estirpes del serovar Typhimurium, el plásmido pSLT contiene un operón tra completo. En esta tesis se han realizado diversos análisis estructurales y funcionales e...

  1. Enfermedad por el virus Ébola medidas de bioseguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Bucknor Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus Ébola representa el patógeno prototipo de fiebre hemorrágica viral, causando una enfermedad severa de alta tasa de mortalidad. Esta alta mortalidad, combinada con la ausencia de vacunación y de un tratamiento específico, hace que el virus Ébola sea un patógeno importante para la salud pública. La fiebre hemorrágica de Ébola se cree es una zoonosis con persistencia del virus en especies de reservorios encontrados en áreas endémicas. A pesar de todos los esfuerzos realizados en cada brote para identificar los reservorios naturales no se conocen los huéspedes potenciales ni los artrópodos vectores. El manejo de los casos está basado en el aislamiento de los pacientes y en el uso de barreras de aislamiento, tales como ropa e implementos de protección como respiradores. Debido a su rápida propagación la OMS declaró que la enfermedad por el virus Ébola representa una emergencia de salud pública más allá de las fronteras y exhortó a la comunidad internacional a tomar las acciones necesarias para detener la epidemia.

  2. Intoxicación alimentaria por Clostridium perfringens en el Centro Penitenciario de Atención Institucional de San José: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong-Mc Clure

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos se presentan anualmente en Costa Rica y por lo general se estudian hasta identificar el agente etiológico, pero no hasta determinar su fuente de contaminación. No se ha documentado la importancia de fortalecer la inocuidad de alimentos, lo cual produce eventos que comprometen la salud pública cada año, por lo que fue importante estudiar el presente brote. En este estudio se analiza el brote diarreico de un centro penitenciario de San José, en 2003, procurando determinar el probable alimento contaminado. Materiales y métodos: El presente estudio corresponde a una cohorte retrospectiva que identifica exposición a los alimentos preparados dentro del Centro, en las 72 horas previas al pico epidémico. La descripción de la cohorte y el cálculo del (RR se realizó posteriormente para determinar la posible\tasociación causal. Las muestras de heces fueron procesadas en el laboratorio de referencia del INCIENSA. Resultados: La totalidad de los individuos pertenecían al sexo masculino, todos privados de libertad, con un promedio de edad de 31.1años (IC95%=28.9-33.4. La sintomatología más frecuente fue la diarrea (92.3% Y dolor abdominal tipo cólico (84.6%. El resultado de laboratorio aisló como agente etiológico el Clostridium perfringens enterotoxigénico (CPE. Al analizar los alimentos suministrados, pico epidémico y período de incubación, se tiene que el salchichón (RR=1.1;IC95%0.5-2.7 y la preparación con carne molida (RR=2.1,IC95%:0.6-7.4 mostraron ser los únicos alimentos capaces de transmitir el CPE. Discusión: El brote del Centro evidencia que la sintomatología descrita corresponde con lo documentado para la intoxicación por CPE y que, tomando en cuenta las condiciones necesarias para la transmisión, solo el salchichón y la preparación con carne molida cuentan con esta plausibilidad biológica. Al considerar el periodo de incubación, los valores de riesgo relativo

  3. [Use of bacteriphages against Salmonella Enteritidis: a prevention tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina; Marín, Clara; Catalá-Gregori, Pablo; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la salmonelosis es una enfermedad de alta prevalencia, siendo la búsqueda de herramientas preventivas para evitar la contaminación una prioridad a nivel de salud pública. Objetivo: en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto in vitro de bacteriófagos frente a Salmonella enteritidis como una herramienta de prevención. Método: se realizaron dos pruebas con tres concentraciones de bacteriófagos frente a dos cepas de Salmonella enteritidis inoculadas en muestras de heces frescas de gallinas ponedoras, y el correspondiente control positivo. Así, se testaron cuatro grupos en cada una de las dos pruebas. Cada grupo experimental contó con dos réplicas, y en cada réplica se incubaron tres placas. Las concentraciones ensayadas fueron tres: solución comercial (5 × 107 pfu/mL), y dos diluciones de la misma (1/10 y 1/30). Una de las cepas testada fue la cepa CECT 4300, cepa certificada de la Colección Española de Cultivo Tipo, y la otra una cepa de campo aislada en una explotación de ponedoras sacrificadas. Ambas cepas se inocularon en muestras de heces a la dosis de 1,3 × 105 ufc/g de heces en cada uno de los cuatro grupos. Se procedió con el aislamiento e identificación de la bacteria por ISO 6579 a varios tiempos desde la inoculación: 1 minuto, 24 h y 7 días. Resultados: en la primera prueba, con la cepa certificada, se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos a tiempo 1 minuto. A las 24 h se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos excepto en una de las réplicas tratada con la dilución 1/10 de bacteriófagos, en una de las placas de la otra réplica tratada con la dilución 1/10, y en dos placas de cada una de las dos réplicas tratadas con la solución comercial. A partir de los 7 días ya no se aisló la bacteria de ninguno de los grupos experimentales. En la segunda prueba, con la cepa de campo, se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos a tiempo 1 minuto. A las 24 h se aisló Salmonella en todos los grupos excepto en una de las r

  4. Brote de legionelosis en Murcia en julio de 2001. La óptica de sanidad ambiental Outbreak of Legionella disease in Murcia, at July 2001. The environmental health point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sintas Lozano

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las medidas de intervención adoptadas para el estudio y control del brote. Se encontraron 126 instalaciones con riesgo (45 de ellas de alto: 70 torres de refrigeración y similares, 35 fuentes ornamentales, 1 obra con movimiento de tierra y 20 sistemas con circuito cerrado aire-agua, que se distribuyeron por categorías de riesgo.De forma inmediata se clausuraron: las fuentes ornamentales, el baldeo de calles y riegos por aspersión de parques y la obra.Se realizaron un total de 486 inspecciones y 1040 toma de muestras, ordenando la limpieza y desinfección de torres de refrigeración y similares y su clausura en caso necesario. Posteriormente, se cambio de relleno en torres de refrigeración positivas a Lp.Del total de instalaciones investigadas (339, en 57 (16’9% se encontró un cultivo positivo a Lp. Distribución por tipo de instalación con cultivo positivo a Lp: en torres de refrigeración 23 (6’8%, en fuentes ornamentales 3 (7,32% y en agua sanitaria 31 (9’1%.Distribución por serogrupos: LpS1 (62’3%, serogrupos 2-14 (36’68%.LpS1Olda Olda (21’74% fue la mas abundante seguida de LpS1 Pontiac Filadelfia Lugano (18’84% frente a LpS1 Pontiac Filadelfia Glasgow (en 1 ocasión, 1’45%, esta ultima fue la aislada en las 18 muestras de enfermos.En 355 ocasiones se dispone de cultivo y PCR, encontrándose una sensibilidad de 30,8% (Intervalo de confianza al 95%, de 25,1 y una especificidad del 99,4±0,8. Hay que considerar la eventual influencia en los resultados aportada por la posible aparición de dos falsos negativos en el cultivo.Se encuentra un elevado porcentaje de muestras correspondientes a Legionella pneumophilla serogrupo 1, dentro de estas prevalecen las tipo Pontiac Philadelphia, y dentro de estas las tipo Lugano.La primera desinfección no erradicó la contaminación en su totalidad. Abundando en lo anterior, el hallazgo de un número considerable de torres de refrigeración positivas a Lp tras limpieza y

  5. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  6. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broile

  7. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  8. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  9. Número mais provável de Salmonella isoladas de carcaças de frango resfriadas Most probable number of Salmonella isolated from refrigerated broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Salmonella permanece um importante problema na avicultura e, considerando os patógenos transmitidos por alimentos, aparece como um dos agentes principais em surtos de toxinfecções alimentares. Para auxiliar na avaliação de riscos em adquirir infecção alimentar via carne de frangos que sofreram cocção inadequada, ou através de contaminação cruzada a partir desses animais, torna-se importante determinar a extensão de contaminação por patógenos em carne crua. No presente trabalho, foram analisadas 180 carcaças de frangos resfriadas, adquiridas em varejos, para pesquisa de Salmonella com determinação do número de células da bactéria. Foi utilizado o método do número mais provável (NMP nos ágares para isolamento verde brilhante com novobiocina (BGN e xilose-lisina tergitol 4 (XLT4. Os resultados mostraram 12,2% de ocorrência de Salmonella nas carcaças de frangos resfriadas e a média de NMP de Salmonella por mL, na leitura pelo ágar XLT4 foi de 2,7 células e no ágar BGN foi de 1,3 células. Os sorovares de Salmonella isolados das carcaças de frangos no estudo foram S. Enteritidis, S. Agona, S.Rissen, S. Heidelberg e S. Livingstone. A análise dos resultados demonstrou existir um número variável de células de Salmonella contaminando as carcaças de frango resfriadas que estão à venda ao consumidor.Salmonella in poultry remains an important worldwide problem, and among foodborne pathogens, the Salmonella appears as one of the most important outbreaks agents. To assess the risks of acquiring infection via undercooked poultry or cross contamination from chickens, it is important to determine the extent of the contamination on raw poultry with this pathogen. In this study, 180 refrigerated broiler carcasses, obtained from local stores, were assessed to recover Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN method to quantify bacterias cells onto brilliant green agar with novobiocin (BGN and xylose lysin tergitol 4 agar

  10. Microarray-based detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from food-producing animals and processed food

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Rui Filipe Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica é uma bactéria patogénica de origem alimentar que infecta seres humanos pelo mundo inteiro. Nalguns casos, as infeções por Salmonella requerem tratamento com antibióticos. A resistência a agentes antimicrobianos é um problema global e leva ao insucesso do tratamento de infeções bacterianas. Alguns estudos têm sido realizados em Portugal na resistência a antimicrobianos e metais pesados em Salmonella de origem animal e alimentar. E poucos estudos de virulência têm sido efet...

  11. Immune Reaction and Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis after Infection of Primary Avian Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Braukmann; Ulrich Methner; Angela Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhim...

  12. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  13. - Bacillus anthracis, utilización de un Sistema de Información Geográfico (SIG, para el análisis espacio temporal de 54 brotes de carbunclo rural en el partido de Azul, Bs. As., Argentina (Bacillus anthracis, use of a Geographical infoormation Service (GIS, for the temporary space analysis of 54 outbreaks of rural anthax in the county of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez P.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El objeto de este trabajo es utilizar un Sistema de Información Geográfico (SIG para el análisis epidemiológico del Carbunclo Rural aplicado a un ecosistema ganadero, integrado por 618.000 bovinos, distribuidos en 1.350 establecimientos del partido de Azul, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esto permitió estudiar hechos epidemiológicos de una enfermedad de antigua data como es el Carbunclo Rural. Su agente causal el Bacillus anthracis, posee la característica de formar esporos que permite mantenerse durante decenas de años en el ambiente com capacidad de transmitir la enfermedad a otrois animales susceptibles. Se describe la metodología para su diagnóstico y los distintos elementos que integran el Sistema de Información Geográfico. Los 54 brotes identificados entre los años 1989 / 2005 fueron georreferenciados para posteriormente relacionarlos con las vías de avenamiento de aguas del partido de Azul, lãs características de sus suelos y la ubicación de las poblaciones de las poblaciones rurales que comparten la zona de isorriesgo. Se plantea un sistema de alerta epidemiológico temprano para establecimientos ganaderos que comparten vías de avenamiento de agua en común con el brote de Carbunclo diagnosticado. El 93 % de los brotes ocurrieron en establecimientos que comparten vías de avenamiento, mientras que el 7 % restante en establecimientos ganaderos ubicados fuera del área de influencia de estas vías Summary. The objjective of this study was the use of a Geographical Information Service (GIS for the epidemiologiacal analysis of rural Anthrax applied to a catle ecosystem, which includes 618.000 cattle, distributed on 1.350 farms in the county of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This allowed studying long past epidemiological occurrences of a disease such as rural carbuncle Its causing egent is Bacillus anthracis, which has the property of forming spores That permit being maintained dozens of years in

  14. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés; Catalina Ortiz-Zaragoza; Ricardo Mota-Vázquez; Ma Eloísa Dickinson-Bannack; Rocío Dávila-Mendoza; Miguel Angel Fernández-Ortega

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA). Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA) y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron po...

  15. SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenov N.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated "Virosalm" allows you to eliminate salmonella infection in poultry.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA E FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE PERNIS SUÍNOS TRATADOS COM ÁCIDOS ORGÂNICOS E/OU VAPOR NO CONTROLE DA CONTAMINAÇÃO SUPERFICIAL POR Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rosa Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic carrier pigs are the main risk factor for carcass contamination during the slaughter. Several post-slaughter prevention programs have been tested, such as organic acids and steam under pressure. These alternatives show low cost and high efficiency. This study tested the use of organic acid solutions and steam, in isolated tests and its associations. This experiment also evaluated the physical-chemistry features of the pork. Forty pork legs were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium DT 177 and subsequently divided into 4 treatments: immersion in physiological solution for 5 seconds (control, T1; immersion in physiological solution with 1000 ppm of organic acids for 5 seconds (T2; sprinkling of steam under pressure (4 bar at 140ºC (T3; and T2 after T3 (T4. An area of 100cm2 was sampled through superficial swabs for Salmonella counts by Most Probable Number method (MPN. Aspect, color, consistency, smell, and levels of fat, protein, pH, and moisture were also evaluated before and after each treatment. The use of steam associated to the immersion in organic acid solution showed better efficiency for reduction of superficial contamination (decreasing 100% of counts but the better effectiveness was observed through the decreasing of 0.8 log of MPN at skin and 0.77 log of MPN at muscle by using the physiological solution (T1 and the organic acid solution (T2, respectively. The steam treatment associated with the organic acid solutions (T4 decreased the pH and increased moisture of pork legs, although it did not mischaracterize the quality (within required parameters for human consumption. All the other treatments did not change physical-chemistry fefatures.

  17. Genetic diversity of Salmonella pathogenicity islands SPI-5 and SPI-6 in Salmonella Newport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Strain, Errol; Stones, Robert; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Newport is one of the common serotypes causing foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States. Salmonella Newport consists of three lineages exhibiting extensive genetic diversity. Due to the importance of Salmonella pathogenicity islands 5 and 6 (SPI-5 and SPI-6) in virulence of pathogenic Salmonella, the genetic diversity of these two SPIs may relate to different potentials of Salmonella Newport pathogenicity. Most Salmonella Newport strains from North America belong to Salmonella Newport lineages II and III. A total 28 Salmonella Newport strains of lineages II and III from diverse sources and geographic locations were analyzed, and 11 additional Salmonella genomes were used as outgroup in phylogenetic analyses. SPI-5 was identified in all Salmonella Newport strains and 146 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Thirty-nine lineage-defining SNPs were identified, including 18 nonsynonymous SNPs. Two 40-kb genomic islands (SPI5-GI1 and SPI5-GI2) encoding bacteriophage genes were found between tRNA-ser and pipA. SPI5-GI1 was only present in Salmonella Newport multidrug-resistant strains of lineage II. SPI-6 was found in all strains but three Asian strains in Salmonella Newport lineage II, whereas the three Asian strains carried genomic island SPI6-GI1 at the same locus as SPI-6 in other Salmonella. SPI-6 exhibited 937 SNPs, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that clustering of Salmonella Newport isolates was a reflection of their geographic origins. The sequence diversity within SPI-5 and SPI-6 suggests possible recombination events and different virulence potentials of Salmonella Newport. The SNPs could be used as biomarkers during epidemiological investigations.

  18. Epidemiología clínica y microbiológica de la infección/colonización por Acinetobacter baumannii en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital General La Mancha Centro durante los años 2007 /2009

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas Vaquero, María

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii (ABA) es una bacteria oportunista con gran capacidad de diseminación en el ambiente hospitalario y una elevada facilidad para desarrollar resistencia a los antimicrobianos. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio observacional analítico retrospectivo de casos y controles, llevado a cabo en la UCI del Hospital La Mancha Centro durante un brote por ABA transcurrido entre febrero de 2008 y abril de 2009. En el periodo de estudio se detectaron 40 casos de pacientes infe...

  19. Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1988-01-01

    Ethanolamine can serve as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for Salmonella typhimurium if vitamin B12 is present to serve as a cofactor. The pathway for ethanolamine utilization has been investigated in order to understand its regulation and determine whether the pathway is important to the selective forces that have maintained the ability to synthesize B12 in S. typhimurium. We isolated mutants that are defective in ethanolamine utilization (eut mutants). These mutants defined a cluster...

  20. Reiter's syndrome after salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with Reiter's syndrome, after Salmonella infection were treated on the Infections disease ward at Clinical hospital center in Kragujevac. In the first patient, ten days after the onset of Salmonella infection, signs of edema and pain in the right ankle occurred, accompanied by expressed conjunctivitis. Within next two months consecutive metatarsophalanges changes joint of the right foot have appeared. In the second patient, two weeks after the onset of Salmonella infection, edema of the left hand joints and a week later edema of the right hand and right ankle joints appeared. In both patients inflammatory syndrome was expressed (high erythrocyte sedimentation rates, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein along with negative rheumatoid factors and positive antigen HLA-B27. Outcome of the disease in both cases was favorable upon receiving nonsteroid antirheumatic therapy. Signs of arthritis disappeared after three months. No signs of recurrent arthritis have been seen during the next four years in the first and next two years in the second patient.

  1. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  2. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  3. Conformación de grupos regionales para la investigación y manejo de enfermedades transmisibles por alimentos (ETA’s en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Montero Campos

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto constituyó el fruto del esfuerzo conjunto de tres instituciones comprometidas con el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de la población costarricense, en el marco de los módulos del programa interamericano de “Liderazgo en Inocuidad de Alimentos” del Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA, con el financiamiento del Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA y la Agencia de Inspección de Alimentos de Canadá (CFIA.Las instituciones involucradas en el desarrollo de este proyecto fueron el Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, por medio del Laboratorio de Servicios Químicos y Microbiológicos (CEQIATEC, el Centro de Referencia en Bacteriología del Instituto de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud (INCIENSA. La iniciativa del proyecto se basa en que, en los últimos años se ha documentado en nuestro país, la aparición de brotes de diarrea de gran magnitud, asociados al consumo de aguas y/o alimentos contaminados, lo que se ha denominado “Enfermedades Transmisibles por Alimentos” (ETA’s. Durante estos brotes, frecuentemente se ha observado que la capacidad de resolución de los niveles locales en el manejo e investigación de estos es limitada, por lo que en algunas ocasiones no se logra concluir con éxito la investigación relacionada con dicha situación.

  4. Brote de shigellosis con 146 casos relacionado con una feria Shigellosis outbreak with 146 cases related to a fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castell Monsalve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El 3 de septiembre de 2005, el Servicio de Salud Pública de Ciudad Real conoció la existencia de 20 casos de gastroenteritis en el municipio de Daimiel. Se inició una investigación, con los objetivos de determinar las causas y establecer medidas de control. La mayor parte de los afectados eran jóvenes que habían visitado la feria de la localidad. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y otro analítico de casos y controles. En el descriptivo se incluyeron todas las variables de interés disponibles en las historias clínicas de los pacientes. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles apareado por edad (más o menos 5 años, sexo y asistencia a la feria, que incluyó a 65 casos y a 65 controles. Se llevaron a cabo inspecciones de establecimientos y toma de muestras clínicas y de alimentos. Resultados: Se notificaron 196 casos, de los cuales 146 fueron confirmados. La curva epidémica sugiere una fuente común de corta duración. El estudio de casos y controles apareado muestra una asociación con el consumo de patatas con salsa en uno de los chiringuitos (odds ratio [OR] = 20,56; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 6,15-75,93; p Background: On September 3, 2005, the Ciudad Real Public Health Service (Spain received a report of 20 cases of gastroenteritis in the municipality of Daimiel. We conducted an investigation to determine the cause or causes of the outbreak and to implement control measures. Most of the cases involved young people who visited the municipality's fair. Methods: We carried out a descriptive study and an analytic case-control study. In the descriptive study, all variables of interest available in the medical records were included. In the case-control study, each case was matched with a control by age (plus or minus 5 years, gender, and attendance at the fair. Sixty-five cases and 65 controls were finally included in the study. Samples of foods and stools from food handlers were taken. Results

  5. Perspectivas de salud ambiental en la investigación de brotes epidémicos asociados con una zona de abastecimiento de aguas de consumo humano Perspectives of environmental health in outbreaks research associated with a zone of consumption water supply human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lara Villegas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar la magnitud, posibles causas y factores ambientales contribuyentes en la aparición de brotes de origen hídrico, en el ámbito de actuación de la localidad de Benaoján (Serranía de Ronda, Málaga.Material y métodos. Análisis de la potabilidad del agua y controles de desinfección. Evaluación del cumplimiento de la calidad del agua potable y requisitos técnico sanitarios de abastecimientos de aguas, conforme a la normativa española sobre aguas de consumo público.Resultados. Se han realizado 110 análisis de potabilidad, comprobando que el 13,4% de las muestras no cumplen con los criterios de potabilidad del agua. Se practicaron 647 controles de desinfección, de los que el 53% resultaron no conformes. El diseño de la red de abastecimiento es del tipo ramificada y al menos presenta 30 ramales ciegos, puntos donde el agua queda estancada. El servicio municipal de aguas no realiza autocontroles de la calidad del agua ni tiene implantados planes generales de higiene de las instalaciones del abastecimiento.Discusión. La investigación ambiental sugiere que la red pública de abastecimiento de aguas es una fuente de infección, problema relacionado con la aparición de brotes epidémicos. Por ello el consumo de agua no tratada debe ser evitado.Introduction. The purpose of this work was studied the magnitude, possible causes and contributing environmental factors in the waterbourne outbreaks appearance, in the performance area of the locality of Benaoján (Town of Málaga, Spain.Material/Methods. Analysis of the potability of the water and disinfection controls. Evaluation of the fulfillment of the quality of the drinking water and sanitary technical requirements of water supplies, pursuant to the Spanish regulation on public consumption waters.Results. We have been accomplished 110 potability analysis, proving that 13,4% of the samples do not comply with the potability criteria of

  6. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  7. Efeito de probiótico na infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos Effect of probiotic on the Salmonella infection and fecal excretion in pigs

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    Mariana Gomes Nogueira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão de Salmonella na cadeia produtiva de suínos é um problema de difícil controle. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração oral de probiótico sobre a ocorrência de infecção e excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos em fase de crescimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de ração basal sem aditivos (controle ou adicionada de probiótico (10(7ufc g-1 de células viáveis dos gêneros Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus e Saccharomyces. Foram alocados seis leitões de 50 dias em cada tratamento, com duas repetições por tratamento. Todos os animais foram inoculados com Salmonella Typhimurium (10(6ufc mL-1 após 14 dias do alojamento. Semanalmente, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e fezes e no dia 35 pós-inoculação os animais foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Os animais de ambos os tratamentos foram infectados por Salmonella e soroconverteram. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os grupos nas médias de Salmonella, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus e coliformes totais nas fezes, porém a administração de probiótico resultou em menor frequência de isolamento de Salmonella a partir de fígado (P=0,04, linfonodos mesentéricos (P=0,04, pulmão (P=0,03 e baço (P=0,01. Conclui-se que os microrganismos probióticos testados não foram capazes de impedir a infecção ou a excreção fecal de Salmonella em suínos de crescimento, mas diminuíram o número de portadores em linfonodos mesentéricos.Control of Salmonella transmission has been a challenge for the pork production companies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of probiotics on the occurrence of infection and fecal excretion of Salmonella in growers. The treatments consisted of basal diet without additives (control or added of probiotic (10(7cfu g-1 of viable cells of the genera Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces. Six 50 days-old pigs were allocated into each treatment, with two

  8. Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jing-Jou; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    We report the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Taiwan from January to May 2004. All isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins carried bla CMY-2, and all ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis isolates were genetically related.

  9. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved in...

  10. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. 113... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin shall be prepared from a culture of Salmonella typhimurium which has been inactivated and...

  11. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  12. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

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    Agnès eWiedemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica species is a Gram negative bacterium, which is responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruit with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i attachment to host surfaces; (ii entry processes; (iii, multiplication; (iv suppression of host defence mechanisms ; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  13. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

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    R.L. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.

  14. Brote epidémico de denguevirus 2, genotipo Jamaica, en Bolivia Epidemic outbreak of dengue virus 2/subgroup Jamaica in Bolivia

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    Alberto Gianella

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Confirmar la presencia de brote de dengue en la ciudad de Santa Cruz, Bolivia, así como identificar el denguevirus causal, estimar la tasa de ataque y determinar la proporción de infecciones sintomáticas. Material y métodos. En marzo de 1997 se realizó una encuesta seroepidemiológica con muestreo aleatorio en un distrito céntrico de la ciudad. Se obtuvo información sobre episodios de enfermedad aguda, antecedentes de cuadro febril reciente y muestras de sangre venosa. Se determinó la presencia de IgM antidengue con el método MAC ELISA y se procedió a la tipificación del virus con tecnología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM en 6.5% de los adultos (IC95% 3.4-9.6 y 5.1% de los niños (IC 95% 2.0-8.2. El virus circulante fue identificado como dengue serotipo 2, genotipo Jamaica. Menos de la mitad de los niños infectados tuvieron una infección sintomática, contra casi 90% de los adultos. Conclusiones. La tasa de ataque estimada es compatible con una epidemia de dengue en Santa Cruz. La introducción del serotipo 2 - Jamaica en el país aumenta el riesgo de dengue hemorrágico.Objective. To confirm an epidemic outbreak of Dengue virus in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, and to determine the serotype of the virus, to estimate the rate of attack and the proportion of symptomatic infections. Material and methods. In March 1997, a seroepidemiological survey was conducted with random sampling in a central district of the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Information on recent acute illness and febrile episodes was gathered, and venous blood samples were obtained. Levels of antidengue IgM were determined by MAC Elisa and the virus was tipified with RT-PCR. Results. IgM antibodies were detected in 6.5% of adults (CI 95% 3.4-9.6 and 5.1% of children (CI 95% 2.0-8.2. Circulating virus was identified as Dengue serotype 2, subgroup Jamaica. Less than half of the infected children experienced

  15. Serotipos de Salmonella identificados en los servicios de salud de México Salmonella serotypes isolated in Mexico's health services

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    Lucina Gutiérrez-Cogco

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Dar a conocer las variaciones de los serotipos de cepas de Salmonella aislados en diversos laboratorios públicos y privados de la República mexicana, así como en el del Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los serotipos de 24 394 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de diversas fuentes por los laboratorios de salud pública y privados de México, entre 1972 y 1999, 15 843 (64.9% de origen humano y 8 551(35.1% de origen no humano siguiendo el esquema de Kauffmann-White y utilizando antisueros producidos en el InDRE, de acuerdo con los lineamientos del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades, Atlanta (GA, de los Estados Unidos de América. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 199 serotipos, el más frecuente en muestras clínicas fue S. Typhimurium (20.4% y, en segundo lugar, S. Enteritidis (18.3%. En este trabajo se muestra como S. Enteritidis tuvo un aumento gradual y desplazó a S. Typhimurium en los aislamientos desde 1991, y a la fecha es el serotipo que más se aísla. En cambio, en muestras no humanas el serotipo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue S. Derby (13.8%, seguido por S. Anatum (8.5%. CONCLUSIONES: Los serotipos más frecuentes en México, tanto en muestras humanas como no humanas son: S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Derby, S. Agona y S. Anatum. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico es necesario conocer cuáles son los serotipos circulantes y los de nueva introducción para poder determinar las acciones de prevención requeridas para los casos.OBJECTIVE: To identify the different Salmonella strain serotypes isolated at public and private laboratories in Mexico and at the Institute for Epidemiologic Diagnosis and Referral (InDRE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 24 394 Salmonella strains collected from 1972 to 1999 in public and private health laboratories of Mexico were analyzed with the Kauffmann-White method, using antisera produced by InDRE, according to

  16. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte I: Características clínicas y reducción de la duración de la fiebre con el uso de oseltamivir Outbreak of new influenza a H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part I: Clinical features and reducing the duration of fever with the use of oseltamivir during the outbreak of new influenza A H1N1 in Spanish forces in Afghanistan

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    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde la declaración de alerta fase 6 por la OMS se han presentado brotes de gripe A H1N1 en todo el mundo. Presentamos los resultados del estudio realizado en el brote de nueva gripe A H1N1 en la Base Militar de Camp Arena en Herat (Afganistán. Método: Estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, de pacientes controlados por el Servicio de Sanidad del Role 2, valorando la edad, síntomas al ingreso, duración de la fiebre, test de despistaje rápido, complicaciones, intolerancia al oseltamivir. En el grupo inicial de paciente se valoró RT-PCR. Se compararon los grupos con y sin tratamiento con oseltamivir para la duración de la fiebre. Resultados: Estudio de 106 pacientes, con edad media 27,17 años, los síntomas más frecuentes fueron la tos seca y mal estado general. Los pacientes tratados sin oseltamivir presentaron una duración media de la fiebre de 3,71 días, y con oseltamivir de 2,54 días (pIntroduction: Since the warning statement of Phase 6 by WHO, the world has presented Influenza A H1N1 outbreaks. We present the results of the study of a new Influenza A H1N1 outbreak in the Military Base Camp Arena, in Heart (Afghanistan. Methods: Prospective case series of patients monitored by the Health Service of the Role 2, assessing the age, symptoms at admission, duration of fever, rapid screening test, complications, intolerance to oseltamivir. The initial group of patients was evaluated RT-PCR. We compared groups with and without treatment with oseltamivir for the duration of fever. Results: Study of 106 patients, mean age 27.17 years, the most common symptoms were dry cough and general disrepair. Patients without oseltamivir showed an average of 3.71 days of fever and with oseltamivir of 2.54 days (p <0.001. There were a total of 13 complications, the most frequent bronchitis. Intolerance to oseltamivir was presented in 11.29% of patients. Conclusions: Oseltamivir reduces the duration of fever significantly, with onset of

  17. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen; Hald, Tine;

    2013-01-01

    carcass contamination with Salmonella, when the distribution of Salmonella concentrations in faeces is known. Paired pig sample data (faecal samples and carcass swabs) were obtained from five slaughterhouses and analysed for prevalence and concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella. A simple model...... extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork....

  18. SALMATcor: microagglutination for Salmonella flagella serotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Martínez, Francisco; Sánchez-Salazar, Luz Marina; Acuña-Calvo, María Teresa; Bolaños-Acuña, Hilda María; Dittel-Dittel, Isis; Campos-Chacón, Elena

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is a complex bacterial group with more than 2400 serovars widely distributed in nature; they are considered zoonotic because they can infect a variety of animals and be transmitted to humans. Usually, they cause alimentary acquired diseases such as gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and others that can lead to severe complications and death. Serotyping is useful to differentiate among Salmonella, because it shows an important correlation with their clinical and epidemiological patterns; consequently, it is of high value for public health, animal health, agriculture, and industry. To characterize all known Kauffmann-White Salmonella serovars, over 250 antisera are required. Due to this and to high prices antisera, many laboratories worldwide have limitations in establishing Salmonella surveillance. Therefore, we developed and validated a Salmonella flagella microagglutination test (SALMATcor) that significantly reduces laboratory requirements of antisera. SALMATcor is based on scaling down, by fivefold, the antigen:antiserum volumes actually required for the reference method: flagella standard tube agglutination technique (STAT). Antigen preparation, temperatures, and incubation periods remained as established for STAT. The SALMATcor was validated according to ISO/DIS 16140:1999 protocol, which included 1187 comparisons of flagella determinations conducted by SALMATcor and STAT, on 141 Salmonella isolates of 12 common serotypes and the use of antiserum recommended for STAT. SALMATcor concordance was excellent (Cohen's kappa index 0.9982), obtaining relative accuracy >99.9% and relative specificity >99.9%. Additionally, SALMATcor has been used by CNRB-INCIENSA since 2004 to respond to all 40 Salmonella proficiency testing strains, provided by World Health Organization-Global Salmonella Surveillance Network, obtaining 100% concordance on serovar identification. On the basis of the results achieved with SALMATcor and considering that it also significantly

  19. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

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    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  20. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D10) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N0 to 0.1 N0. Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  1. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

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    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  2. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer C.; Abdul-Jawad, Sami; Modi, Chintan; Abdeen, Yazan; Asslo, Fady; Doraiswamy, Vikram; DePasquale, Joseph R.; Spira, Robert S.; Baddoura, Walid; Miller, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions. PMID:23056966

  3. Salmonella bongori provides insights into the evolution of the Salmonellae.

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    Maria Fookes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella contains two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Compared to the well-studied S. enterica there is a marked lack of information regarding the genetic makeup and diversity of S. bongori. S. bongori has been found predominantly associated with cold-blooded animals, but it can infect humans. To define the phylogeny of this species, and compare it to S. enterica, we have sequenced 28 isolates representing most of the known diversity of S. bongori. This cross-species analysis allowed us to confidently differentiate ancestral functions from those acquired following speciation, which include both metabolic and virulence-associated capacities. We show that, although S. bongori inherited a basic set of Salmonella common virulence functions, it has subsequently elaborated on this in a different direction to S. enterica. It is an established feature of S. enterica evolution that the acquisition of the type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 has been followed by the sequential acquisition of genes encoding secreted targets, termed effectors proteins. We show that this is also true of S. bongori, which has acquired an array of novel effector proteins (sboA-L. All but two of these effectors have no significant S. enterica homologues and instead are highly similar to those found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Remarkably, SboH is found to be a chimeric effector protein, encoded by a fusion of the T3SS-1 effector gene sopA and a gene highly similar to the EPEC effector nleH from enteropathogenic E. coli. We demonstrate that representatives of these new effectors are translocated and that SboH, similarly to NleH, blocks intrinsic apoptotic pathways while being targeted to the mitochondria by the SopA part of the fusion. This work suggests that S. bongori has inherited the ancestral Salmonella virulence gene set, but has adapted by incorporating virulence determinants that resemble those employed by EPEC.

  4. Propagación por estacas y estudio preliminar del establecimiento in vitro de granadilla (Passiflora ligularis, juss

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    Dora Flores

    Full Text Available La granadilla (Passiflora ligularis es una especie de polinización abierta, razón por la cual presenta un alto porcentaje de variabilidad genética. En Costa Rica este cultivo ofrece una opción de diversificación agrícola para la zona de Los Santos y El Guarco de Cartago. El uso de técnicas biotecnológicas como el cultivo de tejidos favorece la explotación de este, ya que permitiría el establecimiento de plantaciones más homogéneas que contribuirían a mejorar el rendimiento y la calidad del fruto. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer la metodología de propagación por estacas y realizar un estudio preliminar que conduzca al establecimiento in vitro de material. Se realizaron tres introducciones de estacas al invernadero y es empleado Agrirrot (0,01% AIB para inducir el enraizamiento; se obtuvo un 50% o más de enraizamiento y brotación de las estacas en cada introducción. Para el establecimiento in vitro se introdujeron brotes provenientes de estacas pretratadas en el invernadero. Se obtuvo un 37,5% de explantes muertos por quema, un 50% presentó contaminación fungosa, bacteriana o ambas y un 12,5% de material limpio y brotado.

  5. Comparison of the environmental survival characteristics of Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2012-10-12

    To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium.

  6. Evaluation of a CHROMagar Salmonella Medium for the Isolation of Salmonella Species

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    yesim cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella infections are the leading cause of food-borne infections and can cause gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Salmonella species is defined as inability to lactose fermentation, using citrate as a carbon source, using lysine as nitrate source and forming Hydrogen sulfide (H2S in TSI agar. However, confirmation of false positive results is time consuming and lead to increased costs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMagar Microbiology, France which is developed for isolation and detection of Salmonella species. Material and Method: For this purpose, among a total of 148 isolates which were isolated from various clinical specimens and stocked at the Central Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, 65 were Salmonella spp., 10 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were E. coli, 10 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 10 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 18 were Morganella morganii, 11 were Citrobacter spp., 5 were Providencia spp., 4 were Aeromonas spp., 5 were Proteus spp. were included in this study. All of the 65 Salmonella spp. isolates apperared with mauve colonies at the CHROMagar Salmonella. Results: E. coli and Klebsiella pnemoniae species were seen as blue, Providencia species were seen as pale-blue; Morganella morganii species were seen as pale-pink, mauve; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were seen as pale. Acinebacter baumannii and Aeromonas spp. species were also seen as mauve colonies. Dicussion: CHROMagar Salmonella medium can detect Salmonella species with %100 sensitivity, however there is a need to biochemical or serological confirmation.

  7. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration.

  9. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. PMID:26678129

  10. Acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo; Gloria Sánchez-Antolín; Félix García-Pajares; Maria Antonia Vallecillo-Sande; Pilar Fernández-Orcajo; Rosario Velicia-Uames; Agustín Caro-Patón

    2008-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is defined as an acute inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of stones. We herein report a case of a young man who developed AAC after a Salmonella enteritidis gastroin-testinal infection.

  11. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  12. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S;

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model...... that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample...... of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood...

  13. A carbon nanotube immunosensor for Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-functionalized carbon nanotube devices have been suggested for use as bacterial detectors for monitoring of food purity in transit from the farm to the kitchen. Here we report progress towards that goal by demonstrating specific detection of Salmonella in complex nutrient broth solutions using nanotube transistors functionalized with covalently-bound anti-Salmonella antibodies. The small size of the active device region makes them compatible with integration in large-scale arrays. We find that the on-state current of the transistor is sensitive specifically to the Salmonella concentration and saturates at low concentration (<1000 cfu/ml. In contrast, the carrier mobility is affected comparably by Salmonella and other bacteria types, with no sign of saturation even at much larger concentrations (108 cfu/ml.

  14. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  15. lac repressor is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica: its role in the evolution of virulence in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeepa M Eswarappa

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.

  16. Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall

    OpenAIRE

    Tonziello, Gilda; Valentinotti, Romina; Arbore, Enrico; Cassetti, Paolo; Luzzati, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 73 Final Diagnosis: Salmonella typhimurium abscess of the chest wall Symptoms: — Medication: Ciprofloxacin Clinical Procedure:— Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Non-typhoid Salmonella extra-intestinal infections usually develop in infants and in adult patients with pre-existing predisposing conditions. Blood stream infections and urinary tract infections are the most common clinical presentations, but other sites of infection may be ...

  17. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients ...

  18. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  19. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  20. Salmonellae and salmonellosis in captive reptiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderka, D K; Finlayson, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 150 pet reptiles submitted for necropsy, 51% of snakes, 48% of lizards and 7% of turtles were infected with Salmonella. About one third of the positive animals had died due to various manifestations of salmonellosis. Thirty-one Salmonella serotypes were identified including three isolates new to Canada. The public health implications are discussed in view of the restricted popularity of reptiles and their possible infection from domestic agricultural products.

  1. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  2. Salmonella spp. em carcaças, carne mecanicamente separada, lingüiças e cortes comerciais de frango Salmonella spp. in carcasses, mechanically deboned meat, sausages and chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cleusa de Fátima Banzatto de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos de origem animal representam papel fundamental na epidemiologia das salmoneloses humanas. Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos, a carne de frango ainda é passível de contaminação bacteriana, especialmente por microrganismos do gênero Salmonella, que podem encontrar-se albergados no trato intestinal ou em outra parte do corpo das aves. O presente trabalho objetivou pesquisar a ocorrência de Salmonella em carne de frango e derivados procedentes da região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas, através do método convencional de cultivo, 45 amostras de carcaças, 60 de carne mecanicamente separada (CMS, 25 de lingüiça de frango, 20 de peito, e 15 de coxa e sobre-coxa. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em 13,3% (6/45 das carcaças, 25% (15/60 das amostras de CMS, 16% (4/25 das lingüiças, 30% (6/20 dos peitos e 13,3% (2/15 das coxas e sobre-coxas analisadas. Do total de 165 amostras analisadas, 33 (20% apresentaram contaminação por Salmonella estando, portanto, impróprias para o consumo conforme legislação brasileira.Food of animal origin represents an important role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis. In spite of the technological improvement, the chicken meat is subjected to bacterial contamination, mainly by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella that can be found in the intestinal tract or elsewhere on the chicken body. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken meat and cuts from the Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. By conventional cultivation microbiological methods, 45 samples of carcasses, 60 samples of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, 25 samples of chicken sausages, 20 samples of chest, and 15 samples of chicken leg and thigh. Salmonella was found in 13.3% (6/45 of the carcass, 25% (15/60 of the MDM, 16% (4/25 of the sausages, 30% (6/20 of the chests and 13.3% (2/15 of the tight analysed. The results showed that 33 (20% out of 165 samples were

  3. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-12-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections.

  4. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-12-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections. PMID:24426144

  5. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y microbiológica del brote de diarrea asociado a Clostridium difficile, ocurrido en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, 2008-2009 Epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic description of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la enfermedad diarreica asociada a Clostridium difficile (EDACD es la causa más importante de diarrea nosocomial en el mundo. En Costa Rica, se presentó recientemente un brote de EDACD en el Hospital San Juan de Dios de San José, hospital de tercer nivel con 700 camas. En el estudio se analizan las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con EDACD atendidos entre noviembre de 2008 y junio de 2009. Pacientes y métodos: se definió como caso de EDACD un paciente con cuadro diarréico con detección de ELISA positiva por toxina A de C. difficile en heces. Se realizó un análisis de la incidencia anual desde 2004 de EDACD, y de la incidencia mensual de EDACD en 2009 en el HSJD, así como un estudio observacional y retrospectivo de 112 expedientes médicos correspondientes a pacientes con el diagnóstico de EDACD atendidos en el Hospital, en el periodo comprendido entre el 15 de noviembre de 2008 y el 15 de junio de 2009. El análisis de los datos se efectuó mediante pruebas estadísticas descriptivas y medidas de asociación. Resultados: la incidencia de EDACD aumentó desde finales de 2008, y alcanzó su pico máximo en abril de 2009, cuando se implementaron medidas sanitarias que disminuyeron en un 75% el número de pacientes en 8 meses. De los 112 expedientes médicos revisados, 63 (56% fueron hombres. La edad promedio fue de 65,33 años; 103 (92% pacientes desarrollaron su enfermedad mientras estuvieron hospitalizados; el tiempo promedio de internamiento fue de 18,6 días. Solo el 9% no presentó ninguna comorbilidad. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron: HTA y DM tipo 2, con un 57,5% y un 39,8%, respectivamente, y enfermedad neuropsiquiátrica en un 29,2%. El 96% (107 pacientes había recibido tres o más antibióticos antes del inicio de la diarrea. La duración promedio de la antibióticoterapia fue de 32 días por paciente. En promedio, la duración de la diarrea fue de 10,2 d

  6. Angioedema por rellenos faciales: Descripción de cinco casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela A. Cosatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha incrementado la utilización de sustancias de relleno facial con fines estéticos. Estos productos, originalmente considerados inertes, se asocian con diversos efectos adversos localizados alrededor del sitio de la aplicación. Describimos a 5 mujeres con antecedentes de inyecciones de sustancia de relleno facial que presentaron como síntoma inicial angioedema facial duro y persistente seguido por la aparición de nódulos subcutáneos. Todas las pacientes fueron derivadas al servicio de alergia por sospecha de angioedema de causa alérgica sin respuesta al tratamiento con antihistamínicos. El angioedema inició 27.6 meses (1 a 48 luego de la inyección del producto, y las pacientes evolucionaron con brotes y remisiones que fueron tratados con corticoides orales y en 2 oportunidades con inyecciones locales. El tiempo medio desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta la remisión del angioedema fue 8.75 meses (1 a 24. A octubre de 2009 cuatro pacientes se mantuvieron en remisión persistente, luego de un seguimiento clínico de 24.5 meses (7 a 36. Una paciente continúa con exacerbaciones luego de 11 meses de iniciados los síntomas. Las sustancias de relleno facial pueden producir angioedema como evento adverso y deben ser consideradas en el diagnóstico diferencial del angioedema persistente. Sólo responden al tratamiento con esteroides y en algunos casos esteroides dependientes, con ciclosporina. La frecuencia de angioedema por rellenos faciales entre pacientes con angioedema asistidos en la Unidad de Asma, Alergia e Inmunología Clínica fue del 0.5%.

  7. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  8. Test results of Salmonella typing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VII on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie L

  9. ¿Es seguro para la salud humana y animal el uso de raticidas que contienen Salmonella? Is safety for human and animal health the use of Salmonella-based rodenticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para identificar publicaciones sobre la seguridad ante la exposición de raticidas que contienen Salmonella para humanos y animales. Se consideraron publicaciones a texto completo que incluían descripción de su metodología y la presentación adecuada de sus resultados. De 545 publicaciones recuperadas, 47 se revisaron a texto completo de las que se seleccionaron 12. En seis se reportan casos de salmonelosis en humanos, incluso casos fatales, asociados a la exposición a versiones anteriores de estos raticidas. El único ensayo clínico encontrado reporta una mayor frecuencia de diarrea y fiebre en el grupo que ingirió Salmonella contenida en Biorat® (presentación comercial actual; sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa, pero el ensayo presentó problemas metodológicos. Las cepas de Salmonella enteritidis contenidas en una versión anterior (Ratin® y en la versión actual corresponden a la misma variedad (Danysz y fagotipo (6a, y están cercanamente relacionadas según la técnica de electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE. No se reporta efectos patógenos de esta Salmonella para las diferentes especies de animales ensayadas; sin embargo, se encontraron limitaciones en la metodología empleada. Se concluye que la Salmonella enteritidis contenida en versiones anteriores de raticidas produjo enfermedad en humanos por lo que fue prohibida su comercialización y que existiría un riesgo potencial de la versión actual por contener una bacteria muy similar y por no tener evidencia suficiente que garantice su seguridad. Son necesarios estudios bien diseñados por instituciones sin conflicto de interés, antes de su aplicación en salud pública o agricultura.We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify publications on the safety of exposure to Salmonella-based rodenticides by humans and animals. We included full-text publications that described the methods

  10. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  11. Salmonella enteritidis from a case of fever with thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shamma Arora; Naveen Gupta; Ashwani Kumar; IR Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Non typhoidalSalmonella species are thought to be potentially infectious to humans. We isolated Salmonella enteritidis from a 10-year-old boy with fever and thrombocytopenia. We reviewed the literature concerning infections caused bySalmonella but we could not find any such case report from India.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices...

  13. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in...

  14. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  15. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  16. Desarrollo de métodos de detección de salmonella basados en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y su validación en muestras alimentarias

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ballesteros, Ilargi

    2014-01-01

    224 p. [ES] Salmonella es uno de los patógenos alimentarios más importantes a nivel mundial y causante de enfermedades gastroentéricas en humanos y animales. La presencia de Salmonella en un alimento, sea en la cantidad que sea, se considera peligroso y por lo tanto no será apto para el consumo humano. Por ello, los controles microbiológicos rutinarios en la cadena alimentaria son de vital importancia para no comprometer la salud del consumidor. Los controles se deben rea...

  17. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het vergelijke

  18. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  19. Salmonella enteritidis and other Salmonella in laying hens and eggs from flocks with Salmonella in their environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Johnson, R. P.; Forsberg, C M; Irwin, R J

    1992-01-01

    Seven Canadian layer flocks with Salmonella enteritidis in their environment were investigated to determine the numbers of hens infected with S. enteritidis, the localization of S. enteritidis in organs of infected hens and the numbers of S. enteritidis-infected eggs produced by two affected flocks. By a microagglutination test (MAT) using S. pullorum antigens, these flocks had more seropositive hens (mean 51.9 +/- 16.9%) than two Salmonella-free flocks (mean 13.0 +/- 4.2%). Culture of tissue...

  20. Aislamiento y serotipificación de Salmonella sp. en estanques con Crocodylus intermedius y testudines cautivos en Villavicencio - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pachón C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de microorganismos del género Salmonella sp. en el ambiente acuático de los ejemplares Crocodylus intermedius y testudines en la Estación de Biología Tropical Roberto Franco (EBTRF. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio se utilizó la metodología estándar para aislar e identificar microorganismos del género Salmonella sp., a partir de muestras de agua y sedimento de 52 estanques (nEstanques Crocodylus=25; nEstanques testudines=27; se procedió a serotipificar los aislamientos por el método convencional de Kaufmann-White y se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos por la técnica de Kirby Bauer. Resultados. Se determinó la presencia de Salmonella sp., en un 33% del total de estanques muestreados. El 29% de los aislamientos de Salmonella sp. serotipificados, correspondió al serogrupo B; los serogrupos C, C1, C2 y D1 presentaron menores porcentajes. Con las pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos se determinó que el 100% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a norfloxacina. Conclusiones. La ocurrencia de Salmonella sp., en los estanques de la EBTRF fue del 33%, con la mayor presencia del serogrupo B, donde se encuentran especies con características ampliamente zoonóticas. Con los resultados obtenidos es necesario el seguimiento de las normas de bioseguridad establecidas en la estación para el manejo de las poblaciones allí mantenidas y evitar de esa manera la ocurrencia de cuadros zoonóticos.

  1. Prueba de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de salmonella grupo D (móviles e inmóviles aisladas de ponedoras comerciales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mantilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones originadas por bacterias del género Salmonella son una de las principales causas de pérdidas económicas en la industria avícola, se caracterizan generalmente por la presentación de cuadros diarreicos y septicémicos que llevan a las aves a una marcada disminución en la producción y a la muerte. En Colombia, debido al efecto negativo que produce Salmonella spp. en las aves, y con el objetivo de poder controlar la enfermedad, se utiliza una gran variedad de productos antimicrobianos, de los cuales no se posee suficiente información acerca de su comportamiento en cuanto a sensibilidad y resistencia frente a las cepas de Salmonella spp. de campo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la respuesta de 20 cepas de Salmonellas grupo D (móviles e inmóviles aisladas de aves ponedoras comerciales en Colombia frente a diferentes antimicrobianos. Para su aislamiento y tipificación se utilizaron técnicas microbiológicas convencionales, pruebas bioquímicas, serológicas y pruebas de susceptibilidad a los antibióticos por difusión en agar. Los resultados revelaron una resistencia total hacia la estreptomicina, seguida de altas resistencias para tetraciclina y florfenicol, y una menor resistencia a productos como fosfomicina y cloramfenicol.

  2. Antibody response to Salmonella typhi lw human Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibody response to Salmonella typhi O and H antigens was evaluated in 24 individuals with either hepatointestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni before and after typhoid vaccination, and compared with that of non-infected controls. Before vaccination, Schistosoma-infected patients showed a higher frequency of positive antibody to O antigen and the same frequency to H antigen when compared with that of healthy individuals. However, those with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis showed higher titres of antibody to H antigen than those with hepatointestinal disease or healthy individuals. Infected subjects, particularly those with hepatointestinal disease, showed a decreased response after typhoid vaccine. Tins diminished ability to mount an immune response towards typhoid antigens dining schistosomiasis may interfere ivith the clearance of the bacteria from blood stream and, therefore, play a role in the prolonged survival of salmonella as obsewed in some patients with chronic salmonellosis associated with schistosomiasis.A resposta de anticorpos para os antígenos O e H da Salmonella typhi foi avaliada em 24 indivíduos com esquistossomose hepatointestinal ou hepatoesplênica antes e apôs vacinação antitifoídica, e comparada com a resposta de indivíduos controles normais. Antes da vacinação, pacientes esquistossomóticos mostraram uma maior frequência de anticoipos positivos para o antígeno O e a mesma frequência de anticoipos positivos para o antígeno H quando comparada com aquela de indivíduos controles normais. Porém, aqueles com esquistossomose hepatoesplênica mostraram títulos maiores de anticoipos para o antígeno H do que aqueles com a forma hepatointestinal da doença ou os indivíduos controles normais. Pacientes esquistossomóticos, particularmente aqueles com a forma hepatointestinal, mostraram uma menor resposta após a vacinação antitifoídica. Esta menor capacidade para apresentar uma resposta imune para ant

  3. Unveiling ubiquitinome rearrangements induced by Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionda, Tihana; Behrends, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ubiquitination plays a critical role in the activation of host immune responses to infection and serves as a signal for pathogen delivery to phagophores along the xenophagy pathway. We recently performed systematic ubiquitination site profiling of epithelial cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings specifically highlight components of the NFKB, membrane trafficking pathways and RHO GTPase systems as ubiquitination hubs during infection. In addition, a broad spectrum of bacterial effectors and several outer membrane proteins are ubiquitinated in infected cells. This comprehensive resource of ubiquitinome dynamics during Salmonella infection enables further understanding of the complex host-pathogen interplay and may reveal novel targets for the inhibition of Salmonella invasion and inflammation. PMID:27467224

  4. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  5. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  6. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Gama NMSQ; Berchieri Jr A; SA Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmo...

  7. Molecular Detection of Salmonella Serovar Isolated from Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monadi, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is the most common type of food poisoning in developed and developing countries that is caused by Salmonella serotype. Hence, we aimed to identify the Salmonella serovars in eggs obtained from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province and to evaluate antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Material and Methods: In this study, 210 eggs were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province. The bacteria were isolated and identified using biochemical tests. After extraction of genomic DNA, Salmonella gender, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were investigated by invA, fliC and sefA primers, respectively, using Multiplex PCR method. Results: Of 210, 14 (6.66% were contaminated with Salmonella. Of these, 12 (5.71% were Salmonella typhimurium and 2 (0.95% were related to Salmonella spp. None of the samples were contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis. The highest resistance was related to penicillin (100% and neomycin (78.57%. Conclusion: Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar causing contamination in the eggs of this Province. Given the wide spread of antibiotic resistance in different serotypes of Salmonella, we recommend avoiding of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry

  8. Salmonella in broiler flocks in the republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Montserrat; Fanning, June; Murphy, Anne; Murray, Gerardine; Griffin, Margaret; Flack, Alma; Leonard, Nola; Egan, John

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in flocks of broilers in the Republic of Ireland, a study was conducted in 2006 in a total of 362 broiler flocks associated with four integrated companies. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 27.3% of flocks, and eight Salmonella serovars were identified, none of which were Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Mbandaka, followed by Salmonella Kentucky, which respectively accounted for 61.6% and 27.0% of positive samples. Notable differences were observed among the flocks associated with different integrated companies, both in the Salmonella spp. prevalence and in the serovar distribution. Results from routine official Salmonella testing in broiler production in 2006 showed similar serovar distribution within each integrated company from the associated hatchery and factory samples. In our study, differences in the prevalence of Salmonella at farm level did not correlate with differences in the percentages of positive chicken carcasses officially tested, which were low, for all the four companies investigated. Given the high prevalence of Salmonella Mbandaka, all human isolates obtained in the Republic of Ireland from 2003 to 2006 were compared to a subset of poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, but an epidemiological link between the animal and the human strains could not be established. Finally the antimicrobial resistance analysis indicated a low proportion of resistant strains among the broiler flock isolates. PMID:19061369

  9. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, H.; Andersson, Y.; Plym-Forshell, L.;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases...... to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2.9% were...... associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6.4% were associated with imported food, 0.5% with food-producing animals, and 0.6% with wildlife. Overall, 7.7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden...

  10. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify Salmonella occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no Salmonella contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Salmonella enterica rough strain and Salmonella Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with Salmonella after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for Salmonella contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of Salmonella contamination which indicates no vertical Salmonella transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de Salmonella em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para Salmonella. Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de pool de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas Salmonella enterica subsepécie enterica cepa rugosa e Salmonella Newport das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  11. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  12. Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) for detection of Salmonella on selected environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstein, Alan; Griffith, Leena; Feirtag, Joellen; Pearson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) is intended as a single-step selective enrichment indicator broth to be used as a simple screening test for the presence of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples. This method permits the end user to avoid multistep sample processing to identify presumptively positive samples, as exemplified by standard U.S. reference methods. PDX-SIB permits the outgrowth of Salmonella while inhibiting the growth of competitive Gram-negative and -positive microflora. Growth of Salmonella-positive cultures results in a visual color change of the medium from purple to yellow when the sample is grown at 37 +/- 1 degree C. Performance of PDX-SIB has been evaluated in five different categories: inclusivity-exclusivity, methods comparison, ruggedness, lot-to-lot variability, and shelf stability. The inclusivity panel included 100 different Salmonella serovars, 98 of which were SIB-positive during the 30 to 48 h incubation period. The exclusivity panel included 33 different non-Salmonella microorganisms, 31 of which were SIB-negative during the incubation period. Methods comparison studies included four different surfaces: S. Newport on plastic, S. Anatum on sealed concrete, S. Abaetetuba on ceramic tile, and S. Typhimurium in the presence of 1 log excess of Citrobacter freundii. Results of the methods comparison studies demonstrated no statistical difference between the SIB method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method, as measured by the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test. Ruggedness studies demonstrated little variation in test results when SIB incubation temperatures were varied over a 34-40 degrees C range. Lot-to-lot consistency results suggest no detectable differences in manufactured goods using two reference Salmonella serovars and one non-Salmonella microorganism.

  13. RAPID DETECTION OF Salmonella IN SHRIMP BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION [Deteksi Cepat Salmonella pada Udang dengan Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Amalia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is an important non-oil commodity for foreign trade in Indonesia. However, rejection of shrimp exports by the importing countries is still commonly encountered. In 2011, the USFDA recorded two cases of Salmonella spp. contamination in shrimp products from two shrimp processing companies in Indonesia. Analysis of Salmonella spp. in seafood is generally performed using a conventional method which takes at least 5 days. The objective of the study is to get a Salmonellae rapid detection method in shrimp by PCR. In this study, optimization of PCR protocol method to detect Salmonella invA gene was conducted using six different annealing temperatures (59, 59.5, 60.8, 62, 64 and 64.5°C. The results showed that 64°C was the optimum annealing temperature to detect the 284 bp fragment of Salmonella invA gene. The PCR based detection method has a DNA detection limit of 27.81ug/mL and 10°CFU/mL of viable salmonellae with 100% specificity. The PCR protocol is capable of detecting six different Salmonella serovars (S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky, S. Paratyphi and S. Typhimurium but none of the non salmonellae isolates. Application of the PCR assay on Salmonella in shrimp after the selective enrichment step suggested that all 16 samples were positive for Salmonella. At the same time, the conventional method could only detected 3 samples for Salmonella positive.

  14. Low-oxygen tensions found in Salmonella-infected gut tissue boost Salmonella replication in macrophages by impairing antimicrobial activity and augmenting Salmonella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennewein, Jonas; Matuszak, Jasmin; Walter, Steffi; Felmy, Boas; Gendera, Kathrin; Schatz, Valentin; Nowottny, Monika; Liebsch, Gregor; Hensel, Michael; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Gerlach, Roman G; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    In Salmonella infection, the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2)-encoded type three secretion system (T3SS2) is of key importance for systemic disease and survival in host cells. For instance, in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model SPI-2-dependent Salmonella replication in lamina propria CD11c(-)CXCR1(-) monocytic phagocytes/macrophages (MΦ) is required for the development of colitis. In addition, containment of intracellular Salmonella in the gut critically depends on the antimicrobial effects of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and possibly type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). For both antimicrobial enzyme complexes, oxygen is an essential substrate. However, the amount of available oxygen upon enteroinvasive Salmonella infection in the gut tissue and its impact on Salmonella-MΦ interactions was unknown. Therefore, we measured the gut tissue oxygen levels in a model of Salmonella enterocolitis using luminescence two-dimensional in vivo oxygen imaging. We found that gut tissue oxygen levels dropped from ∼78 Torr (∼11% O2) to values of ∼16 Torr (∼2% O2) during infection. Because in vivo virulence of Salmonella depends on the Salmonella survival in MΦ, Salmonella-MΦ interaction was analysed under such low oxygen values. These experiments revealed an increased intracellular replication and survival of wild-type and t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella. These findings were paralleled by blunted nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced Salmonella ROS perception. In addition, hypoxia enhanced SPI-2 transcription and translocation of SPI-2-encoded virulence protein. Neither pharmacological blockade of PHOX and NOS2 nor impairment of T3SS2 virulence function alone mimicked the effect of hypoxia on Salmonella replication under normoxic conditions. However, if t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella were used, hypoxia did not further enhance Salmonella recovery in a PHOX and NOS2-deficient situation. Hence, these data suggest that

  15. Dermatitis canina por Malassezia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas López, Juan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La dermatitis por Malassezia en perros en generalmente una complicación a procesos alérgicos, seborreicos, presencia de pliegues, etc. aunque también se han descrito otras presentaciones, como la hipersensibilidad contra esta levadura. La demostración de la presencia de Malassesia pachydermatis se hace de manera sencilla mediante citología. El tratamiento de esta dermatitis puede ser tópico u oral.

  16. Dermatitis canina por Malassezia

    OpenAIRE

    Rejas López, Juan

    2008-01-01

    La dermatitis por Malassezia en perros en generalmente una complicación a procesos alérgicos, seborreicos, presencia de pliegues, etc. aunque también se han descrito otras presentaciones, como la hipersensibilidad contra esta levadura. La demostración de la presencia de Malassesia pachydermatis se hace de manera sencilla mediante citología. El tratamiento de esta dermatitis puede ser tópico u oral.

  17. causada por Fusarium moniliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mendoza Elos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la resistencia horizontal de 134 líneas S1 de maíz al hongo Fusarium moniliforme. La enfermedad fue inducida mediante inoculación en la etapa de floración masculina bajo condiciones de campo utilizando la técnica del palillo. Las líneas se evaluaron en México en 2002. La estimación de la enfermedad se hizo en dos ocasiones con una separación de 20 días. Las evaluaciones mostraron que las líneas Roque-801, 804, 1103 y 1405 fueron resistentes en la primera evaluación. Las tasas de incremento de la enfermedad variaron de 0,01 a 0,229 por unidad por día. Las líneas mostraron bajos niveles de enfermedad de 0 a 1 % en la primera evaluación. En la segunda evaluación, los niveles de enfermedad variaron de 49 a 100 %. En un programa de mejoramiento genético estas líneas pueden ser utilizadas para mejorar la resistencia horizontal del maíz a la pudrición del tallo causada por Fusarium moniliforme

  18. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment.

  19. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  20. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...

  1. Salmonella typhi time to change empiric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, C.; Engberg, J.; Weis, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the present case series report we describe seven recent cases of typhoid fever. All the patients were travellers returning from Pakistan, where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella typhi isolated from the patients by blood culture were reported as intermediary susceptible to fluoroquinolones in six...

  2. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  3. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  4. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  5. Virulence factors of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the major etiologic agents of human food-borne gastrointestinal infections. Efforts to control the number of serovar Enteritidis infections have had a limited success, in part because of the lack of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that contribu

  6. Persistence of salmonella typhimurium in nopal cladodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh produce associated outbreaks have increased in the last few years. E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella have been causative agents of infection in these outbreaks. Fresh produce is consumed raw, and in the absence of terminal kill treatment, it is imperative to understand sources of contamination o...

  7. Persistence of salmonella Typhimurium in Nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having documented information available on the capability of Salmonella to remain in the cladode tissue it is important to understand the role of nopal on the lifecycle of enteropathogenic bacteria in humans, as well as for management and control programs of theses pathogens in plants. Because of th...

  8. Detecção de fatores de virulência de Escherichia coli e análise de Salmonella spp. em psitacídeos Detection of virulence factors in Escherichia coli and analysis of Salmonella spp. in psittacines

    OpenAIRE

    Isadora M. de O. Corrêa; Fernanda Flores; Gustavo H. Schneiders; Larissa Q. Pereira; Benito G. Brito; Maristela Lovato

    2013-01-01

    A flora entérica dos psitacídeos é composta principalmente por bactérias Gram positivas. Bactérias Gram negativas, como Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp., apresentam elevado potencial patogênico, sendo consideradas indicativo de problemas de manejo, que poderão culminar em manifestação de doenças em decorrência de fatores estressantes, dietas deficientes e superlotação, combinados com alta carga bacteriana no ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de Salmonella spp., Esch...

  9. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk.

  10. Identification of genes to differentiate closely related Salmonella lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hua Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella are important human and animal pathogens. Though highly related, the Salmonella lineages may be strictly adapted to different hosts or cause different diseases, from mild local illness like gastroenteritis to fatal systemic infections like typhoid. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of Salmonella is essential for timely and correct diagnosis of Salmonella infections. The current identification methods such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing are expensive and time consuming. Additionally, these methods often do not have sufficient distinguishing resolution among the Salmonella lineages. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared 27 completely sequenced Salmonella genomes to identify possible genomic features that could be used for differentiation of individual lineages. We concatenated 2372 core genes in each of the 27 genomes and constructed a neighbor-joining tree. On the tree, strains of each serotype were clustered tightly together and different serotypes were unambiguously separated with clear genetic distances, demonstrating systematic genomic divergence among the Salmonella lineages. We made detailed comparisons among the 27 genomes and identified distinct sets of genomic differences, including nucleotide variations and genomic islands (GIs, among the Salmonella lineages. Two core genes STM4261 and entF together could unambiguously distinguish all Salmonella lineages compared in this study. Additionally, strains of a lineage have a common set of GIs and closely related lineages have similar sets of GIs. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella lineages have accumulated distinct sets of mutations and laterally acquired DNA (e.g., GIs in evolution. Two genes entF and STM4261 have diverged sufficiently among the Salmonella lineages to be used for their differentiation. Further investigation of the distinct sets of mutations and GIs will lead to novel insights into genomic evolution of Salmonella and

  11. MULTIPLICACIÓN In Vitro DE BROTES DE GUAYABA (Psidium guajava L. VAR. ENANA ROJA CUBANA EEA 18-40 OBTENIDOS A PARTIR DE SEMILLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora T. Pérez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La guayaba se considera como una de las frutas tropicales más valiosas. La propagación de esta especie se lleva a cabo mediante el uso de estacas; sin embargo, es un método de baja eficiencia, debido a que una alta fenolización impide el buen enraizamiento y, por otro lado, la existencia limitada de plantas donadoras en algunos cultivares. El injerto y acodo se afectan severamente por la contaminación ambiental, por lo que se emplean con poco éxito para obtener grandes cantidades de plantas. La semilla constituye otro método de propagación convencional. La micropropagación de esta especie surge como alternativa superior de la propagación rápida, que permite realizar estudios fisiológicos de rejuvenecimiento y envejecimiento para la obtención de plantas productivas en un plazo de tiempo corto. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo optimizar la fase de multiplicación de Psidium guajava L. var. Enana Roja Cubana EEA 18-40 a partir de ápices y segmentos nodales de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Los mejores resultados se alcanzaron cuando se utilizaron como explantes los segmentos apicales y se colocaron en medio MS con el suplemento de 0.5 mg.L-1 de BAP durante 30 días, lográndose un coeficiente de multiplicación de 4.03.

  12. Implicaciones en la salud humana de la gastroenteritis aguda por norovirus como producto de la contaminación hídrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Delgadillo Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En julio del 2010, un brote de gastroenteritis Aguda surgió entre los residentes de la ciudad principal de la Región Norte de Costa Rica: Ciudad Quesada. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para explorar y caracterizar el brote en esa zona rural. Los datos de vigilancia y los registros médicos de los pacientes fueron analizados para elaborar un estudio descriptivo entre el 08 de julio y 14 de julio del 2010 en el Cantón de San Carlos. Una hoja de datos (Ficha Colectiva de Investigación VE 0.2 fue aplicada para obtener información de los pacientes. Con el fin de detectar la presencia de enteropatógenos, una prueba de ELISA fue aplicada a las muestras de heces tomadas. Las muestras de agua también se analizaron para detectar bacterias y coliformes fecales en el sistema de distribución. Un total de 352 casos fueron confirmados en la región estudiada con la presencia de síntomas frecuentes entre los casos confirmados; estos síntomas fueron diarrea (94,2%, náuseas (92,7% y vómitos (91,7%. La edad media de los pacientes fue de 29 años (15,8 y el 50,8% correspondió a sujetos del sexo femenino. El grupo de edad más afectado es el representado por los lactantes de 1 a 4 años (tasa de ataque 18,2 / 1000 habitantes La zona con más afectación fue el área central de Ciudad Quesada. En cinco de cada seis pruebas de heces fue posible aislar el norovirus. Por otra parte, en las pruebas aplicadas al agua solo se identifica la presencia de Escherichia coli. Los resultados sugieren que el norovirus fue transmitido por agua contaminada con materia fecal. Este es el primer brote documentado que ha sido causado por este virus en la región norte del país. Se recomienda mejorar la vigilancia de la calidad del agua, promover el uso de agua potable entre los residentes, generar un plan de educación que fomente prácticas seguras de manejo y distribución de agua; así como campañas de sensibilización en comunidades rurales como ésta en temas

  13. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  14. ¿Es seguro para la salud humana y animal el uso de raticidas que contienen Salmonella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para identificar publicaciones sobre la seguridad ante la exposición de raticidas que contienen Salmonella para humanos y animales. Se consideraron publicaciones a texto completo que incluían descripción de su metodología y la presentación adecuada de sus resultados. De 545 publicaciones recuperadas, 47 se revisaron a texto completo de las que se seleccionaron 12. En seis se reportan casos de salmonelosis en humanos, incluso casos fatales, asociados a la exposición a versiones anteriores de estos raticidas. El único ensayo clínico encontrado reporta una mayor frecuencia de diarrea y fiebre en el grupo que ingirió Salmonella contenida en Biorat® (presentación comercial actual; sin embargo, la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa, pero el ensayo presentó problemas metodológicos. Las cepas de Salmonella enteritidis contenidas en una versión anterior (Ratin® y en la versión actual corresponden a la misma variedad (Danysz y fagotipo (6a, y están cercanamente relacionadas según la técnica de electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE. No se reporta efectos patógenos de esta Salmonella para las diferentes especies de animales ensayadas; sin embargo, se encontraron limitaciones en la metodología empleada. Se concluye que la Salmonella enteritidis contenida en versiones anteriores de raticidas produjo enfermedad en humanos por lo que fue prohibida su comercialización y que existiría un riesgo potencial de la versión actual por contener una bacteria muy similar y por no tener evidencia suficiente que garantice su seguridad. Son necesarios estudios bien diseñados por instituciones sin conflicto de interés, antes de su aplicación en salud pública o agricultura.

  15. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaliere Maria J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.

  16. Por mil devaluados pesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  17. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der;

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production...... chain. Two major factors of pre-harvest Salmonella epidemiology are the introduction and subsequent transmission of infection within and between herds. Stress imposed by transportation and the associated handling can significantly increase the number of pigs excreting Salmonella upon arrival...... at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...

  18. Chasing Salmonella Typhimurium in free range egg production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, Kapil; Gole, Vaibhav; Caraguel, Charles; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2016-08-30

    Free range production systems are becoming a major source of egg production in Australia and worldwide. This study investigated shedding and ecology of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella species in a free range layer flock, wild birds and foxes in the vicinity of the free range farm in different seasons. Shedding of Salmonella was significantly higher in summer. Within the shed, overall, Salmonella prevalence was highest in dust. Corticosterone level in faeces was highest in spring and lowest in winter. There was no direct association between the Salmonella shedding (MPN/gm) and corticosterone levels in faeces. Salmonella Typhimurium MLVA types isolated from fox and wild birds were similar to MLVA types isolated from layer flock and reported during human food borne illness. Wild birds and foxes appear to play an important role in S. Typhimurium ecology and food safety. Environmental factors could play a role in evolution of S. Typhimurium in free range environment. PMID:27527766

  19. Prueba de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de Salmonella grupo D (móviles e inmóviles aisladas de ponedoras comerciales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jaime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones originadas por bacterias del género Salmonella son una de las principalescausas de pérdidas económicas en la industria avícola, se caracterizan generalmentepor la presentación de cuadros diarreicos y septicémicos que llevan a las aves a unamarcada disminución en la producción y a la muerte. En Colombia, debido al efectonegativo que produce Salmonella spp. en las aves, y con el objetivo de poder controlarla enfermedad, se utiliza una gran variedad de productos antimicrobianos, de loscuales no se posee suficiente información acerca de su comportamiento en cuanto asensibilidad y resistencia frente a las cepas de Salmonella spp. de campo. El objetivo deeste estudio fue determinar la respuesta de 20 cepas de Salmonella grupo D (móviles einmóviles aisladas de aves ponedoras comerciales en Colombia frente a diferentes antimicrobianos.Para su aislamiento y tipificación se utilizaron técnicas microbiológicasconvencionales, pruebas bioquímicas, serológicas y pruebas de susceptibilidad a losantibióticos por difusión en agar. Los resultados revelaron una resistencia total hacia laestreptomicina, seguida de altas resistencias para tetraciclina y florfenicol, y una menorresistencia a productos como fosfomicina y cloramfenicol.

  20. Reprogramación celular de embriones de Anthurium andraeanum por fitohormonas para micropropagación masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Mireles-Ordaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Anthurium incluye alrededor de 800 especies, las cuales son originarias de diversos países tropicales y subtropicales de América. Numerosos cultivos de estas especies de Anthurium son crecidos y comercializados debido a su gran popularidad como plantas ornamentales alrededor de todo el mundo, de las cuales la más popular es Anthurium andreanum. La reproducción sexual de estas plantas en invernaderos es difícil y toma mucho tiempo, lo cual representa una desventaja para su producción masiva y comercialización. La micropropagación in vitro ha emergido como una opción para sobrellevar dicha desventaja, hasta la fecha se han logrado avances parcialmente exitosos en la micropropagación en especies de Anthurium usando varios tejidos como explantes iniciales, incluyendo hojas, pecíolo, espádice, espata, brote lateral, meristemo apical y embriones somáticos, estos últimos previamente inducidos a partir de tejido diferenciado. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no hay reportes del uso de embriones cigóticos como tejido madre para la propagación masiva de estas plantas. En el presente estudio reportamos la formación de callos organogénicos a partir de embriones cigóticos inmaduros crecidos en medio MS suplementado con la combinación de 2 mg/l de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D y 0.5 mg/l de 6-benzilamino-purina (BAP. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los embriones en proceso de desarrollo son altamente eficientes como explantes de origen para inducir la formación de tejido calloso de una manera rápida y fácil, dando en promedio 9 brotes por callo y logrando una taza de sobrevivencia de las plantas del 90% en la fase de aclimatación.

  1. A defective mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum in cobalamin biosynthesis is avirulent in chickens Mutante de Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum duplo defectivo na biossíntese de cobalamina é avirulento para aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    de modelo experimental para outras salmoneloses hospedeiro especíifcas. Além dos mecanismos de virulência, a bactéria utiliza mecanismos de sobrevivência para permanecer no hospedeiro. A ativação desses mecanismos pode ou não estar associada à ativação dos mecanismos de virulência. Entre os mecanismos fisiológicos, está a produção de vitamina B12 que Salmonella spp. realiza em ambientes anaeróbicos, como quando encontra-se intracelularmente no organismo hospedeiro. Neste estudo, analisou-se a infecção de aves por cepas de SG, que tiveram genes alterados que participam da biossíntese de vitamina B12. Foram produzidos mutantes de SG contendo os genes cbiA e cobS alterados e um terceiro, contendo ambos os genes alterados. A sobrevivência e a ação patogênica de SG não foi modificada pela alteração simples de um dos genes, mas tornou a cepa de SG completamente atenuada quando os dois foram modificados. A mortalidade provocada pela cepa selvagem de SG foi de 64,52%, enquanto que não observou-se mortalidade alguma no grupo de aves infectadas com SGNal r"cobs"cbiA. Estudos futuros deverão ser realizados para elucidar este processo fisiológico bacteriano e para avaliar a utilização desta cepa de SG como cepa vacinal.

  2. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase ...

  3. Ludwig′s angina by Salmonella Typhi: A clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi has rarely been associated with focal abscesses; and in literature, there is no evidence of its association with abscesses in the neck spaces. Ability of Salmonella Typhi to invade and localise in the neck spaces not only poses a diagnostic challenge but also underscores the necessity to understand the mechanisms that facilitate Salmonella Typhi to establish infections at sites completely non-traditional to the organism.

  4. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosing Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point. As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase, antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2, inflammation (e.g. calprotectin, oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2 and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9. Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap, showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in

  5. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic...... was 5.4% with no significant differences between systems. Pigs with Salmonella shedding on farm were more likely to also be shedding Salmonella at slaughter (P<0.001). The serological test result was a significant predictor of Salmonella shedding at slaughter in indi-vidual pigs from conventional......, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from the...

  6. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. PMID:27118863

  7. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy b...

  8. DETEKSI Salmonella PADA NASI GORENG YANG DISEDIAKAN OLEH RESTORAN KERETA API KELAS EKONOMI [Detection of Salmonella on Fried Rice Served in Restaurant of Economic Class Train

    OpenAIRE

    Srianta; Elisa Rinihapsari

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella is a group of infective pathogenic bacteria for human being that cause many food borne disease outbreaks. Human, animal and some animal-based food products are whicle for Salmonella. Public transportation i.e. train/railway, often serve foods that potentially contaminated with Salmonella. Study on Salmonella detection on fried rice served in economic class train restaurant is necessary for controlling its safety and quality. Standard method was used to detect Salmonella on fried ri...

  9. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations.

  10. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...

  11. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material.

  12. Immunity to intracellular Salmonella depends on surface-associated antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somedutta Barat

    Full Text Available Invasive Salmonella infection is an important health problem that is worsening because of rising antimicrobial resistance and changing Salmonella serovar spectrum. Novel vaccines with broad serovar coverage are needed, but suitable protective antigens remain largely unknown. Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease. Antigen properties such as high in vivo abundance or immunodominance in convalescent individuals were not required for protectivity, but all promising antigen candidates were associated with the Salmonella surface. Surprisingly, this was not due to superior immunogenicity of surface antigens compared to internal antigens as had been suggested by previous studies and novel findings for CD4 T cell responses to model antigens. Confocal microscopy of infected tissues revealed that many live Salmonella resided alone in infected host macrophages with no damaged Salmonella releasing internal antigens in their vicinity. In the absence of accessible internal antigens, detection of these infected cells might require CD4 T cell recognition of Salmonella surface-associated antigens that could be processed and presented even from intact Salmonella. In conclusion, our findings might pave the way for development of an efficacious Salmonella vaccine with broad serovar coverage, and suggest a similar crucial role of surface antigens for immunity to both extracellular and intracellular pathogens.

  13. Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune system

    KAUST Repository

    García, Ana V.

    2014-04-04

    Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.

  14. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Anaerobic conditions are frequently encountered by pathogens invading the gastrointestinal tract due to low/limiting oxygen conditions prevalent in the small intestine. This anaerobic stress has been suggested to enhance the virulence of gut pathogens. In the present study......, we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...... loop assay, hydrophobicity assay, expression of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and antioxidant enzymes assay. RESULTS: Anaerobically grown S. Typhi showed significantly higher cell surface hydrophobicity as compared to aerobic bacteria. In vivo toxin production by rabbit ileal loop assay also showed...

  15. Salmonella Dublin kan give store tab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    2012-01-01

    Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere.......Store besætninger lider størst økonomisk tab ved infektion med Salmonella Dublin. Selv i en veldrevet besætning kan tabet løbe op i mellem 1,3 og 3,3 millioner kr. over en tiårs periode. Ved uhensigtsmæssige hygiejne- og managementrutiner kan tabet nemt blive meget højere....

  16. Renal abscess caused by Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a true pathogen, which is capable of causing both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Unusual presentations of Salmonella should always be kept in mind as this organism can cause disease in almost any organ of the body. S. typhi has been reported to cause the life-threatening infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, empyema, and hepatic abscess. Renal involvement by S. typhi is a relatively rare presentation. We report a case of renal abscess caused by S. typhi in an afebrile, 10-year-old child who did not have any clinical history of enteric fever. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolation of S. typhi from the renal abscess, and interestingly this isolate was found to be resistant to quinolones.

  17. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    . Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being...... used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73...... available Salmonella enterica genomes (accessed in April 2011). A consensus tree based on variation of the core genes gives better resolution than 16S rRNA and MLST that rarely provide separation between closely related strains. The performance of the pan-genome tree which is based on the presence...

  18. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37°C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial

  19. Ojo por ojo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón del Llano Ibáñez

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro pan y café de la mañana se acompaña de noticias alrededor de ejecuciones, de fosas clandestinas, de batallas del ejército, de balaceras en las calles y civiles caídos por balas perdidas : la muerte acompaña nuestro desayuno. Las calaveras de azúcar del día de muertos hoy son calaveras reales y amargas : 40 000 muertos en cuatro años después que el Presidente Calderón declaró la guerra a los narcotraficantes. Se han apresado a varios e importantes miembros de los cárteles : pero han si...

  20. Sepsis por shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabrera C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.

  1. Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Salas-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las uñas producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en uñas, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección.

  2. Motivado por cirujanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar-Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Comenzaba la década de los 60 y nuestro grupo nerviosamente iniciaba lecciones en los hospitales de San José. En aquellos años, el estudiante de medicina empezaba su contacto con pacientes, por lo menos 1 ó 2 años después de iniciada la carrera. El estudio del ser humano normal que ya habíamos concluido, continuaba con el del enfermo, y más adelante aprenderíamos el tratamiento. La enfermedad descrita en el libro, de pronto se convertía en un enfermo, y es a este quien hoy veíamos, cohibido pero inquisidor, en la cama de un hospital. Los profesores nos enseñaban a interrogar y a examinar a los pacientes, y cada gesto suyo, cada pregunta, cada maniobra, eran celosamente guardados en la memoria de los educandos. Con claridad percibíamos, aun a temprana edad, las diferencias entre los especialistas, y casi de manera involuntaria, cada quien iba tomando partido y escogía su futuro camino. Fue durante esos tempranos años, cuando mi vida se cruzó con la de 7 maravillosas personas y excelentes cirujanos, que marcaron para siempre mi destino y, sin quererlo ellos, me hicieron inclinarme por la cirugía. Dos eran serios y profundamente académicos: el Dr. Manuel Aguilar Bonilla y el Dr. Vesalio Guzmán Calleja; 3, decididos, incansables y muy hábiles: el Dr. Longino Soto Pacheco, el Dr. Claudio Orlich Carranza y el Dr. Carlos Prada Díaz, y 2, abordables, prácticos, joviales y amistosos: el Dr. Fernando Valverde Soley y el Dr. Randall Ferris Iglesias….

  3. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai

    2016-01-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:27689027

  4. Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Airis Maria Araújo; Alexandre, Dalila L; Furtado, Roselayne F; Borges, Maria F; Figueiredo, Evânia Altina T; Biswas, Atanu; Cheng, Huai N; Alves, Carlúcio R

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing "real-time" and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry. PMID:27138197

  5. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:27689027

  6. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai

    2016-01-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy.

  7. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Braukmann

    Full Text Available Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2 for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, interleukin (IL-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.

  8. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages. PMID:25811871

  9. Assessment of serological response of chickens to Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum by Elisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect chicken serological response against Salmonella enterica serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum. The assays have used soluble bacterial proteins of Salmonella Gallinarum strain 9 (AgSG as detecting antigen and peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase conjugates. According to the results, the antigen, sera and conjugate concentrations were optimized. In addition, the assay using alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase conjugates was helpful to distinguish positive serological reaction to serotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum from Enteritidis.

  10. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  11. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  12. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  13. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  14. Marcadores epidemiológicos de Salmonella typhimurium e Salmonella agona Epidemiological markers of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella agona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Fernandes

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre as cepas de S. typhimurium e S. agona isoladas no período 1971-1987 foram caracterizados os biotipos, colicinotipos e antibiotipos de 734 cepas de S. typhimurium e 631 de S. agona. As 734 cepas de S. typhimurium foram classificadas em 65 biotipos com o predomínio dos biotipos 1a com 28,34%, 1b com 29,84% e 9bi com 18,25%. Com relação a S. agona, o biotipo 1a com 87,16% representou entre nós o clone amplamente disseminado. Foram encontradas freqüências baixas de cepas colicinogênicas, entretanto, a colicinotipia parece ser um bom método quando aplicada ao estudo de amostras homogêneas provenientes de surtos. Acentuada multirresistência aos agentes antimicrobianos, foi observada principalmente entre aquelas cepas de origem humana quase sempre representadas por cepas hospitalaresAmong S. typhimurium and S. agona strains isolated during the period from 1971 to 1987, the biotypes, colicine types and resistance patterns were determined for 734 S. typhimurium and 631 S. agona strains. Among 734 S. typhimurium strains 65 biotypes were disclosed with prevalence of biotypes 1a (28,34%, 1b (29,84% and 9bi (18,28. Concerning S. agona, the biotype 1a represented by 87,16%, was the commonest clone among our strains. Although colicine typing added little information to characterize these serotypes, it should be usefull when applied in epidemilogical study of outbreaks. It was observed multiply antimicrobial resistance mainly among human strains, particularly from nosocomial origins.

  15. T-2 toxin induced Salmonella Typhimurium intoxication results in decreased Salmonella numbers in the cecum contents of pigs, despite marked effects on Salmonella-host cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugghe Elin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mycotoxin T-2 toxin and Salmonella Typhimurium infections pose a significant threat to human and animal health. Interactions between both agents may result in a different outcome of the infection. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to investigate the effects of low and relevant concentrations of T-2 toxin on the course of a Salmonella Typhimurium infection in pigs. We showed that the presence of 15 and 83 μg T-2 toxin per kg feed significantly decreased the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria present in the cecum contents, and a tendency to a reduced colonization of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and colon contents was noticed. In vitro, proteomic analysis of porcine enterocytes revealed that a very low concentration of T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL affects the protein expression of mitochondrial, endoplasmatic reticulum and cytoskeleton associated proteins, proteins involved in protein synthesis and folding, RNA synthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and regulatory processes. Similarly low concentrations (1-100 ng/mL promoted the susceptibility of porcine macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells to Salmonella Typhimurium invasion, in a SPI-1 independent manner. Furthermore, T-2 toxin (1-5 ng/mL promoted the translocation of Salmonella Typhimurium over an intestinal porcine epithelial cell monolayer. Although these findings may seem in favour of Salmonella Typhimurium, microarray analysis showed that T-2 toxin (5 ng/mL causes an intoxication of Salmonella Typhimurium, represented by a reduced motility and a downregulation of metabolic and Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 genes. This study demonstrates marked interactions of T-2 toxin with Salmonella Typhimurium pathogenesis, resulting in bacterial intoxication.

  16. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  17. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  18. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  19. Genetic mapping of the Salmonella typhimurium pepB locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L; Miller, C G

    1980-01-01

    Transposon technology has been used to map the pepB locus of Salmonella typhimurium. This locus is cotransducible by phage P22 with glyA and strB at min 56 on the Salmonella genetic map. The gene order is strB pepB glyA.

  20. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  1. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  2. Salmonella induces PD-L1 expression in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Medina, Marcela; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella persists for a long time in B cells; however, the mechanism(s) through which infected B cells avoid effector CD8 T cell responses has not been characterized. In this study, we show that Salmonella infects and survives within all B1 and B2 cell subpopulations. B cells are infected with a Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing an ovalbumin (OVA) peptide (SIINFEKL) to evaluate whether B cells process and present Salmonella antigens in the context of MHC-I molecules. Our data showed that OVA peptides are presented by MHC class I K(b)-restricted molecules and the presented antigen is generated through proteasomal degradation and vacuolar processing. In addition, Salmonella-infected B cells express co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40, CD80, and CD86 as well as inhibitory molecules such as PD-L1. Thus, the cross-presentation of Salmonella antigens and the expression of activation molecules suggest that infected B cells are able to prime and activate specific CD8(+) T cells. However, the Salmonella infection-stimulated expression of PD-L1 suggests that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in turning off the cytotoxic effector response during Salmonella persistent infection, thereby allowing B cells to become a reservoir for the bacteria.

  3. 40 CFR 79.68 - Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5265, The Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation asay. (2) Ames, B.N., McCann, J... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR 79.60, the following specific information shall be reported: (i... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salmonella typhimurium...

  4. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...-1493. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs...

  5. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards for “U.S. S. Enteritidis Clean” status (9 CFR 145.23(d)) or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures...

  6. Differences in attachment of Salmonella to fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The produce may be contaminated with Salmonella at any point throughout the food continuum. To develop effective strategies to minimize the risk of foodborne disease caused by this organism, it is essential to examine i...

  7. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  8. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  9. Modeling of Salmonella Contamination in the Pig Slaughterhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.N.; Evers, E.G.; Simons, R.L.L.; Swanenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a model for Salmonella contamination of pig carcasses in the slaughterhouse. This model forms part of a larger QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) on Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs, which uses a generic model framework that can be parameterized for E

  10. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data fr

  11. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  12. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  13. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends...

  14. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella enterica in day-old ducklings in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Marouf, Sherif H; Zolnikov, Tara R; AlAtfeehy, Nayerah

    2014-01-01

    Importing day-old ducklings (DOD) unknowingly infected with non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) may be associated with disease risk. Domestic and international trade may enhance this risk. Salmonella enterica serovars, their virulence genes combinations and antibiotic resistance, garner attention for their potentiality to contribute to the adverse health effects on populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of imported versus domestic DOD as potential carriers of NTS. The results confirm the prevalence of salmonellosis in imported ducklings was 18·5% (25/135), whereas only 12% (9/75) of cases were determined in the domestic ducklings. Fourteen serovars (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella kisii, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella gaillac, Salmonella uno, Salmonella eingedi, Salmonella shubra, Salmonella bardo, Salmonella inganda, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella stanley, Salmonella virchow, Salmonella haifa, and Salmonella anatum) were isolated from the imported ducklings, whereas only S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, S. virchow, and S. shubra were isolated from the domestic ducklings. The isolated Salmonella serovars were 100% susceptible to only colistin sulphate and 100% resistant to lincomycin. The 14 Salmonella serovars were screened for 11 virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, and bcfC) by PCR. The invA, sopB, and bcfC genes were detected in 100% of the Salmonella serovars; alternatively, the gipA gene was absent in all of the isolated Salmonella serovars. The 11 virulent genes were not detected in either of S. stanley or S. haifa serovars. The results confirm an association between antibiotic resistance and virulence of Salmonella in the DOD. This study confirms the need for a country adherence to strict public health and food safety regimes.

  15. The eleventh CRL-Salmonella workshop, 9 May 2006, Saint Malo, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De elfde workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 9 mei 2006 in Saint Malo, Frankrijk. Deelnemers waren vertegenwoordigers van de nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lidstaten van de

  16. The tenth CRL-Salmonella workshop; 28 and 29 April 2005, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    De tiende workshop georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) werd gehouden op 28 en 29 April 2005 in Bilthoven, Nederland. Deelnemers betroffen vertegenwoordigers van de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) van de lids

  17. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella in wild snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Toshiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Furukawa, Ichiro; Okatani, Alexandre Tomomitsu; Kato, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    A total of 87 wild snakes of 6 species in 2 families collected in Japan were examined for the presence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella was 58.6%, and that of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, which includes most human pathogenic serotypes, accounted for 12.6%. S. enterica subspecies I was isolated from Japanese grass snakes and Japanese four-striped snakes, and the isolates belonged to 6 serotypes: S. enterica subspecies enterica serotypes Eastbourne, Mikawashima, Narashino, Newport, Saintpaul, and Thompson. The prevalence of S. enterica subspecies IIIb was higher (41.4%) than that of S. enterica subspecies I, and it was isolated from 4 snake species. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies and isolation of serotypes that are commonly detected in reptiles and human salmonellosis suggest that wild snakes may become a source of Salmonella infection.

  19. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment.

  20. Functional and phenotypic profiling of innate immunity during Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    Salmonellae are food borne pathogens, typically acquired by the oral ingestion of contaminated food or water, causing disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. To gain insight into early immune regulation events caused by Salmonella as well as inflammatory signatures induced...... in Peyer’s patches 24 hours after murine oral Salmonella challenge and while Mφ and mDC exhibited dose-related cellular atrophy, pDC were less susceptible to bacteria-induced cell death, suggesting a role for pDC in early stage Salmonella containment. Furthermore, we identified a number of both DC and Mφ....... The results presented in this thesis add to the current knowledge about innate immunity to Salmonella, suggest new host immune cell subsets important for bacterial containment and provide a basic understanding of bacteria-induced DC inflammatory programs. The two latter could prove important in regard...

  1. Salmonella enterica Serotype Arizonae Meningitis in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wubishet Lakew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoidal and nontyphoidal salmonella infections are common causes of gastroenteritis in the community. However, salmonella only rarely causes invasive infections like meningitis. We report a 13-day-old female neonate with signs and symptoms of meningitis whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture showed Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae that was sensitive to ceftriaxone. She presented with fever and failure to feed for 2 days. Despite prompt treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, she developed communicating hydrocephalus, frequent seizures, and coma that progressed to death after 2 weeks of hospitalization. Salmonella enterica serotype Arizonae is a rare cause of human infection known to leading to meningitis symptoms similar to those caused by other salmonella species. This is the first report of it as a cause of meningitis in a child under one month of age. Therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in immunocompromised children, neonates, and those with contacts with reptiles.

  2. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  4. Antibiotic resistance, integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 among non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo, An T T; Duijkeren, Engeline van; Fluit, Ad C; Wannet, Wim J B; Verbruggen, Anjo J; Maas, Henny M E; Gaastra, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns, integron characteristics and gene cassettes as well as the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) in non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates from human and animal origin. Epidemiologically unrelated Dutch N

  5. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paião, F.G.; Arisitides, L.G.A.; Murate, L.S.; Vilas-Bôas, G.T.; Vilas-Boas, L.A.; Shimokomaki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 °C for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised. PMID:24159281

  6. Presence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in commercial laying hens diagnosed with Fowl Typhoid Disease in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    : A severe outbreak of salmonellosis in commercial brown table egg layers first occurred in Colombia in 2006. From 2008 to 2012, 35 samples collected from commercial layers farms in the states of Cundinamarca, Santander, Bolivar and San Andres, were positive to Salmonella enterica. Salmonella (S) wa...

  7. Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of salmonella on pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating

  8. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...... isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar....

  9. Phosphate starvation regulon of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. W.; Spector, M P

    1986-01-01

    Several phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genetic loci in Salmonella typhimurium were identified by fusing the lacZ gene to psi promoters by using the Mu d1 and Mu d1-8 bacteriophages. Although several different starvation conditions were examined, the psi loci responded solely to phosphate deprivation. A regulatory locus, psiR, was identified as controlling the psiC locus. The psiR locus did not affect the expression of the Escherichia coli phoA locus or any of the other psi loci described.

  10. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to Leptospira interrogans in opossums (Didelphis virginiana from Yucatán, México Aislamiento de Salmonella enterica y reactividad serológica a Leptospira interrogans en tlacuaches (Didelphis virginiana de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Antonio RUIZ-PIÑA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella enterica and serologic evidence of infection by Leptospira interrogans, were detected in the opossum Didelphis virginiana in a semi-urban locality of the Yucatán State, México. Ninety-one opossums were captured during the period April 1996 and May 1998. From a total of 17 feces samples, four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum, and Minnesota, and one Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:- were isolated. Some opossums presented mixed infections. From 81 sera samples, four (4.9% were positive to antibodies to Leptospira serovars pomona and wolfii. Both animals infected with Salmonella enterica and those serologically positive to Leptospira interrogans were captured in peridomestic habitat. Opossums infected with Salmonella enterica, were captured in dry season, and those seropositive to Leptospira interrogans during the rainy season. The implications of infection and reactivity of these zoonotic pathogens in D. virginiana in the Yucatan state are briefly discussed.La presencia de Salmonella enterica y evidencia serológica de infección por Leptospira interrogans fueron detectadas en tlacuaches de la especie Didelphis virginiana capturados en una localidad semi-urbana del estado de Yucatán, México. Se capturaron 91 marsupiales durante el período de abril de 1996 a mayo de 1998. De un total de 17 muestras de heces, se aislaron cuatro serotipos de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum y Minnesota y una Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:-. En algunos tlacuaches se registraron infecciones mixtas. De 81 muestras de suero, cuatro (4,9% presentaron reacciones positivas con los serovares pomona y wolffi, ambos pertenecientes al género Leptospira. Los tlacuaches con serología positiva fueron capturados en el hábitat peridomiciliar. Los animales infectados con Salmonella enterica fueron capturados en los períodos de seca y

  11. Comportamiento de peces dulceacuicolas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 6 meses el comportamiento de 13 especies de peces de la fauna dulceacuícola cubana, que fueron puestas en contacto con Salmonella enteritidis var danyz en concentración de 10 8 ufc/mL. En la evaluación se utilizaron los alevinos y juveniles procedentes de reservorios naturales, de la Estación de Guanímar y de Manpostón, ubicadas en Batabanó, Gaunímar, Guajaibón y La Lisa (Ciudad de la Habana. Antes de los ensayos, los peces fueron sometidos a 15 días de adaptación al cautiverio. Durante las evaluaciones, se registraron los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua de los acuarios, detectándose incremento en los valores de nitritos y nitratos después de 48 horas de haberse colocado el inóculo. Se registraron los valores extremos de talla y peso de los peces, que comparados con el grupo control no evidenciaron diferencias significativas y al finalizar el ensayo todos los peces presentaron aspecto físico normal; por lo que se determinó que la dosis utilizada de Salmonella enteritidis var. danysz fue inocua para las diferentes especies de peces.

  12. Test results of Salmonella typing by the NRLs-Salmonella in the Member States of the EU and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VI on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raes M; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; PHLS-Colindale/London; MGB; LIS

    2002-01-01

    Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories: Collaborative study VI (2001) for Salmonella. The sixth collaborative typing stud

  13. Relationship between genotype and phenotype of flagellin C in Salmonella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Sheng Ji; Jia-Lu Hu; Jun-Wen Qiu; Bo-Rong Pan; Dao-Rong Peng; Bing-Long Shi; Shao-Juan Zhou; Kai-Chun Wu; Dai-Ming Fan

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To discover the relationship between the genotype and antigen serotype of flagellin C among Salmonella strains. METHODS: Fragment of Salmonella flagellin C in plasmid pLS408 was cloned, sequenced and compared with the corresponding sequence in other strains. Salmonella strains including two typhi strains, one paratyphoid strain, one enteritidis and one typhimurium strain were isolated from outpatients. Genome DNA was purified respectively from these clinical isolstes, then the corresponding flagellin C fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the amplification products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoreeis. RESULTS: The cloned fragment includes 582 nucleotides encoding the variable region and partial conservative region of Salmonella flagellin C in plasmid pLS408. With comparison to the corresponding sequences reported previously, there is only a little difference from other strains with the same flagellar serotype in both nucleotide and amino acid level. Specific PCR products were amplified in Salmonella strains with flagellar eerotype H-1-d including S. Muenchen, typhi and typhimurium, but not in S.paratyphoid C or S. Enteritidis strains. CONCLUSION: In this experiment, the specificity of nucleotide sequence could be found in flagellin C central variable regions as it exists in flagellar serotypes in Salmonella. It may be helpful to developing a rapid,sensitive, accurate and PCR-based method to detect Salmonella strains with serotype H-1-d.

  14. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 106, 104, or 102 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 106 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 106/g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 104/g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 102/g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  16. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds. PMID:26419321

  17. Por que sou rondoniano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércio Pereira Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Numa revisão contextualizada no tempo e projetada pelos seus resultados, a obra do sertanista marechal Cândido Rondon (1867-1958 é avaliada positivamente pela dedicação à causa dos povos indígenas do Brasil, pela formação de uma ética de respeito do brasileiro para com os índios e pela institucionalização do dever do Estado brasileiro de proteger, assistir e ajudar os povos indígenas a manterem-se coesos e autônomos e ao mesmo tempo se projetarem no mundo mais amplo. A vida de Rondon é acompanhada desde a sua formação como cadete da Escola Militar, como membro da Igreja do Apostolado Positivista, como comandante da Expedição Rondon (1907-1930, que levou o telégrafo de Cuiabá a Porto Velho, e especialmente como criador e dirigente-mor do Serviço de Proteção aos Índios (SPI, 1910-1967. Rondon é o criador da expressão "Morrer se preciso for, matar nunca", que pautou a ação de indigenistas brasileiros que fizeram os primeiros contatos com muitos povos indígenas desde 1910. E muitos morreram seguindo essa norma, numa clara demonstração do novo espírito humanista criado pela atitude rondoniana. O indigenismo brasileiro implantado por Rondon teve altos e baixos ao longo de quase cem anos, que hoje prossegue pela Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai. De fato, muitos povos indígenas perderam suas terras e muitos foram dizimados no século XX, mas os mais de 220 que sobreviveram vêm crescendo em número, obtendo suas terras (13% do território nacional e conquistando novos espaços político-culturais no Brasil.This paper reviews the life and work of Brazilian Indianist Marshall Cândido Rondon. Rondon's life is marked by a profound dedication to the Brazilian Indian cause and to instilling in Brazilians a respect for Indian peoples. He influenced the Brazilian government in shaping a policy of protecting, assisting, and helping Indian peoples retain cohesive, self-determined societies. He also encouraged Indians to

  18. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries.

  19. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries. PMID:15083723

  20. Towards standardization of microarray-based genotyping of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Grønlund, Hugo Ahlm; Riber, Leise;

    2010-01-01

    Genotyping is becoming an increasingly important tool to improve risk assessments of Salmonella. DNA microarray technology is a promising diagnostic tool that can provide high resolution genomic profile of many genes simultaneously. However, standardization of DNA microarray analysis is needed...... of Salmonella at two different laboratories. The low-density array contained 281 of 57-60-mer oligonucleotide probes for detecting a wide range of specific genomic markers associated with antibiotic resistance, cell envelope structures, mobile genetic elements and pathogenicity. Several test parameters...... for a decentralized and simple-to-implement DNA microarray as part of a pan-European source-attribution model for risk assessment of Salmonella....

  1. Salmonella y aflatoxinas en granjas de gallinas ponedoras comerciales

    OpenAIRE

    Soria, María Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacterias del género Salmonella en granjas de gallinas ponedoras comerciales de la provincia de Entre Ríos, como así también la presencia de aflatoxinas en los huevos producidos en estos establecimientos. Además, se evaluaron los factores de riesgo asociados a la presencia de Salmonella y/o aflatoxinas. Se evaluaron metodologías de aislamiento bacteriológico y técnicas de PCR para la detección de Salmonella sp. en alimento, exc...

  2. Brodie's abscess of the ulna caused by Salmonella typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, K C; Lam, Y L; Chang, Robert Y P

    2008-04-01

    Osteomyelitis caused by Salmonella typhi is rare in patients with no haemoglobinopathies or other diseases causing immunosuppression. Brodie's abscess is a special variety of subacute or chronic osteomyelitis. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with forearm swelling for 6 months was diagnosed with a Brodie's abscess of the ulna caused by Salmonella typhi. Magnetic resonance imaging and a computed tomography-guided needle biopsy were performed. She was later found to be a Salmonella carrier. The Brodie's abscess was treated by surgical debridement and a course of antibiotics. The clinical, radiological, and management aspects of the disease are discussed.

  3. Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing by the National Reference Laboratories in the Member States of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Ward LR; Maas HME; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; PHLS/LEP; LIS

    2001-01-01

    Het vijfde Salmonella typerings ringonderzoek is georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven) in samenwerking met de Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS, Londen). Alle 17 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmone

  4. Cationic amino acid transporters and Salmonella Typhimurium ArgT collectively regulate arginine availability towards intracellular Salmonella growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Das

    Full Text Available Cationic amino acid transporters (mCAT1 and mCAT2B regulate the arginine availability in macrophages. How in the infected cell a pathogen can alter the arginine metabolism of the host remains to be understood. We reveal here a novel mechanism by which Salmonella exploit mCAT1 and mCAT2B to acquire host arginine towards its own intracellular growth within antigen presenting cells. We demonstrate that Salmonella infected bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells show enhanced arginine uptake and increased expression of mCAT1 and mCAT2B. We show that the mCAT1 transporter is in close proximity to Salmonella containing vacuole (SCV specifically by live intracellular Salmonella in order to access the macrophage cytosolic arginine pool. Further, Lysosome associated membrane protein 1, a marker of SCV, also was found to colocalize with mCAT1 in the Salmonella infected cell. The intra vacuolar Salmonella then acquire the host arginine via its own arginine transporter, ArgT for growth. The argT knockout strain was unable to acquire host arginine and was attenuated in growth in both macrophages and in mice model of infection. Together, these data reveal survival strategies by which virulent Salmonella adapt to the harsh conditions prevailing in the infected host cells.

  5. Detection of Salmonella and several common Salmonella serotypes in food by loop-mediated isothermal amplification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Choleraesuis, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are the main pathogens that contaminate animal products and cause human Salmonella food poisoning. To establish the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the rapid detection of Salmonella and 3 common Salmonella serotypes, inner and outer primer sets targeting Salmonella invE gene and 3 serotype-specific genes fliC, lygD and STM4495 were designed. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized. The specificity of LAMP primers was identified by testing 10 different bacterial strains including S. Choleraesuis, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Take S. Choleraesuis as example, the detection limit of LAMP assay was 1.33 × 101 CFU/mL for bacteria culture and 2.0 × 101 CFU/mL for simulated pork sample. The results show that LAMP is a rapid, sensitive and specific method for Salmonella detection and can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food.

  6. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  7. Serotipos de Salmonella identificados en los servicios de salud de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Cogco Lucina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Dar a conocer las variaciones de los serotipos de cepas de Salmonella aislados en diversos laboratorios públicos y privados de la República mexicana, así como en el del Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los serotipos de 24 394 cepas de Salmonella aisladas de diversas fuentes por los laboratorios de salud pública y privados de México, entre 1972 y 1999, 15 843 (64.9% de origen humano y 8 551(35.1% de origen no humano siguiendo el esquema de Kauffmann-White y utilizando antisueros producidos en el InDRE, de acuerdo con los lineamientos del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades, Atlanta (GA, de los Estados Unidos de América. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 199 serotipos, el más frecuente en muestras clínicas fue S. Typhimurium (20.4% y, en segundo lugar, S. Enteritidis (18.3%. En este trabajo se muestra como S. Enteritidis tuvo un aumento gradual y desplazó a S. Typhimurium en los aislamientos desde 1991, y a la fecha es el serotipo que más se aísla. En cambio, en muestras no humanas el serotipo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue S. Derby (13.8%, seguido por S. Anatum (8.5%. CONCLUSIONES: Los serotipos más frecuentes en México, tanto en muestras humanas como no humanas son: S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Derby, S. Agona y S. Anatum. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico es necesario conocer cuáles son los serotipos circulantes y los de nueva introducción para poder determinar las acciones de prevención requeridas para los casos.

  8. Test results of serotyping Salmonella strains in the Member States of the European Union (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella uit 14 van de 15 lidstaten van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het doel was te onder

  9. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P poultry increases the susceptibility to salmonellae infections, and confirms that probiotics may be an effective tool in salmonellae infections. PMID:27630995

  10. Salmonella identification from foods in eight hours: A prototype study with Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koluman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The significant rise in food borne infections is mainly caused by Campylobacter spp., Salmonella serovars and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. As the emerging food borne pathogens cause disease, more studies have been conducted for rapid detection of these pathogens. The combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR is the most accurate and rapid test preferred by almost every researcher. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR is preferred for being a new, user friendly and rapid technique in microbiological analyses. The main aim of this study is to detect application of IMS-FTIR for Salmonella identification from foods in a short time with a higher sensitivity.Materials and Methods: Conventional Culture Technique (CC, IMS-CC, IMS-PCR and IMS-FTIR techniques were compared with each other for rapid detection in artificially contaminated minced beef with Salmonella Typhimurium, as of the 2nd, 4th and 8th hours of contamination. The method was evaluated in different food matrices and sensitivity, specifity and overall recovery was calculated.Results: The results indicate that IMS-FTIR can detect S. Typhimurium as of the 8th hour with sensitivity of 95.6667, accuracy of 91.69329, false positive ratio of 0.04333 and overall recovery of 95.66%.Conclusion: It can be suggested that the IMS-FTIR method is capable of detecting S.Typhimurium in a short time with lower cost.

  11. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser humano. Los resultados revelan la existencia de especies, algunas de ellas muy frecuentes en los humedales de nuestro país y fuertemente antropófilas como Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens u Ochlerotatus caspius, con una elevada capacidad para transmitir flavivirus como el virus West Nile o el virus Usutu. Además, la reciente introducción, establecimiento y expansión del mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus, abre una preocupante vía para la aparición de posibles brotes, probablemente incluso de tipo epidémico, de arbovirosis habitualmente importadas a nuestro país por personas inmigrantes y turistas, como el Dengue o Chikungunya. Por último, también se discute el interés epidemiológico de especies propias de nuestro entorno como Aedes vittatus u Ochlerotatus geniculatus, debido a su capacidad vectorial constatada para la transmisión de algunas de estas virosis típicamente tropicales.

  12. Radiation processing for the control of Salmonella in frog legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large consignments of frogs legs are exported annually from India. Failure to satisfy some of the strict microbiological standards, especially in relating to Salmonellae contamination, has resulted in the rejection of large quantities of the product in recent years. This has emphasised the need for better and more effective methods than those currently in use for the elimination of Salmonellae. With a view to developing an irradiation process for the control of this public health problem, commercial samples of frog legs have been screened to assess the incidence of Salmonella. The various serotypes have been identified and their radiation sensitivities determined. Based on these data, a radiation treatment of frozen frog legs for the elimination of Salmonella has been developed. (author)

  13. Salmonella arizonae in the United Kingdom from 1966 to 1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. L.; Rowe, B.

    1992-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae are rarely isolated in the UK. Since 1966 there have been sixty-six isolates from humans of whom 35% gave a recent history of foreign travel. Terrapins and snakes are potential sources of infection.

  14. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guides Reports Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ) Originally posted August 9, 2010; Updated August ... as a result of the outbreak. “Natural” pet treats , such as pig ears and dehydrated/dried beef ...

  15. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins...... involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat origin were collected. The isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility was tested towards colistin (range...... 1–16 mg/L). Moreover, 37 isolates were tested for mutations in pmrA and pmrB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. MIC distribution for colistin at serotype level showed that Salmonella Dublin (n=198) followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (n=1247) were less susceptible than “other...

  16. Outbreak of Salmonella food poisoning at Junior World Rowing Championships.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, A C

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of Salmonella enteriditis occurring at the Junior World Rowing Championships at Poznan, Poland, in August 1995 which was to have a significant effect on the performance of several of the largest national teams.

  17. Automated 5 ' nuclease PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Ahrens, Peter; Rådström, P.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and ready-to-go test based on a 5' nuclease (TaqMan) PCR technique was developed for identification of presumptive Salmonella enterica isolates. The results were compared with those of conventional methods. The TaqMan assay was evaluated for its ability to accurately detect 210 S. enterica...... isolates, including 100 problematic "rough" isolates. An internal positive control was designed to use the same Salmonella primers for amplification of a spiked nonrelevant template (116 bp) in the sample tube. The PCR test correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in positive end...... Salmonella strains tested resulted in positive FAM and TET signals. In addition, it was found that the complete PCR mixture, predispensed in microwell plates, could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 degrees C, Thus, the diagnostic TaqMan assay developed can be a useful and simple alternative method...

  18. Fitness of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in the Cilantro Phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Maria T Brandl; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The epiphytic fitness of Salmonella enterica was assessed on cilantro plants by using a strain of S. enterica serovar Thompson that was linked to an outbreak resulting from cilantro. Salmonella serovar Thompson had the ability to colonize the surface of cilantro leaves, where it was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at high densities on the veins and in natural lesions. The population sizes of two common colonizers of plant surfaces, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas chl...

  19. Fitness Effects of Replichore Imbalance in Salmonella enterica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, T. David; Maloy, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A fitness cost due to imbalanced replichores has been proposed to provoke chromosome rearrangements in Salmonella enterica serovars. To determine the impact of replichore imbalance on fitness, the relative fitness of isogenic Salmonella strains containing transposon-held duplications of various sizes and at various chromosomal locations was determined. Although duplication of certain genes influenced fitness, a replichore imbalance of up to 16° did not affect fitness.

  20. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, M W; Kator, H.

    1988-01-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine waters was compared over a variety of seasonal temperatures during in situ exposure in diffusion chambers. Sublethal stress was measured by both selective-versus-resuscitative enumeration procedures and an electrochemical detection method. E. coli and Salmonella spp. test suspensions, prepared to minimize sublethal injury, were exposed in a shallow tidal creek and at a site 7.1 km further downriver. Bacterial die-off and sublethal ...

  1. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  2. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.;

    2008-01-01

    of pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated...... to their migration pattern and food preference. Conclusions: Salmonella was transmitted from infected herds of production animals (cattle and pigs) to wildlife that lived amongst or in close proximity to them. Significance and Impact of the Study: Salmonella in animal food products is associated with the occurrence...

  3. Rapid detection of Salmonella in foods using a combination of SPRINT TM,MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM Detecção rápida de Salmonella em alimentos empregando uma combinação de SPRINT®, MSRV® e Salmonella Latex Test®

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Maria Lafayette Neves Gelinski; Gunnar Martin; Maria Teresa Destro; Mariza Landgraf; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods, based on the combination of SPRINT TM, MSRV TM and Salmonella Latex TestTM, was evaluated. SPRINT TM is a system to reduce the preenrichment and selective enrichment steps to 24 hours. MSRV TM is a semi-solid selective media for detection of motile Salmonella. Salmonella Latex TestTM is a rapid latex agglutination test for Salmonella. Using the three systems in combination, the total time for detection of Salmonella in a food sample ...

  4. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  5. Salmonella tel-el-kebir and terrapins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of Salmonella tel-el-kebir occurring over a 6-month period is described in this report. This is the first outbreak of S. tel-el-kebir in the reported literature. METHODS: S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from human faecal samples using conventional laboratory methods. RESULTS: Eight patients had S. tel-el-kebir isolated from faeces. All patients were owners of, or in close contact with, pet terrapins. The terrapins were purchased in the same pet shop, where they were imported from America. The epidemiological link with these pets was confirmed, as S. tel-el-kebir was isolated from cloacal swabs from the terrapins, and from terrapin water. Molecular biology studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) gave identical fingerprint patterns for all human and terrapin isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis associated with exotic pets is a re-emerging disease in the 1990s, and measures to reduce this are discussed.

  6. Salmonella Typhi: from a Human Pathogen to a Vaccine Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lian Zhang; Victor Tunje Jeza; Qin Pan

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella (S.) typhi is an important intracellular pathogen. Among the more than 2,300 closely-related Salmonella serovars bacteria recognized, S. Typhi is the only one that is pathogenic exclusively for humans, in whom it causes typhoid or enteric fever. The pathogen has been around for many years and many studies have been done in an effort to combat it. Molecular and biologic features of S. Typhi and host factors and immune responses involved in Salmonella invasion have been extensively studies. Vaccines that have been developed most notably are Vi polysaccharide and Ty21a. However, as the results show, there is still a long way to go. It is also shown that multi-drug resistance has occurred to the few available antibiotics. More and more studies have shown that Salmonella can be used as a vaccine vector carrying antigens of other pathogens. This has been promising in that the immune system can be elicited in response to both the Salmonella bacteria and the antigen of the pathogen in question. This review aims to highlight some of the milestones attained in the fight against the disease from the time S. Typhi was seen as a pathogen causing typhoid fever to the use of Salmonella as a vaccine vector.

  7. Salmonella carriers among expatriate workers in Al-Qatif area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albreiki Hassan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella infection and diarrhoeal diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. All expatriates applying for work permits in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA have to undergo a governmental compulsory health check program. Aim of the study: To estimate the number of salmonella carriers who had previously been diagnosed as free of infection. Subjects and methods: Over a period of two years, a total of 17, 918 workers in Al-Qatif area, in the Eastern Province were tested for salmonella on stool samples. Results: Three hundred and twenty eight were found to be asymptomatic carriers of salmonella. The highest frequency was found among workers from Egypt (13.1 % while Filipinos and Indians were the lowest carriers (1.2%. Salmonella serogroups E, C 1 and C2 were most common ( 29%, 29% and 23.5% respectively followed by serogroups B, D and C (13%, 3.7% and 1% respectively. No Shigella species were isolated. All carriers were given antibiotics and were instructed in prophylactic hygiene measures. After completing the course of antibiotics, they were retested and found to be clear of infection. Conclusion: The health check system in this area will contribute towards the prevention of outbreaks of infection by salmonella

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%. Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P<0.05. Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P<0.05. The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%, amoxicillin (87.6%, vancomycin (86.6%, and chloramphenicol (84.5%. However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.

  9. Evanescent Wave Fiber Optic Biosensor for Salmonella Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Bhunia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major food-borne pathogen of world-wide concern. Sensitive and rapid detection methods to assess product safety before retail distribution are highly desirable. Since Salmonella is most commonly associated with poultry products, an evanescent wave fiber-optic assay was developed to detect Salmonella in shell egg and chicken breast and data were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF assay. Anti-Salmonella polyclonal antibody was immobilized onto the surface of an optical fiber using biotin-avidin interactions to capture Salmonella. Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated antibody (MAb 2F-11 was used as the reporter. Detection occurred when an evanescent wave from a laser (635 nm excited the Alexa Fluor and the fluorescence was measured by a laser-spectrofluorometer at 710 nm. The biosensor was specific for Salmonella and the limit of detection was established to be 103 cfu/mL in pure culture and 104 cfu/mL with egg and chicken breast samples when spiked with 102 cfu/mL after 2–6 h of enrichment. The results indicate that the performance of the fiber-optic sensor is comparable to TRF, and can be completed in less than 8 h, providing an alternative to the current detection methods.

  10. Salmonella enterotoxin (Stn regulates membrane composition and integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nakano

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of action of Salmonella enterotoxin (Stn as a virulence factor in disease is controversial. Studies of Stn have indicated both positive and negative effects on Salmonella virulence. In this study, we attempted to evaluate Stn function and its effects on Salmonella virulence. To investigate Stn function, we first performed in vitro and in vivo analysis using mammalian cells and a murine ileal loop model. In these systems, we did not observe differences in virulence phenotypes between wild-type Salmonella and an stn gene-deleted mutant. We next characterized the phenotypes and molecular properties of the mutant strain under various in vitro conditions. The proteomic profiles of the total cell membrane protein fraction differed between wild type and mutant in that there was an absence of a protein in the mutant strain, which was identified as OmpA. By far-western blotting, OmpA was found to interact directly with Stn. To verify this result, the morphology of Salmonella was examined by transmission electron microscopy, with OmpA localization being analyzed by immunogold labeling. Compared with wild-type Salmonella, the mutant strain had a different pole structure and a thin periplasmic space; OmpA was not seen in the mutant. These results indicate that Stn, via regulation of OmpA membrane localization, functions in the maintenance of membrane composition and integrity.

  11. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  12. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

  13. Increasing Incidence of Salmonella in Australia, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Veitch, Mark; Wardell, Rebecca; Polkinghorne, Ben; Dobbins, Timothy; Lal, Aparna; Kirk, Martyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia and case numbers are increasing. We used negative binomial regression to analyze national surveillance data for 2000–2013, for Salmonella Typhimurium and non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars. We estimated incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age to show trends over time. Almost all states and territories had significantly increasing trends of reported infection for S. Typhimurium, with states and territories reporting annual increases as high as 12% (95% confidence interval 10–14%) for S. Typhimurium in the Australian Capital Territory and 6% (95% CI 5–7%) for non-Typhimurium Salmonella in Victoria. S. Typhimurium notification rates were higher than non-Typhimurium Salmonella rates in most age groups in the south eastern states of Australia, while non-Typhimurium rates were higher in most age groups elsewhere. The S. Typhimurium notification rate peaked at 12–23 months of age and the non-Typhimurium Salmonella notification rate peaked at 0–11 months of age. The age-specific pattern of S. Typhimurium cases suggests a foodborne origin, while the age and geographic pattern for non-Typhimurium may indicate that other transmission routes play a key role for these serovars. PMID:27732615

  14. Effect of Organic Acids on Salmonella Shedding and Colonization in Pigs on a Farm with High Salmonella Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Tagliabue, M; Missotten, J; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on the results of a previous study in which six commercial feed products based on organic acids were evaluated with respect to Salmonella contamination of piglets in an artificially challenged seeder model. In the present study, the efficacy of three of these commercial products was assessed for Salmonella reduction in fattening pigs on one closed farm with a natural high Salmonella prevalence. In each of four fattening compartments, one of the following feed treatments was evaluated during two consecutive fattening rounds: (i) butyric acid (active ingredients at 1.3 kg/ton of feed; supplement A1), (ii) a combination of short-chain organic acids (mixture of free acids and salts) and natural extracts (2.92 kg/ton; supplement A4), (iii) a 1:1 blend of two commercial products consisting of medium-chain fatty acids, lactic acid, and oregano oil (3.71 kg/ton; supplement A5+A6), and (iv) a control feed. On the farm, the Salmonella status of the fattening pigs was evaluated by taking fecal samples twice during the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, samples were collected from the cecal contents and the ileocecal lymph nodes. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This farm had a particularly high number of pigs shedding Salmonella with a wide variety of sero- and pulsotypes. Only the feed blend based on the medium-chain fatty acids was able to significantly reduce Salmonella prevalence both on the farm and at the slaughterhouse. With this combined supplement, the Salmonella reduction in the feces at slaughter age, in cecal contents at slaughter, and the lymph nodes was 50, 36, and 67%, respectively, compared with the control animals. This promising finding calls for further investigation including cost-efficiency of this combined feed product and its effect on the animals.

  15. Hybrid hepatitis B virus core-pre-S proteins synthesized in avirulent Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi for oral vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    Schödel, F; Kelly, S M; Peterson, D L; Milich, D R; Curtiss, R

    1994-01-01

    Avirulent salmonellae expressing foreign genes are attractive for use as oral vaccine carriers. To facilitate the stable expression of heterologous genes without conferring antibiotic resistance, a deletion of the asdA1 gene was introduced into Salmonella typhimurium and S. typhi delta cya delta crp mutant vaccine strains. An asd-complementing plasmid expressing hybrid hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid-pre-S (HBcAg-pre-S) particles was constructed. These hybrid HBcAg-pre-S particle genes were st...

  16. Effect of Organic Acids on Salmonella Shedding and Colonization in Pigs on a Farm with High Salmonella Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Tagliabue, M; Missotten, J; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on the results of a previous study in which six commercial feed products based on organic acids were evaluated with respect to Salmonella contamination of piglets in an artificially challenged seeder model. In the present study, the efficacy of three of these commercial products was assessed for Salmonella reduction in fattening pigs on one closed farm with a natural high Salmonella prevalence. In each of four fattening compartments, one of the following feed treatments was evaluated during two consecutive fattening rounds: (i) butyric acid (active ingredients at 1.3 kg/ton of feed; supplement A1), (ii) a combination of short-chain organic acids (mixture of free acids and salts) and natural extracts (2.92 kg/ton; supplement A4), (iii) a 1:1 blend of two commercial products consisting of medium-chain fatty acids, lactic acid, and oregano oil (3.71 kg/ton; supplement A5+A6), and (iv) a control feed. On the farm, the Salmonella status of the fattening pigs was evaluated by taking fecal samples twice during the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, samples were collected from the cecal contents and the ileocecal lymph nodes. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This farm had a particularly high number of pigs shedding Salmonella with a wide variety of sero- and pulsotypes. Only the feed blend based on the medium-chain fatty acids was able to significantly reduce Salmonella prevalence both on the farm and at the slaughterhouse. With this combined supplement, the Salmonella reduction in the feces at slaughter age, in cecal contents at slaughter, and the lymph nodes was 50, 36, and 67%, respectively, compared with the control animals. This promising finding calls for further investigation including cost-efficiency of this combined feed product and its effect on the animals. PMID:26735029

  17. Isolation and identification of Salmonella from diarrheagenic infants and young animals, sewage waste and fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Nair

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution, and identification of Salmonella serotypes in diarrheagenic infants and young animals, including sewage waste and fresh vegetables. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 samples were processed for the isolation of Salmonella spp., using standard microbiological and biochemical tests. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection of Salmonella genus was carried out using self-designed primers targeting invA gene and thereafter identification of important serotypes namely Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Enterica serovar Typhi was performed using published standardized multiplex PCR. Results: An overall low prevalence of 2.5% (14/550 was observed. The observed prevalence of Salmonella spp. in diarrheagenic infants was 1.2% (05/400, diarrheagenic young animals 4% (02/50, sewage waste 10% (05/50, and fresh vegetables 4% (02/50, respectively. In diarrheagenic infants, of the five Salmonella isolates identified, two were Salmonella Typhimurium, two Salmonella Enteritidis, and one was unidentified and hence designated as other Salmonella serovar. All the Salmonella isolates identified from diarrheagenic young animals and sewage waste belonged to other Salmonella serovar, whereas, of the two isolates recovered from fresh vegetables, one was identified as other Salmonella serovar, and one as Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. Conclusion: Isolation of Salmonella spp. especially from sewage waste and fresh vegetable is a matter of great concern from public health point of view because these sources can accidentally serve as a potential vehicle for transmission of Salmonella spp. to animals and human beings.

  18. Comparison of Microbial Communities Isolated from Feces of Asymptomatic Salmonella-Shedding and Non-Salmonella Shedding Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bradd J; Pettengill, James; Gorham, Sasha; Ottesen, Andrea; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2016-01-01

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy farm were determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Fecal grab samples were collected from two Salmonella-positive cows and two Salmonella-negative cows on five sampling dates (n = 20 cows), and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A high level of alpha (within) and beta diversity (between) samples demonstrated that microbial profiles of dairy cow hindguts are quite diverse. To determine whether Salmonella presence, sampling year, or sampling date explained a significant amount of the variation in microbial diversity, we performed constrained ordination analyses (distance based RDA) on the unifrac distance matrix produced with QIIME. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity associated with Salmonella presence (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between sampling dates and years (Pseudo-F = 2.157 to 4.385, P diversity and community structure in the dairy cow hindgut. PMID:27313565

  19. Se los por se lo

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-01-01

    El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966) en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre refle...

  20. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  1. Comparison of a PCR serotyping assay, Check&Trace assay for Salmonella, and Luminex Salmonella serotyping assay for the characterization of Salmonella enterica identified from fresh and naturally contaminated cilantro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, J; Ewing, L; Jarvis, K; Dudley, K; Grim, C; Gopinath, G; Flamer, M-L; Auguste, W; Jayaram, A; Elmore, J; Lamont, M; McGrath, T; Hanes, D E

    2014-09-01

    Salmonella enterica isolated from fresh cilantro samples collected through the USDA/AMS Microbiological Data Program (MDP) were used to compare a PCR serotyping assay against the Check&Trace assay and the Luminex (BioPlex) Salmonella serotyping assay. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the three methods for serotyping Salmonella from both enrichment broth cultures and pure Salmonella cultures. In this investigation, Salmonella spp. serotyping was conducted using 24 h enrichment broth cultures and pure Salmonella cultures from cilantro samples, with the PCR serotyping assay. Conversely, the Check&Trace and Luminex for Salmonella assays required pure cultures for Salmonella serotyping. The cilantro samples contained S. enterica serovar Montevideo, Newport, Saintpaul, and Tennessee, identified by the PCR serotyping assay and Check&Trace for Salmonella, but the Luminex assay only identified two of the four serotypes of the cilantro samples. The anticipated impact from this study is that the PCR serotyping assay provides a time- and cost-effective means for screening, identifying and serotyping Salmonella using DNA extracted from 24 h enrichment cilantro samples. PMID:24929735

  2. EFFECT OF THE ANTIMUTAGENS VANILLIN AND CINNAMALDEHYDE ON THE SPONTANEOUS MUTATION SPECTRA OF SALMONELLA TA104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of the Antimutagens Vanillin and Cinnamaldehyde on the / Spontaneous Mutation Spectra of Salmonella TAlO4 Vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary antimutagens that, when added to assay plates, reduced the spontaneous mutant frequency in Salmonella typhi...

  3. Fructose-asparagine is a primary nutrient during growth of Salmonella in the inflamed intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn, which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10-/- mice. The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1- SPI2- or ttrA mutants, respectively. The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies.

  4. Estudios sobre terapia fágica contra S. enterica en Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Bardina Fons, Carlota

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica es una enterobacteria zoonótica que reside en el intestino de los animales. Normalmente genera infecciones asintomáticas en animales de granja. Las serovariedades no tifoideas causan brotes asociados a alimentos siendo S. Enteritidis y S. Typhimurium las que presentan una mayor prevalencia a nivel mundial. La principal vía de transmisión de este patógeno a humanos se produce a través del consumo de alimentos contaminados de origen animal. Es por ello que, actualmente, se e...

  5. Valoración de desinfectantes mediante el método dilución-neutralización en cepas de Salmonella spp. aisladas en plantas de beneficio porcino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paola Rodríguez Triviño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La salmonelosis es una enfermedad muy importante, causante de problemas de salud pública ya que produce fiebres entéricas, gastroenteritis, bacteriemia, infecciones localizadas y estado de portador crónico, además se han informado como fuentes de contaminación los huevos, las carnes y la leche, tres de los alimentos más importantes consumidos por las personas. Por tal razón es importante determinar en la industria de los alimentos la susceptibilidad de Salmonella spp. a los desinfectantes, con el fin de contribuir a elaborar programas de prevención y control de este microorganismo, haciéndose necesaria la evaluación de su acción en cepas de Salmonella spp., en especial sobre aquellas transmitidas por los alimentos, además se debe medir la eficacia de los tipos de desinfectantes mediante el ensayo cuantitativo de suspensión para la evaluación de la actividad bactericida, en especial cuando a futuro se tenga como objetivo, evaluar el uso de desinfectantes en cepas de Salmonella spp. aisladas de plantas de beneficio porcino. Así que una vez se seleccionen las plantas de beneficio porcino objeto de la medición, en éstas se debe aislar una cantidad representativa de cepas de Salmonella spp., para someterlas a los diversos tipos de desinfectantes. El objetivo de la presente revisión es comparar la eficacia de tipos de desinfectantes que cuentan con un principio activo de amonio cuaternario y ácido peracético. Esperando que en futuros ensayos, por el método a nivel in vitro se puede comprobar la eficacia de los mismos.

  6. Immunoprotectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis virulence protein, InvH, against Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Dehghani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Typhoid fever is a dreadful disease of a major threat to public health in developing countries. Vaccination with bacterial immunodominant components such as surface proteins may prove as a potent alternative to live attenuated vaccines. InvH, an important part of needle complex in type three secretion system (TTSS plays important role in efficient bacterial adherence and entry into epithelial cells. Materials and Methods:In this work we used a 15 kDa recombinant InvH protein of Salmonella enteric serovar Enteritidis to provoke antibody production in mouse. The mice were immunized by recombinant InvH and challenged with Salmonella typhi. Histopathology of spleen and liver were studied. Results:The immunized mice showed a significant rise of antibody after the second booster. The immunization induced protection against high doses of S. typhi. The bacterial challenge with sera showed significant protection against challenge dose of 2×109 CFU. Immunized sera reacted with          S. typhi markedly. Immunoreaction of bacterially infected sera and InvH protein was significantly higher than the control group. Bacterial loads of S. typhi in spleen was more than liver. Decreased bacterial load was evident in immunized mice after 7 days. Histological examination of the liver showed the immunized mice liver remained unaffected. Conclusion: Efficacy of the virulence protein, InvH, in inhibition of this phenomenon by active immunization was shown here. It may be concluded that InvH, as an antigen, can develop protection against S. typhi infections. InvH may be exploited in protective measures as well as a diagnostic tool in Salmonella infections.

  7. Celulitis por citomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.Cutaneous lesions in CMV infection are rare, often a late manifestation of systemic infection, and usually herald a fatal course. A 70 year-old woman received a kidney transplantation one month before consulting and immunosuppressive therapy that included cyclosporine A and methylprednisone. She complained of fever, local pain in her right leg, and an erythematous and swelling plaque. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics without improvement. A skin biopsy was performed and the tissue obtained was sent for bacterial and fungal cultures as well as for histological examination. Cultures were negative. The biopsy showed CMV cytopathic changes. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for CMV and polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing revealed CMV DNA. She was treated with ganciclovir with resolution of the lesion. CMV cellulitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation

  8. Efficient and Rapid Detection of Salmonella Using Microfluidic Impedance Based Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Shibajyoti Ghosh Dastider; Syed Barizuddin; Nuh S. Yuksek; Majed Dweik; Mahmoud F. Almasri

    2015-01-01

    We present a low cost, easy to fabricate biosensor, which can quickly and accurately detect Salmonella typhimurium. This study also compares the advantages of the microfluidic biosensor over a nonmicrofluidic biosensor. High density interdigitated electrode array was used to detect Salmonella cells inside a microfluidic chip. Monoclonal anti-Salmonella antibodies were allowed to be immobilized on the surface of the electrode array for selective detection of Salmonella typhimurium. An impedanc...

  9. Resistance to antibiotics and genotype characteristics of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Mbandaka isolated from poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Vidanović Dejan; Sabo Z.; Kilibarda Nataša; Živadinović Mira; Žarković Aleksandar; Matović Kazimir

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellas are one of the main zoonotic pathogens whose reservoirs are poultry, cattle and pigs. By means of the food chain salmonellas can be transferred to humans through contaminated food of animal origin. Multiresistant strains Salmonella are particularly dangerous since they can transfer genes of resistance to antibiotics to other microorganisms. Control of salmonellas primarily depends on a good surveillance system and knowledge of the strain types present in the epizootiologic area. I...

  10. Control of a Salmonella Virulence Locus by an ATP-Sensing Leader mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2012-01-01

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica resides within a membrane-bound compartment inside macrophages 1. This compartment must be acidified for Salmonella to survive within macrophages 2, possibly because acid pH promotes expression of Salmonella virulence proteins 3,4. We reasoned that Salmonella may sense its surroundings have turned acidic not only upon protonation of the extracytoplasmic domain of a protein sensor 5 but also by an increase in cytosolic ATP levels becau...

  11. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  12. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  13. Chronic effects of a Salmonella type III secretion effector protein AvrA in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. AvrA is a Salmonella bacterial type III secretion effector protein. Increasing evidence demonstrates that AvrA is a multi-functional enzyme with critical roles in inhibiting inflammation, regulating apoptosis, and enhancing proliferation. However, the chronic effects of Salmonella and effector AvrA in vivo are still unknown. Moreover, alive, mutated, non-invasive Salmonella is used as a vector to specifically target cancer cells. However, studies are lacking on chronic infection with non-pathogenic or mutated Salmonella in the host. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected mice with Salmonella Typhimurium for 27 weeks and investigated the physiological effects as well as the role of AvrA in intestinal inflammation. We found altered body weight, intestinal pathology, and bacterial translocation in spleen, liver, and gallbladder in chronically Salmonella-infected mice. Moreover, AvrA suppressed intestinal inflammation and inhibited the secretion of cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. AvrA expression in Salmonella enhanced its invasion ability. Liver abscess and Salmonella translocation in the gallbladder were observed and may be associated with AvrA expression in Salmonella. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We created a mouse model with persistent Salmonella infection in vivo. Our study further emphasizes the importance of the Salmonella effector protein AvrA in intestinal inflammation, bacterial translocation, and chronic infection in vivo.

  14. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella adhesion to porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects on the various stages of Salmonella infection including intracellular and extracellular Salmonella growth rates, virulence gene regulation, and adhesion. We show that EcN affects the initial Salmonella invasion steps by modulating Salmonella virulence gene regulation and Salmonella SiiE-mediated adhesion, but not extra- and intracellular Salmonella growth. However, the inhibitory activity of EcN against Salmonella invasion always correlated with EcN adhesion capacities. EcN mutants defective in the expression of F1C fimbriae and flagellae were less adherent and less inhibitory toward Salmonella invasion. Another E. coli strain expressing F1C fimbriae was also adherent to IPEC-J2 cells, and was similarly inhibitory against Salmonella invasion like EcN. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that EcN affects Salmonella adhesion through secretory components. This mechanism appears to be common to many E. coli strains, with strong adherence being a prerequisite for an effective reduction of SiiE-mediated Salmonella adhesion.

  15. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the national animal health monitoring system sheep 2011 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples c...

  16. 40 CFR 798.5265 - The salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the reporting recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The salmonella typhimurium reverse....5265 The salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay. (a) Purpose. The Salmonella...

  17. 75 FR 45130 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in... entitled ``Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 690.800 Salmonella in Animal Feed'' (the draft CPG). The draft CPG..., contaminated with Salmonella and also on regulatory policy relating to animal feed or feed...

  18. 9 CFR 147.11 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of salmonella. 147.11 Section 147.11 Animals and Animal Products... procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella. (a) For egg- and meat-type chickens... 25 birds, and birds from Salmonella enteritidis (SE) positive environments should be cultured...

  19. Electron-beam-inactivated vaccine against Salmonella enteritidis colonization in molting hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electron Beam (eBeam) ionization technology has a variety of applications in modern society. The underlying hypothesis was that electron beam (eBeam) inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) cells can serve as a vaccine to control Salmonella colonization and Salmonella shedding in c...

  20. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study analysed the trends in antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and phage types from pigs in Denmark from 1997 to 2006. Methods: Salmonella isolates collected through the Salmonella surveillance programme in pigs were serotyped and phage-typed, and susceptibilities t...

  1. Gastrointestinal microbiota and porcine immunity: factors that influence salmonella shedding in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are often asymptomatically colonized with the human foodborne pathogen Salmonella and can exhibit notable variation in severity and duration of Salmonella fecal shedding. Multiple factors impact the dynamics of Salmonella in swine, including features of the microorganism, responses from the pi...

  2. Split Marketing as a Risk Factor for Salmonella Enterica Infection in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-farm reduction of Salmonella prevalence in pigs requires the identification of risk factors to direct interventions. This study was designed to determine if split marketing of finishing pigs constitutes a risk factor for Salmonella infections, by comparing Salmonella prevalence in the first group...

  3. [Evaluation of the Autoscan-4 System for the identification of strains of the genus Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usera, M A; Echeita, A

    1991-06-01

    A study was performed to compare the Autoscan-4 with conventional biochemical methods to identify isolates of the Salmonella genus. The Autoscan-4 yielded correct identification of the 99% Salmonella isolates at the genus and species level, but failed to identify 74% Salmonella isolates of the "Arizona" group, making necessary to perform subspecies biochemical reactions.

  4. (phoenicopterus roseus por intoxicación aguda por plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de plomo en el medio ambiente es un hecho indiscutible. Ello es objeto de gran interés sanitario pues repercute tanto en la salud de los animales como en la del ser humano. El plumbismo es una intoxicación que puede afectar a cualquier especie animal. En el ámbito de la fauna silvestre se asocia principalmente a la actividad cinegética en los humedales y a la ingestión de plomo metálico por parte de las aves que frecuentan estos ecosistemas. En España cada año mueren decenas de miles de aves acuáticas como consecuencia de la ingesta de perdigones de plomo. En los individuos capturados enfermos se pueden observar signos clínicos, mientras que a partir de muestras de cadáveres se obtienen datos sobre niveles tisulares de plomo. Sin embargo la evaluación de lesiones anatomopatológicas en animales de vida silvestre es difícil de realizar por la dificultad de encontrar animales recién muertos o afectados de un cuadro agudo mortal. La reproducción de esta patología en animales de experimentación se suele realizar en cisnes, palomas o patos, pero no en flamencos, por lo que no es usual disponer de datos histológicos en esta especie. En este trabajo presentamos la clínica, analítica y estudio microscópico de diferentes tejidos de un flamenco común (Phoenicopterus roseus muerto por plumbismo.

  5. Comparison of microbial communities isolated from feces of asymptomatic Salmonella-shedding and non-Salmonella shedding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradd J. Haley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from asymptomatic dairy cows. However, factors that contribute to colonization of the bovine gut by these two serotypes have not been identified. To investigate associations between Salmonella status and bacterial diversity, as well as the diversity of the microbial community in the dairy cow hindgut, the bacterial and archaeal communities of fecal samples from cows on a single dairy farm were determined by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Fecal grab samples were collected from two Salmonella-positive cows and two Salmonella-negative cows on five sampling dates (n = 20 cows, and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these samples were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A high level of alpha (within and beta diversity (between samples demonstrated that microbial profiles of dairy cow hindguts are quite diverse. To determine whether Salmonella presence, sampling year, or sampling date explained a significant amount of the variation in microbial diversity, we performed constrained ordination analyses (distance based RDA on the unifrac distance matrix produced with QIIME. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference in the microbial diversity associated with Salmonella presence (P > 0.05, but there were significant differences between sampling dates and years (Pseudo-F= 2.157 to 4.385, P < 0.05. Based on these data, it appears that commensal Salmonella infections with serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in dairy cows have little or no association with changes in the abundance of major bacterial groups in the hindgut. Rather, our results indicated that temporal dynamics and other undescribed parameters associated with them were the most influential drivers of the differences in microbial diversity and community structure in the dairy cow hindgut.

  6. Amplification of an invA gene sequence of Salmonella typhimurium by polymerase chain reaction as a specific method of detection of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, K; De Grandis, S A; Clarke, R C; McEwen, S A; Galán, J E; Ginocchio, C; Curtiss, R; Gyles, C L

    1992-08-01

    Amplification of nucleotide sequences within the invA gene of Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated as a means of detecting Salmonella. A collection of 630 strains of Salmonella comprising over 100 serovars, including the 20 most prevalent serovars isolated from animals and humans in Canada, was examined. Controls consisted of 142 non-Salmonella strains comprising 21 genera of bacteria. Cultures were screened by inoculating a single colony of bacteria directly into a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixture which contained a pair of primers specific for the invA gene. The specific PCR product was a 284 bp DNA fragment which was visualized in 2% agarose gels. With the exception of two S. litchfield and two S. senftenberg strains, all Salmonella strains were detected. In contrast, none of the non-Salmonella strains yielded the specific amplification product. Non-specific amplification of a few non-Salmonella strains resulted in a product that was distinctly different in size from the specific 284 bp product. Specificity of amplification was further confirmed by demonstration of hybridization of a 32P-labelled invA gene fragment only to the specific 284 bp product. The detection of 99.4% of Salmonella strains tested and the failure to specifically amplify DNA from non-Salmonella strains confirm that the invA gene contains sequences unique to Salmonella and demonstrate that this gene is a suitable PCR target, with potential diagnostic applications.

  7. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed.

  8. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed. PMID:25836408

  9. Salmonella enteridis Septic Arthritis: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Uygur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis causes significant morbidity, is transmitted via fecal-oral route, and is a worldwide cause of gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and local infections. Salmonella is a less common etiologic factor for septic arthritis compared with other gram-negative bacteria. Cases. We present two septic arthritis cases with Salmonella enteridis as a confirmed pathogen and also discuss the predisposing factors and treatment. Discussion. Septic arthritis is an orthopedic emergency. The gold standard treatment of septic arthritis is joint debridement, antibiotic therapy according to the culture results, and physiotherapy, which should start in the early postoperative period to prevent limitation of motion. Salmonella is an atypical agent for septic arthritis. It must be particularly kept in mind as an etiologic factor for the acute arthritis of a patient with sickle cell anemia and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinicians should be cautious that the white blood cell count in synovial fluid can be under 50.000/mm3 in immune compromised individuals with septic arthritis. The inflammatory response can be deficient, or the microorganism may be atypical. Conclusion. Atypical bacteria such as Salmonella species in immune compromised patients can cause joint infections. Therefore, Salmonella species must always be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of septic arthritis in a clinically relevant setting.

  10. Salmonella Dublin i oksekød, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Hansen, Tina Beck

    Case-by-case overvågningen af dansk og udenlandsk fersk kød af kvæg ophørte ved årsskiftet til 2013 som følge af meget få fund. I 2012 blev der imidlertid påvist Salmonella i 14,3 % af de undersøgte partier af fersk dansk oksekød, mens man i samme periode ikke så den samme stigning i fund af...... Salmonella på slagterierne. Det er derfor muligt, at der er andre kilder til salmonellas forekomst i det ferske oksekød. En del oksekød opskæres typisk på andre virksomheder end på slagteriet, og krydskontaminering med Salmonella her kan derfor være en af årsagerne til det høje fund, da disse virksomheder...... typisk forarbejder store mængder dansk og udenlandsk kød i de samme produktionslinjer. Siden planlægningen af dette projekt er forekomsten af Salmonella Dublin faldet i oksekød, men projektet er blevet gennemført som oprindeligt planlagt. Formålet med dette projekt har været at afklare forekomsten af...

  11. Oral administration of the Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt to laying hens at day of hatch reduces shedding and caecal colonization of Salmonella 4,12:i:-, the monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Devloo, Rosalie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-06-01

    A new monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serotype 4,12:i:-, is rapidly emerging. This serotype is now considered to be among the 10 most common serovars isolated from humans in many countries in Europe and in the United States. The public health risk posed by these emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains is considered comparable to that of classical Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The serotype 4,12:i:- is frequently isolated from pigs but also poultry are carrying strains from this serotype. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt, a strain contained in the commercially available live vaccines AviPro Salmonella Duo and AviPro Salmonella VacT, against infection with the emerging monophasic variant in poultry. Three independent trials were conducted. In all trials, laying type chicks were orally vaccinated with the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt at d hatch, while the birds were challenged the next d with a different infection dose in each trial (low, high, and intermediate). For the intermediate-dose study, a seeder bird model was used in which one out of 3 animals were infected while all individual birds were infected in the other trials. Data obtained from each independent trial show that oral administration of the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt at d hatch reduced shedding, caecal, and internal organ colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium 4,12:i:-, administered at d 2 life. This indicates that Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt can help to control Salmonella 4,12:i:- infections in poultry. PMID:25825785

  12. Antibiotic resistances in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica isolated from foods with animal origin Resistencias a antibióticos en Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella enterica aislados de alimentos de origen animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández

    2004-12-01

    enterica aisladas de diferentes alimentos de origen animal, como son carnes frescas, hamburguesas, salchichas y chorizos frescos, jamón cocido y huevos frescos, utilizando la técnica de difusión en placa.Las cepas de L. monocytogenes fueron muy sensibles a todos los antibióticos utilizados, con la única excepción de una cepa resistente a la tetraciclina. En cambio, en S. enterica la presencia de resistencias es muy frecuente siendo común la multi-resistencia. La mayor frecuencia de resistencias fue frente a tetraciclina, estreptomicina, ácido nalidíxico, ticarcilina, ampicilina y cloramfenicol. El veinte por ciento de las cepas mostraron resistencia a 4 o más antibióticos. Por serotipos, el mayor número de resistencias se dio en las salmonellas de serotipo 4,5,12:i:-, Hadar, Typhimurium y Virchow.Se concluye que Salmonella enterica aislada de alimentos de origen animal destinados a consumo humano es un microorganismo portador de frecuentes resistencias. El significado de esta observación y su potencial riesgo para la salud debe ser investigado. En el caso de L. monocytogenes, la presencia de resistencia no es significativa.

  13. Recombination and population structure in Salmonella enterica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Didelot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen that causes enteric fever and gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Although its population structure was long described as clonal, based on high linkage disequilibrium between loci typed by enzyme electrophoresis, recent examination of gene sequences has revealed that recombination plays an important evolutionary role. We sequenced around 10% of the core genome of 114 isolates of enterica using a resequencing microarray. Application of two different analysis methods (Structure and ClonalFrame to our genomic data allowed us to define five clear lineages within S. enterica subspecies enterica, one of which is five times older than the other four and two thirds of the age of the whole subspecies. We show that some of these lineages display more evidence of recombination than others. We also demonstrate that some level of sexual isolation exists between the lineages, so that recombination has occurred predominantly between members of the same lineage. This pattern of recombination is compatible with expectations from the previously described ecological structuring of the enterica population as well as mechanistic barriers to recombination observed in laboratory experiments. In spite of their relatively low level of genetic differentiation, these lineages might therefore represent incipient species.

  14. Differences in the early response of hatchlings of different chicken breeding lines to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.J.; Peters, T.H.F.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Poultry products are the major source of food-borne Salmonella infection in humans. Broiler lines selected to be more resistant to Salmonella could reduce the transfer of Salmonella to humans. To investigate differences in the susceptibility of newly hatched chicks to oral infection with Salmonella

  15. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    linhagem ISA Label (crescimento lento. Nos dois experimentos, 1,5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4 foram inoculadas na casca e no albume de ovos férteis no momento da incubação, para averiguar os sinais clínicos, as lesões macro e microscópicas e a mortalidade até a terceira semana de vida dos pintos. A Salmonella Enteritidis invadiu e colonizou o trato gastrintestinal das duas linhagens determinando alterações clínicas aliadas à disfunção intestinal, as quais foram mais pronunciadas nas aves Ross. A mortalidade observada foi de 25,0% (15/60 na linhagem Ross, e de apenas 1,7% (1/60 nas aves de crescimento lento até 21 dias de idade. Onfalite, enterite, pericardite e peri-hepatite constituíram as principais lesões macroscópicas da linhagem de crescimento rápido. No exame histopatológico observou-se processo inflamatório com infiltrados de células mononucleares com predominância de macrófagos e linfócitos no coração, fígado, duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco. Salmonella Enteritidis colonizou o trato gastrintestinal, invadiu os órgãos de ambas as linhagens, porém aves ISA Label foram mais resistentes à infecção do que aves da linhagem Ross.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Colonização intestinal, infecção, invasão, órgãos, resistência genética.

  16. Se los por se lo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  17. por el Tribunal Constitucional chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Peña Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La modificación introducida por la reforma constitucional de agosto de 1989 al artículo 5º de la Constitución chilena sentó un criterio decisivo en la incorporación del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos al ordenamiento jurídico interno. El artículo examina la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Constitucional antes y después de esa reforma distinguiendo entre la aplicación del Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos por haberse invocado en la acción deducida y la aplicación de principios y criterios hermenéuticos extraídos del mismo.

  18. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo β-hemolνtico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reciιn nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal varνa desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.

  19. Prevalência, quantificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de sorovares de Salmonella isolados de lingüiça frescal suína Prevalence, quantification, and antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from fresh pork sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Augusto Spricigo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Salmonella sp. é uma das principais causas mundiais de toxinfecção alimentar. Nos últimos anos, as preocupações têm se voltado para a carne e produtos suínos tanto no aspecto de saúde pública como na sua comercialização/exportação. O presente estudo tem como objetivos: 1 verificar a prevalência de sorovares de Salmonella sp. em lingüiças tipo frescal de matéria-prima suína comercializadas em Lages (SC, bem como o seu nível de contaminação; e 2 verificar o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos destes isolados. Para tanto, foram coletadas 200 amostras de nove marcas, em diferentes estabelecimentos comerciais. Foram isoladas Salmonella sp. em 27% (54, sendo o sorovar Derby o mais encontrado. Apenas uma amostra apresentou uma concentração de microorganismos maior que 1,100 NMP.g-1, valor normalmente tido como necessário para causar infecção por Salmonella do grupo não-tifóide. Posteriormente, os 60 isolados foram submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade in vitro, frente a 14 antimicrobianos. Entre esses isolados, 56,67% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados e o perfil de multirresistência foi encontrado em 20%. A prevalência elevada de produtos positivos para Salmonella sp. pode representar um risco ao consumidor, principalmente considerando-se o alto número de isolados resistentes encontrado neste estudo.Salmonella sp. is one of the main causes of food poisoning. In the last years, the main focus has been on beef and swine products because of both public health concerns and commercialization/exportation. This study was conducted in order to: 1 verify the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in fresh pork sausages commercialized in Lages, state of Santa Catarina and analyze its level of contamination; and 2 determine the profile of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella sp. isolates. For this purpose, 200 samples of nine brands were collected from different commercial stores

  20. Efficacy of several Salmonella vaccination programs against experimental challenge with Salmonella gallinarum in commercial brown layer and broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB de Paiva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of various Salmonella vaccines regimens against an experimental Salmonella Gallinarum challenge (SGNalr strain at 12 wk of age was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1 commercial brown layers were vaccinated according to one of the following programs: (i two doses of a SE bacterin (Layermune SE; group 1; (ii a first dose of a live SG9R vaccine (Cevac SG9R followed by a SE bacterin (Layermune SE; group 2; (iii one dose of each of two different multivalent inactivated vaccines containing SE cells (Corymune 4 & Corymune 7; group 3 or (iv not vaccinated (group 4. In Experiment 2, broiler breeders were given the same vaccination treatments except for the group vaccinated with the multivalent vaccines. Overall, in both experiments, all vaccination schemes were effective in reducing mortality after challenge with a SG field strain. Primary vaccination with an initial dose of a live SG9R vaccine followed some weeks later by a dose of an inactivated SE bacterin was the most effective (p<0.05 vaccination program against mortality induced by field SG experimental challenge in both experiments. In conclusion, Salmonella vaccination programs containing SE bacterins alone or in combination with a live SG9R vaccine are effective in preventing mortality induced by infection of field SG. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that any vaccination program against any Salmonella serotype will only be effective if it is part of a sound and comprehensive biosecurity program designed for Salmonella control in poultry farms.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Caracterização fenotípica e genotípica de isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Dias de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the epidemiology of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks and determine the source of contamination so that a recurrence can be avoided, detailed characterization is necessary. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether rep-PCR was able to discriminate among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. Phage typing, detection of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance testing were also associated to rep-PCR results. One hundred and two S. Enteritidis isolates from broiler carcasses, food, human, pigs, poultry-related samples, and nine isolates from other countries were genotypically typed by REP-PCR, ERIC-PCR and BOX-PCR, collectively called rep-PCR. Phage typing, detection of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance testing were also performed. Only three fingerprinting profiles were obtained with each rep-PCR method, with the majority of isolates belonging to the same profile. No relationship was observed between genotypic profile and year, place of isolation or source of infection. However, the less frequent rep-PCR profiles showed single antimicrobial resistance patterns. Although few strains isolated from swine were analyzed, different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed. Furthermore, phage type 4 was not found in swine isolates. rep-PCR showed a lower discriminatory power as compared with antimicrobial resistance and phage typing, but the combination of genotypic and phenotypic methods was more discriminatory than any method alone, resulting in 48 different types.Uma caracterização detalhada de Salmonella Enteritidis é necessária para que possa ser desenvolvido o estudo da epidemiologia dos surtos causados por este organismo, bem como a determinação da fonte de contaminação, evitando que ocorram novos surtos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a rep-PCR era capaz de diferenciar isolados de S. Enteritidis. A fagotipagem, a detecção de genes de virulência e a determinação de resist

  2. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C A

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase lose their ability to enter cultured cells. In addition, a short-lived capacity to enter cells may be important during infection so that bacterial invasiveness is limited to certain times and host sites during pathogenesis. PMID:8454361

  3. Salmonella newport causing osteomyelitis in a patient with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Natasha; Moran, Ed

    2015-11-24

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly causes intestinal symptoms. Bacteraemia and extraintestinal infections have been documented within the literature, and are more frequently associated with immunodeficiency and general debilitation. We discuss the case of a previously well 36-year-old man who presented with a septic knee and new-onset diabetes. Imaging confirmed osteomyelitis and a Brodie's abscess, with blood and tissue cultures revealing the isolate Salmonella enterica newport. He denied any previous gastrointestinal symptoms, recent travel, change in usual dietary habit or symptoms of diabetes. So far there have only been three reported cases of S. newport causing osteomyelitis. We discuss the incidence of Salmonella infections, including extraintestinal symptoms, its relation to immunodeficiency and the disease burden of S. newport.

  4. [Little epidemic caused by Salmonella panama (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M; Licht, W; Richter, M

    1977-05-01

    Between 8. 1. 1976 and 10. 8. 1976 16 new or premature born children got a gastroenteritis due to salmonella panama. All these children were together in one pediatric ward of the hospital. Most of them came directly for the labour ward or from the newborn-ward. They had antibiotic therapy due to the indication of the mother or the child. It was impossible to fine the source of the salmonella infection, therefore, finally the ward was closed. After radical desinfection new patients came to the ward. Again they were infected with salmonella panama. Now it became clear that contaminated milk (Humanan-Heilnahrung) was the source of infections. Most papers mention a mild benign course of the infections. In contrary we could see severe conditions dependent on the pre-damage of the child or his reduced immunity. The minimal number of germs of dietic food products needs to be examinated.

  5. Neonatal outbreak of salmonella worthington in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of an outbreak of Salmonella worthington in neonates at Sassoon General Hospitals, Pune, which occurred during August and September 2000. A total of 148 blood, 4 CSF and 6 stool specimens were received from neonates admitted to the hospital. Salmonella worthington could be isolated from 17 clinical specimens [15 blood (10.8%, 1 CSF (25% and 1 stool (16.6% sample]. Environmental swabs were also processed. An attempt was made to detect carriers in health care personnel. However, no source or carrier of Salmonella worthington in the hospital environment could be identified. Intensive cleaning measures and fumigation were undertaken. All these measures succeeded in aborting the outbreak.

  6. Sacroiliitis due to Salmonella Typhi: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Avcu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pyogenic infections of the sacroiliac joint are observed quite rarely. The most frequent causative microorganisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are commonly found in patients under intravenous medication. In this paper, a rare sacroiliitis case that developed due to Salmonella Typhi is discussed. Case Report: A woman at the age of twenty applied to our clinic with complaints of fever, headache and diarrhea with which she had been suffering for five days. On physical examination, she had a slight fever, with a body temperature of 38.6΀C. She was hospitalized, and Salmonella Typhi was isolated from her blood culture. Later on, the patient described pain during left hip movement. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphic examinations revealed left sacroiliitis. Conclusion: Although sacroiliitis arising from Salmonella Typhi infection is a rare entity, it should not be ignored in patients who have a clinical history for sacroiliitis.

  7. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  8. Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Philipp; Farhan, Hesso; McEwan, David G;

    2011-01-01

    Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms...... controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of an autophagy receptor, optineurin, promoted selective autophagy of ubiquitin-coated cytosolic Salmonella enterica. The protein kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylated optineurin on serine-177, enhancing LC3 binding...... affinity and autophagic clearance of cytosolic Salmonella. Conversely, ubiquitin- or LC3-binding optineurin mutants and silencing of optineurin or TBK1 impaired Salmonella autophagy, resulting in increased intracellular bacterial proliferation. We propose that phosphorylation of autophagy receptors might...

  9. Experience with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, L; Debois, H; Fletcher, M; Dumas, R

    1999-09-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important health threat in many parts of the world, with an estimated 16 million cases and 600,000 deaths occurring each year. The emergence of Salmonella typhi strains multiply resistant to antibiotics has complicated the treatment of this disease. Field experience of 8 years shows that a vaccine composed of purified Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given as a single intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection, has consistent immunogenicity and efficacy. Side effects, based on reports since 1989, are infrequent and mild. Furthermore, the Vi vaccine may be administered simultaneously with other common "travel" vaccines, at two different sites of injection, without affecting immunogenicity and tolerability. This review presents an update of the development and clinical experience with the Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Pasteur Mérieux Connaught, France).

  10. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Swanenburg, M.;

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected...... from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5.3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13.8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven...... slaughterhouses in the four remaining countries. The statistical analyses (multi-level logistic regression) indicated that the prevalence was significantly higher during the warmer months and that the environmental contamination increased during the day of slaughter. The polishing (OR 3.74, 95% CI 1...

  11. Uncovering what lies beneath a Salmonella enterica empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jia Wei; Tam, John Kit Chung; Chan, Douglas Su Gin; Wang, Shi; Ying, Lee Shir

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and transfusional haemosiderosis developed Salmonella empyema caused by direct extension from splenic abscesses. She was successfully treated with antibiotics, pleural decortication and splenectomy. She had presented with fever after being treated for presumed pneumonia and parapneumonic effusion 2 months prior. CT scan showed splenic abscesses eroding through the diaphragm causing a left pleural empyema. Pleural fluid and spleen bacterial cultures grew Salmonella enterica. She was treated with 4 weeks of antibiotics and underwent surgical pleural decortication and splenectomy in the same sitting. She made a good postoperative recovery. Patients with severe iron overload are susceptible to various types of bacterial sepsis, including salmonellosis. It is unusual for enteric bacterial such as Salmonella to present with empyema, and should prompt a search for intra-abdominal infection. Pleural decortication and splenectomy can be performed during the same surgical sitting and can lead to good surgical outcomes. PMID:26336186

  12. RECURRENT SALMONELLA TYPHI CHEST WALL ABSCESSES IN A DIABETIC LADY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Helen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : Salmonella enterica serovar typhi causing typhoid fever is common in many parts of the world particularly in developing countries. Extra intestinal manifestations are uncommon and occur in immunocompromised individuals such as patients with diabetes, HIV infection, chronic steroid use, chemotherapy and malignancy. We report a case of Salmonella typhi causing recurrent chest wall abscesses in a lady with uncontrolled diabetes. She was admitted with high grade fever, left sided chest wall abscess and a previous history of two similar chest wall abscesses. After hospitalization prompt incision and drainage was done and aerobic culture of pus grew moderate growth of Salmonella typhi resistant to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to cephalosporins. Based on culture report our patient was treated with oral azithromycin for ten days and parenteral ceftriaxone for six weeks. There was rapid and full recovery and six months follow up revealed no recurrence.

  13. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galanis, E.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Patrick, M.E.;

    2006-01-01

    Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella...... serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman...... professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide....

  14. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  15. Serotypes of Salmonella in Broiler Carcasses Marketed at Ibague, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is a large group of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a number of foodborne infections associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The hygienic status of raw chicken meat marketed at Ibague, Tolima, Colombia, is currently unknown. To address this issue, a cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., in raw chicken marketed at different outlets in this city. Salmonella spp. was isolated by standard microbiological methods, followed by biochemical, serological, and molecular confirmation. Additionally, risk factors associated with the presence of the bacteria were identified. The prevalence of Salmonella in raw chicken was 17.41% (47/270, and 14 different serotypes were found, out of which S. Paratyphi B (36.17%, S. Hvittingfoss (19.15% and S. Muenster (10.64% were the most prevalent and represented 65.95% of all serotypes. Amplification of 284 bp of the invA gene was achieved by PCR in a number of randomly selected isolates. Raw chicken as the only type of meat sold at stores (odds ratio: 2,157, p<0.05, and stainless steel as a contact surface of chicken meat (odds ratio: 13,29, p<0.05, were found to be potential risk factors for the presence of Salmonella in chicken meat. This work serves as a reference about the current status of Salmonella in chicken meat marketed in Ibague, Tolima, Colombia, and indicates the need to establish appropriate control and contingency measures to minimize the presence of the bacteria in raw chicken to prevent its transmission to humans.

  16. Quinolone Resistance Mechanisms Among Salmonella enterica in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Ngoi, Soo Tein; Chai, Lay Ching; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica is on the rise worldwide. Salmonella enterica is one of the major foodborne pathogens in Malaysia. Therefore, we aim to investigate the occurrence and mechanisms of quinolone resistance among Salmonella strains isolated in Malaysia. A total of 283 Salmonella strains isolated from food, humans, and animals were studied. The disk diffusion method was used to examine the quinolone susceptibility of the strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were also determined. DNA sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes and the plasmid-borne qnr genes was performed. The transfer of the qnr gene was examined through transconjugation experiment. A total of 101 nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella strains were identified. In general, all strains were highly resistant to nalidixic acid (average MICNAL, 170 μg/ml). Resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 30.7% of the strains (1 ≤ MICCIP ≤ 2 μg/ml). Majority of the strains contained missense mutations in the QRDR of gyrA (69.3%). Silent mutations were frequently detected in gyrB (75.2%), parC (27.7%), and parE (51.5%) within and beyond the QRDRs. Novel mutations were detected in parC and parE. The plasmid-borne qnrS1 variant was found in 36.6% of the strains, and two strains were found to be able to transfer the qnrS1 gene. Overall, mutations in gyrA and the presence of qnrS1 genes might have contributed to the high level of quinolone resistance among the strains. Our study provided a better understanding on the status of quinolone resistance among Salmonella strains circulating in Malaysia. PMID:26683630

  17. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Roppenser

    Full Text Available SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  18. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Salmonella in Finishing Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Alda F A; Funk, Julie A; Habing, Greg G; Bolin, Carole

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella enterica (nontyphoidal) is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases in the United States and worldwide. Molecular typing methods are significant tools used to better understand the transmission and ecology of Salmonella in order to implement pre-harvest control measures. The objectives of this study were to describe the Salmonella genotypes, the distribution of isolate subtypes from different ecological niches (i.e., barn environment, nursery, and individual pigs) and their evolution over time in a longitudinal study conducted in three finishing sites (housing pigs from 10 weeks of age until slaughter at 24-26 weeks of age). Among the 107 Salmonella isolates submitted for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, there were 25 distinct subtypes. PFGE genotyping results were consistent with the serotype findings. A large number of distinguishable PFGE patterns (i.e., within the same serovar) were observed and different combinations of subtypes were identified within and across sites and cohorts. New subtypes may result of the introduction of new strains, genetic changes, or ongoing transmission of evolved strains within the production system. The same subtypes were detected intermittently during the study period, which suggests the persistence of indistinguishable subtypes in this production system. In addition, this study suggests persistence of the same subtype over several cohorts of pigs and potential residual contamination from the barn. Factors affecting adaptation and transmission of Salmonella within and among ecological systems (e.g., finishing pigs, nursery, and environment) should be further investigated. Understanding genotypic diversity of Salmonella in different ecological niches during pre-harvest may contribute to the development of more targeted and cost effective control programs during nursery and finishing phases. PMID:26977814

  19. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management.

  20. Elimination of Salmonella in Poultry with Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation resistance of S. typhimurium in comminuted chicken meat was not affected by the breed of poultry (three different breeds tested) or by the type of meat (white or dark). A factor which did influence radio-resistance was the temperature during irradiation. A difference in radio-resistance was noted among five Salmonella serotypes tested. S.oranienburg was the most resistant and S.newport was the least resistant whereas S. thompson, S.heidelberg and S. typhimurium were intermediate. Of the salmonellae which survived irradiation in the non-frozen state, only an insignificant number were inactivated during subsequent quick-freezing and the concentration remained relatively constant over a three-month storage period at 0°F, Thus, salmonellae that have been irradiated (in chicken meat) do not appear to be any more susceptible to freezing injury compared with non-irradiated salmonellae. The psychrophiles in comminuted whole chicken meat surviving irradiation (300 krad) were a mixture of yeasts and members of the Achromobacter-Alicaligenes group. In quantitating salmonellae surviving irradiation in chicken meat by the plate count method, the greatest recovery was obtained with tryptic soy yeast extract agar. Selective media such as brilliant-green sulphadiazene agar, bismuth sulphite agar and MacConkey agar gave good recovery, but with Salmonella- Shigella agar or desoxycholate citrate agar results were poor. Recovery on brilliant green-sulphadiazene agar was enhanced by the addition of yeast extract. Enumeration of salmonellae in irradiated chicken by the ''most probable numbers'' method was comparable with results obtained by plate count. Satisfactory results were obtained with selenite cystine broth. Pre-enrichment into various nutrient broths before inoculation into a selective broth medium did not appear to enhance recovery. Repeated irradiation and sub-culturing of survivors produced a population of Salmonella with increased radio-resistance. Cells in

  1. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  2. HLA-B27-Transfected (Salmonella Permissive) and HLA-A2-Transfected (Salmonella Nonpermissive) Human Monocytic U937 Cells Differ in Their Production of Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Ekman, Päivi; Saarinen, Marja; He, Qiushui; Gripenberg-Lerche, Christel; Grönberg, Alvar; Arvilommi, Heikki; Granfors, Kaisa

    2002-01-01

    The cytokine secretion of the Salmonella-permissive, HLA-B27-positive U937 cells was examined, as it was previously shown that these cells kill Salmonella less efficiently than controls. Salmonella-permissive U937 cells showed upregulated production of interleukin 10 and to a lesser extent tumor necrosis factor alpha. HLA-B27-associated modulation of cytokine responses may have importance in the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial layer farms in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Min Chan; Jeong, So Jeong; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kang, Min-Su; Lee, Young Ju

    2015-07-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most prevalent foodborne illnesses. The outbreak of this disease is often associated with eggs. In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella was surveyed in layer farms in Korea. In addition, the risk factors affecting the prevalence of Salmonella in these farms were also assessed. Of the 32 farms and 67 flocks examined, 19 farms (59.3%) and 34 flocks (50.7%) were observed to be positive for Salmonella contamination. Salmonella was detected in the surrounding environment such as feces (41.8%), dust (40.3%), egg shells (17.2%), as well as the internal egg contents (5.2%). The incidence of Salmonella positives were tended to increase when the flock size is larger (P = 0.021). Differences in the provinces also affected Salmonella prevalence (P Salmonella serovars in the flocks were Salmonella Bareilly (41.2%), Salmonella Mbandaka (32.4%), and Salmonella Rissen (17.6%). Twenty of the flocks revealed multi-serovar contamination, with the isolation of 2 to 4 serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 93 out of 101 isolates were susceptible to the 17 tested antimicrobial agents. The remaining isolates displayed resistance to ampicillin (4.0%), nalidixic acid (3.0%), tetracycline (1.0%), cephalothin (1.0%), and gentamicin (1.0%). As human salmonellosis has been repeatedly correlated to the consumption of poultry products worldwide, continuous studies are required to effectively minimize the Salmonella contamination in layer farms and egg products.

  4. Sensitivitas Salmonella Sp. Penyebab Demam Tifoid Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotik di Rumah Sakit Immanuel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Mulyana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an enteric fever caused by Salmonella sp. especially Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Various antibiotics used for therapy beside chloramphenicol as drug of choice. Non rational use of antibiotics may result increasing of resistence in bacteria. The aim of the research is to know the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi to some antibiotics. The purpose is to gather information about antibiotics which are still effective for typhoid fever and enteric therapy. Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi strain from positive cultures diagnose typhoid fever patients at Immanuel Hospital Bandung during 2004-2007. The method of resistance is Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion assay with NCCLS standard. The disk antibiotics used are amoxicillin, amoxicillinclavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The result showed penicillin group, amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had 96.3–99.68% sensitive against Salmonella sp. Sensitivity of chloramphenicol as drug of choice of typhoid fever still 99.05%. Since the sensitivity less than 100%, it means there was about 8% resistence. Thats why eventhough this data can be used as empiric therapy, the writer suggest to do sensitivity test to Salmonella sp. that caused typhoid to get rationally dan effective treatment. From the result, it's concluded that Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi are still sensitive to all that antibiotics.

  5. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients. METHODS: We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains. CONCLUSION: We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  6. Resistance to antimicrobials drugs and control measures of Salmonella spp in the poultry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of multiple resistant Salmonella spp is described. Clonally distributed Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 are among the most pathogenic strains for humans. Recently there have been reports on the prevalence of ST “like” monophasic 4(5,12:i strains in some countries. Vaccination strategy and antimicorbial agent therapy is also briefly discussed. Products of animal origin must be safe and without the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Subsequently, the good management practice at farm level and HACCP in feed factories are required to cope with salmonella infections. Poultry producers in developed countries have been motivated to participate in salmonella control programs, because of public awareness on safe food and risks in the food chain. Export of poultry and poultry products is more successful in the regions where Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium have been eradicated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31071

  7. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Caicedo Maribel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
    entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
    por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
    desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
    puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
    contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
    examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
    educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
    nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
    para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
    del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  8. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  9. Survival and Filamentation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 at Low Water Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Cole, M. B.; Porter, J.(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA); Lappin-Scott, H M; Humphrey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we investigated the long-term survival of and morphological changes in Salmonella strains at low water activity (aw). Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 survived at low aw for long periods, but minimum humectant concentrations of 8% NaCl (aw, 0.95), 96% sucrose (aw, 0.94), and 32% glycerol (aw, 0.92) were bactericidal under most conditions. Salmonella rpoS mutants were usually more sensitive to bactericidal levels of NaC...

  10. A Salmonella Enteritidis hilAssrAfliG deletion mutant is a safe live vaccine strain that confers protection against colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cort, W; Geeraerts, S; Balan, V; Elroy, M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2013-10-17

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans. Therefore, there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonization-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the safety and efficacy of a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonization-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. After administration of the Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old chickens, this strain could not be isolated from the gut, internal organs or faeces after 21 days of age. In addition, administration of this strain to one-day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and caecal and internal organ colonization of a Salmonella Enteritidis challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an attenuated Salmonella strain for which both the safety and efficacy has been shown in long-term experiments (until slaughter age) in broiler strain can potentially be used as a live colonization-inhibition strain for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis infections in broilers. PMID:24012569

  11. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  12. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  13. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....

  14. Isolamento de Salmonella enterica em gambás (Didelphis aurita e Didelphis albiventris do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Isolation of Salmonella enterica in opossum (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, não há relato de estudos de Salmonella em gambás, sendo assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella enterica em gambás (D. aurita e D. albiventris no Estado de São Paulo. No período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, foram necropsiados 106 D. aurita e 40 D. albiventris e colhidos fragmentos de intestinos delgado, grosso e suabe da cloaca. As amostras foram plaqueadas diretamente em ágar Mac Conkey, paralelamente suspendidas nos caldos Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Tetrationato e posteriormente plaqueados em ágar XLT4. As colônias sugestivas de Salmonella foram confirmadas através de provas bioquímicas e sorotipagem. Encontrou-se Salmonella enterica em 17,0% (18/106 dos D. aurita. Destes, 50% apresentaram positividade no intestino delgado (ID, 88,9% no intestino grosso (IG e 66,7% na cloaca. Da espécie S. enterica, as subespécies encontradas foram: diarizonae (11,1% houtenae e enterica (5,5% cada um; enquanto da subespécie S. enterica enterica os sorotipos foram Newport (83,3%, Typhimurium e Cerro (5,5% cada um. Nos D. albiventris, 17,5% (7/40 eram positivos, sendo que se encontraram 42,8% no ID, 85,7% no IG e 71,4% na cloaca. O sorotipo mais prevalente também foi Newport (71,4%, seguido por Typhimurium, Bareilly e Thompson (14,3% cada um. Através dos resultados obtidos neste estudo pode-se comprovar a presença de Salmonella enterica no trato intestinal de gambás no Brasil.In Brazil there is not report of Salmonella in opossum, so then, the objective of this study is to determine the isolation frequency of Salmonella enterica in opossum in São Paulo State, Brazil. From January 2005 to December 2006, 106 D. aurita and 40 D. albiventris were necropsied and samples from small and large intestine and cloacal swab were collected. These samples were submitted to direct plating in Mac Conkey agar and parallel suspension in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and Tetrationate broths with

  15. Clonagem de canistel por estaquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcelo Chiamolera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel é nativo do sul do México e América Central e seus frutos apresentam elevado teor de carotenoides e vitamina A. Sua propagação é feita via sementes, resultando em considerável variabilidade genética entre os indivíduos, sendo a propagação vegetativa preferível, a fim de fixar características desejáveis. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a propagação vegetativa por estaquia de ramos semi-herbáceos de canistel, em função de quatro genótipos e quatro concentrações de AIB. Foram utilizadas estacas semiherbáceas apicais, mantidas com um par de folhas, sob nebulização intermitente, por 120 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4×4 (genótipos de canistel × concentrações de AIB, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sobrevivência, a retenção foliar, o enraizamento, o calejamento, o número e o comprimento médio de raízes por estaca. O genótipo PC-1 foi superior aos demais, em todas as variáveis avaliadas, com destaque para o enraizamento das estacas, superior a 60%. As concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 3.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 não influenciaram na sobrevivência, retenção foliar e enraizamento das estacas, mas aumentaram o número e o comprimento de raízes em relação ao tratamento-controle (sem AIB. Há diferença na capacidade de enraizamento das estacas entre os genótipos de canistel, sendo a melhor resposta obtida com PC-1. A concentração de 3.000 mg L-1 de AIB resulta em maior número e comprimento de raízes nas estacas de canistel.

  16. Once mil metros por segundo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esta exposición es una ventana hacia el mundo de la Ciencia Ficción. Los sueños de escritores extraordinarios, personajes, lugares, máquinas y robots que cada día están más cerca de nuestra cotidianidad gracias a los avances de la ciencia y la tecnología hacen parte de la muestra itinerante por las sedes de la Universidad Nacional. El visitante puede recorrer los diferentes géneros que constituyen este género literario, además de conocer sus principales representantes. Así mismo se explor...

  17. Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera; Cinthya Ramírez-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respir...

  18. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  19. Intoxicación alimentaria por Clostridium perfringens en el Centro Penitenciario de Atención Institucional de San José: estudio de cohorte retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong-Mc Clure

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos se presentan anualmente en Costa Rica y por lo general se estudian hasta identificar el agente etiológico, pero no hasta determinar su fuente de contaminación. No se ha documentado la importancia de fortalecer la inocuidad de alimentos, lo cual produce eventos que comprometen la salud pública cada año, por lo que fue importante estudiar el presente brote. En este estudio se analiza el brote diarreico de un centro penitenciario de San José, en 2003, procurando determinar el probable alimento contaminado. Materiales y métodos: El presente estudio corresponde a una cohorte retrospectiva que identifica exposición a los alimentos preparados dentro del Centro, en las 72 horas previas al pico epidémico. La descripción de la cohorte y el cálculo del (RR se realizó posteriormente para determinar la posible\tasociación causal. Las muestras de heces fueron procesadas en el laboratorio de referencia del INCIENSA. Resultados: La totalidad de los individuos pertenecían al sexo masculino, todos privados de libertad, con un promedio de edad de 31.1años (IC95%=28.9-33.4. La sintomatología más frecuente fue la diarrea (92.3% Y dolor abdominal tipo cólico (84.6%. El resultado de laboratorio aisló como agente etiológico el Clostridium perfringens enterotoxigénico (CPE. Al analizar los alimentos suministrados, pico epidémico y período de incubación, se tiene que el salchichón (RR=1.1;IC95%0.5-2.7 y la preparación con carne molida (RR=2.1,IC95%:0.6-7.4 mostraron ser los únicos alimentos capaces de transmitir el CPE. Discusión: El brote del Centro evidencia que la sintomatología descrita corresponde con lo documentado para la intoxicación por CPE y que, tomando en cuenta las condiciones necesarias para la transmisión, solo el salchichón y la preparación con carne molida cuentan con esta plausibilidad biológica. Al considerar el periodo de incubación, los valores de riesgo relativo

  20. Número mais provável miniaturizado e microbiologia convencional para isolamento de Salmonella spp. em abatedouros de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Andriva dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos de origem avícola podem ser importantes veículos de transmissão de Salmonella spp. para humanos e, dentre os vários parâmetros que determinam a qualidade de um alimento, destacam-se os que definem suas características microbiológicas. Objetivou-se detectar e quantificar Salmonella spp. na tecnologia de abate de frangos de corte por microbiologia convencional (MC e número mais provável miniaturizado (mNMP. As coletas foram realizadas em duas visitas a três abatedouros sob Inspeção Federal e em seis pontos de coleta em triplicata, definidos como: recepção das aves (swabs de cloaca e esponjas de gaiolas de transporte antes e após a higienização e carcaças (após pré resfriamento em chiller, após o gotejamento e antes da embalagem primária e congeladas a -12oC por 24 horas, totalizando 108 amostras. Identificou-se Salmonella spp. em três dos seis pontos do fluxograma de abate e em dois dos três estabelecimentos amostrados, independentemente do método utilizado, perfazendo 5,5% de positividade, onde destaca-se a contaminação nas gaiolas de transporte das aves após a higienização. Não foi possível correlacionar os resultados da microbiologia convencional e do mNMP ou mesmo quantificar a contaminação ao longo da tecnologia de abate, o que indica a necessidade de se utilizar um método qualitativo aliado ao método de quantificação quando Salmonella estiver presente em quantidades inferiores ao limite de detecção do mNMP proposto (0,13 NMP/mL. Os sorovares identificados foram Typhimurium, Panama, Lexington e Rissen, consideradas paratíficos e, portanto, potencialmente capazes de causar infecções em humanos, embora estes sorovares não tenham sido isolados em produtos finais e sim na chegada dos frangos aos abatedouros (swabs de cloaca e gaiolas de transporte. A identificação de Salmonella spp. nas gaiolas de transporte após a higienização é um indicativo da necessidade de revisão e adequa