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Sample records for bronchoalveolar lavaage fluid

  1. Cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Turkish miners

    OpenAIRE

    Kayacan, O.; Beder, S; KARNAK, D.

    2003-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis.

  2. Inorganic particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from nonoccupationally exposed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, M; Biondo, L; Conti, C; Cipri, A; de Marinis, F; Gigli, B; Paoletti, L

    1996-01-01

    This study comprised 30 patients who had not been exposed occupationally to dusts, but for whom a diagnosis of suspected pulmonary carcinoma had been made. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from these patients were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis in an effort to study the mineral particulate present in the alveolar region. Particles of silica, silicates, oxides, sulphates, and metal alloys were detected in various percentages in each subject. The smoking habits of two groups of patients that were defined by their bronchoalveolar lavage particulate concentrations (i.e., lower or higher than the median of the distribution) differed significantly. PMID:8638968

  3. Characterization of the Phosphoproteome in Human Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

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    Francesco Giorgianni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale examination of protein phosphorylation in human biological fluids by phosphoproteomics approaches is an emerging area of research with potential for significant contributions towards discovery of novel biomarkers. In this pilot work, we analyzed the phosphoproteome in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL from nondiseased subjects. The main objectives were to assess the feasibility to probe phosphorylated proteins in human BAL and to obtain the initial catalog of BAL phosphoproteins, including protein identities and exact description of their phosphorylation sites. We used a gel-free bioanalytical workflow that included whole-proteome digestion of depleted BAL proteins, enrichment of phosphopeptides by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC, LC-MS/MS analyses with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, and searches of a protein sequence database to generate a panel of BAL phosphoproteins and their sites of phosphorylation. Based on sequence-diagnostic MS/MS fragmentation patterns, we identified a collection of 36 phosphopeptides that contained 26 different phosphorylation sites. These phosphopeptides mapped to 21 phosphoproteins including, for example, vimentin, plastin-2, ferritin heavy chain, kininogen-1, and others. The characterized phosphoproteins have diverse characteristics in terms of cellular origin and biological function. To the best of our knowledge, results of this study represent the first description of the human BAL phosphoproteome.

  4. Exploration of the normal human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhi; Ryu, Soyoung; Gharib, Sina A.; Goodlett, David R.; Schnapp, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    We obtained insight into normal lung function by proteome analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from six normal human subjects using a “Lyse-N-Go’ shotgun proteomic protocol. Intra-sample variation was calculated using three different label-free methods, (i) protein sequence coverage; (ii) peptide spectral counts and (iii) peptide single-ion current areas (PICA), which generates protein expression data by summation of the area under the curve for a given peptide single-ion current trace and then adding values for all peptides from that same parent protein. PICA gave the least intra-subject variability and was used to calculate differences in protein expression between the six subjects. We observed an average threefold inter-sample variability, which affects analysis of changes in protein expression that occur in different diseases. We detected 167 unique proteins with >100 proteins detected in each of the six individual BAL samples, 42 of which were common to all six subjects. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated enrichment of several biological processes in the lung, reflecting its expected role in gas exchange and host defense as an immune organ. The same biological processes were enriched compared to either plasma or total genome proteome, suggesting an active enrichment of plasma proteins in the lung rather than passive capillary leak. PMID:21136857

  5. Shotgun MS proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in normal subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth V Nguyen; Gharib, Sina A; Schnapp, Lynn M.; Goodlett, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a review of proteomic techniques used to characterize the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome of normal healthy subjects. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is the most common technique for sampling the components of the alveolar space. The proteomic techniques used to study normal BALF include protein separation by 2D gel electrophoresis whereby proteins were identified by comparison to a reference gel as well as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectromet...

  6. LC-MS analysis of phospholipids and lysophospholipids in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barroso, B.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    A reversed phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of different phospholipids and lysophospholipid, in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Separation was achieved using a pellicular C8 column at elevated temperatures with an increasing gradient of acetonitrile containing

  7. Salivary Amylase Level in Bronchoalveolar Fluid as a Marker of Chronic Pulmonary Aspiration in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Hasan, Mutasim; Elmallah, Mai; Neal, Dan; Brookes, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary aspiration is a common cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in children. However, there is no gold standard diagnostic test for aspiration. In this study, we explore the diagnostic value of measuring salivary amylase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as a marker of chronic aspiration in children with different chronic respiratory illnesses.

  8. Hyaluronate in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a new marker in sarcoidosis reflecting pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hällgren, R; Eklund, A; Engström-Laurent, A; Schmekel, B

    1985-01-01

    Hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid) was not detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from smoking or nonsmoking healthy volunteers but was present in fluid from 23 patients with sarcoidosis; the mean concentration was 16 micrograms/1 returned fluid (range less than or equal to 5-430) or, expressed in relation to the amount of albumin recovered, 0.22 micrograms/mg albumin (range less than or equal to 0.05-3.6). The serum hyaluronate concentrations in the patients with sarcoidosis were normal. Ther...

  9. The clinical significance of the substance P in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma

  10. Shotgun MS proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V; Gharib, Sina A; Schnapp, Lynn M; Goodlett, David R

    2014-10-01

    We provide a review of proteomic techniques used to characterize the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome of normal healthy subjects. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is the most common technique for sampling the components of the alveolar space. The proteomic techniques used to study normal BALF include protein separation by 2DE, whereby proteins were identified by comparison to a reference gel as well as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS, also known as shotgun proteomics. We summarize recent progress using shotgun MS technologies to define the normal BALF proteome. Surprisingly, we find that despite advances in shotgun proteomic technologies over the course of the last 10 years, which have resulted in greater numbers of proteins being identified, the functional landscape of normal BALF proteome was similarly described by all methods examined. PMID:24616423

  11. Changes of cell factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats exposed to silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in rats exposed to silica dust.Methods Experimental rats were randomly divided into control group and three experimental groups(doses of dust:15,30,and 60mg/ml),with 42 rats in each group.Each rat in the control group was treated with 1 ml of normal saline by intratracheal instillation,while each rat in the experimental groups was exposed to 1

  12. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  13. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: diagnosis using routinely processed smears of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, T.; Yamamoto, Y; Yokoyama, M.; Okayasu, I

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: For the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens it is normally necessary to make an ultrastructural examination. However, this is thought to be impractical for bronchoalveolar lavage specimens that have been routinely fixed in ethanol. In the present study, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology smears on slide glasses were examined directly ultrastructurally to make a diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage smears ...

  14. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of pigs by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, A.K.; Runge, M.; Ganter, Martin;

    1998-01-01

    other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Frus medium......In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification...... inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 10(2) CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11...

  15. High levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennesen, P.; Veerman, E.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van; Jacobs, J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Keijbus, P. van den; Ramsay, G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of sulfated mucins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with those in non-infectious controls, i.e., ventilated ICU patients without VAP, and nonventilated patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in

  16. Cytologic and biochemical investigation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in isolated and combined application of H-hexane and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some cytological and enzyme parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of albino rats were studied in parallel. The animals were treated with H-hexane in concentration 5500 mg/m3, 5 hours daily for 8 days. Immediately thereafter they received single whole-body exposure to 4 Gy ionizing radiation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from excised lung by threefold washing with 5 ml physiological saline. It was demonstrated that H-hexane increased the total number of cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid, mostly at the expense of the alveolar macrophages and to a lesser degree of the neutrophilic granulocytes. Isolated irradiation with 4 Gy reduced the number of macrophages in the early phases. In the group subjected to combined treatment an opposite effect of the two tested factors was observed, with prevalence of the effect of H-hexane. The cell populations, whose number was increased, were main source of lactate dehydrogenase in the air passages. The cytological parameters in bronchoalveolar fluid are suggested as tests for early diagnosis of combined pulmonary injury caused by H-hexane and ionizing radiation

  17. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological Changes in Different Types of Caprine Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarikre, A T; Emikpe, O B; Ohore, G O; Akinremi, A T; Akpavie, O S

    2016-01-01

    Goats in the tropics are often reared under the traditional extensive and semi-intensive management systems. These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats comprising different breed, age and body scores. The pneumonia status was well characterised using standard pathological tools. Data is summarized as Mean ± SEM and compared using non-parametric statistics at 5% significance. There was leukocytosis in the pneumonic animals. The overall lavage recovery rate was 55.5%. The differences in Haemoglobin concentration, and Lymphocyte-Neutrophil ratio were significant (peosinophil counts were significantly different (peosinophils observed in BAL were reliable and also correlated positively to the pathological findings. BAL should be considered a component of the diagnostic approach to caprine pneumonia complex, as it may accurately aid diagnosis and identification of the causal organisms. PMID:27574761

  18. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

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    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  19. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

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    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  20. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  1. Analysis of Culture-Dependent versus Culture-Independent Techniques for Identification of Bacteria in Clinically Obtained Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R.; Prescott, Hallie C.; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Lama, Vibha N.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant ...

  2. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  3. Galactomannan antigen assay from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in intensive care units patients

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    Farzin Khorvash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an important infection in critically ill patients including patients of intensive care units (ICU. Different diagnostic tools are available and since its mortality is high, it is vital to start the antifungal therapy as soon as possible. Knowing the epidemiology of this disease in each ICU and area will help to better and more rapid management of such patients. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of IPA based on the level of galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in ICU of Al-Zahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods : This was a cross sectional study, which was conducted in Al-Zahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between 2010 to 2011. The study population was all the patients admitted to ICU and were suspected to have invasive Aspergillus spp pneumonia. The level of galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage was measured and demographic data were gathered by the questionnaire. Results : The frequency of IPA in this study was calculated as 2.43% while galactomannan level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of this patient (2.50 was significantly higher than others (0.03 ± 0.02. Conclusion : Larger studies are required to determine the exact frequency of IPA and the best antifungal therapy for it.

  4. Pleural mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos: evaluation from work histories and analysis of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue in 131 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, J C; Orlowski, E; Iwatsubo, Y; Billon-Galland, M A; Dufour, G.; Chamming's, S; Archambault, C; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos was evaluated in 131 patients with pleural malignant mesothelioma in the Paris area between 1986 and 1992 using data from a detailed specific questionnaire and light microscopy analysis of the retention of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue. Probable or definite exposure to significant levels of asbestos dust was identified in only 48 (36.6%) subjects, and significant asbestos body counts (above 1 asbestos body/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage flui...

  5. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Susanna K.; Burgener, Elizabeth B.; Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2...

  6. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P.; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the ...

  7. Association between the miRNA Signatures in Plasma and Bronchoalveolar Fluid in Respiratory Pathologies

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    Sonia Molina-Pinelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of new less invasive biomarkers is necessary to improve the detection and prognostic outcome of respiratory pathological processes. The measurement of miRNA expression through less invasive techniques such as plasma and serum have been suggested to analysis of several lung malignancies including lung cancer. These studies are assuming a common deregulated miRNA expression both in blood and lung tissue. The present study aimed to obtain miRNA representative signatures both in plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction that could serve as biomarker in respiratory diseases. Ten patients were evaluated to assess the expression levels of 381 miRNAs. We found that around 50% miRNAs were no detected in both plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction and only 20% of miRNAs showed similar expression in both samples. These results show a lack of association of miRNA signatures between plasma and bronchoalveolar cytology in the same patient. The profiles are not comparable; however, there is a similarity in the relative expression in a very small subset of miRNAs (miR-17, miR-19b, miR-195 and miR-20b between both biological samples in all patients. This finding supports that the miRNAs profiles obtained from different biological samples have to be carefully validated to link with respiratory diseases.

  8. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  9. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  10. [The presence of mycobacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from an immunocompetent patient does not necessarily imply tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbos, Frédéric; Marcq, Laurent; Novellas, Sébastien; Chyderiotis, Georges; Haudebourg, Juliette; Benchetrit, Maxime; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most frequently identified mycobacterium in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of immunocompetent patients. Lung infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are rare in such patients and then often occur in the context of pre-existing chronic lung disease. We report the case of an immunocompetent 85-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease in whom M. abscessus was recovered from BALF. Cytological examination of the BALF revealed an increased number of neutrophils and some acid-fast bacilli, all located within neutrophil cytoplasm. This case report contributes a cytological description of BALF in the context of M. abscessus infection, which is poorly detailed in the literature. PMID:20005441

  11. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P comprehensive definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis. PMID:26885542

  12. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  13. Quantification of matrix metalloprotease-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by selected reaction monitoring with microfluidics nano-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prely, Laurette M.; Paal, Krisztina; Hermans, Jos; van der Heide, Sicco; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative protein analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used to quantify matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9; similar to 90 kDa) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients having undergone lung transplantatio

  14. Radiation-induced increase in hyaluronan and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from breast cancer patients is suppressed by smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjermer, L.; Nilsson, K. (Dept. of Lung Medicine, University Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden)); Haellgren, R. (Dept. of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Uppsala (Sweden)); Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R. (Dept. of Oncology, University Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden)); Sandstroem, T. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Medical Division, Umeaa (Sweden)); Saernstrand, B. (Draco Pharmaceuticals, Lund (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was analysed from 21 patients with breast cancer, stage T{sub 1}N{sub 0}M{sub 0}, who had undergone tumour resection and postoperative local irradiation (accumulated dose 56 Gy). The lavage was performed two months after radiotherapy, in the anterior part of the lingula (left side) or of the right middle lobe (right side), depending on which side had been exposed to radiation. The patients had significantly increased concentrations of fibronectin (FN) (p<0.001), hyaluronan (HA) (p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05) in BAL fluid compared with the healthy controls (n=19). However, when the patients were separated, according to smoking history, it was obvious that the inflammatory reaction occurred entirely in the nonsmoking patient group (n=10), whilst no difference could be found between the smoking patients (n=11) and the controls. In the nonsmoking patient group, there was a sevenfold increase in BAL concentrations of FN and a threefold increase in HA. Moreover, four patients had detectable levels of procollagen III peptide in BAL, all were nonsmokers. The smoking habits of the controls had no influence on the BAL measurements. These findings indicate that smoking interferes with the radiation-induced early inflammatory connective tissue reaction of the lung. Finally, the results justify further investigation of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapy effectiveness and reduction of adverse effects. (au).

  15. Protein corona formation in bronchoalveolar fluid enhances diesel exhaust nanoparticle uptake and pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catherine A; Mortimer, Gysell M; Deng, Zhou J; Carter, Edwin S; Connell, Shea P; Miller, Mark R; Duffin, Rodger; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    In biological fluids nanoparticles bind a range of molecules, particularly proteins, on their surface. The resulting protein corona influences biological activity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Corona composition is often determined by the biological milieu encountered at the entry portal into the body, and, can therefore, depend on the route of exposure to the nanoparticle. For environmental nanoparticles where exposure is by inhalation, this will be lung lining fluid. This study examined plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) protein binding to engineered and environmental nanoparticles. We hypothesized that protein corona on nanoparticles would influence nanoparticle uptake and subsequent pro-inflammatory biological response in macrophages. All nanoparticles bound plasma and BALF proteins, but the profile of bound proteins varied between nanoparticles. Focusing on diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENP), we identified proteins bound from plasma to include fibrinogen, and those bound from BALF to include albumin and surfactant proteins A and D. The presence on DENP of a plasma-derived corona or one of purified fibrinogen failed to evoke an inflammatory response in macrophages. However, coronae formed in BALF increased DENP uptake into macrophages two fold, and increased nanoparticulate carbon black (NanoCB) uptake fivefold. Furthermore, a BALF-derived corona increased IL-8 release from macrophages in response to DENP from 1720 ± 850 pg/mL to 5560 ± 1380 pg/mL (p = 0.014). These results demonstrate that the unique protein corona formed on nanoparticles plays an important role in determining biological reactivity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Importantly, these findings have implications for the mechanism of detrimental properties of environmental nanoparticles since the principle route of exposure to such particles is via the lung. PMID:27027807

  16. Protein corona formation in bronchoalveolar fluid enhances diesel exhaust nanoparticle uptake and pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catherine A; Mortimer, Gysell M; Deng, Zhou J; Carter, Edwin S; Connell, Shea P; Miller, Mark R; Duffin, Rodger; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Minchin, Rodney F

    2016-09-01

    In biological fluids nanoparticles bind a range of molecules, particularly proteins, on their surface. The resulting protein corona influences biological activity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Corona composition is often determined by the biological milieu encountered at the entry portal into the body, and, can therefore, depend on the route of exposure to the nanoparticle. For environmental nanoparticles where exposure is by inhalation, this will be lung lining fluid. This study examined plasma and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) protein binding to engineered and environmental nanoparticles. We hypothesized that protein corona on nanoparticles would influence nanoparticle uptake and subsequent pro-inflammatory biological response in macrophages. All nanoparticles bound plasma and BALF proteins, but the profile of bound proteins varied between nanoparticles. Focusing on diesel exhaust nanoparticles (DENP), we identified proteins bound from plasma to include fibrinogen, and those bound from BALF to include albumin and surfactant proteins A and D. The presence on DENP of a plasma-derived corona or one of purified fibrinogen failed to evoke an inflammatory response in macrophages. However, coronae formed in BALF increased DENP uptake into macrophages two fold, and increased nanoparticulate carbon black (NanoCB) uptake fivefold. Furthermore, a BALF-derived corona increased IL-8 release from macrophages in response to DENP from 1720 ± 850 pg/mL to 5560 ± 1380 pg/mL (p = 0.014). These results demonstrate that the unique protein corona formed on nanoparticles plays an important role in determining biological reactivity and fate of nanoparticle in vivo. Importantly, these findings have implications for the mechanism of detrimental properties of environmental nanoparticles since the principle route of exposure to such particles is via the lung.

  17. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured "oral flora" species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in the

  18. Ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor-1α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after burn and inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Todd A; Davis, Christopher S; Bach, Harold H; Romero, Jacqueline; Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Gamelli, Richard L; Majetschak, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 ligands ubiquitin and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after burn and inhalation injury and whether their concentrations in BALF are associated with injury severity, physiological variables, or clinical outcomes. BALF was obtained on hospital admission from 51 patients (48 ± 18 years) with burn (TBSA: 23 ± 24%) and inhalation injury (controls: 10 healthy volunteers, 42 ± 8 years). BALF was analyzed for total protein and for ubiquitin and SDF-1α by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ubiquitin/SDF-1α levels were normalized to total BALF protein content. The extent of inhalation injury was determined during bronchoscopy using a standardized scoring system. Percent TBSA, Baux scores, revised Baux scores, and clinical variables were documented. Ubiquitin and SDF-1α were detectable in 40% of normal BALF specimens. After injury, ubiquitin was detectable in 90% (P patients (P burn and inhalation injury. Increases in BALF ubiquitin after inhalation injury may maintain CXCR4-mediated lung protection and repair processes. The finding that BALF ubiquitin decreased with higher grades of inhalation injury may provide a biological correlate for an insufficient local inflammatory response after severe inhalation injury.

  19. Reconstitution of CD4 T Cells in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kenneth S.; Vinton, Carol; Hage, Chadi A.; Kohli, Lisa M.; Twigg, Homer L.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Zwickl, Beth; Waltz, Jeffrey; Goldman, Mitchell; Douek, Daniel C.; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The massive depletion of gastrointestinal-tract CD4 T cells is a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV infection. In contrast, the depletion of the lower-respiratory-tract mucosal CD4 T cells as measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is more moderate and similar to the depletion of CD4 T cells observed in peripheral blood (PB). To understand better the dynamics of disease pathogenesis and the potential for the reconstitution of CD4 T cells in the lung and PB following the administration of effective antiretroviral therapy, we studied cell-associated viral loads, CD4 T-cell frequencies, and phenotypic and functional profiles of antigen-specific CD4 T cells from BAL fluid and blood before and after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The major findings to emerge were the following: (i) BAL CD4 T cells are not massively depleted or preferentially infected by HIV compared to levels for PB; (ii) BAL CD4 T cells reconstitute after the initiation of HAART, and their infection frequencies decrease; (iii) BAL CD4 T-cell reconstitution appears to occur via the local proliferation of resident BAL CD4 T cells rather than redistribution; and (iv) BAL CD4 T cells are more polyfunctional than CD4 T cells in blood, and their functional profile is relatively unchanged after the initiation of HAART. Taken together, these data suggest mechanisms for mucosal CD4 T-cell depletion and interventions that might aid in the reconstitution of mucosal CD4 T cells. PMID:20610726

  20. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:24329508

  1. Evaluation of PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: a bivariate metaanalysis and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkui Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR is emerging as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool. PCR assays on serum have the potential to be a practical diagnostic tool. However, PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF has not been well established. We performed a systematic review of published studies to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCR assays on BALF for invasive aspergillosis (IA. METHODS: Relevant published studies were shortlisted to evaluate the quality of their methodologies. A bivariate regression approach was used to calculate pooled values of the method sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall performance. We calculated the post-test probability to evaluate clinical usefulness. Potential heterogeneity among studies was explored by subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Seventeen studies comprising 1191 at-risk patients were selected. The summary estimates of the BALF-PCR assay for proven and probable IA were as follows: sensitivity, 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.79-0.96; specificity, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87-0.96; positive likelihood ratio, 11.90 (95% CI, 6.80-20.80; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.04-0.24. Subgroup analyses showed that the performance of the PCR assay was influenced by PCR assay methodology, primer design and the methods of cell wall disruption and DNA extraction. CONCLUSIONS: PCR assay on BALF is highly accurate for diagnosing IA in immunocompromised patients and is likely to be a useful diagnostic tool. However, further efforts towards devising a standard protocol are needed to enable formal validation of BALF-PCR.

  2. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  3. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  4. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR Β IN BLOOD SERUM AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Surkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Progressive obstruction and lung tissue remodeling comprise an important feature of the airways in COPD patients. The main processes involved in tissue remodeling in COPD are protease/antiprotease, oxidant/antioxidant imbalances, like as inflammatory and fibrotic events that contribute to development or progression of disease. TGFβ is a multifunctional growth factor that regulates synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, primarily collagen and fibronectin, thus inducing fibrosis of respiratory ways. The aim of our study was to determine levels of TGFβ in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of COPD patients. All the patients with COPD had increased levels of TGFβ in serum, as compared with subjects without COPD (p < 0.01, but there was no difference in TGFβ concentration between patients at different stages of disease. Increased phagocytic activity of blood monocytes was found in 81% of COPD patients, as compared to controls. Phagocytosis of apoptotic T­cells and bacterial infection of monocytes leads to increased secretion of TGFβ and it may cause higher levels of TGF β in peripheral blood. TGFβ concentration in BALF of patients at stage III of disease was higher than in the patients at stage II (p < 0.05. The level of TGFβ in BALF directly correlates with number of alveolar macrophages (r = 0.39; р = 0.03. These data indicate that TGFβ is involved in chemotaxis of macrophages in COPD patients’ airways. We conclude that increased secretion of TGFβ by peripheral blood monocytes may be a result of their high phagocytic activity. Hence, TGFβ mediates interactions between the two main components underlying lung tissue remodeling, i.e. fibrosis of respiratory airways, and development of emphysema in COPD.

  5. Distribution of Major Pathogens from Sputum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Yi Miao; Xiao-Bin Ji; Hai-Wen Lu; Jia-Wei Yang; Jin-Fu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Noncystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis remains as a common health problem in Asia.Pathogens' distribution in airways of patients with non-CF bronchiectasis is important for doctors to make right decision.Data Sources:We performed this systematic review on the English language literatures from 1966 to July 2014,using various search terms included "pathogens" or "bacteria" or "microbiology" and "bronchiectasis" or "non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis" or "non-CF bronchiectasis" or "NCFB."Study Selection:We included studies of patients with the confirmed non-CF bronchiectasis for which culture methods were required to sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).Weighted mean isolation rates for Haemophilus influenzae,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Streptococcus pneumoniae,Stapylococcus aureus,Moxarella catarrhails were compared according to different methodology.Results:The total mean bacterial culture positive rates were 63%.For studies using sputum samples,the mean positive culture rates were 74%.For studies using BALF alone or BALF and sputum,it was 48%.The distributions of main bacterial strains were 29% for H.influenzae,28% for P.aeruginosa,1 1% for S.pneumoniae,12% for S.aureus,and 8% for M.catarrhails with methodology of sputum.Meanwhile,the bacterial distributions were 37% for H.influenzae,8% for P.aeruginosa,14% for S.pneumoniae,5% for S.aureus,and 10% for M.catarrhails with methodology of BALF alone or BALF and sputum.Analysis of the effect of different methodology on the isolation rates revealed some statistically significant differences.Conclusions:H.influenzae accounted for the highest percentage in different methodology.Our results suggested that the total positive culture rates and the proportion of P aeruginosa from sputum and BALF specimens had significant differences,which can be used in further appropriate recommendations for the treatment ofnon-CF bronchiectasis.

  6. CD4+/CD25(high)/FoxP3+/CD127- regulatory T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osińska, Iwona; Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Polubiec-Kownacka, Małgorzata; Dziedzic, Dariusz; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the local lung cancer environment versus systemic immune response based on the examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) and peripheral blood (PB) from the same patient. 35 patients with lung cancer were investigated. Flow cytometry method with panel of antibodies: anti CD4/CD25/FoxP3/CD127 for Tregs identification was used. We observed significantly higher proportion of Tregs in the BALF than in PB (median 9.4 vs. 5.4%, penvironment may have therapeutic relevance in individual indication for anti-cancer immune-therapies. PMID:27474372

  7. Changes of Tumor Necrosis Factor, Surfactant Protein A, and Phospholipids in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in the Development and Progression of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the alterations of biomarkers in the development and progression of coal workers'pneumoconiosis (CWP). Methods The type and number of cells, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),pulmonary surfactant protein, phospholipids and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assayed in 14 health active coal miners, 21 coal miners without CWP and 13 miners with CWP of 0/1 to 1/1. Results Compared to active coal miners without CWP (8.23 μg/mL), TNF-α concentration was gradually decreased when dust exposure was stopped (5.90 μg/mL).Elevated surfactant protein A (SP-A) level and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to phosphatidylinositol (PI) ratio were found in miners actively exposed to coal dust (6528 ng/mL for SP-A and 10. for PG/PI), and both parameters decreased when CWP progressed from CWP (0/1) (3419 μg/mL for SP-A and 5.9 for PG/PI) to CWP (1/1) (1654 μg/mL for SP-A and 5.5 for PG/PI).Conclusion Biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid can be used to screen coal miners at high risk of developing coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

  8. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons characterizes bacterial composition in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Jun Yang,1,* Yan-Bo Wang,2,3,* Zhi-Wei Zhou,4,* Guo-Wei Wang,2 Xiao-Hong Wang,1 Qing-Fu Liu,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,4 Zhen-Hai Wang2,3 1Department of Intensive Care Unit, 2Neurology Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Ningxia, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a life-threatening disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity and likely mortality, placing a heavy burden on an individual and society. Currently available diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for VAP treatment are limited, and the prognosis of VAP is poor. The present study aimed to reveal and discriminate the identification of the full spectrum of the pathogens in patients with VAP using high-throughput sequencing approach and analyze the species richness and complexity via alpha and beta diversity analysis. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from 27 patients with VAP in intensive care unit. The polymerase chain reaction products of the hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene in these 27 samples of VAP were sequenced using the 454 GS FLX system. A total of 103,856 pyrosequencing reads and 638 operational taxonomic units were obtained from these 27 samples. There were four dominant phyla, including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. There were 90 different genera, of which 12 genera occurred in over ten different samples. The top five dominant genera were Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Limnohabitans, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, and the most widely distributed genera were Streptococcus, Limnohabitans, and Acinetobacter in these 27 samples. Of note, the mixed profile of causative pathogens was observed. Taken

  9. PCR as a diagnostic test method for deduction of H. somni on trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid from clinically normal calves and calves with pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J. M. D.; Angen, Øystein; Thomsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present field study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a species specific PCR test against Histophilus somni (earlier Haemophilus somnus). Trans-tracheal aspirated bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) from 56 clinically normal healthy calves and 36 calves that developed pneumonia were...... disease. Among diseased calves, 97% contained bacteria in the lower respiratory tract, all of them classified as pure culture or many pathogenic bacteria in mixed culture. BRSV was detected in 53% of the diseased calves. A comparison of H. somni specific PCR test to cultivation showed PCR to be most...... sensitive test. No significant relation between pneumonia and detection of H. somni by PCR could be demonstrated, whereas a clear significant correlation between pneumonia and detection of H. somni by cultivation was found....

  10. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A

    2015-03-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative.

  11. Effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats with pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; ZHANG, YUAN-XIA; ZHANG, CAI-QING

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ambroxol on the concentration of cefotaxime in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 54 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the normal control group, model group and ambroxol group. On experimental day 0, the rats were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) or sterile saline. The rats in the ambroxol group were then treated with ambroxol ...

  12. Evaluation of Lung and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Oxidative Stress Indices for Assessing the Preventing Effects of Safranal on Respiratory Distress in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of antioxidant activity of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus L., against lung oxidative damage in diabetic rats. The rats were divided into the following groups of 8 animals each: control, diabetic, and three diabetic + safranal-treated (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg/kg/day groups. Streptozotocin (STZ was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg for diabetes induction. Safranal was administered (i.p. from 3 days after STZ administration to the end of the study. At the end of the 4-week period, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and reduced glutathione (GSH contents, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissue. Safranal in the diabetic groups inhibited the level of MDA and NO in BALF supernatant and lung homogenate. The median effective dose (ED50 values were 0.42, 0.58, and 0.48, 0.71 mg/kg, respectively. Safranal in the diabetic groups increased the level of GSH and the activity of CAT and SOD in BALF supernatant and lung homogenate. The ED50 values were 0.25, 0.33, 0.26 in BALF and 0.33, 0.35, 0.46 mg/kg in lung, respectively. Thus, safranal may be effective to prevent lung distress by amelioration oxidative damage in STZ diabetic rats.

  13. Relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bacterial content in Gram's stain and bacterial content in final microbiological report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Gordana; Mihalić, Slavica Naumovski; Tesanović, Sanda Janković; Dvorsćak, Matea Bogdanović; Erceg, Gorjana; Krkusek, Marijana Rehorić; Bartolek, Dubravka; Jurić, Klara; Nassabain, Khaled; Budimir, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Eighty samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained from the total of 48 patients (22 females and 26 males) and analyzed. Eighteen of those patients were organ transplant recipients. The relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in direct sample and semi quantitative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial content were analyzed in BALF samples. PMN count in direct sample and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial content of the final microbiological report was compared as well. On the total number of samples PMN count in direct samples of BALF was statistically significant regarding the presence of Gram-positive bacteria in the same sample; it was nearly significant regarding the presence of Gram-negative bacteria; and it was statistically significant for the total bacterial content. If BALF samples are divided into those obtained from organ-transplant and those obtained from non-organ-transplant patients, positive, statistically significant relationship is found in the organ-transplant group, more specifically for the relationship between PMNs and total bacterial content. When PMN count in direct microbiological sample was compared with the results of the final microbiological report, statistically significant relationship was found neither with respect to all BALF samples, nor after dividing them into "organ-transplant" and "non-organ-transplant" group. We did not find differences caused by gender. PMID:20437633

  14. Aerosolized STAT1 Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Decrease the Concentrations of Inflammatory Mediators in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Bleomycin-Induced Rat Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zeng; Bin Liao; Chen Zhu; Wenjun Wang; Xiaoqin Zhan; Xianming Fan

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by releasing a variety of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. In addition, abnormal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activation in AMs may play a pivotal role in the process of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we transfected STAT1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASON) into rats by aerosolization, and then investigated the effect of STAT1 ASON on inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β, PDGF and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. Our results showed that STAT1 ASON by aerosolization could enter into lung tissues and AMs. STAT1 ASON could inhibit mRNA and protein expressions of STATI and ICAM-1 in AMs of rat with pulmonary fibrosis, and had no toxic side effect on liver and kidney. Aerosolized STAT1 ASON could ameliorate the alveolitis through inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory mediators in BLM-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that aerosolized STAT1 ASON might be considered as a promising new strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(3):219-224.

  15. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  16. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of clarithromycin, rifampicin and their main metabolites in horse plasma, epithelial lining fluid and broncho-alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Stefan; Peters, Jette; Venner, Monica; Siegmund, Werner

    2011-04-28

    Clarithromycin (CLA) is a well established macrolide antibiotic which is frequently used in therapy of airway diseases in foals. It is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 resulting in the antimicrobial active metabolite 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (OH-CLA). Rifampicin (RIF) is often comedicated to prevent resistance and augment therapy. RIF is a known inducer for metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins. Therefore, comedication might bare the risks of pharmacokinetic drug interactions which were investigated in a clinical trial. As no adequate method to determine CLA, RIF and their main metabolites OH-CLA and 25-O-desacetylrifampicin (DAc-RIF) were described so far, we developed a selective and sensitive assay to measure concentrations of all four substances simultaneously in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and broncho-alveolar cells (BAC) of foals. Drugs were measured after extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether using roxithromycin as internal standard and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for detection. The chromatography was done isocratically using 25mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4)/acetonitrile (45%/55%, flow rate 200μl/min). The MS/MS analysis was performed in the positive ion mode (m/z transitions: CLA, 748.5-590.1; OH-CLA, 764.1-606.1; RIF, 823.1-791.2; DAc-RIF, 781.1-749.1 and 837.3-679.2 for the internal standard). The method was validated according to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effects and stability. The validation ranges for all substances were 2.5-25 for the low and 25-250ng/ml for the high validation range. The described assay was shown to be valid and successfully applied to measure disposition of CLA, OH-CLA, RIF and DAc-RIF in plasma, ELF and BAC of foals in a clinical trial.

  17. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Utilized Ex Vivo to Validate In Vivo Findings: Inhibition of Gap Junction Activity in Lung Tumor Promotion is Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas; Osgood, Ross S; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Alexander, Carla-Maria; Upham, Brad L; Bauer, Alison K

    2013-12-27

    TLR4 protects against lung tumor promotion and pulmonary inflammation in mice. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction gene, was increased in Tlr4 wildtype compared to Tlr4-mutant mice in response to promotion, which suggests gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may be compromised. We hypothesized that the early tumor microenvironment, represented by Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) from Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; promoter)-treated mice, would produce TLR4-dependent changes in pulmonary epithelium, including dysregulation of GJIC in the Tlr4-mutant (BALB (Lps-d) ) compared to the Tlr4-sufficient (BALB; wildtype) mice. BHT (4 weekly doses) was injected ip followed by BALF collection at 24 h. BALF total protein and total macrophages were significantly elevated in BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) over BALB mice, similar to previous findings. BALF was then utilized in an ex vivo manner to treat C10 cells, a murine alveolar type II cell line, followed by the scrape-load dye transfer assay (GJIC), Cx43 immunostaining, and quantitative RT-PCR (Mcp-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1). GJIC was markedly reduced in C10 cells treated with BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) BALF for 4 and 24 h compared to BALB and control BALF from the respective mice (p < 0.05). Mcp-1, a chemokine, was also significantly increased in the BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) BALF compared to the BALB mice, and Cx43 protein expression in the cell membrane altered. These novel findings suggest signaling from the BALF milieu is involved in GJIC dysregulation associated with promotion and links gap junctions to pulmonary TLR4 protection in a novel ex vivo model that could assist in future potential tumor promoter screening. PMID:25035812

  18. [A case of legionellesis pneumonia verified by isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid treated with levofloxacine and tigecycline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstian, G M; Drokov, M Iu; Katrysh, S A; Kliasova, G A; Giliazitdinova, E A; Karpova, T I; Marakusha, B I; Tartakovskiĭ, I S

    2011-01-01

    A male patient received non-chemotherapeutic drugs which induced deep neutropenia complicated with sepsis, bilateral pneumonia, acute respiratory insufficiency. Artificial pulmonary ventilation was applied. The examination of bronchoalveolar lavage showed the presence of the culture L. pneumophila (serogroup 1) in a concentration 2 x 10(3) CFU/ml. Antibacterial therapy with levofloxacin in a dose 1000 mg/day was conducted. In a week not only L.pneumophila but also Acinetobacter baumanii was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage. Tigecyclin was added to levofloxacin treatment. Two air cavities were found in the left lung. The treatment reduced the size of these cavities, infiltrative changes in the lungs and respiratory insufficiency regressed. The patient was discharged from hospital This case is the first case in Russia of L.pneumophila isolation from bronchoalveolar lavage. The case is also characterized by use of tigecycline for treatment of combined legionella and akinetobacterial infection and cavities in the lungs in legionella pneumonia. PMID:21894754

  19. Relationship between the thickness of bronchial wall layers, emphysema score, and markers of remodeling in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Karolina; Soja, Jerzy; Jakieła, Bogdan; Plutecka, Hanna; Gross-Sondej, Iwona; Ćmiel, Adam; Mikrut, Sławomir; Łoboda, Piotr; Andrychiewicz, Anna; Jurek, Paulina; Sładek, Krzysztof

    2016-06-30

    INTRODUCTION    Airway remodeling plays an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT) and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), may be useful in the assessment of structural alterations in the lungs. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the severity of emphysema assessed by chest CT, the thickness of bronchial wall layers measured by EBUS, and the markers of remodeling in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 33 patients with COPD who underwent pulmonary function tests, emphysema score assessment by chest CT, as well as bronchofiberoscopy with EBUS in order to measure the total bronchial wall thickness and, separately, layers L1, L2, and L3-5. Selected remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, transforming growth factor β1 [TGF-β1]) and inflammatory markers (neutrophil elastase, eosinophil cationic protein) were measured in BALF samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS    MMP-9 levels in BALF were significantly higher in patients with very severe bronchial obstruction than in those with moderate and mild bronchial obstruction (P = 0.02), and showed a negative correlation with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = -0.538, P = 0.002). The thickness of L1 and L2, which histologically correspond to the mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle, demonstrated a positive correlation with TGF-β1 levels in BALF (r = 0.366, P = 0.046 and r = 0.425, P = 0.02) and the thickness of L1 showed a negative association with neutrophil elastase levels (r = -0.508, P = 0.004). There was no significant correlation between the analyzed markers in BALF and the emphysema score. CONCLUSIONS    Significant correlations of TGF-β1 and elastase with the thickness of bronchial wall layers, and of MMP-9 with the severity of

  20. Microscopic examination of intracellular organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia:a prospective multi-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Du Zhaohui; Zhou Qing; Hu Bo; Li Zhifeng; Yu Li; Xu Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of intracellular organisms (ICOs) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a possible method for rapid diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).However,the validity of this diagnostic method remains controversial and the diagnostic thresholds reported by investigators were different.Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of quantification of ICOs in BALF for the diagnosis of VAP,and to detect the best cutoff percentage of PMNs containing ICOs (PIC) in the microscopic examination of BALF for the diagnosis of VAP.Methods This was a prospective multi-center study conducted in 4 ICUs in Wuhan,China,which involved 181 patients suspected of first episode of VAP.BALF was obtained from all enrolled patients.The BALF samples underwent quantitative culture,cytological and bacteriological analysis to detect the culture results,PIC values and the morphological features of microorganisms.Definite diagnosis of VAP was based on pre-set criteria.The receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to detect the best cutoff point for PIG to diagnose VAP,and the diagnostic accuracy was calculated.Moreover,quantitative culture and Gram's stain of BALF were adopted to diagnose VAP,and their diagnostic accuracy was evaluated as well.Results There were 102 patients definitely diagnosed with VAP (VAP group),and 60 patients definitely diagnosed without VAP (no VAP group).We found that ICOs were present in 96.08% (98 out of 102) of VAP patients and 20.00% (12 out of 60) of no VAP patients.The PICs were significantly higher ((9.53±6.65)% vs.(0.52±1.33)%,P<0.01) in VAP group.In our study,the best cutoff point for PIC to diagnose VAP was 1.5%,which had a sensitivity of 94.12%,a specificity of 88.33%,a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.20% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 89.83%.The area under the receiveroperating characteristic curve was 0.956 (95% confidence interval,0

  1. Value of diagnosis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid PCT examination in health care-associated pneumonia%肺泡灌洗液 PCT 检测在卫生保健相关性肺炎的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启明; 罗红辉; 李佳; 李杰; 王春梅; 李芳芹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application value of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid procalcitonin (PCT)level examination in health care-associated pneumonia( HCAP). Methods:The clinical data of 68 HCAP patients,who were hospitalized in Meizhou Municipal People’s Hospital between June 2013 and February 2015,were retrospectively analyzed,and divided into severe pneumonia group( n = 26)and mild pneumonia group(n= 42). And a contemporary cohort of 68 healthy subjects was included as the control group. The lavage fluid was taken for PCT examination at 1,4,7d after antibiotics was used in HCAP patients during bronchoalveolar lavage,respectively. Meanwhile,serum PCT was examined. The dynamic changes of both data were compared. Results:Statistically significant differences were found in serum PCT concentration between severe pneumonia group,mild pneumonia group and the control group(P﹤0.05). The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid PCT was higher than serum PCT in HCAP patients(P﹤0.05). The area under the curve(AUC)of serum PCT and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid PCT was 0. 757 and 0. 972,respectively. Conclusion:Compared with serum PCT examination,the effect of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid PCT examination on HCAP is better.%目的:探讨肺泡灌洗液降钙素原(PCT)水平检测在卫生保健相关性肺炎(HCAP)中的应用。方法:回顾性分析2013年6月至2015年2月梅州市人民医院收治的68例 HCAP 患者的临床资料,其中重症肺炎组(26例)、轻症肺炎组(42例),同期68名健康体检者作为对照组;分别在 HCAP 患者使用抗生素1、4、7 d 行支气管镜下肺泡灌洗时取灌洗液行 PCT 检测,同时行血 PCT 检测,比较二者数据动态变化。结果:重症肺炎组、轻症肺炎组、对照组血清 PCT 浓度比较,差异均有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。HCAP 患者肺泡灌洗液 PCT 值始终高于血清 PCT 值(P﹤0.05)。血清 PCT 和肺泡灌洗液 PCT 曲

  2. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T;

    1997-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR......) for detection of CMV DNA. PCR detected CMV more frequently than did cultures of BAL fluid (PCR of BAL fluid, 53%; PCR of serum, 40%; and culture, 30%). In a multivariate model, development of extrapulmonary CMV disease was predicted by the finding of CMV in BAL fluid by culture (relative risk [RR], 8.......0; confidence interval [CI], 3.8-16.8) or the finding of CMV DNA in serum (RR, 7.4; CI, 3.2-17.3) or BAL fluid (RR, 8.0; CI, 3.1-20.7) by PCR. Mortality was found to be similar for patients who did or did not have CMV detected by either culture or PCR. Detection of CMV DNA by PCR was a more rapid and sensitive...

  3. Primary A (H1N1) pdm09 Influenza Pneumonia Diagnosed on Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid but not Rapid Tests with Nasopharyngeal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Tani, Mayuko; Nishitsuji, Masaru; Nishi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with a fever was highly suspected of having influenza A infection since his wife and son who lived with him had been diagnosed with influenza A. Although repeated rapid tests with a nasopharyngeal swab showed negative findings, the patient developed bilateral pneumonia and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive. We therefore diagnosed him with primary influenza pneumonia and initiated treatment with peramivir plus corticosteroids, which rapidly improved his condition. During the influenza season, sample collection from the lower airway and PCR should be considered for the definitive diagnosis of primary influenza viral pneumonia.

  4. Bronchoalveolar lavage with trypsin in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasaka, Y.; Takahashi, M; Ueshima, H; Tohda, Y.; Nakajima, S.

    1996-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis were treated with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) via a fibreoptic bronchoscope. Additional clinical improvement was seen when trypsin was added to the lavage fluid. Analysis of effluents in the BAL fluid showed marked reduction of protein constituents with clinical improvement after treatment with trypsin in the lavage. BAL with trypsin was well tolerated.

  5. Expression of IL-35 in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Tuberculosis%IL-35在结核患者肺泡灌洗液中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁春梅; 张军; 胡成进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression level of IL-35 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mononuclear cells in patients with active pulmoanry tuberculosis. Methods 80 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were admitted to this study. All patients were examined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were collected,and mononuclear cells were separated with Hypaque-ficoll method. The separated mononuclear cells were stimulated with extracts from inactive mycobacteria for 36h. Secretions of IL-35 in the culture supernatant of mononuclear cells were detected by IL-35 ELISA kit. mRNA level of IL-35 subunit IL-12a and EBI3 were detected by real-time RT-PCR. EBI3 subunit of IL-35 was detected by Western blot and Treg cells were detected by multicolor flow cytometry. Results The concentration of IL-35 in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mononuclear cells (BLFMC) was 76. 6 + 20. 1 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) ,(£=23. 07,P<0. 01). IL-35 expression was only observed in the culture supernatant of BLFMC by Western blot. mRNA level of IL-12a in BLFMC was about 6 folds of PBMC (t=18. 02,P<0. 01) and EBI3 were about 9 folds(£=17. 85,P<0. 01). Percentage of Treg cells in BLFMC were 12. 6%± 3. 3%,which was higher than in peripheral blood (4. 2%±1. 8%) ,(t=12. 24,P<0. 01). Treg cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid expressed a relative higher level of EBI3. Conclusion IL-35 could be detected in BLFMC (mainly Treg) in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis,which suggests that IL-35 play a regulatory role in the cellular immune reaction of My-cobactenum tuberculosis infection.%目的 检测IL-35在结核患者肺泡灌洗液中的表达.方法 80例诊断为进展期肺结核患者全部采用支气管镜检查,收集肺泡灌洗液和外周血,淋巴细胞分离液分离其中的单个核细胞,经50 μg灭活的结核杆菌提取物刺激36 h后,采用ELISA

  6. Clinical effects and bronchoalveolar transfer of levofloxacin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林耀广; 苏薇; 徐作军; 白彦

    2001-01-01

    @@To evaluate the clinical effects and bronchoalveolar transfer of levofloxacin (LVFX) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Twenty-eight outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were observed in an open-label, noncomparative study. The concentrations of levofloxacin in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured  by  high-performance  liquid  chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection in 10 patients and 15 non-levofloxacin users.

  7. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J;

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe......, but sensitivity dropped markedly with this system. A further 33 patients had both induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage performed and the induced sputum was analysed using PCR and routine microbiological methods. The PCR sensitivity on induced sputum was equal to that of routine methods. At present...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a relatively non-invasive technique used to obtain diagnostic samples from the lower airways of companion animals with respira¬tory disease. BAL is also commonly used in laboratory animals to assess pulmo¬nary changes after expos...

  9. 肺结核患者支气管肺泡灌洗液病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens isolated f rom bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁士标; 陈爱凤; 潘亚萍; 李召东

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens isolated from bronchoalve-olar lavage fluids of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis so as to provide guidance for the reasonable use of antibiotics and the control of nosocomial infections .METHODS From 2011 through 2012 ,the pathogens isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were retrospectively analyzed , and the statistical analysis was performed with the use of WHONET 5 .6 software .RESULTS Totally 310 strains of pathogens have been isolated from 443 bronchoalveolar lavage fluids specimens ,among which the gram-negative bacteria accounted for 96 .1% ,the gram-positive bacteria 3 .9% ;the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Acinetobacter bau-mannii ,Serratia marcescens ,K lebsiella pneumoniae ,and Proteus mirabilis were dominant among the gram-neg-ative bacteria ;the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were the predominant species of gram-positive bacteria .The drug resistance rates of the main gram-negative bacilli to ampicillin and cefazolin were more than 75 .0% ,amikcin less than 20 .0% ;the P .aeruginosa and A .baumannii were highly multidrug-resistant ,and the drug resistance rates to imipenem were 71 .1% and 94 .3% ,respectively .The gram-positive bacteria were com-pletely susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid ,and the detection rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus au-reus(MRSA) was 85 .7% .CONCLUSION The positive rate of pathogens in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is high in the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis ;most of the common species of pathogens are opportunistic pathogens and are highly drug-resistant .It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of bacterial resistance so as to guide the reasonable use of antibiotics and the control of nosocomial infections .%目的:了解医院肺结核患者支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)病原菌分布及耐药性,为合理用药和医院感染控制

  10. Intriguing bronchoalveolar lavage proteome in a case of pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafouri, Bijar; Persson, H Lennart; Tagesson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare interstitial lung disease associated with tobacco smoke exposure. New insights into its pathogenesis and how it differs from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be provided by proteomic studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Case Report: We present the BALF proteome in a biopsy-proven case of PLCH and compare it with typical proteomes of COPD and of the healthy lung. The BALF proteins were separ...

  11. 胸内结节病18F-FPG PET/CT与支气管肺泡灌洗液检查相关性分析%Correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with thoracic sarcoidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昱; 梁英魁; 冯华松; 段蕴铀; 聂舟山; 丁新民

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between 18fluorine deoxyglucose ( F-FDG) positron emission tomography/ computerized tomography(PET/CT) scan and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)in patients with thoracic sarcoidosis, and explore the mechanism of 18F-FDG uptake in sarcoidosis. Methods: Nineteen patients with thoracic sarcoidosis underwent18F-FDG PET/CT scan and BALF. The CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratio and serum angiotensin converting enzyme ( sACE ) , tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor ( sIL-2R) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were detected. F-FDG PET/CT scan was semi-quantitatively analyzed by maximum standardized uptake value ( SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake value ( SUVmean). The correlation between SUVmax, SUVmean, CD4+/CD8 + T cell ratio, sACE, TNF-α and sIL-2R levels was also analyzed. Results: SUVmax was significantly correlated to SUVmean( P < 0. 01 ) . SUVmax was significantly correlated to sACE ( P < 0. 01) and TNF-α ( P < 0. 01 ) , respectively; SUVmean was also significantly correlated to sACE ( P < 0. 01 ) and TNF-α ( P < 0. 01 ) , respectively. SUVmean was correlated to CD4 + /CD8+ T cell ratio (P <0. 05 ). Conclusions: The 18F-FDG uptake capacity is high in high load of sarcoidosis granuloma; its ability to 18F-FDG uptake may be associated with T cell activation. SUVmean may be superior to SUVmax in determining the activity of sarcoidosis.%目的:了解胸内结节病18氟-脱氧葡萄糖正电子发射断层显像/计算机断层扫描(18F-FDG PET/CT)检查与支气管肺泡灌洗液检查(BALF)相关性,探讨结节病摄取18F-FDG机制.方法:19例病理确诊胸内结节病患者行18F-FDG PET/CT检查及BALF,检测CD4+/CD8+ T细胞比值和血清血管紧张素转化酶(sACE)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)及可溶性白细胞介素-2受体(sIL-2R)含量,18F-FDG PET/CT用最大标准摄取值(SUVmax)和平均标准摄取值(SUVmean)半定量分析,并分别分析SUVmax和SUVmean与CD4+/CD8+ T细

  12. Clinical significance of the combined determination of Tumour markes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to diagnose lung cancer%肺泡灌洗液中肿瘤标志物的联合检测在肺癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍武; 宁洁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)3种肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白片段211(CYFRA211) 、神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)对肺癌的临床诊断价值.方法:采用电化学发光法分别检测90例肺癌患者、60例肺部良性病变患者血清及BALF中CEA、CYFRA 211和NSE的含量.结果:肺癌患者BALF中3种肿瘤标志物的含量明显高于肺部良性病变患者(P<0.05),且随着TNM临床分期升高,肿瘤标志物的含量也明显升高.在不同病理类型的肺癌中,3种肺癌肿瘤标志物升高的程度均有所不同.BALF中肿瘤标志物的含量与同期血清中的含量相比,出现更早且浓度更高.结论:肺癌患者BALF中CEA、CYFRA211、NSE联合检测对肺癌诊断有更高的临床参考价值.%Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 3 tumor markers [ carcinoma embryonic antigen ( CEA ),cytokeratin 19 fragments ( CYFRA211 ) and neuron specific enolase( NSE ) ]in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF )to diagnose lung cancer. Methods:The levels of CEA、 CYFRA211 and NSE in BALF and serum were measured in 90 patients with lung cancer and 60 patients with benign lung disease by electro chemiluminescence. Results: The levels of 3 tumor markers in BALF were much higher in lung cancer group than that in benign lung disease group ( P <0.05 ) and they were higher in patients in stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ than those in stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The tumor markers increased to different degrees among the patients in various pathological classifications. It was also found that the levels of these tumor markers were higher and more sensitive in BALF than those in serum. Conclusion:The measurement of tumor markers in BALF is of more significant value than the measurement in serum, which helps early diagnosis, pathological classification and prognosis evaluation of lung cancer.

  13. Instilación intratraqueal de elastasa en la rata: Cambios electroforéticos de la α1-AT-antitripsina en el lavado broncoalveolar Intratracheal instillation of elastase in the rat: Electrophoretical changes of alphal-antitrypsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA VECCHIOLA C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la antiproteasa alfa 1-antitripsina ( α1-AT constituye el principal inhibidor endógeno de la elastasa instilada por vía intratraqueal en modelos experimentales. Objetivo: Evaluar mediante electroforesis e inmunodetección por western blot, las distintas formas en que se encuentra la α1-AT en el lavado broncoalveolar (IBA de ratas Sprague Dawley después de la instilación de elastasa, con la hipótesis de que el aumento en la actividad antielastasa previamente encontrada se acompaña de niveles altos de α1-AT activa. Resultados: En las primeras horas post-elastasa la concentración de α1-AT en el IBA aumenta más de 7 veces, debido al aumento de la permeabilidad alvéolo-capilar, encontrándose tanto como proteína nativa (~ 52 kDa, como parte de complejos de mayor tamaño (> 75 kDa y > 100 kDa y como producto de proteólisis (α1-AT inactiva formando complejos, el aumento de la permeabilidad alvéolo-capilar contribuye a mantener niveles altos de α1-AT activa. Estos resultados podrían ser extrapolables a distintos procesos inflamatorios pulmonaresIntroduction: Endogenous alphal-antitrypsin ( α1-AT is the main inhibitor of the intratracheally instilled elastase in experimental animals. Objective: To evaluate by electrophoresis and immunodetection using western blot analysis, the different forms of α1-AT in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of Sprague Dawley rats after intratracheal instillation of elastase, with the hypothesis that the previously observed increment in antielastase activity is due to high levels of active α1-AT. Results: In the first hours after elastase instillation the concentration of α1-AT increases more than seven times due to an increase in alveolar-capillary permeability. α1-AT in BAIF is found as the native protein (~ 52 kDa, as complexes of different molecular sizes (> 75 kDa and > 100 kDa and as a proteolytic product (α1-AT in the inactive form as part of different complexes, the increase

  14. Clinical value of real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid%实时荧光聚合酶链反应检测支气管肺泡灌洗液结核分枝杆菌DNA诊断肺结核价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍; 覃林珍; 刘守江; 王健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨实时荧光聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)检测支气管肺泡灌洗液结核分枝杆菌脱氧核糖核酸(TB-DNA)诊断肺结核的临床价值。方法选取我院收治的115例肺结核患者作为研究对象,所有患者均进行支气管肺泡灌洗液TB-DNA检测、血清结核分枝杆菌特异性抗原(TB-SA)抗体检测、痰涂片抗酸染色镜检等。结果支气管肺泡灌洗液TB-DNA检测、血清 TB-SA 抗体检测、痰涂片抗酸染色镜检诊断肺结核的敏感度分别为65.2%(75/115)、50.4%(58/115)、20.9%(24/115)。支气管肺泡灌洗液检测 TB-DNA诊断肺结核的敏感度显著高于血清 TB-SA抗体、痰涂片抗酸染色镜检(均P<0.05)。结论采用 FQ-PCR检测支气管肺泡灌洗液 TB-DNA诊断肺结核具有较高的敏感度。%Objective To evaluate the value of real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR )for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in BALF obtained from 1 1 5 patients with tuberculosis pulmonary disease were detected by FQ-PCR, Tuberculosis specific antigen(TB-SA),and smear acid-fast respectivelly.The results were statistically analyzed.Results The sensitiveity of detection of mycobacterium was 65.2%(75/115)in FQ-PCR,50.4%(58/115)in TB-SA,20.9%(24/115)in smear acid-fast.The sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculos detected by FQ-PCR was higher than that by TB-SA and smear acid-fast.Conclusion The detection of TB-DNA in BALF by FQ-PCR could significantly improve the diagnosis sensitivity of pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  15. Study of Cytological Classification and pathogenic bacteria screening of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with refractory asthma%难治性哮喘患者支气管肺泡灌洗液细胞分类及病原菌筛查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠翠; 温明春; 杜秀伟; 王寒; 蔺兴娟; 张淑萍; 魏春华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To seek the cytological classification and airway pathogenic bacteria colonization,infection situation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with refractoryasthma.Methods Select 138 inpatients with refractory asthma which measure upto national standard,to test the BALF cells classification and bacterial culture through the bronchoscope alveolar lavage.Results ① The inflammatory cells classification of BALF:Neutrophile granulocyte 63.78 ± 30.02,Eosinophilic granulocyte 2.70 ± 4.04,Lymphocyte 5.93 ± 6.48,Alveolarmacrophages 27.21 ± 31.87,display neutrophils increased obviously.② Influence of pathogens on airway inflammation:the mean value of Neutrophils in patients with positive pathogens are an increase compared with patients with negative,but no statistically significant differences,Eosinophils mean value are low compared wiht patients with negative,the differences was statically significant (P < 0.01).③ The inflammatory cells classification of BALF:Classification standard by airway inflammation,138 cases of 24 cases of all the 138 cases are Eosinophil asthma,account for 17.38%,46 cases with Neutrophilic asthma,account for 33.33%,26 cases of Myeloid less asthma,18.84%,42 case with Mixed grain cell asthma,30.43%.General status in the group,Neutrophils group and few cell group have a longer course of disease,older ages,lower cortisol,smoking rateis higher in Neutrophils group.④Previous treatment condition of each inflammation type:patients in Neutrophils groupwith used much more systemic hormones are higher than the Eosinophils group,while the volume of inhaled steroids used less than eosinophils group.⑤Etiology test results:23 cases of pathogenic bacteria were checked out in 138 patients,account for 16.7%,Gram negative bacilli isolated from most of them,a total of 16 cases,percent of total pathogen detection 69.6%.Conclusions ① There is a special table types of airway inflammation cells in patients with refractory

  16. Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice with allergic asthma%旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘小鼠肺泡灌洗液中总IgE、IL-4及IL-5的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 孙奕; 闫玉文; 包春雨

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on total IgE,IL-4 and IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice with allergic asthma.Methods:A total of 15 female BALB/c mice aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into three groups,with 5 rats in each group:group Ⅰ as control group,group Ⅱ as allergic asthma group,group Ⅲ as asthma complicated with Trichinella spiralis infection.The animals in group Ⅲ were infected with 200-300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in order to establish Trichinella spiralis infection model.Twenty-eight days later,the mice in group Ⅱ and Ⅲ were stimulated with ovalbumin to establish allergic asthma model.After 56 days,all mice were killed and total IgE and cytokines levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were measured by ELISA.Results:The total IgE levels in group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were (43.70±29.49) ng/mL,(387.49±148.32) ng/mL and (102.50±49.55) ng/mL,respectively.The IL-4 levels in group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were (169.16±10.00) pg/L,(232.91±17.95) pg/L and (172.35±19.19) pg/L,respectively.IL-5 levels in group Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were (12.86±1.78) ng/L,(23.85±5.51) ng/L and (15.76±4.54) ng/L,respectively.Compare with group Ⅱ,the total IgE,IL-4 and IL-5 levels in group Ⅲ was significantly lower (P<0.05).Conclusions:Trichinella spiralis infection can inhibit expression of the total IgE,IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF from mice with allergic asthma.%目的:通过观察小鼠感染旋毛虫并诱发过敏性哮喘后,肺泡灌洗液中总IgE、IL-4及IL-5的变化,探讨旋毛虫感染对小鼠过敏性哮喘的影响.方法:将15只8周龄、BALB/c雌性小鼠,随机分为3组,每组各5只,Ⅰ组为空白对照组,Ⅱ组为单纯过敏性哮喘组,Ⅲ组为感染旋毛虫并发哮喘组.Ⅲ组小鼠经口感染200~300条旋毛虫囊包幼虫,建立旋毛虫感染动物模型模型.28 d后,以卵清白蛋白致敏(Ovalbumin,OVA)激发Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组小鼠,建立过敏性哮喘小鼠模型;56 d

  17. Cigarette smoking index and K-ras gene mutation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with lung cancer%吸烟指数与肺癌患者支气管肺泡灌洗液中的K-ras基因突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建祥; 陈锐; 童建

    2005-01-01

    背景:肺癌的高发与许多因素有关,吸烟是重要原因之一,及早诊断对肺癌治疗尤其重要.目的:探讨肺癌患者吸烟与支气管肺泡灌洗液中细胞K-ras基因突变的关系.设计:以患者为研究对象的随机对照实验研究.单位:一所大学放射医学与公共卫生学院卫生毒理学教研室,一所大学医院呼吸内科.对象:选择在苏州大学第二附属医院1999-07/2001-09住院及门诊接受经纤维支气管镜行支气管肺泡灌洗术并取得细胞学或病理学确诊的肺癌、良性疾病患者.方法:应用聚合酶链反应结合限制性片段长度多态性分析法,检测37例吸烟肺癌患者、25例非吸烟肺癌患者以及20例肺良性疾病患者支气管肺泡灌洗液中细胞K-ras基因第12位密码子突变的情况.主要观察指标:K-ras基因第12位密码子突变.结果:肺癌患者K-ras基因突变率为36%(22/62),肺良性疾病患者中未发现K-ras基因突变.重度吸烟者的突变率(69%)显著高于中度(31%)和轻度吸烟者(25%),以及非吸烟者(20%).突变的发生与患者的年龄及吸烟史相关,而与性别、TNM分型无关.结论:吸烟可能是导致K-ras基因突变的诱因之一;支气管肺泡灌洗液中K-ras基因突变的检测对预测吸烟者肺癌的发生和早期诊断,具有重要的临床价值.%BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been recognized as one of the high risk factors in carcinogenesis of lung cancer. Early diagnosis of lung cancer may be of clinical therapy value.OBJECTIVE: To explore the mutation of K-ras oncogene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) in order to reveal its relationship with cigarette smoking in lung cancer patients.DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial based on the patients.SETTING: Department of Toxicology, College of Radiology and Public Health of a university, and Department of Respiratory Medicine of a university hospital.PARTICIPANTS: The out-patients and inpatients in the Second Affiliated Hospital of

  18. Alterations of SP-A, SP-D and KL-6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia%肺表面活性蛋白A、D和KL-6在肺炎支原体肺炎患儿血清和支气管肺泡灌洗液中的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒林华; 尚云晓; 蔡栩栩; 宗志红; 孟晓娜; 张晗; 王植嘉; 代冰

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究肺表面活性蛋白A、D(SP-A、SP-D)和KL-6在肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)血清和支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中变化及意义.方法 采用自身对照的方法,根据肺CT影像结果对32例单侧肺实变MPP患儿血清、患侧和健侧BALF中SP-A、SP-D与KL-6进行检测和统计分析.结果 32例MPP患儿患侧BALF中SP-A、SP-D和KL-6含量分别为[mg/L,M(IQR)]:243(90~468),187 (43 ~ 333),148 (47 ~ 426);健侧分别为:104 (37 ~ 257),56(25~131),35(12 ~ 147);血清中分别为:35(25 ~69),33(9 ~149)和24(15 ~62).血清中KL-6与患侧和健侧BALF中KL-6的相关系数分别是-0.534和-0.378(P <0.05).结论 CAP患儿血清中SP-A、SP-D和KL-6水平变化与肺组织感染具相关性,血清中KL-6可能比SP-A、SP-D更为敏感.%Objective To study the alterations and relationship of surfactant protein (SP)-A,SP-D and KL-6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP).Method Self-control method was used for the study on SP-A,SP-D and KL-6 in serum,infected and non-infected BALFs in 32 MMP children with only one side of MPP.Result The contents of SP-A,SP-D and KL-6 in infected BALF were [mg/L; M (IQR)]:243 (90-468),187 (43-333),148(47-426) ;104(37-257),56(25-131),35(12-147) in non-infected BALF; 35(25-69),33 (9-149) and 24 (15-62) in serum.The correlation coefficient of KL-6 between serum and infected BALF were-0.534 and-0.378 (P < 0.05).Conclusion There were significant correlation between the alterations of SP-A,SP-D and KL-6 in serum and lung infection in children with CAP.KL-6 in serum may be more sensitive than SP-A and SP-D.

  19. 肺炎支原体肺炎患儿血清及支气管肺泡灌洗液中SP-A、SP-D和KL-6含量变化及意义%Alterations of SP-A,SP-D and KL-6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴玲彦; 赵红; 刘连凤; 刘彦霞; 杨秀丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the alterations and relationship of surfactant protein(SP)‐A ,SP‐D and KL‐6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in children with Mycoplasma pneumonia pneumonia (MPP) .Methods:Self‐control method was used for the study on SP‐A ,SP‐D and KL‐6 in serum ,infected and non‐infected BALFs in 32 MMP children with only one side of MPP .Results :The contents of SP‐A ,SP‐D and KL‐6 in infected BALF were 243(90‐468) ,187(43‐333) ,148(47‐426);104(37‐257) ,56(25‐131) ,35(12‐147) in non‐infec‐ted BALF;35(25‐69) ,33(9‐149) and 24(15‐62) in serum .The correlation coefficient of KL‐6 between serum and infected BALF were‐0 .534 and‐0 .378 .Conclusion:There are significant correlation between the alterations of SP‐A ,SP‐D and KL‐6 in serum and lung infection in children with CAP .KL‐6 in serum may be more sensitive than SP‐A and SP‐D .%目的:探讨肺表面活性蛋白A、D(SP‐A、SP‐D)和KL‐6在肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)血清和支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中变化及意义。方法:采用自身对照方法,根据肺CT影像结果对32例单侧肺实变MPP患儿血清、患侧和健侧BALF中SP‐A、SP‐D与KL‐6进行检测和统计分析。结果:32例MPP患儿患侧BALF中SP‐A、SP‐D和KL‐6含量分别为243(90~468)、187(43~333)和148(47~426);健侧分别为104(37~257)、56(25~131)和35(12~147);血清中分别为35(25~69)、33(9~149)和24(15~62)。血清中KL‐6与患侧和健侧BALF中KL‐6的相关系数分别是‐0.534和‐0.378。结论:CAP患儿血清中SP‐A、SP‐D和KL‐6水平变化与肺组织感染具相关性,血清中KL‐6可能比SP‐A、SP‐D更为敏感。

  20. Value of fluorescence quantitative PCR assay of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children%支气管肺泡灌洗液荧光定量PCR对儿童肺炎支原体肺炎诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟礼立; 彭力; 黄寒; 梁沫; 周琼华; 张兵; 李云

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨荧光实时定量PCR(FQ-PCR)检测肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中MP-DNA基因在肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)早期病原诊断中的价值.方法:采用FQ-PCR检测61例患儿BALF中MP-DNA,并与目前常用血清MP抗体检测方法颗粒凝集法进行比较.结果:FQ-PCR检测MP-DNA敏感度94%,特异度100%;病程早期及难治性病例中FQ-PCR检测BALF中MP-DNA准确性优于单份血清MP抗体检测(P<0.01).难治性病例中MP-DNA拷贝数显著高于普通MPP组(P<0.05),且与CRP呈正相关(r=0.845,P<0.01).结论:FQ-PCR检测BALF中MP-DNA是早期MPP特别是难治性MPP病原诊断的可靠方法,优于血清MP抗体检测.MP-DNA的拷贝量可以作为评价难治性MPP的转归以及判断药物疗效的指标.%Objective To study the value of fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)-DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the early diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP). Methods FQ-PCR was used to detect MP-DNA in BALF obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from 61 children with MPP, and the sensitivity and the specificity of FQ-PCR were compared with the traditional serological test. Results The sensitivity and the specificity of BALF FQ-PCR for detecting MP-DNA were 94% and 100% respectively. The accuracy of BALF FQ-PCR assay for detecting MP-DNA was higher than that of the serological test at the early stage of the disease (1-7 days) (P<0.01). In the children with refractory MPP, BALF FQPCR assay also showed higher accuracy for detecting MP-DNA than the serological test ( P < 0. 01 ). The copies of MPDNA in children with refractory MPP were significant higher than those in children with common MPP ( P <0.05). The copies of MP-DNA were positively correlated with CRP values ( r = 0. 845, P < 0.01 ). Conclusions FQ-PCR assay of BALF for detecting MP-DNA in BALF is superior to the serological test. It is a reliable method for the early diagnosis of MPP

  1. Effects of budesonide intratracheal instillation on the cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome%布地奈德气管内滴入对呼吸窘迫综合征早产儿肺泡灌洗液细胞因子水平的影响

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    储晓彬; 晏路标; 韩树萍; 郭锡熔

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨布地奈德(BUD)联合肺表面活性物质(PS)气管内滴入对机械通气的极低出生体质量儿肺部炎症因子的影响.方法 早产儿60例,胎龄<34周,出生体重<1500 g,生后4h内发生新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(RDS),实施机械通气.随机分为两组,每组30例.PS+ BUD组用PS 70 mg/kg+BUD0.25 mg/kg;PS组单用PS 70 mg/kg;生后30-60 min内气管内滴入.第1、3、5、7、10天测定肺泡灌洗液IL-1β、TNF-α、IL-6和IL-10.结果 用药第5、7、10天,PS+ BUD组的IL-1β、IL-6和TNF-α明显低于PS组(P<0.05),IL-10明显高于PS组(P<0.05).结论 联合应用BUD和PS可使机械通气RDS患儿肺部促炎因子表达下调,而抑炎因子上调.%Objective To investigate the effects of budesonide (Bud) intratracheal instillation on the cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods Sixty premature infants with gestational age <34 weeks and birth weight <1500 g sufferred from RDS within 4 hours after birth, who underwent mechanical ventilation and were randomly assigned into two groups with 30 cases each. The infants in group PS + BUD were given pulmonary surfactant (PS) 70 mg/kg+BUD 0. 25 mg/kg and those in group PS 70 mg/kg alone. The drug was intratracheally dropped within 30 to 60 minutes after birth. The interleukin (IL)1β (IL-1β), IL-6JL-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-a) in BALF were detected on the 1st ,3rd ,5th, 7th and 10th day after birth. Results Compared to group PS, the cotents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were lower,but those of IL-10 were higher, in group PS+BUD on the 5th, 7th and 10th day after birth (P<0. 05). Conclusion Combined use of Bud and PS can make the inflammation-suppressive cytokines upregulated and the proinflammatory cytokines downregulated in the lungs of premature infants with RDS.

  2. 旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘小鼠血清及肺泡灌洗液总IgE的影响%Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on total IgE levels in surum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice with allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马萍; 闫玉文; 邢杰; 于剑

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on allergic asthma, through the study of the change of total IgE levels in surum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) when the mice which were infected with Trichinella spiralis were suffering from allergic asthma. [Methods] Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups (six mice each), including A as control group, B as allergic asthma group, C as asthma followed by Trichinella spiralis infection. The animals in group C were intragastrically infected with 200-300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Four weeks later, ovalbumin (OVA) was used to induce allergic asthma for mice in group B and C, in order to establish experimental animal model. After eight weeks, all mice were killed and total IgE levels were measured in serum and BALF.[ Results] Total IgE levels were measured by ELISA. Total IgE levels from serum in group A, B and C were (61.79 ± 25.79) , (437.08 ± 75.68) , (251.64 ± 107.27) ng/ml. Total IgE level in group C was lower than that in group B (P< 0.05). BALF total IgE levels in group A, B and C were (43.70 ± 29.49), (387.49 ± 148.32), (102.50 ± 49.55) ng/ml. Total IgE level in group C was lower than that in group B (P < 0.05). [Conclusion] Trichinella spiralis infection can inhibit the total IgE level of mice with the allergic asthma.%通过研究旋毛虫感染小鼠在过敏性哮喘发病时血清及肺泡灌洗液中总IgE水平变化,探讨旋毛虫感染对过敏性哮喘的影响.[方法]取雌性、8周龄BALB/c小鼠,随机分为3组,A组为空白对照组,B组为单纯过敏性哮喘组,C组为感染旋毛虫后哮喘组.C组经灌胃感染旋毛虫囊包幼虫200 ~ 300条;4周后,以卵清白蛋白(ovalbumin,OVA)分别对B组和C组小鼠进行致敏激发,建立过敏性哮喘模型;8周后,取小鼠血清、肺泡灌洗液,检测总IgE水平.[结果]ELISA法检测血清中A、B、C组小鼠总IgE水平分别为(61.79±25.79)、(437.08±75.68)

  3. CORRELATION OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY WITH BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE AND BRUSH SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN PULMONARY LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL and Brush Cytology are important diagnostic tools for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. Considering the limitations of these procedures correlation of these cytological techniques may help in improving accuracy and increasing the diagnostic yield. AIM: To determine the role of FNAC, Brush and BAL Cytology in pulmonary lesions and to correlate the efficacy of FNAC with Brush and BAL Cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 78 patients with radiologically demonstrable pulmonary lesions in the department of pathology and Dr ML Chest Hospital, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur over a period from nov2011-july2013. The cases selected had to give consent for the procedure. Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brush sample were taken and FNAC was done in the cases. RESULTS: In present study 78 cases of pulmonary lesions were subjected to FNAC and/ or Bronchoalveolar lavage and brush cytology. Among them 49 cases were selected in which all three procedures were done. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting lung tumors by FNAC was 96.29% and 95.45% which was more than that of BAL cytology (84.61%, 91.30% and Brush cytology (81.48%, 95.45%. FNA correlates with Brush and BAL cytology in 78.57% of malignant lesions. Among malignant lesions 84.61% of BAL and Brush cytology correlates with FNA for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. FNA correlates with 66.67% of brush and 83.37% of BAL fluid cytology for diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. BAL and Brush both correlates with FNA in 83.33% cases of small cell carcinoma. Overall 85.71% of BAL and 82.14% of brush smear cytology correlates with FNA cytology for diagnosis of lung cancers. CONCLUSIONS: FNA, BAL and Brush cytology provide a high yield for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. BAL fluid and brush cytology correlated well with FNAC for diagnosis of lung cancers.

  4. Bronchoalveolar hemostasis in lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, G J; Van Der Sluijs, K F; Schultz, M J; Hofstra, J-J H; Van Der Poll, T; Levi, M

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced intrapulmonary fibrin deposition as a result of abnormal broncho-alveolar fibrin turnover is a hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and is important to the pathogenesis of these conditions. The mechanisms that contribute to alveolar coagulopathy are localized tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation, impaired activity of natural coagulation inhibitors and depression of bronchoalveolar urokinase plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis, caused by the increase of plasminogen activator inhibitors. There is an intense and bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammatory pathways in the bronchoalveolar compartment. Systemic or local administration of anticoagulant agents (including activated protein C, antithrombin and heparin) and profibrinolytic agents (such as plasminogen activators) attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy. Several preclinical studies show additional anti-inflammatory effects of these therapies in ARDS and pneumonia. PMID:23114008

  5. 益气化痰方对慢性阻塞性肺疾病大鼠肺泡灌洗液中AQP5、 TNF-α和MUC5AC的影响%Effect of Yiqi Huatan Decoction on Aquaporin 5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and MUC5AC in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立志; 单丽囡; 黄纯美; 陈创荣; 詹少峰; 钟亮环

    2016-01-01

    【目的】观察益气化痰方对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)大鼠肺泡灌洗液(BALF)水通道蛋白5(AQP5)及其上游信号通道调节因子肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和下游信号通道调节因子黏蛋白5AC(MUC5AC)的调节作用。【方法】选用SD大鼠,随机分为空白组,模型组,益气化痰方低、中、高剂量组(剂量分别为7.398、36.99、73.98 g·kg-1·g-1)。除空白组外,其他组均采用香烟熏结合脂多糖气管滴入法复制COPD大鼠模型。采用益气化痰中药煎剂治疗COPD大鼠30 d后取材,观察肺组织苏木精—伊红(HE)染色,采用免疫组织化学法观察AQP5、 TNF-α、 MUC5AC的表达,酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定大鼠肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中AQP5、 TNF-α和MUC5AC的含量。【结果】益气化痰汤各剂量组均可改善COPD大鼠的肺组织病理损害,减弱肺组织MUC5AC、 TNF-α表达,增强AQP5表达。与空白组比较,模型组肺组织BALF中AQP5浓度显著下降(P<0.01), TNF-α和MUC5AC浓度显著升高(P<0.01)。与模型组比较,益气化痰方低、中、高剂量组肺组织BALF中AQP5浓度显著升高(P<0.01), TNF-α和MUC5AC浓度显著下降(P<0.01)。与低、中剂量组比较,益气化痰汤高剂量组作用显著(P<0.01)。【结论】益气化痰方对COPD的疗效可能与水通道转运密切相关。%Objective To investigate Yiqi Huatan Decoction(YHD), a compound recipe with the actions of tonifying Qi and resolving phlegm, on aquaporin 5(AQP5), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α)and mucin 5AC(MUC5AC)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD)rats. Methods SD rats were randomized into blank control group, model group, and low-, middle- and high-dose YHD groups(in the dosage of 7.398, 36.99, 73.98 g·kg-1·d-1 respectively). The rat model of COPD was induced by cigarette smoking combined with intratracheal

  6. A preliminary study on the measurement of(1,3)-β-D-glucan in bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文柳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the measurement of(1,3)-β-D-glucan bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) for the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections. Methods A total of 135 patients in the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from February 2010 to February 2011 were

  7. The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung disease - is it really useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be a very useful tool in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, but BAL must be performed properly and the retrieved BAL fluid adequately processed and analyzed to allow accurate conclusions to be drawn from BAL analysis. A differential cell count of nucleated immune cells can show cell patterns that suggest or support certain diagnoses, and other testing (stains and cultures for infectious pathogens, malignant cell cytology) can be performed on BAL fluid that can also aid in diagnosis. When combined with the results of a careful history, physical examination, thoracic imaging, and other pertinent laboratory testing, the BAL analysis may allow a confident diagnosis of a specific interstitial lung disease to be made without proceeding to more invasive testing (e.g., surgical lung biopsy) that is associated with increased risk of complications.

  8. Proteomics as the Tool to Search for Lung Disease Markers in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Noël-Georis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most lung disorders are known to be associated to considerable modifications of surfactant composition. Numerous of these abnormalities have been exploited in the past to diagnose lung diseases, allowing proper treatment and follow-up. Diagnosis was then based on phospholipid content, surface tension and cytological features of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF, sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL during fiberoscopic bronchoscopy. Today, it appears that the protein content of ELF displays a remarkably high complexity, not only due to the wide variety of the proteins it contains but also because of the great diversity of their cellular origins. The significance of the use of proteome analysis of BAL fluid for the search for new lung disease marker proteins and for their simultaneous display and analysis in patients suffering from lung disorders has been examined.

  9. 支气管肺泡灌洗液细菌培养及药敏试验在儿童难治性肺炎诊治中的价值%Value of bacteria culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diagnosis and treatment of refractory pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立歆; 郭伟; 董汉权; 付卓; 宁静; 夏宇靖; 万莉雅

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALE)细菌培养及药敏试验在儿童难治性肺炎治疗中的应用价值.方法 选取2010年8月至2011年12月在天津市儿童医院呼吸科治疗,对常规抗感染治疗超过2周仍无效的难治性肺炎患儿368例进行纤维支气管镜检查,并行支气管肺泡灌洗,BALF做细菌培养和药敏试验.结果 181例患儿BALF细菌培养阳性,获得分离菌195株.其中革兰阳性菌10株(肺炎链球菌7株,金黄色葡萄球菌3株),占5.1%;革兰阴性菌48株,占24.6%,以铜绿假单胞菌为主(23株,占11.8%),其次为黏质沙雷菌、嗜麦芽窄食单胞菌(各6株,占3.1%);其中产酶菌2株,分别为金黄色葡萄球菌β内酰胺酶阳性及荧光假单胞菌AmpC酶阳性;白色念珠菌1株,占0.5%;寄生菌136株,占69.7%.革兰阳性菌对红霉素、青霉素、头孢呋辛均有较高的耐药性,对氯霉素、左氧氟沙星、万古霉素较敏感;革兰阴性菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟普遍耐药,对阿米卡星、头孢吡肟、头孢哌酮舒巴坦、美罗培南、亚胺培南、左氧氟沙星、头孢他啶、哌拉西林较敏感.73.2%的患儿存在混合感染,同时混合肺炎支原体感染最多.结论 经支气管镜取BALF培养致病菌,可获得相对准确的培养结果,药敏结果对临床治疗难治性肺炎有指导意义.%Objective To evaluate the value of bacteria culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) in diagnosis and treatment of refractory pneumonia in children.Methods Three hundred and sixty-eight patients who failed to a 2 weeks,routine antibiotic therapy,hospitalized in Department of Respiration,Tianjin Children's Hospital from Aug.2010 to Dec.2011,were diagnosed as refractory pneumonia.They were examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy,BALF was collected,and bacteria culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in BALF were performed.Results One

  10. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  11. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR for bacterial pathogens applied to bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strålin, K; Korsgaard, J; Olcén, P

    2006-09-01

    The present study assessed the diagnostic usefulness of a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed on 156 hospitalised adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 36 controls. BAL fluid was analysed with bacterial culture and mPCR. By conventional diagnostic methods, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were aetiological agents in 14, 21, 3.2 and 0% of the LRTI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by BAL mPCR in 28, 47, 3.2 and 0.6% of cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities of 86% for S. pneumoniae, 88% for H. influenzae, 100% for M. pneumoniae and 0% for C. pneumoniae, and specificities of 81, 64, 100 and 99% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, respectively. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to bronchoscopy, S. pneumoniae was identified by culture in 2.9% and by mPCR in 31%. Among the controls, mPCR identified S. pneumoniae in 11% and H. influenzae in 39%. In lower respiratory tract infection patients, bronchoalveolar lavage multiplex PCR can be useful for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. The method appears to be particularly useful in patients treated with antibiotics.

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with myeloproliferative syndrome with myelodysplasia: bronchoalveolar lavage reduces white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M; Gutierrez, Guillermo; Ascensao, Joao

    2006-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by surfactant component accumulation in the alveolar space. Primary PAP is likely an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). When an underlying disease causes PAP, this is called secondary PAP. Hematologic malignancies are an important cause of secondary PAP. As the pathogenesis of primary PAP has become more fully understood, improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have followed. However, when PAP is secondary to an underlying hematologic malignancy, much remains unclear. Here we describe for the first time a patient with hybrid myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative syndrome and PAP who had a marked decrease in her white blood cell count following a transbronchial biopsy accompanied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Similar significant decreases in WBC count accompanied clinical improvement following two unilateral BALs. Given that patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis frequently have elevated GM-CSF in bronchoalveolar fluid, this observation provides a unique vantage point to understand the pathophysiology of secondary PAP. PMID:16906593

  13. Elafin/elastase-specific inhibitor in bronchoalveolar lavage of normal subjects and farmer's lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, G M; Sallenave, J M; Israél-Assayag, E; Cormier, Y; Gauldie, J

    1996-10-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1(PI)) cannot fully explain the total neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitory capacity detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, suggesting the existence of other NE inhibitor(s). In the present study, we measured the concentrations of elafin, a newly described, low-molecular-weight serine proteinase inhibitor, SLPI, and alpha1(PI) in BAL fluids from eight healthy subjects, 13 asymptomatic farmers, seven farmers with active farmer's lung (FL), and seven farmers with previous (Ex) FL. In addition to SLPI and alpha1(PI), elafin was present in BAL fluids from control subjects and asymptomatic farmers, 13 (7-31) and 12 (7-67) mmol/mol of albumin (median and range) respectively. Elafin concentration increased significantly to 105 (38-207) mmol/mol of albumin in farmers with active FL and was also elevated in farmers with Ex FL. Elafin levels were highly correlated with lung inflammatory cell numbers, especially lymphocytes, and the decrease in single-breath diffusion capacity (DLCO). Elafin and SLPI were linked to yet uncharacterized proteins in BAL fluids. In conclusion, elafin is a constituent of BAL fluid from normal subjects and is found in enhanced concentrations in FL and in farmers with lymphocytic alveolitis. This suggests that elafin may play a role in lung homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:8887613

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary mycotoxicosis (organic dust toxic syndrome).

    OpenAIRE

    Lecours, R; Laviolette, M.; Cormier, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary mycotoxicosis (organic dust toxic syndrome) are described in which bronchoalveolar lavage was undertaken during the acute phase and after recovery. Both cases occurred after exposure to mould dust in a silo in the course of removing the top mouldy layer of silage or oats at the start of unloading. The workers suffered an acute febrile illness accompanied by cough and dyspnoea. One patient had impaired ventilatory function and both had arterial desaturation in the acute ...

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell profile in methotrexate induced pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Schnabel, A.; Richter, C. (Cornelia); Bauerfeind, S.; Gross, W. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumonitis is a rare but potentially life threatening side effect of methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis which needs to be distinguished from interstitial lung disease due to rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: To examine the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in diagnosing methotrexate pneumonitis, the BAL cell profile of four patients with methotrexate pneumonitis was compared with findings in 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate witho...

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  17. Elevated bronchoalveolar concentrations of MCP-1 in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyonaga, K; Suga, M; Yamamoto, T; Ichiyasu, H; Miyakawa, H; Ando, M

    1999-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology characterized by accumulations of lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli. The alveolar macrophages become increasingly foamy, and are thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of PAP. However, the mechanisms of macrophage recruitment are unclear. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of four patients with PAP and 20 normal control subjects, the following were examined: the monocyte chemotactic activity due to the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 with the use of a chemotactic chamber assay, the levels of MCP-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the MCP-1 expression on lavage cells by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. The monocyte chemotactic activity in the BALF of the PAP patients was markedly elevated, and the activity was completely absorbed by treatment with anti-MCP-1. The MCP-1 levels in the BALF were surprisingly high in the PAP group (25,100+/-472 pg x mL(-1)), whereas low levels of MCP-1 were detected in the normal control subjects (mean: never smokers 4.8; smokers 10.4 pg x mL(-1)). MCP-1 protein and messenger ribonucleic acid were expressed by macrophages from the PAP patients, and the expression was reduced according to foaming of the cells; there were monocyte-like macrophages with strong expression, small foamy cells with moderate expression, large foamy cells with a faint expression of MCP-1, and ghost cells with no expression. However, the increase of macrophage number in the PAP BALF was relatively small. These data suggest that monocyte chemoattractant protein(-1) expression by alveolar macrophages represents an amplification mechanism for the recruitment of additional macrophages to the alveoli in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. It is possible that an ingestion of an excess of alveolar materials in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may impair the macrophage function and the survival, resulting in the lack of a prominent

  18. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrens Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark.

  19. The utility of bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in the diagnosis of silicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used analytical electron microscopic techniques, including energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, to evaluate a patient with diffuse infiltrates and a history of silica exposure. We identified silica particles in digested bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, sectioned alveolar macrophages recovered by lavage, and parenchymal specimens obtained by transbronchial biopsy. This analysis confirmed our clinical suspicion (a sporadic case of accelerated silicosis) and eliminated the need for additional, more complicated, diagnostic procedures

  20. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO2 decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages

  1. Extracellular cadmium in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with and without COPD and its association with inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Ji, Jie; Levänen, Bettina; Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena; Lindén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco contains cadmium, and this metal has been attributed a causative role in pulmonary emphysema among smokers, although extracellular cadmium has not to date been quantified in the bronchoalveolar space of tobacco smokers with or without COPD. We determined whether cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with or without COPD in vivo, its association with inflammation, and its effect on chemokine release in macrophage-like cells in vitro. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), sputum, and blood samples were collected from current, long-term smokers with and without COPD and from healthy nonsmokers. Cadmium concentrations were determined in cell-free BAL fluid using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blood monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed to cadmium chloride in vitro. Depending upon the type of sample, molecular markers of inflammation were quantified either as protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or as mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction). Cadmium concentrations were markedly increased in cell-free BAL fluid of smokers compared to that of nonsmokers (n=19–29; P<0.001), irrespective of COPD. In these smokers, the measured cadmium displayed positive correlations with macrophage TNF-α mRNA in BAL, neutrophil and CD8+ cell concentrations in blood, and finally with IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9 protein in sputum (n=10–20; P<0.05). The cadmium chloride exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular IL-8 protein in monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, extracellular cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term smokers and displays pro-inflammatory features. Its pathogenic role in tobacco-induced disease deserves further evaluation. PMID:27274222

  2. Mycological Microscopic and Culture Examination of 400 Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Geramishoar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of invasive opportunistic mycoses has increased significantly over the past decades especially in immunocompromised patients. Invasive aspergillosis (IA has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. As bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples are generally useful specimens in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA, this study was designed to evaluate the incidence of fungal elements in at-risk patients by direct microscopy and culture of BAL samples.Methods: In a 16-month period, 400 BAL samples were obtained from several groups of different patients with pulmonary and respiratory disorders and examined by using both direct microscopy and culture.Results: Of the 400 samples, 16 (4% were positive direct examination with branching septate hyphae and 46 (11.5% were positive culture: 25 (54% Aspergillus flavus, 6 (13% A. fumigatus, 5 (10.9% A. niger, 1 (2.2% A. terreus, 3 (6.5% Penicillium spp. and 6 (13% mixed A. flavus/A. niger. A. flavus was the most common cause of Aspergillus infection or colonization. Bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients were the most susceptible group to fungal infection and/or colonization.Conclusion: Among Aspergillus species, A. flavus was the most common isolate in both infections and colonization in Iran. More studies are needed to clarify the epidemiological aspect of aspergillosis in Iran.

  3. Occult exposure to asbestos in steel workers revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corhay, J.-L.; Delavignette, J.-P.; Bury, T.; Saint-Remy, P.; Radermecker, M.-F. (CHU, Liege (Belgium))

    To investigate the asbestos burden in a steelplant environment, we counted asbestos bodies (ABs) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 65 steel workers who had retired during the previous 5 y. They had worked for at least 15 y in the same area of the plant (coke oven or blast furnace) as maintenance or production workers. On the basis of occupational anamnesis, 28 had occasional past professional exposure to asbestos; the remaining 37 workers denied any contact with asbestos. A total of 54 white-collar workers who had no occupational exposure to asbestos were included in the study as controls. An increased prevalence and concentration of ABs was found in the BALF of steel workers. Electron microscopy and EDAX analysis of AB from steel workers revealed that the core fibers were mainly amphiboles. More ABs were found in the BALF of maintenance workers than in production workers. However, the BALF from steel workers who denied any contact with asbestos revealed an increased AB burden v. controls. This demonstrates that steel workers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the steelplant environment.

  4. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Immunoallergologic tests and bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet-Chatelain, G; Prevost, M C; Escamilla, R; Migueres, J

    1991-02-01

    Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary toxicity but with a main underlying pulmonary disease, and four healthy volunteers. Daily and cumulative doses or duration of treatment were similar in the first two groups. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, CO-diffusing capacity, arterial blood gases), roentgenographic examinations, pulmonary biopsies or immunoallergologic tests (skin reaction, lymphoblastic transformation test and human basophile degranulation test) did not provide any discriminatory element. In APT+, we observed an increased cellularity of the bronchoalveolar lavage. Neither the differential cell count nor the presence of foamy macrophages were distinguishable between APT+ and APT-. The phospholipid composition of BAL fluid showed a decreased total phospholipid and phospholipid/protein ratio in all patients compared to normal subjects. These changes reflect more the severity of pulmonary disease than the specificity of the causative agent. However, we observed that the unique PL which decreases in APT- and remains normal in APT+ is phosphatidyl-serine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI). This has to be confirmed and should be evaluated at different stages of the disease to determine an eventual specific element. We conclude that there are no data currently available to establish the diagnosis of APT except perhaps for the analysis of BAL PL content.

  5. Accurate quantification of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltini, C; Hance, A J; Ferrans, V J; Basset, F; Bitterman, P B; Crystal, R G

    1984-10-01

    Quantification of the differential cell count and total number of cells recovered from the lower respiratory tract by bronchoalveolar lavage is a valuable technique for evaluating the alveolitis of patients with inflammatory disorders of the lower respiratory tract. The most commonly used technique for the evaluation of cells recovered by lavage has been to concentrate cells by centrifugation and then to determine total cell number using a hemocytometer and differential cell count from a Wright-Glemsa-stained cytocentrifuge preparation. However, we have noted that the percentage of small cells present in the original cell suspension recovered by lavage is greater than the percentage of lymphocytes identified on cytocentrifuge preparations. Therefore, we developed procedures for determining differential cell counts on lavage cells collected on Millipore filters and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (filter preparations) and compared the results of differential cell counts performed on filter preparations with those obtained using cytocentrifuge preparations. When cells recovered by lavage were collected on filter preparations, accurate differential cell counts were obtained, as confirmed by performing differential cell counts on cell mixtures of known composition, and by comparing differential cell counts obtained using filter preparations stained with hematoxylin-eosin with those obtained using filter preparations stained with a peroxidase cytochemical stain. The morphology of cells displayed on filter preparations was excellent, and interobserver variability in quantitating cell types recovered by lavage was less than 3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6385789

  6. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child: HRCT findings before and after bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child before and after bronchoalveolar lavage. The CT pattern in our case differs from the pattern described in previous reports. We found a more homogeneous distribution of the pulmonary changes and a ''crazy paving'' pattern. High-resolution CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this rare disease and in the follow-up of the pulmonary changes after bronchoalveolar lavage. (orig.)

  7. Bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential on microscope glass cover. A simple and accurate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviolette, M.; Carreau, M.; Coulombe, R.

    1988-08-01

    We describe a quick and easy technique to perform cell differentials on bronchoalveolar lavage: the microscope glass cover. Lavage fluids of 72 subjects were analyzed by 3 techniques: glass cover, filter, and cytocentrifuge preparations. Seventy-seven other lavages were analyzed by glass cover and cytocentrifuge preparations alone. Data for the 72 subjects studied by all 3 techniques showed that the cell counts on glass cover and filter preparations were similar, e.g., lymphocytes, 19.2% (range, 0.5 to 94%) and 20.9% (range, 3 to 95%), respectively (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.98). However, on cytocentrifuge preparations, lymphocyte counts were lower (8.3%; range, zero to 87%) and macrophage counts were higher (p less than 0.005). Comparison of glass cover and cytocentrifuge preparation mixtures with varying amounts (20 to 80%) of purified blood leukocytes labeled with 51Cr (greater than or equal to 72% lymphocytes) showed that a significant amount of radioactive cells was lost during the cytocentrifuge technique in contrast to the glass cover technique. Because neutrophils represented a low proportion of lavage cells, we also evaluated cell suspensions with known neutrophil contents (10 to 70%); we found no difference in neutrophil counts obtained with the 3 techniques. Lavage data analysis of 40 young nonsmoking volunteers showed that glass cover lymphocyte count was also higher than counts on cytocentrifuge preparations: 16.5% (range, 3 to 45%) and 8.2% (range, 2.5 to 35%), respectively. In this group, the distribution of glass cover lymphocyte percentages was normal (p = 0.21, chi 2 test), and the one-tailed 95% confidence interval was 18.6 to 34.7% (mean plus 1.65 standard deviation).

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage of familial and sporadic cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, A; Bargagli, E; Landi, C; Bennett, D; Bianchi, L; Gagliardi, A; Carnemolla, C; Perari, M G; Cillis, G; Armini, A; Bini, L; Rottoli, P

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the alveolar integrity. Among IPF identified phenotypes, that of familial (f-)IPF is usually associated with several gene mutations which are seldom observed in sporadic (s-)IPF. This study aimed at investigating the molecular patterns and variability in f-IPF and s-IPF patients through a differential proteomic analysis. Protein patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 10 familial and 17 sporadic IPF patients were compared using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to proteomic data and an enrichment analysis was also performed to characterize specific pathogenic mechanisms and to identify potential biomarkers. BALF samples from f-IPF showed 87 protein spots differentially expressed than those from s-IPF samples; once identified, these spots revealed 22 unique proteins. The functional analysis showed that the endothelial reticulum stress probably plays a central pathogenetic role in f-IPF with an up-regulation of proteins involved in wounding and immune responses, coagulation system, and ion homeostasis. Up-regulated proteins in the s-IPF group were those involved in the oxidative stress response. PCA analysis of differentially expressed proteins clearly distinguished f-IPF from s-IPF patients, and in agreement with radiological and histological patterns, pointed out a higher heterogeneity in f-IPF than s-IPF samples. The 'Slit/Robo signaling', 'clathrin-coated vesicle' and 'cytoskeleton remodelling', were extrapolated by 'pathways analysis' and the results of 'diseases (by biomarkers)' highlighted a 'connective tissue and autoimmune disease', two aspects of increasing interest in IPF. PMID:27082636

  9. Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Klaus F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. M1 and M2 macrophages constitute subpopulations displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that smoking cessation affects macrophage heterogeneity in the lung of patients with COPD. Our aim was to study macrophage heterogeneity using the M2-marker CD163 and selected pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and induced sputum from current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Methods 114 COPD patients (72 current smokers; 42 ex-smokers, median smoking cessation 3.5 years were studied cross-sectionally and underwent sputum induction (M/F 99/15, age 62 ± 8 [mean ± SD] years, 42 (31-55 [median (range] packyears, post-bronchodilator FEV1 63 ± 9% predicted, no steroids past 6 months. BAL was collected from 71 patients. CD163+ macrophages were quantified in BAL and sputum cytospins. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in BAL and sputum supernatants. Results Ex-smokers with COPD had a higher percentage, but lower number of CD163+ macrophages in BAL than current smokers (83.5% and 68.0%, p = 0.04; 5.6 and 20.1 ×104/ml, p = 0.001 respectively. The percentage CD163+ M2 macrophages was higher in BAL compared to sputum (74.0% and 30.3%, p + BAL macrophages (Rs = 0.38, p = 0.003. No significant differences were found between smokers and ex-smokers in the levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8, and anti-inflammatory (elafin, and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor [SLPI] mediators in BAL and sputum. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking cessation partially changes the macrophage polarization in vivo in the periphery of the lung towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, which is not accompanied by a decrease in inflammatory parameters.

  10. Quantitative culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TR; Korsgaard, Jens; Møller, Jens Kjølseth;

    2001-01-01

    were investigated. Results were compared to the findings in eight healthy control persons investigated in February 1998. There was no difference between study patients and control persons when quantitative culture of total cumulative bacterial findings or bacteria categorized as members...... of the oropharyngeal normal flora were compared. The culture of normal flora in bronchial washings probably reflects contamination of the lower airways with secretions from upper arways by the fibreoptic procedure itself, as fractionated sampling showed a 10-fold reduct on in quantitative culture results when...... a primary bronchial washing was compared to a secondary sampling from the same bronchus in the control group. Twenty-four (36%) of 67 patients were cultured as positive in the study group while all control persons were cultured as negative for bacteria categorized as potential pathogens. With a threshold...

  11. Bronchoalveolar casting using formalin-fixed canine lungs and a low viscosity silicone rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettum, J A

    1993-06-01

    A method for creating tough, flexible, bronchoalveolar casts from formalin-fixed canine lung is described. A lung was washed using simple methods and fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. While still wet with formalin, an intact lobe was injected with silicone sealant, Silastic 734 RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing), using a caulk gun. Following digestion with protease and corrosion with potassium hydroxide, a bronchoalveolar cast was recovered giving detail as shown using scanning electron microscopy or conveniently seen by stereo light microscopy. This method should be useful for micro-anatomy studies of normal and diseased lungs. PMID:8393308

  12. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child: HRCT findings before and after bronchoalveolar lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zontsich, T.; Helbich, T.H.; Herold, C.J. [Department of Radiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Wojnarovsky, C.; Eichler, I. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-01

    We demonstrate the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a child before and after bronchoalveolar lavage. The CT pattern in our case differs from the pattern described in previous reports. We found a more homogeneous distribution of the pulmonary changes and a ``crazy paving`` pattern. High-resolution CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this rare disease and in the follow-up of the pulmonary changes after bronchoalveolar lavage. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  13. Extracellular cadmium in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with and without COPD and its association with inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundblad BM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie Sundblad,1,* Jie Ji,1,* Bettina Levänen,1 Klara Midander,2 Anneli Julander,2 Kjell Larsson,1 Lena Palmberg,1 Anders Lindén1 1Unit for Lung and Airway Research, 2Unit for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tobacco contains cadmium, and this metal has been attributed a causative role in pulmonary emphysema among smokers, although extracellular cadmium has not to date been quantified in the bronchoalveolar space of tobacco smokers with or without COPD. We determined whether cadmium is enhanced in the bronchoalveolar space of long-term tobacco smokers with or without COPD in vivo, its association with inflammation, and its effect on chemokine release in macrophage-like cells in vitro. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, sputum, and blood samples were collected from current, long-term smokers with and without COPD and from healthy nonsmokers. Cadmium concentrations were determined in cell-free BAL fluid using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blood monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed to cadmium chloride in vitro. Depending upon the type of sample, molecular markers of inflammation were quantified either as protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or as mRNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cadmium concentrations were markedly increased in cell-free BAL fluid of smokers compared to that of nonsmokers (n=19–29; P<0.001, irrespective of COPD. In these smokers, the measured cadmium displayed positive correlations with macrophage TNF-α mRNA in BAL, neutrophil and CD8+ cell concentrations in blood, and finally with IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9 protein in sputum (n=10–20; P<0.05. The cadmium chloride exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular IL-8 protein in monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. In conclusion, extracellular cadmium is enhanced in the

  14. Severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from tuberculosis correlates with bronchoalveolar lavage CXCL-8 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adcock, I.M.; Hashemian, S.M.R.; Mortaz, E.; Masjedi, M.R.; Folkerts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has previously been linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here this study investigates the link between inflammation and TB in ARDS by measuring inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 90 patients with TB or ARDS alone and in

  15. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J;

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe...

  16. Isolation of Mycoplasma species from bronchoalveolar lavages of patients positive and negative for human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Teel, L D; Finelli, M R; Johnson, S C

    1994-01-01

    The rates of isolation of Mycoplasma species from bronchoalveolar lavages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and HIV-negative patients were compared. Mycoplasma species were more frequently isolated from HIV-positive patients. In most cases, a known pulmonary pathogen was also identified. All samples tested negative for Mycoplasma fermentans by PCR.

  17. Diagnostic usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage, Ga scintigraphy and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in granulomatous lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in 26 sarcoid patients, 8 patients with farmer's lung, 10 healthy controls and 10 control patients. The investigations by Ga scintigraphy or transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and measurement of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity were also carried out in 21 sarcoid patients and 8 patients with farmer's lung. 1) Percentage of foamy cells in alveolar ma crophage fraction, percentage of lymphocytes and number of mast cells were increased significantly in BLA fluid from patients with farmer's lung as compared with that from sarcoid patients. Analysis of cellular component of BAL flu id is useful for differential diagnosis of these diseases. 2) Granulomatous lung lesions were frequently observed in specimens obtained by TBLB from patients with sarcoidosis and farmer's lung who showed abnormal Ga uptake in lung. In contrast, there was no significant difference in percentage of lymphocytes in BAL fluid between patients whose pulmonary Ga uptake was positive and those in whom pulmonary Ga uptake was negative. To investigate the mechanism of pulmonary Ga accumulation in granulomatous lung disease, BAL was performed in 2 sarcoid patients and 3 patients with farmer's lung at 48 to 72 hrs after Ga injection. The radioactivity in cell fractions was evaluated at 96 hrs after Ga injection. Most of the radioactivity was found in macrophages, with little in lymphocytes. Pulmonary Ga uptake in patients with sarcoidosis and farmer' s lung reflects granuloma formation or accumulation of activated macrophages in lung, but not the intensity of T-cell alveolitis. 3) Some relationship among SACE, granulomatous lung lesions in specimens obtained by TBLB and abnormal Ga accumulation in lung or hilar lymphnodes in sarcoid patients was observed, suggesting that SACE might reflect the degree of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis. (J.P.N.)

  18. Comparison of gallium-67 scanning, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Predicting response to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level determination prior to treatment with corticosteroids. Pulmonary function was tested before and after therapy. Increase in vital capacity after treatment ranged from 40 to 1,030 ml; 12 of the 16 patients studied had an increase of more than 200 ml. There was a close correlation between the percentage uptake of gallium scan and the increase of the vital capacity after therapy (r . 0.95, p less than 0.01). There was no relationship between the percentage of lymphocytes obtained on lavage and the changes in vital capacity with therapy (r . 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the changes in vital capacity and the ratio of T4(+):T8(+)lymphocytes (r . 0.62, p less than 0.05) and number of T4 (+) lymphocytes (r . 0.92, p less than 0.01) in the bronchoalveolar fluid. There was a low correlation between the pretreatment ACE level and the change in vital capacity (r . 0.368, p greater than 0.05)

  19. Effects of 0.60 ppm nitrogen dioxide on circulating and bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte phenotypes in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether ambient levels of NO2 alter circulating and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) human lymphocytes, five healthy nonsmoking adult volunteers were exposed to 0.60 ppm NO2 for 2 hr with intermittent light to moderate exercise on 4 separate days within a 6-day period. The authors measured standard tests of pulmonary function and had the subjects rate the severity of respiratory symptoms before and after each NO2 exposure. Circulating and BALF lymphocytes were labeled with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte antigens and a flow cytometer was used to count lymphocyte subtypes. Neither any single day's exposure nor all four exposures caused a change in symptoms or in the results of tests of pulmonary function. The total number of circulating lymphocytes obtained after NO2 exposure was slightly greater than at baseline but the proportions of lymphocyte subtypes did not differ. In the BALF obtained after NO2 exposure and in the baseline state, the total number of lymphocytes and the percentages of T cells, B cells, T cytotoxic-suppressor cells, T helper-inducer cells, and large granular lymphocytes also did not differ after NO2 exposure. A slightly but significantly greater proportion of natural killer cells was found in the BALF obtained after NO2 exposure. They conclude that repeated exposures of healthy nonsmoking adults of 0.60 ppm NO2 are not associated with clinically significant symptoms, changes in airway caliber, or alterations in circulating and BALF lymphocyte subtypes

  20. Rapid detection of fungal pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage samples using panfungal PCR combined with high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, Matej; Lengerova, Martina; Ricna, Dita; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Kocmanova, Iva; Volfova, Pavlina; Drgona, Lubos; Poczova, Miroslava; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), mortality rates remain high. Moreover, due to the expanding spectrum of causative agents, fast and accurate pathogen identification is necessary. We designed a panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which targets the highly variable ITS2 region of rDNA genes and uses high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for subsequent species identification. The sensitivity and specificity of this method was tested on a broad spectrum of the most clinically important fungal pathogens including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and mucormycetes. Despite the fact that fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is one of the most frequently tested materials there is a lack of literature sources aimed at panfungal PCR as an IFD diagnostic tool from BAL samples. The applicability of this method in routine practice was evaluated on 104 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients. Due to high ITS region variability, we obtained divergent melting peaks for different fungal species. Thirteen out of 18 patients with proven or probable IFD were positive. Therefore, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of our method were 67%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. In our assay, fungal pathogens identification is based on HRM, therefore omitting the expensive and time consuming sequencing step. With the high specificity, positive and negative predictive values, short time needed to obtain a result, and low price, the presented assay is intended to be used as a quick screening method for patients at risk of IFD. PMID:27161789

  1. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  2. The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Wells

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has been used in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in diffuse parenchymal lung disease for three decades and has a central role in the diagnosis of a number of rare disorders and in excluding opportunistic infection in treated patients. It also has an important place in the personal diagnostic algorithms of many experienced clinicians in the diagnosis of the more prevalent disorders, including sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This use of BAL is not well captured in the medical literature, as most published studies pre-date changes in disease classification and fail to integrate BAL data with other clinical and radiological information. Further studies to quantify the value added by bronchoalveolar lavage in routine practice are urgently required.

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Cattamanchi

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. However, assessment of local immune responses has been reported to improve the accuracy of TB diagnosis.We enrolled HIV-infected adults with cough ≥2 weeks' duration admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda and referred for bronchoscopy following two negative sputum acid-fast bacillus smears. We performed an ELISPOT-based IGRA (T-SPOT.TB®, Oxford Immunotec, Oxford, UK using peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid mononuclear cells, and determined the accuracy of IGRAs using mycobacterial culture results as a reference standard.94 HIV-infected patients with paired peripheral blood and BAL IGRA results were included. The study population was young (median age 34 years [IQR 28-40 years] and had advanced HIV/AIDS (median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count 60 cells/µl [IQR 22-200 cells/µl]. The proportion of indeterminate IGRA results was higher in BAL fluid than in peripheral blood specimens (34% vs. 14%, difference 20%, 95% CI 7-33%, p = 0.002. BAL IGRA had moderate sensitivity (73%, 95% CI 50-89% but poor specificity (48%, 95% CI 32-64% for TB diagnosis. Sensitivity was similar (75%, 95% CI 57-89% and specificity was higher (78%, 95% CI 63-88% when IGRA was performed on peripheral blood.BAL IGRA performed poorly for the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a high HIV/TB burden setting. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the large proportion of indeterminate results and low specificity of BAL IGRA for active TB in high HIV/TB burden settings.

  4. PAS staining of bronchoalveolar lavage cells for differential diagnosis of interstital lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zabel Peter; Hauber Hans P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful diagnostic tool in interstitial lunge diseases (ILD). However, differential cell counts are often non specific and immunocytochemistry is time consuming. Staining of glyoproteins by periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction may help in discriminating different forms of ILD. In addition, PAS staining is easy to perform. BAL cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 8), sarcoidosis (n = 9), and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EA...

  5. Bronchoalveolar inflammation after exposure to diesel exhaust: comparison between unfiltered and particle trap filtered exhaust

    OpenAIRE

    Rudell, B.; Blomberg, A; Helleday, R.; Ledin, M C; Lundback, B.; Stjernberg, N; Horstedt, P.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Air pollution particulates have been identified as having adverse effects on respiratory health. The present study was undertaken to further clarify the effects of diesel exhaust on bronchoalveolar cells and soluble components in normal healthy subjects. The study was also designed to evaluate whether a ceramic particle trap at the end of the tail pipe, from an idling engine, would reduce indices of airway inflammation. METHODS: The study comprised three exposures in all 10 ...

  6. HRCT findings of acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis: correlation with pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe sequential changes of acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in high resolution CT and to correlate the findings with pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage. This study includes 11 patients with pathologically (n = 10) and clinical (n = 1) proved acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The extent of ground glass attenuation and nodules on high resolution CT scan was correlated with pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage. We also evaluated serial changes of the lesion in high resolution CT scans. The extent of parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution CT scans were significantly correlated with diffusing capacity (GGA and DLco: r = -0.95, ρ < 0.003, Nodule and DLco: r = -0.94, ρ < 0.005) and FEV1 (GGA and FEV1: r = -0.57, ρ < 0.05, Nodule and FEV1: r = -0.56, ρ < 0.05) on pulmonary function test and relatively correlated with total count of cells (GGA and total count of cells: r = 0.86, ρ < 0.03, Nodule and total count of cells: r = 0.71, ρ < 0.11) on bronchoalveolar lavage. The order in disappearance of abnormal findings were poorly defined centrilobular nodule, ground glass attenuation, and well defined small centrilobular nodule on sequential CT scans. The authors conclude that HRCT is useful for diagnosis and follow up evaluation of the acute and subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Quantitative analysis of extent of disease on HRCT is useful for evaluation of clinical status

  7. Functional and phenotypical comparison of myofibroblasts derived from biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma and scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc. We have studied the motility for BALF derived fibroblasts in patients with SSc that may explain the presence of these cells in the airway lumen. Furthermore, we have compared phenotypic alterations in activated fibroblasts from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc that may account for the distinct fibrotic responses. Methods Fibroblasts were cultured from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc. The motility was studied using a cell migration assay. Western Blotting was used to study the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, ED-A fibronectin, and serine arginine splicing factor 20 (SRp20. The protein expression pattern was analyzed to reveal potential biomarkers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and sequencing dual matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF. The Mann-Whitney method was used to calculate statistical significance. Results Increased migration and levels of ED-A fibronectin were observed in BALF fibroblasts from both groups of patients, supported by increased expression of RhoA, Rac1, and the splicing factor SRp20. However, these observations were exclusively accompanied by increased expression of α-SMA in patients with mild asthma. Compared to BALF fibroblasts in mild asthma, fibroblasts in SSc displayed a differential protein expression pattern of cytoskeletal- and scavenger proteins. These identified proteins facilitate cell migration, oxidative stress, and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix observed in patients with SSc. Conclusion This study demonstrates a possible origin for fibroblasts in the airway lumen in patients with SSc and important differences between fibroblast

  8. Repeatability of and relationship between potential COPD biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsies, serum, and induced sputum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Röpcke

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily affecting the airways. Stable biomarkers characterizing the inflammatory phenotype of the disease, relevant for disease activity and suited to predict disease progression are needed to monitor the efficacy and safety of drug interventions. We therefore analyzed a large panel of markers in bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsies, serum and induced sputum of 23 healthy smokers and 24 smoking COPD patients (GOLD II matched for age and gender. Sample collection was performed twice within a period of 6 weeks. Assays for over 100 different markers were validated for the respective matrices prior to analysis. In our study, we found 51 markers with a sufficient repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.6, most of these in serum. Differences between groups were observed for markers from all compartments, which extends (von-Willebrand-factor and confirms (e.g. C-reactive-protein, interleukin-6 previous findings. No correlations between lung and serum markers were observed, including A1AT. Airway inflammation defined by sputum neutrophils showed only a moderate repeatability. This could be improved, when a combination of neutrophils and four sputum fluid phase markers was used to define the inflammatory phenotype.In summary, our study provides comprehensive information on the repeatability and interrelationship of pulmonary and systemic COPD-related markers. These results are relevant for ongoing large clinical trials and future COPD research. While serum markers can discriminate between smokers with and without COPD, they do not seem to sufficiently reflect the disease-associated inflammatory processes within the airways.

  9. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  10. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage of cranial and caudal lung regions in selected normal calves: cellular, microbiological, immunoglobulin, serological and histological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, J K; Viel, L; Shewen, P E; Willoughby, R A; Martin, S W; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Of a group of 30 clinically normal male Holstein calves two to eight weeks of age, six two week old and six four week old calves met various radiographical and clinicopathological criteria for normality. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy on cranial and caudal lung regions in all 30 calves and samples analyzed for free cells, microorganisms, and immunoglobulins. Lateral chest radiographs and lung biopsies were also conducted on each calf. Calves were euthanized and necropsied ten days after bronchoalveolar lavage was conducted. Reported in this paper are results from the 12 normal calves. Microorganisms were present in small numbers in the lower respiratory tract of some normal calves. There were no differences in the above parameters between cranial and caudal lobes. There were statistically significant changes in bronchoalveolar lavage cell proportions with age although there were no detectable differences in clinical signs. Four week old calves had a lower percentage of macrophages and a higher percentage of epithelial cells than two week old animals (p less than 0.05). There was also a trend toward an increased percentage of neutrophils in older calves but this was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Total bronchoalveolar lavage protein also appeared to increase with age (p less than 0.05). In both groups a higher proportion of IgG2 in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to serum was found, suggesting the presence of a local selective transfer mechanism into respiratory secretions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3370559

  12. Reduction of cytokine release of blood and bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells by ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, S; Zissel, G; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J

    1997-03-24

    Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent frequently used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. It has been reported, following clinical and in-vitro studies, that ambroxol exhibits an anti-inflammatory action. This capability was investigated by activating bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in-vitro to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 and interferon gamma, whilst simultaneously exposing them to varying pharmacological concentrations of ambroxol (10, 1, and 0.1 microM). After 24 h it was observed that the isolated tissue-culture supernatants showed a dose-dependent reduction in the concentration of the tested cytokines; 10 microM (12 to 37% reduction) and 1 microM to (6 to 27% reduction). At 0.1 microM, a significant reduction could only be observed in the release of interleukin-2 by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results demonstrate, that ambroxol exhibits anti-inflammatory actions in concentrations achievable in vivo.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and influenza A virus stimulate human bronchoalveolar cells to release histamine and leukotrienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M;

    1989-01-01

    Mediator release was examined from superficially lying cells in the airway epithelium obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 13 non-atopic individuals. The BAL-cells were incubated (20 min, 37 degrees C) with Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus or with human influenza A virus Staph. aureus...... was found to release histamine from cells from 7 of the 13 individuals and influenza A virus in 3 of 5 persons. Furthermore, Staph, aureus stimulated the BAL-cells to release leukotriene B4 in 7 of 11 subjects, whereas no release was found by influenza A virus in 7 examined persons. When cells from 4...... persons were stimulated with Staph. aureus no release of leukotriene C4 was found. The mediator release caused by bacteria and virus might be of importance for the exacerbation of bronchial asthma in upper respiratory tract infections, since histamine is assumed to increase the epithelial permeability...

  14. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. PMID:27553415

  15. A protracted course of Pneumocystis pneumonia in the setting of an immunosuppressed child with GMS-negative bronchoalveolar lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Eddens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Pneumocystis pneumonia in a 5-year-old male with Trisomy 21 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The lack of response to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole raised concerns for antimicrobial resistance. Further, diagnosis of Pneumocystis in this patient was complicated by a GMS-negative bronchoalveolar lavage despite molecular evidence of Pneumocystis infection.

  16. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.;

    2001-01-01

    %). In a logistic regression analysis, higher age, increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia and a positive BAL cytomegalovirus CMV culture were associated with the need of MV. In multivariate analyses, only BAL neutrophilia remained independently predictive of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, short...

  17. Diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia%支气管肺泡灌洗在免疫抑制患者肺部感染中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠萍; 张波

    2014-01-01

    肺部感染是导致免疫抑制患者死亡的重要原因之一.支气管肺泡灌洗是研究肺泡表面液细胞成分和可溶性物质的一种方法,被广泛用于免疫抑制宿主肺部病变的诊断中,是下呼吸道微生物取样的标准方法.现将支气管肺泡灌洗在免疫抑制患者肺部感染中的诊断价值作一综述.%Pneumonia is a major cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients.Bronchoalveolar lavage,as a tool for investigation of the cellular and soluble components in alveolar lining fluid,has been extensively used for diagnosis of pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts.It has become a standard tool in investigation of lower respiratory pathogens.This paper reviews the diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  19. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen: An unusual presentation of a common tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne E Moul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting as a primary lung disease is rare. We present a 52-year-old male with a 3-month history of cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a primary lung disease: Bilateral interstitial and alveolar opacities with blunting of the costophrenic angles, multiple diffuse foci of consolidations and nodules, predominantly subpleural and located in the lower lobes, and diffuse interlobular septal thickening and peribronchial thickening. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was obtained. Cytospin smears were diagnostic for a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Clinically, the patient had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels greater than 5,000 ng/mL. Because of this, immunocytochemistry for PSA was performed which was positive, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. This unusual case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate first diagnosed by BAL highlights the significance of available clinical information and the use of immunocytochemistry for proper diagnosis.

  20. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo.

  1. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

  2. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, Oğuz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi.

  3. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata; Bałan, Barbara Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  4. Clinical Utility of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pepsin in Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux among Wheezy Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ahmed Fathi; El-Desoky, Tarek; Fathi, Khalid; Elkashef, Wagdy Fawzi; Zaki, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is no gold standard test for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated infantile wheezing. Objectives. To evaluate the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) pepsin assay in diagnosis of GERD in wheezy infants. Methods. Fifty-two wheezy infants were evaluated for GERD using esophageal combined impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, esophagogastroduodenoscopy with esophageal biopsies, and BAL pepsin. Tracheobronchial aspirates from 10 healthy infants planned for surgery without history of respiratory problems were examined for pepsin. Results. Wheezy infants with silent reflux and wheezy infants with typical GERD symptoms but normal MII-pH had significantly higher BAL pepsin compared to healthy control (45.3 ± 8.6 and 42.8 ± 8 versus 29 ± 2.6, P GERD associated infantile wheeze compared to abnormal MII-pH, reflux esophagitis, and lipid laden macrophage index, respectively. Conclusion. A stepwise approach for assessment of GERD in wheezy infants is advised. In those with silent reflux, a trial of antireflux therapy is warranted with no need for further pepsin assay. But when combined MII-pH is negative despite the presence of typical GERD symptoms, pepsin assay will be needed to rule out GERD related aspiration. PMID:27516725

  5. MRP1 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in subjects with lung cancer who were chronically exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Dena-Cazares, Jose Angel; Ramirez-de la Peña, Jorge Luis; Jacobo-Ávila, Antonio; Portales-Castanedo, Arnulfo; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha Patricia; Ocampo-Gomez, Guadalupe; Michel-Ramirez, Gladis

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1) expression has been associated with certain lung diseases, and this protein may be pivotal in protecting the lungs against endogenous or exogenous toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of MRP1 in bronchoalveolar cells from subjects with and without lung cancer who had been chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water. MRP1 expression was assessed in bronchoalveolar cells in a total of 102 participants. MRP1 expression was significantly decreased in those with arsenic urinary levels >50 μg/L when compared with the controls. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure negatively correlates with the expression of MRP1 in BAL cells in patients with lung cancer.

  6. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  7. An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Belgin Samurkaşoğlu; Behiye Akkalyoncu; Fatma Ulus; Mehtap Tunç; Özlem Çakır; Polat Pehlivanoğlu; Şaziye Şahin; Hilal Günal Sazak

    2012-01-01

    As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL) is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV). During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-l...

  8. Accuracy of bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot assay to diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhenzhen; Qin, Wenzhe; Li, Lei; WU, QIN; Chen, Xuerong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While the bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot assay (BAL-ELISPOT) shows promise for diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis, its accuracy remains controversial. We meta-analyzed the available evidence to obtain a clearer understanding of the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Studies of the diagnostic performance of ELI-SPOT on smear-negative tuberculosis were identified through systematic searches of the PubMed and EMBASE databases. Pooled data on sensitivity, specificity and ...

  9. Spontaneous increase of transforming growth factor beta production by bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases affecting the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The spontaneous increase in the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) gene in bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune diseases affecting the lung has been shown by northern blot assay and a nuclear run on transcription assay. Transcription of the TGF beta gene in bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune diseases affecting the lung was increased 10 times compared with normal healthy subjects or patients with bronchial asthma ...

  10. Increased expression of growth factor genes for macrophages and fibroblasts in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of a patient with pulmonary histiocytosis X.

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, J.; Kreipe, H; Radzun, H. J.; Heidorn, K.; Petermann, W; Bewig, B; Parwaresch, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is the local manifestation of a systemic disorder of unknown cause characterised by infiltration of Langerhans cell like histiocytes and parenchymal fibrosis. In a male smoker with histologically proved histiocytosis X and functional impairment bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increase in CD-1/OKT-6 antigen positive histiocytes to 8%. Northern blot analysis of RNA from bronchoalveolar lavage cells showed an exaggerated expression of the M-CSF gene and of the c-fms ge...

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delclos, G.L.; Flitcraft, D.G.; Brousseau, K.P.; Windsor, N.T.; Nelson, D.L.; Wilson, R.K.; Lawrence, E.C.

    1989-04-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. /sup 67/Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases.

  12. SPECTRUM OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The common bacterial pathogens include Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. aureus, Acinetobacter spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance is common among these bacterial isolates. This study was taken up to identify the spectrum of bacteria isolated from bronchoalveolar (BAL samples of patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections and to determine their antibiogram. MATERIALS and METHODS: The retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care centre over a period of one year (March 2013-February 2014.Patients above 18 years with clinical suspicion of pneumonia were included in this study. The samples with growth >104 CFU/ml of bacteria were identified and their susceptibility pattern to various antibiotics was performed. RESULTS: Out of 307 BAL samples, 110 were culture positive. The common bacterial pathogens isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (21.8%, Acinetobacter spp. (15.5%, Klebsiella spp.(14.5%, Enterococcus spp.(10.9% and S.aureus (12.7%. Carbapenem resistance was seen in 31.6% of Acinetobacter spp, 22% Klebsiella spp. and 14% in Pseudomonas spp. Methicillin resistance was detected in 21.4% of S.aureus isolates. All strains of S.aureus were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. All isolates of Enterococci were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and high level aminoglycosides. CONCLUSION: Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. were the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from BAL. Carbapenem resistance is on the rise among these gram negative bacterial isolates.

  13. Identifying a biomarker network for corticosteroid resistance in asthma from bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, José Eduardo; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Puga, Renato; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-07-01

    Corticosteroid resistance (CR) is a major barrier to the effective treatment of severe asthma. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this condition is a priority. Network analysis is an emerging strategy to explore this complex heterogeneous disorder at system level to identify a small own network for CR in asthma. Gene expression profile of GSE7368 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of CR in subjects with asthma was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and compared to BAL of corticosteroid-sensitive (CS) patients. DEGs were identified by the Limma package in R language. In addition, DEGs were mapped to STRING to acquire protein-protein interaction (PPI) pairs. Topological properties of PPI network were calculated by Centiscape, ClusterOne and BINGO. Subsequently, text-mining tools were applied to design one own cell signalling for CR in asthma. Thirty-five PPI networks were obtained; including a major network consisted of 370 nodes, connected by 777 edges. After topological analysis, a minor PPI network composed by 48 nodes was indentified, which is composed by most relevant nodes of major PPI network. In this subnetwork, several receptors (EGFR, EGR1, ESR2, PGR), transcription factors (MYC, JAK), cytokines (IL8, IL6, IL1B), one chemokine (CXCL1), one kinase (SRC) and one cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) were described to be associated with inflammatory environment and steroid resistance in asthma. We suggest a biomarker network composed by 48 nodes that could be potentially explored with diagnostic or therapeutic use. PMID:27188427

  14. Multiplex protein profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willems Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by a mixture of inflammation and fibrosis, leading to lung destruction and finally death. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare different pathophysiological mechanisms, such as angiogenesis, coagulation, fibrosis, tissue repair, inflammation, epithelial damage, oxidative stress, and matrix remodeling, in both disorders using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Methods: At diagnosis, patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL and were divided into three groups: Control ( n = 10, HP ( n = 11, and IPF ( n = 11, based on multidisciplinary approach (clinical examination, radiology, and histology: Multiplex searchlight technology was used to analyze 25 proteins representative for different pathophysiological processes: Eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb, fibronectin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, interleukine (IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-17, IL-23, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, myeloperoxidase (MPO, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8, MMP-9, active plasminogen activating inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, pulmonary activation regulated chemokine (PARC, placental growth factor (PlGF, protein-C, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES, surfactant protein-C (SP-C, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, tissue factor, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: All patients suffered from decreased pulmonary function and abnormal BAL cell differential compared with control. Protein levels were increased in both IPF and HP for MMP-8 ( P = 0.022, MMP-9 ( P = 0.0020, MCP-1 ( P = 0.0006, MDC ( P = 0.0048, IL-8 ( P = 0.013, MPO ( P = 0.019, and protein-C ( P = 0.0087, whereas VEGF was decreased ( P = 0.0003 compared with

  15. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  16. CD161 Expression Defines a Th1/Th17 Polyfunctional Subset of Resident Memory T Lymphocytes in Bronchoalveolar Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Alveolar resident memory T cells (T(RM comprise a currently uncharacterized mixture of cell subpopulations. The CD3(+CD161(+ T cell subpopulation resides in the liver, intestine and skin, but it has the capacity for tissue migration; however, the presence of resident CD3(+CD161(+ T cells in the bronchoalveolar space under normal conditions has not been reported. Bronchoalveolar cells (BACs from healthy volunteers were evaluated and found that 8.6% (range 2.5%-21% of these cells were CD3(+ T lymphocytes. Within the CD3(+ population, 4.6% of the cells (2.1-11.3 expressed CD161 on the cell surface, and 74.2% of the CD161(+CD3(+ T cells expressed CD45RO. The number of CD3(+CD161(+ T cells was significantly lower in the bronchoalveolar space than in the blood (4.6% of BACs vs 8.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; P<0.05. We also found that 2.17% of CD4(+ T lymphocytes and 1.52% of CD8(+ T lymphocytes expressed CD161. Twenty-two percent of the alveolar CD3(+CD161(+ T lymphocytes produced cytokines upon stimulation by PMA plus ionomycin, and significantly more interferon gamma (IFN-γ was produced compared with other cytokines (P = 0.05. Most alveolar CD3(+CD161(+ T cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17 and IFN-γ simultaneously, and the percentage of these cells was significantly higher than the percentage of CD3(+CD161- T cells. Moreover, the percentage of alveolar CD3(+CD161(+ T lymphocytes that produced IFN-γ/IL-17 was significantly higher than those in the peripheral blood (p<0.05. In conclusion, Th1/Th17-CD3(+CD161(+ TRM could contribute to compartment-specific immune responses in the lung.

  17. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E;

    1991-01-01

    . No difference was found between the patients who responded and those who did not respond in regard to age, sex, smoker/non-smoker, % recovery of BAL-fluid, total cell count, differential cell counts, histamine content per mast cell, or diagnoses. Also stimulation of the BAL-cells with the calcium-ionophore A...

  18. Análise do lavado broncoalveolar em vítimas de queimaduras faciais graves Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis in victims of severe facial burns

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    Eucir Rabello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o lavado broncoalveolar (LBA de vítimas de queimaduras que inalaram fumaça a fim de identificar alterações que possam estar associadas à morte ou à sobrevida. MÉTODOS: Dezoito vítimas de queimaduras faciais foram submetidas a LBA até 24 h após o evento, sendo realizadas a análise do conteúdo celular e proteico, incluindo TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 e iNOS. RESULTADOS: Dos 18 pacientes submetidos à broncoscopia, 8 (44,4% morreram durante o seguimento. A média de idade dos pacientes que morreram foi significativamente maior (44,7 vs. 31,5 anos. A superfície corporal queimada foi em média de 60,1% nos pacientes que morreram e de 26,1% nos sobreviventes (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL specimens of burn victims who inhaled smoke, in order to identify alterations associated with mortality or survival. METHODS: Eighteen victims of facial burns were submitted to BAL up to 24 h after the event. We investigated cell and protein content, including TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 and iNOS. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 8 (44.4% died during the follow-up period. The mean age of patients who died was significantly higher (44.7 vs. 31.5 years. On average, the patients who died had burns covering 60.1% of the total body surface area, compared with 26.1% in the survivors (p < 0.0001. Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 11 (61.1% showed endoscopic signs of smoke inhalation injury, and 4 (36.4% of those 11 died. Of the 7 patients with no signs of smoke inhalation injury, 4 (57.1% died. The mean number of ciliated epithelial cells in the BAL fluid was significantly higher in the patients who died than in the survivors (6.6% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.03. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of any of the other parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The total body surface area burned was a predictive factor for mortality. Increased numbers of ciliated epithelial cells

  19. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  20. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  1. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  2. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  3. An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Samurkaşoğlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV. During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP. A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right MBALs were 325 and 275 minutes, respectively. Despite increased shunt fraction, oxygenation was within acceptable limits during OLV. The trachea was extubated in the operating room uneventfully after each MBAL. The patient’s clinical and laboratory findings were evidently improved. Consequently, if proper conditions are provided, MBAL is safe and beneficial despite its risks and the long duration.

  4. Semi-quantitative X-ray microanalysis of bronchoalveolar lavage samples from silica-exposed and nonexposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the possibility of quantifying alveolar dust burden in conditions of exposure to silica, four groups of subjects were submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL): 10 healthy control subjects and 39 patients affected by diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) never exposed to dust, 23 silicotic patients and 12 chronic bronchitis patients with a history of occupational exposure to silica dust. Five to ten million BAL recovered cells were analysed with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) system to determine the silicon content, expressed in a semi-quantitative way as silicon to sulphur (Si/S) ratio. The results were independent of smoking habit. The Si/S median values (interquartile range in brackets) for the four groups were 0.53 (0.5-0.65), 0.60 (0.41-0.8), 1.23 (1.06-1.39); 1.31 (1.11-1.97), respectively. Silicotics and simply exposed individuals did not show a significant discrepancy, but they were both significantly different in comparison with normal and DILD patients without history of exposure (p<0.001). 14.3% false negative cases were found, and 4.1% false positive cases (none among normal subjects). We did not se any significant relationships between the amount of silicon and the duration of exposure or the degree of chest X-ray involvement. A study of cytocentrifuge slides from the same subjects by polarizing light microscopy revealed a lower sensitivity (34% false negative cases). (au)

  5. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  6. Investigation of airway inflammation and asthma by repeated bronchoalveolar lavage combined with measurements of airway and lung tissue mechanics in individual rats.

    OpenAIRE

    dr Bánfi Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic airway inflammations are the main pathogenetic features of numerous pulmonary diseases. There are several methods studying the pathomechanisms of inflammatory respiratory diseases. To asses the severity of lung diseases, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung function tests are the most current diagnostic methods in the experimental and human pulmonology. However, repetition of BAL procedures and assessments of respiratory mechanic parameters in small rodents (mice and ra...

  7. Therapeutic limited bronchoalveolar lavage with fiberoptic bronchoscopy as a bridging procedure prior to total lung lavage in a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, Damith; Rathnapala, Amila; Senaratne, Wijitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Therapeutic total lung lavage under general anesthesia is the current mainstay of treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which is a rare lung disease characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. Therapeutic limited bronchoalveolar lavage is considered an alternative treatment to conventional total lung lavage. Case presentation A 61-year-old, previously healthy, Sri Lankan Moor woman presented to our facility with progressively worsening difficulty in breathing an...

  8. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhardt Wolfram; Köthe Lars; Wendt Sebastian; Rüdiger Mario; Wauer Roland R; Ochs Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC) can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats w...

  9. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation; an electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung ; Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rüdiger, Mario; Wendt, Sebastian; Köthe, Lars; Burkhardt, Wolfram; Wauer, Roland R.; Ochs, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Background: Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC) can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods: Male wistar rats were sur...

  10. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  11. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.;

    2003-01-01

    +, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero...

  12. Inter-laboratory comparison of three different real-time PCR assays for the detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, C.F.; Jacobs, J.A.; Beckers, P.; Templeton, K.E.; Bakkers, J.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.; Drent, M.; Vink, C.

    2006-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients. While conventional diagnosis of PCP by microscopy is cumbersome, the use of PCR to diagnose PCP has great potential. Nevertheless, inter-laboratory validation and standardization of PCR assays i

  13. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for microbial community profiling with an application to pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Willner

    Full Text Available Barcoded amplicon sequencing is rapidly becoming a standard method for profiling microbial communities, including the human respiratory microbiome. While this approach has less bias than standard cultivation, several steps can introduce variation including the type of DNA extraction method used. Here we assessed five different extraction methods on pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples and a mock community comprised of nine bacterial genera to determine method reproducibility and detection limits for these typically low complexity communities. Additionally, using the mock community, we were able to evaluate contamination and select a relative abundance cut-off threshold based on the geometric distribution that optimizes the trade off between detecting bona fide operational taxonomic units and filtering out spurious ones. Using this threshold, the majority of genera in the mock community were predictably detected by all extraction methods including the hard-to-lyse Gram-positive genus Staphylococcus. Differences between extraction methods were significantly greater than between technical replicates for both the mock community and BAL samples emphasizing the importance of using a standardized methodology for microbiome studies. However, regardless of method used, individual patients retained unique diagnostic profiles. Furthermore, despite being stored as raw frozen samples for over five years, community profiles from BAL samples were consistent with historical culturing results. The culture-independent profiling of these samples also identified a number of anaerobic genera that are gaining acceptance as being part of the respiratory microbiome. This study should help guide researchers to formulate sampling, extraction and analysis strategies for respiratory and other human microbiome samples.

  14. Induced sputum versus bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Induced sputum is a useful technique for assessing airway inflammation, but its role in the diagnosis of lung disease in immunosuppressed patients needs further investigation. This study compared the use of induced sputum and BAL in the diagnosis of pneumocystosis, in HIV patients. From January 1, 2001, to December 30, 2002, HIV-positive patients older than 14 were evaluated at a hospital in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Patients with respiratory symptoms for seven days or longer, with a normal or abnormal chest X-ray, and those without respiratory symptoms but with an abnormal chest X-ray, were included in the study. All patients were submitted to clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluation, after which induced sputum and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage were carried out. The samples were subjected to the following techniques: Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining, quantitative culture growth for pyogenic bacteria, direct staining for fungi, culture growth for mycobacteria and fungi, and Grocott-Gomori staining for Pneumocystis jiroveci, as well as total and differential cell counts. The samples with P. jiroveci were selected, as well as the samples for which no etiologic agents were observed. Forty-five patients with a mean age of 34.6, 38 male and 40 Caucasian, comprised the subjects. Interstitial infiltrate was the most frequent radiological pattern (53.3%. The induced sputum sensitivity was 58.8%, specificity 81.8%, predictive positive value 90.9%, predictive negative value 39.1% and accuracy 64.4%, for the diagnosis of pneumocystosis, compared with BAL. Based on these data, induced sputum is a useful technique for the diagnosis of pneumocystosis in HIV patients.

  15. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, κ score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD±20.9%); r=-0.54; p0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis (κ=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side effects). (orig.)

  16. Estudo do lavado broncoalveolar em pacientes com comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose Study of bronchoalveolar lavage in leptospirosis patients with pulmonary involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    2004-04-01

    diffuse bilateral infiltrates in chest X-rays. Such findings may be compatible with alveolar hemorrhage, already described by some authors both in autopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of alveolar hemorrhage, diagnosed through BAL, in bearers of leptospirosis patients with pulmonary involvement emphasizing the methodís importance for early detection of this complication. METHOD: Seven patients with leptospirosis were submitted to BAL. All presented respiratory symptoms and/or infiltrates in the chest X-rays and/or hypoxemia.Alveolar hemorrhage was defined by the following findings in BAL: percentage of siderophages eî20% and/ or Golde score >100 and/or hemorrhagic fluid. Culture and direct tests for leptospirosis were performed in BAL. Diagnosis of disease was confirmed by microscopy serum agglutination. RESULTS: The aspect of the bronchoscopy was normal in five patients, showed blood in the bronchial tree in one case and inflammatory manifestations in another. The BAL aspect was hemorrhagic for all patients portraying alveolar hemorrhage. Culture and direct tests were negative for Leptospiras in the BAL. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage. The BAL was confirmed as an efficient method for detection of alveolar hemorrhage in leptospirosis, to recommend immediate therapy for the purpose of preventing its evolution to massive hemoptysis and respiratory failure.

  17. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  18. Dynamic changes in expression of clara cell protein and surfactant protein-D expressions in lung tissues and bronchaoalveolar lavage fluid of silica-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes in the expression of clara cell protein(CC16)and surfactant protein D(SP-D)in the lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF)of silicatreated rats.Methods Eighty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group(n=42)and silica group(n=42).The silica group was subsequently divided into 3,7,14,21,28,

  19. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 9, 24105, Kiel (Germany); Schnabel, A.; Gross, W.L. [Department of Clinical Rheumatology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt, Bad Bramstedt (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, {kappa} score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD{+-}20.9%); r=-0.54; p<0.001) and very weak with vital capacity and FEV1 (mean values 92.2% (SD{+-}18.3%); r=-0.27; p<0.05 and 89.8% (SD{+-}17.5%); r=-0.31; p<0.01). In patients with GGO, BAL differentials tended towards neutrophilia ({kappa}=0.39; p=0.04; McNemar test p>0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis ({kappa}=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side

  20. Caracterização imunofenotípica das subpopulações de linfócitos do lavado broncoalveolar de pacientes com silicose Phenotypic characterization of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÂNGELA FERREIRA

    2000-06-01

    dusts. The aim of this study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 26 workers with different forms of silicosis: simple form (n = 12, complicated (n = 13 and 1 patient with acute form of the disease. As a control group, 7 healthy individuals were included. Compared to the control group, silicotic patients showed intense pleocytosis constituted mainly by alveolar macrophages with slight lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte subsets present in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL of normal individuals were mature lymphocytes with phenotype CD2+TCRab (87.3% and only 2.9% were CD2+TCRgd. CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.8 with few (16% immature double negative T cells subsets (CD4-CD8-. In contrast, silicotic patients showed reduction of the more mature lymphocyte subset CD2+CD4+, CD2+CD8+ and a great increase (47% of immature (CD4-CD8- T cell subsets. No increase in the NK (CD56+ cell population was observed. Biochemical analysis of protein contents and determination of the Ig/albumin ratio characterized local immunoglobulin production within the pulmonary microenvironment. Furthermore, lack of increase of plasma cells, as well as the maintenance of the percentage of B lymphocyte population (CD19+ in the BAL of silicotic patients, favors the hypothesis that the cells responsible for Ig production are possibly located in the interstitial space. Altogether the results suggest development of lymphopoiesis and tertiary lymphoid tissue within the pulmonary microenvironment during the clinical course of silicosis.

  1. Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  2. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  3. Evolução da pneumonia lipoide exógena em crianças: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e o papel da lavagem broncoalveolar Evolution of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and the role of bronchoalveolar lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria de Azevedo Sias

    2009-09-01

    clinical, radiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid findings, emphasizing the importance of bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: We included 28 children, with a mean age of 20 months (range, 1-108 months, diagnosed with chronic pneumonia refractory to antimicrobial therapy, with TB or with a combination of the two. Most of the children had at least one risk factor for aspiration, and all of them had a history of mineral oil ingestion for intestinal constipation (23/28 or complicated ascaridiasis (5/28. Clinical evaluations, tomographic evaluations and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were carried out at the beginning of treatment and throughout a follow-up period of 24 months. RESULTS: Tachypnea and cough were the most common symptoms. The most common radiological alterations were areas of consolidation (23/28, perihilar infiltrates (13/28 and hyperinflation (11/28. Chest CT scans showed areas of consolidation with air bronchogram (24/28, decreased attenuation in the areas of consolidation (16/28, ground-glass opacities (3/28 and crazy-paving pattern (1/28. In the analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Sudan staining revealed foamy macrophages, confirming the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. After treatment with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (mean = 9.6, 20 children became asymptomatic, 18 of those presenting normal tomographic images. CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia should be considered in patients with chronic refractory pneumonia or TB, especially if there is a history of mineral oil ingestion. Bronchoscopy with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages was an efficient treatment for the clearance of mineral oil from the lung parenchyma and the prevention of fibrosis. This strategy contributed to reducing the morbidity of lipoid pneumonia, which remains a rare diagnosis.

  4. Legionella pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients suffering from severe respiratory infections: Role of age, sex and history of smoking in the prevalence of bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faradonbeh Fatemeh Alaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Legionella pneumophila is the most commonly detected cause of legionellosis, which is an acute respiratory tract infection with high morbidity and mortality rates. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of L. pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavages and study the role of sex, age and history of smoking as risk factors for susceptibility to the bacterium. Methods. One hundred bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected from the Iranian health centers and immediately transferred to laboratory. The samples were cultured and those that were L. pneumophila positive were subjected to PCR method with respect to the 16S rRNA gene. Results. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive for L. pneumophila (12%. Patients older than 70 years had the highest incidence of L. pneumophila (17.77%. Prevalence of L. pneumophila in male and female patients was 14.81% and 8.69%, respectively. Total incidence of L. pneumophila in patients with and without history of smoking was 18% and 6%, respectively. There were significant differences in the incidence of bacterium between groups of our study. Conclusion. Sex, age and history of smoking are predominant risk factors for the occurrence of L. pneumophila. However, more studies should be undertaken to confirm these results.

  5. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pericardial Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pericardial Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  6. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid Analysis , ...

  7. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  9. Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and Characterization of Mutations Associated with Sulfa Resistance in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingale, Anna; Carrera, Paola; Lazzarin, Adriano; Scarpellini, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four bronchoalveolar specimens were evaluated by microscopic examination and by amplification of a sequence of a Pneumocystis carinii dihidropteroate synthase gene for identification of mutations linked to sulfa resistance. PCR sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 86.7%, respectively, compared to results of microscopic examination. However, 7 out of 19 microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples were collected from subjects with a clinically high probability of P. carinii pneumonia, suggesting that PCR may be more sensitive than microscopic examination, although the absolute performance of PCR cannot be determined. Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%]). PMID:12791912

  10. [Neutrophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Reflections on its prognostic value in the Spanish setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleda, J; Gea, J; Aran, X; Gimferrer, E; Conangla, M; Broquetas, J M

    1994-04-01

    The prognostic value of neutrophilia (> 5%) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in our context is studied in 21 patients with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neutrophilia does not seem to be a good prognostic indicator in our context. We have found this condition, with a mean of 6 +/- 4%, in only 33% of our sample. The sensitivity of this parameter with respect to risk of death was very low (25%), while specificity was moderate (65%). In contrast with what has been reported in studies done with Anglo-Saxon populations, neutrophilia in BAL is probably of little prognostic use in our context. This may be due to various factors, among them the type of population (most being intravenous drug users) and the therapeutic protocol (early empirical treatment). PMID:8025785

  11. Evaluation of different real time PCRs for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Voskuil, W Sebastiaan; Maraha, Boulos; van der Zee, Anneke; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in fresh clinical materials can be detected by PCR with high sensitivity and is thus preferred over microscopic methods. However, fresh materials are not always available, and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials, PCR may result in reduced detection rates. In this study the diagnostic sensitivity of P. jirovecii real time PCR on DNA isolated from fresh bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples versus that from matched FFPE derived DNA is analyzed. Our results indicate that when targeting a small DNA fragment P. jirovecii PCR can be performed on FFPE BAL samples with acceptable sensitivity (up to 83.3%). This is considerably higher than the 33.3% positives observed by classical staining of these samples.

  12. Magnetized drive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  13. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  14. Assessment of pulmonary antibodies with induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage induced by nasal vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a clinical phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freihorst Joachim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a desirable albeit challenging strategy for prevention of airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the immunogenicity of a nasal vaccine based on the outer membrane proteins F and I from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways in a phase I/II clinical trial. Methods N = 12 healthy volunteers received 2 nasal vaccinations with an OprF-OprI gel as a primary and a systemic (n = 6 or a nasal booster vaccination (n = 6. Antibodies were assessed in induced sputum (IS, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and in serum. Results OprF-OprI-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were found in both BAL and IS at comparable rates, but differed in the predominant isotype. IgA antibodies in IS did not correlate to the respective serum levels. Pulmonary antibodies were detectable in all vaccinees even 1 year after the vaccination. The systemic booster group had higher IgG levels in serum. However, the nasal booster group had the better long-term response with bronchial antibodies of both isotypes. Conclusion The nasal OprF-OprI-vaccine induces a lasting antibody response at both, systemic and airway mucosal site. IS is a feasible method to non-invasively assess bronchial antibodies. A further optimization of the vaccination schedule is warranted.

  15. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi;

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid...... be chosen. The fabrication of a prototype flow meter and experimental verification of the analytical data were reported. The fabricated prototype is able to measure the velocity of the water in an open channel....

  16. Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picinin, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Marguet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogeneous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases. PMID:20625676

  17. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  18. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  19. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  20. A fluid particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Pep

    1997-01-01

    We present a mechanistic model for a Newtonian fluid called fluid particle dynamics. By analyzing the concept of ``fluid particle'' from the point of view of a Voronoi tessellation of a molecular fluid, we propose an heuristic derivation of a dissipative particle dynamics algorithm that incorporates shear forces between dissipative particles. The inclusion of these non-central shear forces requires the consideration of angular velocities of the dissipative particles in order to comply with th...

  1. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  2. Molecular analysis of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in a mouse model of influenza reveals markers of disease severity that can be clinically useful in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadunanda Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.

  3. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhardt Wolfram

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation (Lavaged-Gas, n = 5 or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 (Lavaged-PF5080, n = 5. For control, 10 healthy animals with gas (Healthy-Gas, n = 5 or PF5080 filled lungs (Healthy-PF5080, n = 5 were studied. A design-based stereological approach was used for quantification of lung parenchyma and the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool at the light and electron microscopic level. Results Compared to Healthy-lungs, Lavaged-animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. The fraction of alveolar epithelial surface area covered with surfactant and total intraalveolar surfactant content were significantly smaller in Lavaged-animals. Compared with Gas-filled lungs, both PF5080-groups had a significantly higher total lung volume, but no other differences. Conclusion After BAL-induced alveolar surfactant depletion the amount of intracellularly stored surfactant is about half as high as in healthy animals. In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition.

  4. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. HRCT findings as their correlation with the clinical data, with function tests and with bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with clinical data, respiratory function tests (RFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nineteen patients were studied by inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scan and clinical examination: 17 also underwent RFT and 12 were also subjected to BAL. The χ''2 test was used to analyze the correlation among the clinical data, RAFT, BAL and the HRCT images. Six patients had no respiratory symptoms and seven were smokers. The most common findings was bronchiectasis (37%), followed by nodules (26%), ground glass (26%), non septal lines (21%), septal lines (16%), emphysema (21%), lymph nodes (21%), pleural changes (16%), pericardial changes (11%) and enlarged pulmonary artery (5%). All the patients presented a mosaic pattern on expiration. The RFT disclosed obstructive lung disease in 74% of cases, normal in 41% and restrictive disease in 12%. BAL was normal in 50% of the patients, containing a high neutrophil count in 42% and high lymphocyte count in 8%. Only the correlations between smoking and emphysema and between the results of RFT and bronchiectasis, septal and non septal lines, ground glass and honey combing were found to be statistically significant. HRCT detects pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. The most common finding is bronchiectasis. Air trapping is always present in expiration, obstructive lung disease being the most common finding in RFT. The only significant associations were those between smoking and emphysema and between the results of RFT and the HRCT findings, as indicated by the high incidence of restrictive lung disease in these patients. (Author) 10 refs

  5. [The Role of Bronchoalveolar Lavage in the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: An Investigation of the Relevance of the Protein Content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildge, J; Frank, J; Klar, B

    2016-07-01

    Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is often used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), its importance in investigating, in particular, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is controversial. The cell distributions in the BAL are taken into account in the clinical routine, non-cellular characteristics of the BAL play no role.Using mathematical modeling of data, the present work investigated the extent to which BAL features enable drawing conclusions about the underlying ILK or help exclude IPF. Included in the calculation are cellular findings of the BAL, in addition the protein and albumin content of the BAL, the nicotine history (pack years), and spirometry (FEV1, IVC).Using linear discriminant analysis and creating classification trees, the relevance of the characteristics of 806 patients with ILK was examined (183 IPF, 191 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 147 lung involvement in autoimmune disease, 97 respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, 118 extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 41 lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), 23 non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), 88 controls).There was a close positive relationship between protein levels and lymphocytes in the group as a whole. No such correlations were seen in IPF and NSIP. Albumin was closely correlated with the protein content in all groups.The lymphocytes are best suited to distinguish between different ILDs. Yet, a reliable calculation of the ILD is not possible on the basis of the investigated factors, the classification error ranged from 23.5 % (IPF) to 100 % (LIP, NSIP).Constellations that likely (> 99 %) speak against an IPF are lymphocytosis > 34 % or protein content > 347 mg/l. The same applies to the constellation: lymphocytes > 25 % together with protein > 250 mg/l.In ILD, BAL findings can narrow the diagnosis, but they are seldom diagnostic. BAL can make an important contribution to excluding of IPF. PMID:27218212

  6. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  7. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation fo

  8. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  11. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Lenert, Andrej; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based on a new figure of merit capturing the combined effects of thermal storage capacity, convective heat transfer characteristics, and hydraulic performance of the fluids. Thermal stability, freezing point, and safety issues are also discussed. Through a comparative analysis, we...

  12. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  13. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  14. Spiral fluid separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  15. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  16. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  17. Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabodonirina, M; Raffenot, D; Cotte, L; Boibieux, A; Mayençon, M; Bayle, G; Persat, F; Rabatel, F; Trepo, C; Peyramond, D; Piens, M A

    1997-11-01

    We report on the development of a rapid nested PCR protocol for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in which the protocol included the use of a commercially available DNA extraction kit (GeneReleaser). GeneReleaser enabled us to obtain amplification-ready DNA within 20 min without requiring the purification of the DNA. The nested PCR was performed with the primers pAZ102-E, pAZ102-H, and pAZ102-L2 (A. E. Wakefield, F. J. Pixley, S. Banerji, K. Sinclair, R. F. Miller, E. R. Moxon, and J. M. Hopkin, Lancet 336:451-453, 1990.). Results were obtained in about 4 h with the adoption of denaturation, annealing, and extension steps shortened to 20 seconds. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was tested with a P. carinii cyst suspension and was found to be less than one cyst (one to eight nuclei). The detection limit was the same with the use of GeneReleaser or proteinase K-phenol chloroform for DNA extraction. The nested PCR assay was prospectively compared with staining with Giemsa and methenamine silver stains for the detection of P. carinii in 127 BAL samples from 105 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients investigated for acute respiratory illness. Twenty-five BAL specimens (20%) were positive by staining and the nested PCR and 25 (20%) were negative by staining and positive by the nested PCR. These 25 BAL specimens with conflicting results were obtained from 23 patients, 82% of whom were receiving prophylactic therapy against P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). Only two patients were diagnosed with possible PCP. The final diagnosis was not PCP for 20 patients who were considered to be colonized or to have a low level of infection. This colonization is not of clinical importance but is of epidemiological importance. Our rapid, simple, and sensitive amplification protocol may be performed in clinical laboratories for the routine diagnosis of PCP with BAL specimens.

  18. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and spinal cord. It protects the brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura ...

  20. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  1. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  2. Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censi, P., E-mail: censi@unipa.it [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Tamburo, E. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); Speziale, S. [Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14473 (Germany); Zuddas, P. [Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Randazzo, L.A. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Punturo, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia, 55 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Cuttitta, A. [I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); Arico, P. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy)

    2011-02-28

    Inhalation of airborne particles can produce crystallization of phosphatic microcrysts in intraaveolar areas of lungs, sometimes degenerating into pulmonary fibrosis. Results of this study indicate that these pathologies are induced by interactions between lung fluids and inhaled atmospheric dust in people exposed to volcanic dust ejected from Mount Etna in 2001. Here, the lung solid-liquid interaction is evaluated by the distribution of yttrium and lanthanides (YLn) in fluid bronchoalveolar lavages on selected individuals according the classical geochemical approaches. We found that shale-normalised patterns of yttrium and lanthanides have a 'V shaped' feature corresponding to the depletion of elements from Nd to Tb when compared to the variable enrichments of heavy lanthanides, Y, La and Ce. These features and concurrent thermodynamic simulations suggest that phosphate precipitation can occur in lungs due to interactions between volcanic particles and fluids. We propose that patterns of yttrium and lanthanides can represent a viable explanation of some pathology observed in patients after prolonged exposure to atmospheric fallout and are suitable to become a diagnostic parameter of chemical environmental stresses.

  3. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  4. Fire resistant hydraulic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, P. (Croda Application Chemicals Ltd. (UK). Mining Sales and Service)

    The use of fire resistant fluids is now widespread and in certain applications, namely underground, mandatory within the coal mining industry. However, safety is a paramount objective in all industries and within the author's company which supplies and services other industries such as metal forming and automotive construction, greater emphasis is being placed on the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Their involvement with development, manufacture and application is continually expanding. This document describes the various fire resistant hydraulic fluids and why they are used in particular applications. 1 tab.

  5. Expression of KL-6 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in an asthma model in mice%KL-6在哮喘小鼠血清和肺泡灌洗液中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅; 张建华; 徐仑

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究哮喘小鼠模型的血清和肺泡灌洗液中KL-6表达情况.方法 将昆明小鼠按随机数字表法分为5组,即正常对照组、致敏组、哮喘Ⅰ组、哮喘Ⅱ组、哮喘Ⅲ组.致敏组和所有哮喘组小鼠均予0.01%卵白蛋白(OVA)和2%AL(OH)3各0.1 ml腹腔注射以致敏,哮喘组小鼠予1%OVA雾化吸入,吸入激发3 d者为哮喘Ⅰ组,7 d者为哮喘Ⅱ组,11d者为哮喘Ⅲ组,致敏组小鼠则同法、同日、等量雾化吸入生理盐水3 d.正常对照组小鼠则以生理盐水代替OVA,与哮喘组Ⅰ同法、同日、等量进行腹腔注射和雾化吸入.用ELISA法检测各组小鼠血清和肺泡灌洗液中KL-6浓度.结果 哮喘Ⅰ组和致敏组小鼠的血清和肺泡灌洗液中KL-6的D值均明显高于正常对照组小鼠(P<0.01);KL-6水平哮喘Ⅰ组低于哮喘Ⅱ组(P<0.01),哮喘Ⅱ组低于哮喘Ⅲ组(P<0.01).结论 哮喘小鼠的血清和肺泡灌洗液中KL-6水平明显升高,且随雾化吸入1%OVA的激发次数增加,KL-6水平逐渐升高.

  6. The number of regulatory T cells in transbronchial lung allograft biopsies is related to FoxP3 mRNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and to the degree of acute cellular rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Dorrit; Madsen, Caroline B; Iversen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs) - a subset of T cells known to suppress a wide range of immune responses. These cells are considered to be pivotal for the induction of tolerance to donor antigens in human allografts. We aimed to correlate...

  7. 支气管肺泡灌洗液中3种肿瘤标志物的含量检测及意义%Clinical significance of determination of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳; 王香玲; 荫斌霞; 展淑琴

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中3种肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白片段21-1(CYFRA21-1)、组织多肽特异性抗原(TPS)对肺癌的临床诊断意义.方法:采用电化学发光免疫分析仪法(Elecys2010)、酶联免疫吸附法分别检测62例肺癌患者、36例肺部良性病变患者血清及BALF中CEA和CYFRA 21-1,TPS的含量.结果:肺癌患者BALF中3种肿瘤标志物的含量明显高于肺部良性病变患者(P<0.05),且随着TNM临床分期升高,肿瘤标志物的含量也明显升高.在不同病理类型的肺癌中,3种肺癌肿瘤标志物升高的程度均有所不同.BALF中肿瘤标志物的含量与同期血清中的含量相比,出现更早且浓度更高,尤以TPS升高最为明显.结论:BALF中3种肺癌标志物的检测在肺癌的早期诊断、病理类型的推断及预后判断方面都有一定的意义,其临床价值优于血清.

  8. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  9. Validation of the MycAssay Pneumocystis kit for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens by comparison to a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, real-time PCR, or conventional PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Wengenack, Nancy L; Richardson, Susan E

    2012-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients as well as those with non-HIV immunosuppressive diseases. To aid diagnosis, the commercial MycAssay Pneumocystis real-time PCR assay (Myconostica, Ltd., Manchester, United Kingdom) targeting the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU) has been developed to detect P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. Here, we validated this assay against a laboratory standard of direct immunofluorescence microscopy, a cdc2 real-time PCR assay, or conventional PCR and sequencing of mtLSU. While more sensitive than any of these three assays analyzed individually, the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay demonstrated 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a 100% negative predictive value, and a 100% positive predictive value for detecting the presence of P. jirovecii in BAL specimens compared to the laboratory standard. Of note, two samples with positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values according to the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay lacked exponential amplification curves and thus were deemed negative. Also negative according to the laboratory standard, these samples highlight the importance of examining the amplification curves, in addition to noting the C(T) values, when interpreting positive results. Comparison of the MycAssay Pneumocystis assay to a laboratory standard establishes this assay to be a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. The approach may also be useful for the clinical laboratory validation of other sensitive real-time PCR assays. PMID:22422855

  10. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  11. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  12. Basic fluid system trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  13. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  14. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  15. Fluid management system technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, E. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.

  16. Simultaneous determination of trace elements in lavage fluids from human bronchial alveoli by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. 1: Technique and determination of the normal reference interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have applied energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence to the analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage fluids, to determine the concentration of several elements simultaneously with manipulation of the sample minimized. A 20-microL sample of a homogenized lavage fluid, to which two internal standards (containing Y and V) have been added, is deposited on a polypropylene film, 4 microns in thickness, and analyzed by x-ray fluorescence. The authors report the analytical procedure, the detection limits, and the reproducibility. The normal concentration range for trace elements is reported for a selected population. The simplicity and rapidity of the method, and the possibility of automating measurements, make this procedure suitable for screening large numbers of lavage specimens and to establish the diagnosis of some pneumoconioses

  17. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  18. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  19. Dense Fluid Flow Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Corpetti, Thomas; Memin, Etienne; Pérez, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of estimating and analyzing the motion in image sequences showing fluid phenomenon. Due to the great deal of spatial and temporal distortions that luminance patterns exhibit in images of fluid, standard techniques from Computer Vision, originally designed for quasi-rigid motions with stable salient features, are not well adapted in this context. In that prospect, we investigate a dedicated energy-based motion estimator. The considered functional includes a...

  20. An improved method for quantification of extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) in different body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylätupa, S; Mertaniemi, P; Haglund, C; Partanen, P

    1995-01-31

    A quantitative direct enzyme immunoassay for the extra domain A-containing isoform of cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN) was established for screening of large series of blood samples and various body fluids of different pH and viscosity. The method is based on the monoclonal antibody DH1 recognizing the extra domain A in cellular fibronectin (EDAcFN). Studies on the effect of dilution of plasma and serum samples in this direct assay indicated that the measured concentration of cFN in the samples greatly depend on the ratio of sample dilution. The linearity of the assay was improved with sample dilution and the optimal dilution was 1:5. Stored diluted samples retained their cFN content at +4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C for months in contrast to samples stored undiluted. With this direct EIA the detection limit was 0.05 micrograms/ml and the linear portion of the standard curve could be extended above 30 micrograms/ml. Thus, the cFN concentration of blood samples could be measured reliably without inhibition also in samples with very high concentration of cFN. This is particularly important when measuring blood samples from cancer patients, since these samples may contain more than 20 micrograms/ml EDAcFN. The assay was standardized for blood samples but, due to the possibility of sample dilution, it also enabled reliable quantification of EDAcFN in various other body fluids. Undiluted some of the samples with non-neutral pH (urine, bile) or with high viscosity (seminal plasma) interfered with the assay. In addition to blood samples, the EDAcFN concentration was determined in samples of urine, bile, amniotic fluid, cervicovaginal secretions, seminal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid and saliva. Thereby, this modified method was shown to be applicable to various body fluids. PMID:7758225

  1. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulati...

  3. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  4. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  5. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  6. Analysis of feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Werner R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the stationary behaviour of a class of feedback fluid queues. A feedback fluid queue is a natural generalisation of the well-known Markov modulated fluid queue. The essential difference is that the current state of the fluid buffer influences the behaviour of the regulating process. Ther

  7. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  9. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  10. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  11. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new

  13. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Magoules, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap

  14. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  15. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  16. Additive for drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, A.E.

    1983-09-13

    A water-based gas or oil well drilling fluid is disclosed comprising an aqueous clay dispersion containing as a thinner and water loss control agent, the essentially water-soluble product obtained by heating together quebracho, lignite, gilsonite and sulfonating, methylating and causticizing agents.

  17. Fluid resuscitation in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate fluid replacement is an essential component of trauma fluid resuscitation. Once hemorrhage is controlled, restoration of normovolemia is a priority. In the presence of uncontrolled haemorrhage, aggressive fluid management may be harmful. The crystalloid-colloid debate continues but existing clinical practice is more likely to reflect local biases rather than evidence based medicine. Colloids vary substantially in their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics,and the experimental finding based on one colloid cannot be extrapolated reliably to another. In the initial stages of trauma resuscitation the precise fluid used is probably not important as long as an appropriate volume is given. Later, when the microcirculation is ′leaky′, there may be some advantages to high or medium weight colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch. Hypertonic saline solutions may have some benefit in patients with head injuries. A number of hemoglobin solutions are under development, but one of the most promising of these has been withdrawn recently. It is highly likely that at least one of these solutions will eventually become routine therapy for trauma patient resuscitation. In the meantime, contrary to traditional teaching, recent data suggest that restrictive strategy of red cell transfusion may improve outcome in some critically ill patients.

  18. Continuous feedback fluid queues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Scheinhardt; N. van Foreest; M.R.H. Mandjes

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves 'as a continuous-tim

  19. Continuous feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Foreest, N.D. van; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves `as a continuous-time Markov

  20. Cigarette smoking induced liver insult concomitant with inflammatory mediators in serum crevicular fluid and bronchio alveolar lavage of schistosomal diabetic subjects with history of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Samia A; Shafik, Sherine R; Wagih, Ayman; Amir, El-Amir M; Kassem, Gamal K; Atef, Ghada; El-Toukhy, Heba

    2007-08-01

    Forty five smokers were classified into schistosomal cases with type-2 diabetis mellitus (GI) and with associated history of bronchial asthma (GII) and without T-2 DM (GIII). A control group (GIV) of non-diabetic non schistosomal age matched subjects who quitted smoking for >6 months were included. Assessed parameters included indices of glycemic status (glycated hemoglobin), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) hepatic and bronchoalveolar disposition (Liver function test, metallothionein, serum levels of cotinine, cadmium selenium, copper & zinc) and bronchoalveolar lavage) (BAL) levels of surfactant proteins A & D, zinc and copper oxidative stress and fibrogenesis (total antioxidant capacity thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and vasculopathy (angiotensin converting enzyme, P-selectin, nitrate) and periodontitis (collagenase and elastase in GCF) impact of cigarette smoking associated with trace element disbalance and enzymatic changes in crevicular fluid on altered parameters collaborative out-come. The study reflected the collaborative outcome of immune mediated mechanisms initiated by liver affection, glycemic status and history of predisposed bronchial integrity induced by oxidative stress.

  1. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.

    1996-08-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  2. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  3. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  4. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  5. Flows of Reactive Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of reactive flows has progressed mainly with advances in aerospace, which gave birth to a new science called aerothermochemistry, as well as through developments in chemical and process engineering. The methods employed, the phenomena investigated, and the aims of modeling differ for each field; however, in all cases, the results obtained have considerably enriched the working knowledge of reactive flows. This work examines basic concepts and methods necessary to study reactive flows and transfer phenomena in areas such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and chemistry. Specific topics covered include: * Equations of state * Transfer phenomena and chemical kinetics * Balance equations of reactive flows * Dimensionless numbers and similarity * Chemical reactors * Coupled phenomena * Turbulent flow concepts * Boundary layers and fluid layers * Reactive and nonreactive waves * Interface phenomena * Multiphase flow concepts The book presents tools of interest to graduate students, researchers in math...

  6. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  7. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  8. Production of MHD fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  9. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  10. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  11. Issues in contemporary fluid management

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2000-01-01

    Fluid management strategies need to be guided by an understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying fluid imbalance. In the hypovolaemic patient, reduced circulating blood volume and venous return and, in severe cases, altered tissue perfusion may initiate a cascade of pathophysiologic processes culminating in multiple organ failure. The objectives of fluid management are to maintain adequate blood pressure, tissue oxygenation and intravascular fluid volume. Both crystalloids and ...

  12. Fluids in the continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, BWD; Bodnar, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Fluids play a critical role in the geochemical and geodynamical evolution of the crust, and fluid flow is the dominant process associated with mass and energy transport in the crust. In this Perspectives, we summarise the occurrence, properties and role that fluids play in crustal processes, as well as how geoscientists’ understanding of these various aspects of fluids have evolved during the past century and how this evolution in thinking has influenced our own research careers. Despite the ...

  13. RHABDOMYOBLASTS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Nayak; Sushma V

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy, not uncommonly seen in adults. The location of this malignancy is quite ubiquitous. However, a parameningeal location is uncommon and accounts for about 16% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. We report an instance where rhabdomyoblasts were seen infiltrati ng the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 35 year old female patient presented to our hospita l with the primary complaints of bilateral nose block and left side...

  14. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  15. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alicia M.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2011-01-01

    Using focused shadowgraphs, we investigate steady flows of a magnetically non-susceptible fluid interacting with ferrofluid aggregates comprised of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The ferrofluid aggregate is retained at a specific site within the flow channel using two different applied magnetic fields. The bulk flow induces shear stresses on the aggregate, which give rise to the development of interfacial disturbances, leading to Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities and shedding of ferroflu...

  16. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  17. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  18. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  19. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  20. Literature in fluid-to-fluid critical heat flux modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature in fluid-to-fluid critical heat flux (CHF) modelling has been assessed for its application in rod bundle geometries as well as in its potential for further development. A subdivision has been made into empirical scaling laws with restricted application and semi-phenomenological modelling methods basing on dimensionsless numbers with broader use. As result the Ahmad fluid-to-fluid model is for the time being the best fit method from phenomenological and experimental verification point of view. Alternative to the scaling laws is the derivation of fluid independent phenomenological CHF correlations. These correlations can also be used to derive scaling factors. (orig.)

  1. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  2. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  3. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  4. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  5. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  6. Hazards of organic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present several brief reviews on working fluids proposed for use in organic Rankine and bi-phase bottoming cycles. There are several general problems with many organic working fluids: flammability, toxicity, and a tendency to leak through seals. Besides, two of the proposed working fluids are to be used at temperatures above the manufacturer's maximum recommended temperature, and one is to be used in a way different from its customary usage. It may, in some cases, be more profitable to first seek alternative working fluids before committing large amounts of time and money to research projects on unsafe working fluids

  7. Active colloids in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  8. Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Praloy

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...

  9. Hydraulic fluid - element of construction; Hydraulik-Fluid - ein Konstruktionselement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, W.; Lingg, G. [Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Apart from engine oils, hydraulic fluids are the second important group of lubricants. They make up about 15% of the total lubricant consumption. Mineral oil-based hydraulic fluids account for about 85-90% of all hydraulic fluids, fire-resistant fluids have a market share of about 5%, rapidly biodegradable fluids and specialities of about 5%. The increase in effective life of lubricants combined with smaller volumes, extended oil change intervals and lower lubricant consumption have the combined effect of increasing the stress on lubricants. Higher temperatures, smaller oil volumes and greater performance requirements all have the effect of increasing performance and quality demands made on hydraulic fluids. In this paper we would like to present results of thermal and oxidation stability tests of different hydraulic fluids, as well as results of friction coefficient measurements of different kinds of hydraulic fluids. We will show how we can influence evaporating losses by the careful selection of the base oil and we will describe the filtration behaviour of different additive packages under the influence of water in a dynamic filtration test rig. The hydraulic fluid as an important part of compatible fluid family systems in machine tools will be described. (orig.)

  10. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  11. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  12. Reliability of fluid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopáček Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  13. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  14. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  15. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  16. RHABDOMYOBLASTS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy, not uncommonly seen in adults. The location of this malignancy is quite ubiquitous. However, a parameningeal location is uncommon and accounts for about 16% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. We report an instance where rhabdomyoblasts were seen infiltrati ng the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. A 35 year old female patient presented to our hospita l with the primary complaints of bilateral nose block and left sided headache since1 month. Clinically, a deviated nasal septum was diagnosed which needed a septal surgery. Since t he hematological parameters showed a pancytopenia, the surgery was postponed. The patient pr esented 3 weeks later with additional complaints of worsening headache and significant blu rring of vision in her left eye. The MRI scan revealed a midline, dural-based mass. A therape utic tap of the cerebrospinal fluid sent to the clinical laboratory for analysis which showed l arge abnormal cells (figure 1. The bone marrow also showed similar cells, with karyomegaly, dense chromatin, and coalescing vacuoles which were Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS negative. The biopsy from the mass was diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma (parameningeal type. Immunohistoc hemistry showed positivity for Myogenin and Myo-D1.

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The disastrous entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation leads to dramatic sequelae of clinical events, characteristically referred to as Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE. The underlying mechanism for AFE is still poorly understood. Unfortunately, this situation has very grave maternal and fetal consequences. AFE can occur during labor, caesarean section, dilatation and evacuation or in the immediate postpartum period. The pathophysiology is believed to be immune mediated which affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and hematological systems. Undetected and untreated it culminates into fulminant pulmonary edema, intractable convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, malignant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Definite diagnosis can be confirmed by identification of lanugo, fetal hair and fetal squamous cells (squames in blood aspirated from the right ventricle. Usually the diagnosis is made clinically and by exclusion of other causes. The cornerstone of management is a multidisciplinary approach with supportive treatment of failing organs systems. Despite improved modalities for diagnosing AFE, and better intensive care support facilities, the mortality is still high.

  18. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  19. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...

  20. Elastic effects in superposed fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amey

    2014-02-01

    A non-uniform electric field of suitable gradient can make specific weights of two superposed dielectric fluids identical. If the fluids are Newtonian, this choice of electric field makes the interface resilient to small perturbations, even if the fluid on the top is heavier than the one at bottom. On the other hand, if the fluids are viscoelastic, the interface continues to remain unstable. We point out that although the right choice of electric field succeeds in overcoming the effects of gravity, the fluids' elasticity makes the interface unstable. The same effect can be achieved in the case of paramagnetic or ferro-fluids in presence of a non-uniform magnetic field.

  1. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  2. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  3. Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Diagnóstico citológico de neoplasia pulmonar por meio de lavado broncoalveolar em uma cadela: relato de caso Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary neoplasm with bronchoalveolar lavage in a bitch: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Ferian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma cadela de raça Poodle, de 12 anos de idade, com quadro clínico de tosse crônica não responsiva à terapia medicamentosa. O exame radiográfico mostrou imagem de consolidação do lobo pulmonar esquerdo. O exame de lavado broncoalveolar pelo broncofibroscópio mostrou células epiteliais com características de malignidade, permitindo firmar o diagnóstico de carcinoma pulmonar sem diferenciação entre neoplasia primária ou metastática.This article reports a case of a bitch, Poodle, 12 year-old with chronic cough, which had insufficient response to medicamentous therapy. Thoracic radiographic revealed a lobar consolidation in left caudal pulmonary lobe. A bronchoalveolar lavage sample was collected by bronchoscopy for cytology examination. Malignant epithelial cells were observed through cytology allowing the diagnosis of carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between primary pulmonary neoplasm and metastatic neoplasm was not possible.

  5. Conductivity effect in electrorheological fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yu; WEN; Shizhu; MENG; Yonggang

    2004-01-01

    Based on conduction model and cubic particle model, the relationship between current density and shear yield stress of electrorheological (ER) fluids was calculated and compared with some reported experimental results. The conductivity of the insulating oils is found to have been changed by the mixed particles. Several ways to decrease insulating liquid conductivity and increase the conductivity ratio of ER fluids have been proposed to prepare ER fluids with high shear yield stresses but low current densities.

  6. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion. The severity of anemia can be predicted by measurement of bilirubin in amniotic fluid. We showed that this concentration is based on bilirubin in fetal blood and on albumin concentrations. Albumin...

  7. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  8. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  9. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  10. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  11. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  12. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-01-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite ra...

  13. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  14. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  15. Supercritical fluid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninger, J.M.L.; McHugh, M.A.; Radosz, M.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in the science and technology of supercritical fluid (scf) processing. Current research as described in the book, focuses on developments in equations of state for binary and multicomponent mixtures (including polymer solutions), solubility measurements at near-critical conditions, measurements of critical properties of binary mixtures and their correlation with equations of state. Progress in thermodynamics, coupled with advances in the design and construction of high pressure equipment, has opened up a wide avenue of commercial application (e.g. decaffeination of coffee beans, extractions of flavours and spices, purification of pharmaceutical products, separations of polymeric materials, deodorization and deacidification of vegetable oils, fractionation of fatty acids, coal liquefaction, wood delignitication, etc.)

  16. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svaasand, Eldrid

    2008-04-15

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nano fluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powder consisting of carbon particles with the shape of disks and cones and a small amount of amorphous carbon particles. The length or diameter of the particles vary between 0.5-5 mum with thickness varying between 10-50 nm. The results confirm the cone angles as predicted by theory. The various microscopy images show that the surfaces of the particles seem corrugated. It should be noted that it is the mixed particle powder which it is referred to when it is written 'carbon cone particles' or 'CC particles'. The dispersion of CC particles in silicon oil was studied under the influence of an electric field. The particles were found to align in an ac electric field and structure formation was observed at very low electric fields. The growth rate was found to vary exponentially with the electric field. The structure formations were permanent (under zero shear rate), not dissolving when the electric field was turned off. This was attributed to the strong Van der Waals forces associated with carbon particles. Electrorheological measurements were carried out for dispersions with varying CC particle concentrations. All samples showed a Bingham fluid behavior with a finite yield stress. The yield stress was found to depend only weakly on the electric field. The results showed that the ER efficiency as measured by the relative increase in viscosity compared to the zero field viscosity, increases with decreasing concentration with a maximum factor of approx10 for the

  17. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, M; Hess, S

    2003-01-01

    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  18. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to metalworking fluids: how to find the antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merget, R; Sander, I; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Rabente, T; Kolk, A; Brüning, Th

    2013-01-01

    Most surveys of outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in subjects with occupational exposure to water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) were unable to detect a clear link between symptoms and the precise causative agents. We studied the case of a male 41-year-old industrial knife grinder with exposure to water-based MWFs since 12 years. The diagnosis of HP was made by typical work-related symptoms, the demonstration of high lymphocyte numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage and elevated IgG antibody concentrations to various molds in the patient's serum, and complete recovery after early exposure cessation. Whereas an environmental survey showed only low numbers of mold contamination in one sump sample, high antigenic activity was demonstrated in the same sample by antigen-specific IgG inhibition tests. We conclude that the detection of antigenic molds in water-based MWFs by culture methods may be limited. The link between occupational exposure to specific molds in MWFs and hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be established by the demonstration of antigenic activity by antigen-specific IgG inhibition tests. PMID:23835995

  19. Comparison of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fluids and tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Waggoner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA is increasingly being used for specimen types other than plasma or whole blood. However, few studies have investigated the performance of different nucleic acid extraction protocols in such specimens. In this study, CMV extraction using the Cell-free 1000 and Pathogen Complex 400 protocols on the QIAsymphony Sample Processing (SP system were compared using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, tissue samples, and urine. The QIAsymphonyAssay Set-up (AS system was used to assemble reactions using artus CMV PCR reagents and amplification was carried out on the Rotor-Gene Q. Samples from 93 patients previously tested for CMV DNA and negative samples spiked with CMV AD-169 were used to evaluate assay performance. The Pathogen Complex 400 protocol yielded the following results: BAL, sensitivity 100% (33/33, specificity 87% (20/23; tissue, sensitivity 100% (25/25, specificity 100% (20/20; urine, sensitivity 100% (21/21, specificity 100% (20/20. Cell-free 1000 extraction gave comparable results for BAL and tissue, however, for urine, the sensitivity was 86% (18/21 and specimen quantitation was inaccurate. Comparative studies of different extraction protocols and DNA detection methods in body fluids and tissues are needed, as assays optimized for blood or plasma will not necessarily perform well on other specimen types.

  20. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  1. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  2. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  3. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  4. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  5. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  6. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  8. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@unige.ch, E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  9. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  10. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  11. Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.

    1976-10-01

    A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed.

  12. Celularidade do líquido de LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e com doenças pulmonares Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Furtado de Mendonça Picinin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo rever a literatura existente sobre a celularidade do LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis, bem como sobre sua utilização como método propedêutico e de acompanhamento nas afecções pulmonares neste grupo etário. Para tanto, utilizamos o banco de dados médico Medline com a seleção de artigos publicados entre 1989 e 2009 utilizando os seguintes descritores MeSH com operadores boolianos: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. Em crianças saudáveis, a celularidade é composta por macrófagos alveolares (> 80%, linfócitos (cerca de 10%, neutrófilos (cerca de 2% e eosinófilos (The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%, lymphocytes (approximately 10%, neutrophils (approximately 2% and eosinophils (< 1%. The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogenous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of

  13. Artificial Heart Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussivand, Tofigh Varcaneh

    Flow characteristics within pneumatic, pulsatile, and pusher plate prosthetic hearts were studied. The blood pumps evaluated were duplicates of pumps used for in vivo calf and for clinical implantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Human dura mater bioprosthetic, caged disk, and Bjork-Shiley tilting disk valves were employed in the pumps. Dual camera video tape and synchronized still photography were used to study flow patterns. Diffused light and a planar laser source provided illumination. The laser light was fanned into a plane with a thickness of 0.2 mm to 10 mm. Magnesium oxide and Amberlite particles were used as tracers. Aqueous-glycerol, aqueous-sucrose solutions and mineral oil were used as blood analog fluids. Inflow, outflow, drive, and afterload pressures, diaphragm motion, cardiac output, and heart rate were measured and recorded. An electrical circuit was developed to synchronize pump diaphragm motion with captured images of flow trajectories. After digitizing the trajectories, velocities, global and local turbulence, and shear stresses were obtained. Disturbed and recirculating zones were identified. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using data obtained from the digitization of flow trajectories. Simultaneous turbulence and stasis were observed during most phases of the cardiac cycles in all the pumps tested. A maximum Reynold's shear stress of 2889 dynes/cm ^2 occurred at 120 beats per minute (bpm). The peak velocity was 146 cm/sec during systole. The identified regions of recirculation, low velocity and disturbed flow were shown to correlate with thrombosed areas of explanted blood pumps. The maximum calculated turbulence intensity was 106 cm/sec which occurred at 120 bpm during systole.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; ZHANG Yun-feng; TIAN Xin

    2008-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage is studied with subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme.The passage is formed with two parallel panels,one is risid and the other is flexible.The interaction between fluid flows and flexible panel is numerically studied,mainly focused on the effect of dynamic pressure and distance between two parallel panels.Subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme is utihzed to combine the vibration and fluid analysis and to stabilize long-term calculations to get accurate resuhs.It's demonstrated that the flutter characteristic of flexible panel is more complex with the increase of dynamic pressure and the decrease of distance between two parallel panels.Via analyzing the propagation and reflection of disturbance in passage,it's determined as a main cause of the variations.

  15. Fluid Dynamics with Cryogenic Fluid Transfer in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During chilldown of cryogenic fluid tanks and lines, the interface between the liquid and vapor rapidly changes. Understanding these rapid changes is key...

  16. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  17. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  18. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  19. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  20. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  1. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  2. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  3. Annual review of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. Topics covered include: modeling of two-phases slug flow; vortex rings; numerical models of mantle convection; and wavelet transforms

  4. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  5. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember, some foods, such as soups, puddings, gelatin, ice cream, popsicles and others contain fluids. When you eat ... and Metabolism; American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. State of the ...

  6. Lung fluid during postnatal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sture Andersson; Olli Pitk(a)nen; Cecilia Janér; Otto Helve

    2010-01-01

    @@ Successful postnatal pulmonary adaptation is dependent on cessation of fetal fluid secretion into the luminal space of the lung and a switch to fluid absorption during the perinatal period. Most infants undergo this transformation rapidly, but some encounter difficulties.Failure in adaptation may result, in preterm infants, in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and, in near-term and term infants, in transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). In both entities, among other causes, lung liquid clearance, i.e. the inability to clear the lung of perinatal fluid, may be ineffective.1-4 In addition, there are data connecting bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to decreased ion transport.5-7 However, only limited data are available on the association of lung fluid transport and neonatal respiratory distress in human infants.

  7. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  8. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Berryman, James

    2003-10-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery.

  9. Blackfold as a Conformal Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we review some properties of higher dimensional black holes. In that case we take advantages of fluid/gravity duality and obtain the fluid properties of higher dimensional black holes on the boundary. So we consider two natural and charged blackfold cases and extract the Brown-York stress energy tensor (tensor of fluid) on the boubdary. As we konw, the compactification of some directions in any asymptotically AdS black branes corresponds to some kind of Ricci-flat spacetime. For example the nautral black holes spacetime is Ricci-flat. So by calculating the AAdS form of that metric the dual renormalized holographic stress tensor has been exracted. This stress tensor is conserved and traceless, also it is same as perfect fluid.

  10. The Quantum Theory of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behaviour is radically different to both classical fluids and quantum fields, with interesting physical consequences for fluids in the low temperature regime.

  11. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  12. Fluid pumped by magnetic stress

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, R; Reimann, B; Richter, R; Rehberg, I; Krauss, Robert; Liu, Mario; Reimann, Bert; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic field rotating on the free surface of a ferrofluid layer is shown to induce considerable fluid motion towards the direction the field is rolling. The measured flow velocity i) increases with the square of the magnetic field amplitude, ii) is proportional to the thickness of the fluid layer, and iii) has a maximum at a driving frequency of about 3 kHz. The pumping speed can be estimated with a two-dimensional flow model.

  13. Viscosity of Quantum Hall Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Seiler, R.; Zograf, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    The viscosity of quantum fluids with an energy gap at zero temperature is non-dissipative and is related to the adiabatic curvature on the space of flat background metrics (which plays the role of the parameter space). For a quantum Hall fluid on two dimensional tori this viscosity is computed. In this case the average viscosity is quantized and is proportional to the total magnetic flux through the torus.

  14. Body fluid identification in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-01-01

    At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. The...

  15. Paramagnetism shielding in drilling fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    In drilling operations, drilling fluid containing magnetic materials is used when drilling a well. The materials can significantly shield the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by magnetic sensors inside the drilling strings. The magnetic property of the drilling fluid is one of the substantial error sources for the determination of magnetic azimuth for wellbores. Both the weight material, cuttings, clay and other formation material plus metal filings from the tubular wear m...

  16. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    OpenAIRE

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function...

  17. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  18. Base isolation of fluid containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Cygna Group Inc./ICF Kaiser International, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design.

  19. Base isolation of fluid containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design

  20. Cytokine & chemokine response in the lungs, pleural fluid and serum in thoracic surgery using one-lung ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breunig Andreas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoracic surgery mandates usually a one-lung ventilation (OLV strategy with the collapse of the operated lung and ventilation of the non-operated lung. These procedures trigger a substantial inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytokine and chemokine reaction in both lungs, pleural space and blood in patients undergoing lung resection with OLV with special interest in the chemokine growth-regulated peptide alpha (GROα which is the human equivalent to the rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1. Methods Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL fluid of both the collapsed, operated and the ventilated, non-operated lung, respectively, pleural space drainage fluid and blood was collected and the concentrations of interleukin (IL-6, IL-1RA and GROα were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 15 patients. Results Substantial inter-individual differences in the BAL fluid between patients in cytokine and chemokine levels occurred. In the pleural fluid and the blood these inter-individual differences were less pronounced. Both sides of the lung were affected and showed a significant increase in IL-6 and IL-1RA concentrations over time but not in GROα concentrations. Except for IL-6, which increased more in the collapsed, operated lung, no difference between the collapsed, operated and the ventilated, non-operated lung occurred. In the blood, IL-6 and IL-1RA increased early, already at the end of surgery. GROα was not detectable. In the pleural fluid, both cytokine and chemokine concentrations increased by day one. The increase was significantly higher in the pleural fluid compared to the blood. Conclusion The inflammatory response of cytokines affects both the collapsed, operated and the ventilated, non-operated lungs. The difference in extent of response underlines the complexity of the inflammatory processes during OLV. In contrast to the cytokines, the chemokine GRO

  1. Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is concerned with the development of a quantitative scientific description of the thermodynamic and transport properties of supercritical and subcritical fluids and fluid mixtures. It is known that the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures asymptotically close to the critical point satisfy scaling laws with universal critical exponents and universal scaling functions. However, the range of validity of these asymptotic scaling laws is quite small. As a consequence, the impact of the modern theory of critical phenomena on chemical engineering has been limited. On the other hand, an a priori estimate of the range of temperatures and densities, where critical fluctuations become significant, can be made on the basis of the so-called Ginzburg criterion. A recent analysis of this criterion suggests that this range is actually quite large and for a fluid like carbon dioxide can easily extend to 100 degrees or so above the critical temperature. Hence, the use of traditional engineering equations like cubic equations is not scientifically justified in a very wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point. We have therefore embarked on a scientific approach to deal with the global effects of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures. For this purpose it is not sufficient to consider the asymptotic critical fluctuations but we need to deal also with the nonasymptotic critical fluctuations. The goal is to develop scientifically based questions that account for the crossover of the thermophysical properties from their asymptotic singular behavior in the near vicinity of the critical point to their regular behavior very far away from the critical point

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  3. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ajona

    Full Text Available Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort. The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls. A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort. Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94 and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76 for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts. Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83. In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease.

  4. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajona, Daniel; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Maria Dolores; Pajares, Maria Jose; Garcia, Javier; Cardenal, Felipe; Fleischhacker, Michael; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Schmidt, Bernd; Nadal, Ernest; Paz-Ares, Luis; Montuenga, Luis M; Pio, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort). The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d) in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls) and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls). A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort). Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94) and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76) for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts). Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83). In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25799154

  5. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  6. Fluid Behavior and Fluid-Solid Interactions in Nanoporous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although shale oil/gas production in the US has increased exponentially, the low energy recovery is a daunting problem needed to be solved for its sustainability and continued growth, especially in light of the recent oil/gas price decline. This is apparently related to the small porosity (a few to a few hundred nm) and low permeability (10-16-10-20 m2) of tight shale formations. The fundamental question lies in the anomalous behavior of fluids in nanopores due to confinement effects, which, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined experimental characterization and observations, particularly using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with pore-scale modeling using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to examine the fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions in nanopores at reservoir conditions. Experimentally, we characterized the compositions and microstructures of a shale sample from Wolfcamp, Texas, using a variety of analytical techniques. Our analyses reveal that the shale sample is made of organic-matter (OM)-lean and OM-rich layers that exhibit different chemical and mineral compositions, and microstructural characteristics. Using the hydrostatic pressure system and gas-mixing setup we developed, in-situ SANS measurements were conducted at pressures up to 20 kpsi on shale samples imbibed with water or water-methane solutions. The obtained results indicate that capillary effect plays a significant role in fluid-nanopore interactions and the associated changes in nanopore structures vary with pore size and pressure. Computationally, we performed LBM modeling to simulate the flow behavior of methane in kerogen nanoporous structure. The correction factor, which is the ratio of apparent permeability to intrinsic permeability, was calculated. Our results show that the correction factor is always greater than one (non-continuum/non-Darcy effects) and increases with decreasing nanopore size, intrinsic permeability and pressure. Hence, the

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  8. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    CERN Document Server

    García-García, Carlos; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by ...

  9. Fluid fragmentation from hospital toilets

    CERN Document Server

    Traverso, G; Lu, C -C; Maa, R; Langer, R; Bourouiba, L

    2013-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent significant health and financial burdens to society. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a particularly challenging bacteria with the potential to cause severe diarrhea and death. One mode of transmission for C. difficile, as well as other pathogens, which has received little attention is the potential air contamination by pathogen-bearing droplets emanating from toilets. In the fluid dynamics video submitted to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, we present flow visualizations via high-speed recordings showing the capture of the product of the fluid fragmentation generated by hospital toilet high-pressure flushes. Important quantities of both large and small droplets are observed. We illustrate how high-pressure flushes and cleaning products currently used in hospital toilets result in aggravating, rather than alleviating, the suspension and recirculation of tenacious airborne pathogen-bearing droplets.

  10. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  11. Lecture notes: Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes, and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is 'frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, includin...

  12. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  13. Early Management and Fluid Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yorgancı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial management of severely burned patient is similar with a trauma victim. Determination of airway patency, evaluation of respiration and circulation, early recognition of concomitant trauma has vital importance in burn patients. In the early phase, mortality mainly depends on missed or un-treated severe injuries or pathologies, but not burn injury itself.In patients that have TBSA greater than 15 %, fluid resuscitation should be started. In the first 24 hours, crystalloid solutions should be preferred. .Several formulas can guide fluid resuscitation; however the amount of fluid that is given to the patient should be individualized according to the patient’s need. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 7-10

  14. Mécanique des fluides

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Y A

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des fluides est un outil performant qui permet d'expliquer les phénomènes qui nous entourent de l'échelle microscopique à l'échelle macroscopique. Elle est aussi à la base du développement de nombreuses technologies. Cet ouvrage à destination des étudiants donne une vision complète de la mécanique des fluides. Bien que la mécanique des fluides puisse souvent paraître rébarbative aux yeux des étudiants, cet ouvrage valorise ce domaine d'enseignement en l'illustrant de nombreux exemples issus de l'ingénierie navale, l'aéronautique, la météorologie, etc.

  15. The behavior of simple fluids in microfractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Diestler, D.J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schoen, M. [Universitaet Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    1993-06-01

    The behavior of fluids in molecularly narrow microfractures (vicinal fluids) differs from that of their bulk-phase counterparts. The differences are especially dramatic when the fractures are lass than 10 fluid molecular diameters in width. The behavior of fluids in these ultrathink fractures is poorly understood. This talk discusses recent efforts to begin to understand these fluids on the molecular and continuum scales. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  17. Impedance Spectroscopy of Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, V. I.; Zubko, D. V.; Sitsko, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the laws governing the change in the electrophysical properties of decane-, turbine oil-, and kerosene-based magnetic fluids with the electric field frequency, dispersed phase concentration, and temperature. We have determined the optimal electric field frequencies, dispersed phase concentrations, and temperatures within the limits of which the electrophysical characteristics such as the relative permittivity, specific electric resistance, and the loss tangent of a dielectric appear to be the most informative to estimate the structure, composition, and properties of magnetic fluids.

  18. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  19. Fluid systems for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2005-01-01

    The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.

  20. Fluid behavior in microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the presence of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellent transfer. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellent resettling have been carried out through the execution of a CRAY X-MP super computer to simulate fluid management in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have also been investigated.

  1. Mixing in shear thinning fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ameur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a CFD characterization of the flow generated by curved-blade impellers in a cylindrical unbaffled vessel was carried out. The tank diameter was 300 mm, with a flat bottom. The liquid height was equal to the vessel diameter. The fluids simulated have a shear thinning behavior. Analyses concern the effect of the impeller speed, the fluid rheology and the number of impeller blades on the induced flow patterns and the power consumption. The predictions were compared with literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

  2. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  3. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  4. Activities report in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The research conducted at the Lille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFL) concerns four areas: flight mechanics, structural mechanics, aerodynamics and applied fluid mechanics. Within these four areas, these topics are discussed: characterization of the unsteady pressures on an airfoil in turbulence; adaptation of the Kalman-Rauch filtering-smoothing method to instrumented free spin tests; vulnerability of aircraft fuel tanks; water surface impact; influence of an oscillating spoiler on the surrounding aerodynamic field; gunfiring similarity theory and rules; flow around a cylinder at low Reynolds number by holographic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry; compressible turbulent flow computation; and the wake of wind turbine towers are discussed.

  5. Fluid Dynamic Evidence for Extremely Low Viscosity Coseismic Fault Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Meneghini, F.; Rowe, C. D.; Moore, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We combine geological observations of fault rock textures with fluid mechanics to constrain the mechanics of a fault zone during a subduction earthquake. We analyze buoyant intrusive features in a fault rock that formed at 12- 14 km depth in a large-scale thrust fault embedded in a paleo-accretionary prism in Kodiak Island, AK. The fault rock can been interpreted as either a pseudotachylyte or fluidized ultracataclasite. The intrusive structures provide new, direct evidence on the coseismic rheology of the fault. The asymmetric buoyant intrusions are most readily understood as Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with an unusually short wavelengths relative to the thickness of the layer. The geometry requires a moderately high Reynolds number flow (Re~1-10) in order to produce the observed wavelength to thickness ratio. The resulting rise velocity under these conditions is ~40 cm/s. Since the shear strain in the layer is over order 1 and the deformation is continuous, the rise velocity must be comparable to the horizontal shear velocity during emplacement. Thus, the geometry alone requires that the fault rocks were intruded coseismically. Furthermore, the Reynolds number constraint combined with the computed rise velocity provides a maximum bound on the viscosity of the fluid during emplacement. The coseismic fault fluid at this locality must have had a viscosity of \\ll 10 Pa-s. This viscosity constraint is compatible with the viscosity of the silicate melt of the observed composition at 1300-1400°, which is consistent with the temperature constraints imposed by the absence of plagioclase survivor grains. In summary, both the fluid dynamical and geological evidence points to an extraordinarily low viscosity fluid in the fault zone during rupture and hence extremely low local stress in the fault during an earthquake.

  6. Use of epr spin-trapping techniques to detect radicals from rat lung lavage fluid following sulfur mustard vapor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Yourick, J.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Young, G.D.; Harris, L.W.

    1993-05-13

    Although well known for skin vesicating properties, pulmonary damage and associated infections account for most of the mortality associated with sulfur mustard (HD). We have employed an in vivo HD vapor exposure model, bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques to provide evidence for HD-induced (free radical/lipid peroxidation associated) lung injury. Anesthetized rats were intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.35 mg HD vapor over 50 min. Immediately, 1 hr or 24 hr after exposure, lungs were lavaged with the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN; 0.35 mg/ml). Recovered lavage fluid was assayed by EPR spectroscopy for radical spin adducts. Airway lipid extracts were assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARs); while separate groups of rats were used to evaluate histopathology. EPR results show the presence of an ascorbyl radical at 1 and 24 hr, and a carbon centered PBN spin adduct at 24 hr, both indicative of lipid peroxidation. TBAR (A532nm) formation was also detected at 24 hr. Histopathology revealed multifocal separation of the bronchial epithelium from the submucosa with little or no alveolar involvement at 24 hrs. These studies provide evidence that HD may affect lungs by a free radical mechanism which produces membrane and other tissue damage.

  7. Shearfree Spherically Symmetric Fluid Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2013-01-01

    We try to find some exact analytical models of spherically symmetric spacetime of collapsing fluid under shearfree condition. We consider two types of solutions: one is to impose a condition on the mass function while the other is to restrict the pressure. We obtain totally of five exact models, and some of them satisfy the Darmois conditions.

  8. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  9. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  10. Fluid Dynamics and Entropic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A new entropic gravity inspired derivation of general relativity from thermodynamics is presented. This generalizes, within Einstein gravity, the "Thermodynamics of Spacetime" approach by T. Jacobson, which relies on the Raychaudhuri evolution equation. Here the rest of the first law of thermodynamics is incorporated by using the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation, known from the membrane paradigm for describing fluid dynamics on the horizon.

  11. The Geometrical Modelling of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Mikhail G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the nonlinear electrodynamics type model and its relation with relativistic hydrodynamics with no dissipation (including string and membrane hydrodynamics). We are able to convert arbitrary flux of fluid to the family of geodesics by the conformal transformation of metric. The conditions of transformation of nonlinear electrodynamics solution to linear electrodynamics solution by changing of metric are presented.

  12. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these

  13. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  14. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  15. Viscous fluid interpretation of some exact solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, J.; Ibanez, J.

    1985-09-01

    An example of the equivalence between a perfect fluid and a viscous fluid is presented, showing that the Schwarzschild interior solution obtained from a perfect fluid can also be derived from a viscous fluid with heat conduction. The equivalence between a scalar field and a viscous fluid is investigated, showing that under certain circumstances, both can generate, from Einstein's equations, the same space-time geometry. Some examples are presented and, in particular, it is shown that every plane-symmetric solution deduced from a scalar field can also be derived from a viscous fluid.

  16. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  17. Sound scattering at fluid-fluid rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Extinction theorem was used to deduce the first order scattering cross-section including the double scattering effects for the fluid-fluid rough surface.If the dou- ble scattering effects are neglected in the present method,the scattering cross-section agrees with the result obtained by the perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis.Calculations of scattering strength were carried out,and comparisons with the first-order perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothe- sis were also done.The results show that double scattering effects are obvious with the increase of the root mean square of surface height and the grazing angle when the valid condition k1h<1 is satisfied.

  18. Fluid spray simulation with two-fluid nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Two-phase interacting flow inside a two-fluid fuel atomizer was investigated and a correction of aerodynamic and liquid-surface forces with characteristic drop diameter was obtained for liquid-jet breakup in Mach 1 gas flow. Nitrogen gas mass-flux was varied from 6 to 50 g/sq cm sec by using four differently sized two-fluid atomizers with nozzle diameters varyig from 0.32 to 0.56 cm. The correlation was derived by using the acoustic gas velocity, V sub c, as a basic parameter in defining and evaluating the dimensionless product of the Weber (We) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. By using the definition of WeRe, it was found that the ratio of orifice diameter to Sauter mean drop diameter could be correlated with the dimensionless ratio WeRe and the gas to liquid density ratio.

  19. Kinetics of Surfactant Adsorption at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, H.; Andelman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory for the kinetics of surfactant adsorption at the interface between an aqueous solution and another fluid (air, oil) phase. The model relies on a free-energy formulation. It describes both the diffusive transport of surfactant molecules from the bulk solution to the interface, and the kinetics taking place at the interface itself. When applied to non-ionic surfactant systems, the theory recovers results of previous models, justify their assumptions and predicts a diffusion-...

  20. MR features of fluid-fluid levels in ovarian masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Hospital, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Min Woo [Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sun Ho [Dongguk University International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Goyang (Korea)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the frequency and imaging features of fluid-fluid levels (FFLs) in pathologically proven ovarian masses on magnetic resonance (MR) images. The authors reviewed the preoperative MR findings of 556 ovarian masses in 428 patients. Presence, numbers, and signal intensities (SI) of FFLs were analyzed. In non-teratomas, we assessed whether SI of the FFLs of benign masses and malignant neoplasms differed using the {chi}{sup 2} test. FFLs were observed in 66 of 556 ovarian masses (11.9%) on MR images, fat-fluid levels were observed in 11 of 80 teratomas, and FFLs attributed to hemorrhage in 54 of 476 non-teratomas and one twisted teratoma. Non-neoplastic cystic lesions were most common non-teratomas to contain FFLs (27/197, 13.7%), followed by malignant neoplasms (23/177, 13.0%). Benign neoplasms rarely contained FFLs (4/102, 3.9%); those that did were commonly associated with complications such as torsion or inflammation. A hypointense supernatant layer together with a hyperintense dependent layer on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) was significantly more common in malignant neoplasms than in benign masses (P < 0.0001). FFLs occurred in various ovarian masses ranging from benign to malignant neoplasms on MR images. In non-teratomas, a hypointense supernatant layer and a hyperintense dependent layer on T1WIs may favor a diagnosis of malignancy. (orig.)

  1. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  2. Visual Simulation of Multiple Unmixable Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zheng; Jun-Hai Yong; Jean-Claude Paul

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel grid-based method for simulating multiple unmixable fluids moving and interacting.Unlike previous methods that can only represent the interface between two fluids (usually between liquid and gas), this method can handle an arbitrary number of fluids through multiple independent level sets coupled with a constrain condition.To capture the fluid surface more accurately, we extend the particle level set method to a multi-fluid version.It shares the advantages of the particle level set method, and has the ability to track the interfaces of multiple fluids.To handle the dynamic behavior of different fluids existing together, we use a multiphase fluid formulation based on a smooth weight function.

  3. Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.

    1986-01-01

    The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)

  4. CEE3500 - Fluid Mechanics, Spring 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Urroz, Gilberto E.

    2006-01-01

    Explores fluid properties, hydrostatics, fluid dynamics, similitude, energy and momentum principles, closed conduit flow, open channel flow, and flow measurement. Includes laboratory exercises in flow measurement, open channel flow, pipe friction, physical modeling, and data collection.

  5. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  6. Zika Found in Eye Fluid in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160986.html Zika Found in Eye Fluid in Study Virus may ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika can be detected in fluid inside the eyelid ...

  7. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  8. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Laboureur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC. It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering or highly specific (mass spectrometry detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium.

  9. Fluid replacement requirements in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1994-01-01

    Soccer is an endurance sport that consists of moderate activity levels interspersed with intermittent high-intensity bursts, leading to high rates of metabolic heat production. Even when the weather is cold, significant sweat loss will occur, leading to a degree of dehydration which impairs exercise performance. Fluid intake before and during the game will provide water to reduce the degree of dehydration and can also supply carbohydrate to supplement the body's limited carbohydrate stores. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are most effective for rehydration. The optimum formulation will vary between individuals and will also depend on climatic conditions. Players should be encouraged to experiment with fluid intake during training to identify the type of drink and the amount and frequency of drinks that best meet their needs.

  10. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    function for the topology of the streamline pattern in incompressible flows. On this basis, we perform a comprehensive study of the topology of the flow field generated by a helical vortex filament in an ideal fluid. The classical expression for the stream function obtained by Hardin (Hardin, J. C. 1982...... Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly...

  11. Fluid Annotations in a Open World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Polle Trescott; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Jehøj, Henning;

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to l...... to layer fluid annotations and links on top of abitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required....

  12. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Senterre, Christelle; Dramaix Wilmet, Michèle; Thiebaut, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A seco...

  13. Fluid dynamics theoretical and computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, ZUA

    2005-01-01

    Important Nomenclature Kinematics of Fluid Motion Introduction to Continuum Motion Fluid Particles Inertial Coordinate Frames Motion of a Continuum The Time Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Steady and Nonsteady Flow Trajectories of Fluid Particles and Streamlines Material Volume and Surface Relation between Elemental Volumes Kinematic Formulas of Euler and Reynolds Control Volume and Surface Kinematics of Deformation Kinematics of Vorticity and Circulation References Problems The Conservation Laws and the Kinetics of Flow Fluid Density and the Conservation of Mass Prin

  14. Fluid management in space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard

    1989-01-01

    The low-g fluids management group with the Center for Space Construction is engaged in active research on the following topics: gauging; venting; controlling contamination; sloshing; transfer; acquisition; and two-phase flow. Our basic understanding of each of these topics at present is inadequate to design space structures optimally. A brief report is presented on each topic showing the present status, recent accomplishings by our group and our plans for future research. Reports are presented in graphic and outline form.

  15. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...... as to monitor the performance of disease-modifying drugs. This chapter presents methods for SELDI-TOF profiling of CSF as well as useful advice regarding pre-analytical factors to be considered....

  16. Quantum Field Theory of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a...

  17. Unsteady unidirectional micropolar fluid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the unsteady unidirectional flow of a micropolar fluid, produced by the sudden application of an arbitrary time dependent pressure gradient, between two parallel plates. The no-slip and the no-spin boundary conditions are used. Exact solutions for the velocity and microrotation distributions are obtained based on the use of the complex inversion formula of Laplace transform. The solution of the problem is also considered if the upper boundary of the flow is a free surface. The particula...

  18. Reentrant Wetting of Network Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, N. R.; Telo da Gama, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    We use a simple mesoscopic Landau-Safran theory of network fluids to show that a reentrant phase diagram, in the “empty liquid” regime, leads to nonmonotonic surface tension and reentrant wetting, as previously reported for binary mixtures. One of the wetting transitions is of the usual kind, but the low temperature transition may allow the display of the full range of fluctuation regimes predicted by renormalization group theory.

  19. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  20. Electrokinetic micro-fluid mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for efficiently and rapidly mixing liquids in a system operating in the creeping flow regime such as would be encountered in capillary-based systems. By applying an electric field to each liquid, the present invention is capable of mixing together fluid streams in capillary-based systems, where mechanical or turbulent stirring cannot be used, to produce a homogeneous liquid.

  1. Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Divoux, Thibaut; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Manneville, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Even in simple geometries many complex fluids display non-trivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known since several decades, but the recent years have seen an upsurge of studies offering an ever more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales and with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many pheno...

  2. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The wave-vector dependent shear viscosities for butane and freely jointed chains have been determined. The transverse momentum density and stress autocorrelation functions have been determined by equilibrium molecular dynamics in both atomic and molecular hydrodynamic formalisms. The density, tem...... that generalized hydrodynamics must be applied in predicting the flow properties of molecular fluids on length scales where the strain rate varies sufficiently in the order of these dimensions (e.g., nanofluidic flows)....

  3. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The wave-vector dependent shear viscosities for butane and freely jointed chains have been determined. The transverse momentum density and stress autocorrelation functions have been determined by equilibrium molecular dynamics in both atomic and molecular hydrodynamic formalisms. The density...... that generalized hydrodynamics must be applied in predicting the flow properties of molecular fluids on length scales where the strain rate varies sufficiently in the order of these dimensions (e.g., nanofluidic flows)....

  4. Fluid Mixing from Viscous Fingering

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Birendra; Juanes, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We study, by means of numerical simulation, the mixing of two fluids of different viscosities in advection-dominated flows in a porous medium. It is well known that when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the displacement front is unstable and leads to the formation of a pattern known as viscous fingering. We present a high-resolution simulation approach that is stable for arbitrary viscosity ratios, and study mixing under different configurations with viscosity contrasts up to M = 400. We observe, in agreement with lab experiments, that for high-M displacements, the growth of new fingers follows the trace of previous ones. This channeling effect, which is a result of the nonlocal coupling through the pressure field, greatly reduces mixing. A two-equation mixing model using the scalar variance and its dissipation rate is derived from the advection-diffusion equation. It provides a measure of effective diffusivity due to convective and diffusive mixing processes. Our analysis predicts the opt...

  5. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable p

  6. 40 CFR 147.3103 - Fluid seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluid seals. 147.3103 Section 147.3103... Tribes § 147.3103 Fluid seals. Notwithstanding §§ 144.28(f)(2) and 146.12(c) of this chapter, owners and operators shall not use a fluid seal as an alternative to a packer....

  7. Time-machine in Perfect Fluid Cosmologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yan-zhi

    2009-01-01

    This letter investigates the time-machine problem in perfect fluid cosmologies. It solves the Einstein's field equations with the energy-momentum tensors for perfect fluid and constructs a class of time-machine solutions,by which the time-machine problem in the perfect fluid cosmologies is solved.

  8. Method of hardening a fluid mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of hardening a fluid mass in contact with a wall, in a desirable shape. According to the invention, the fluid mass is a magneto-rheological fluid mixture that in addition to at least one hardening component comprises a particulate magnetic component, with minimally

  9. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide cooling, lubrication, corrosion prevention, and reduced wear on the contact parts of machinery used for...

  10. Transient flows of a Burgers' fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is performed to develop the analytical solutions for some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a Burgers' fluid between two plates. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the fluid motion. The exact solutions are given for three problems. Results for the velocity fields are discussed and compared with the flows of Oldroyd-B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian fluids. (author)

  11. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  12. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  13. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  14. On Radiative Fluids in Anisotropic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shogin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We apply the second-order Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic fluid- and thermodynamics to a physically realistic model of a radiative fluid in a simple anisotropic cosmological background. We investigate the asymptotic future of the resulting cosmological model and review the role of the dissipative phenomena in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the transport properties of the fluid alone, if described appropriately, do not explain the presently observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Also, we show that, in constrast to the mathematical fluid models widely used before, the radiative fluid does approach local thermal equilibrium at late times, although very slowly, due to the cosmological expansion.

  15. Artifacts in magnetic measurements of fluid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Z.; Dennis, C. L.

    2016-08-01

    Applications of magnetic fluids are ever increasing, as well as the corresponding need to be able to characterize these fluids in situ. Commercial magnetometers are accurate and well-characterized for solid and powder samples, but their use with fluid samples is more limited. Here, we describe artifacts which can occur in magnetic measurements of fluid samples and their impact. The most critical problem in the measurement of fluid samples is the dynamic nature of the sample position and size/shape. Methods to reduce these artifacts are also discussed, such as removal of air bubbles and dynamic centering.

  16. Physically-based fluid animation: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jie; YANG XuBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give an up-to-date survey on physically-based fluid animation research. As one of the most popular approaches to simulate realistic fluid effects, physically-based fluid animation has spurred a large number of new results in recent years. We classify and discuss the existing methods within three categories: Lagrangian method, Eulerian method and Lattice-Boltzmann method. We then introduce techniques for seven different kinds of special fluid effects. Finally we review the latest hot research areas and point out some future research trends, including surface tracking, fluid control, hybrid method, model reduction, etc.

  17. Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Von Mises, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow covers the conceptual and mathematical aspects of theory of compressible fluid flow. This five-chapter book specifically tackles the role of thermodynamics in the mechanics of compressible fluids. This text begins with a discussion on the general theory of characteristics of compressible fluid with its application. This topic is followed by a presentation of equations delineating the role of thermodynamics in compressible fluid mechanics. The discussion then shifts to the theory of shocks as asymptotic phenomena, which is set within the context of

  18. Viscous fingering with partial miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible or perfectly immiscible. In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other. Following our recent work for miscible (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. Partial miscibility is characterized through the design of thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution.

  19. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  20. Pumping by flapping in a viscoelastic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Pak, On Shun

    2010-01-01

    In a world without inertia, Purcell's scallop theorem states that in a Newtonian fluid a time-reversible motion cannot produce any net force or net flow. Here we consider the extent to which the nonlinear rheological behavior of viscoelastic fluids can be exploited to break the constraints of the scallop theorem in the context of fluid pumping. By building on previous work focusing on force generation, we consider a simple, biologically-inspired geometrical example of a flapper in a polymeric (Oldroyd-B) fluid, and calculate asymptotically the time-average net fluid flow produced by the reciprocal flapping motion. The net flow occurs at fourth order in the flapping amplitude, and suggests the possibility of transporting polymeric fluids using reciprocal motion in simple geometries even in the absence of inertia. The induced flow field and pumping performance are characterized and optimized analytically. Our results may be useful in the design of micro-pumps handling complex fluids.

  1. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  2. Electroosmotic mobilities of non-Newtonian fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Cunlu

    2010-01-01

    Owing to frequent processing of biofluids in Lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices, electroosmotic mobilities of non-Newtonian fluids are investigated numerically. The general Cauchy momentum equation governing the electroosmotic velocity is simplified by incorporation of the Gouy-Chapman solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Carreau fluid constitutive model. Then the finite element method for solving the simplified version of Cauchy momentum equation is validated through comparisons with two exact solutions, i.e., Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids. Analyses shows that different from Newtonian fluids with a constant dimensionless electroosmotic mobility of unit one, dimensionless electroosmotic mobilities for non-Newtonian Carreau fluids are dependent on four dimensionless groups, such as dimensionless surface zeta potential , Weissenberg number Wi, fluid power-law exponent n and transitional parameter {\\beta}. It is found out that with increasing and decreasing of n and {\\beta}, electroosmotic ...

  3. Gravitational collapse of Hagedorn fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    We consider a toy model for the relativistic collapse of a homogeneous perfect fluid that takes into account an equation of state for high density matter, in the form of a Hagedorn phase, and semiclassical corrections in the strong field. We show that collapse reaches a critical minimum size and then bounces. We discuss the conditions needed for the collapse to halt and form a compact object. We argue that implications of models such as the one presented here are of great importance for astrophysics as they show that black holes may not be the only final outcome of collapse of very massive stars.

  4. Gravitational collapse of Hagedorn fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We consider a toy model for relativistic collapse of an homogeneous perfect fluid that takes into account an equation of state for high density matter, in the form of an Hagedorn phase, and semiclassical corrections in the strong field. We show that collapse reaches a critical minimum size and then bounces. We discuss the conditions for collapse to halt and form a compact object. We argue that implications of models such as the one presented here are of great importance for astrophysics as they show that black holes may not be the only final outcome of collapse of very massive stars.

  5. Synthetic magnetism for photon fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Westerberg, N; Faccio, D; Wilson, K; Öhberg, P; Wright, E M

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of artificial gauge fields in photon fluids for the cases of both second-order and third-order optical nonlinearities. This applies to weak excitations in the presence of pump fields carrying orbital angular momentum, and is thus a type of Bogoliubov theory. The resulting artificial gauge fields experienced by the weak excitations are an interesting generalization of previous cases and reflect the PT-symmetry properties of the underlying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We illustrate the observable consequences of the resulting synthetic magnetic fields for examples involving both second-order and third-order nonlinearities.

  6. Synthetic magnetism for photon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, N.; Maitland, C.; Faccio, D.; Wilson, K.; Öhberg, P.; Wright, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a theory of artificial gauge fields in photon fluids for the cases of both second-order and third-order optical nonlinearities. This applies to weak excitations in the presence of pump fields carrying orbital angular momentum and is thus a type of Bogoliubov theory. The resulting artificial gauge fields experienced by the weak excitations are an interesting generalization of previous cases and reflect the PT-symmetry properties of the underlying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We illustrate the observable consequences of the resulting synthetic magnetic fields for examples involving both second-order and third-order nonlinearities.

  7. Static-Fluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with $p=-\\rho/3$. These represent the black holes in $S_3$ and $H_3$ spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two $S_3$ types and one $H_3$ type. The interesting solution is the one of $S_3$ type which possesses two singularities. The one is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in $S_3$ and $H_3$, and a singular static solution in $H_3$.

  8. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  9. Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Fardin, Marc A.; Manneville, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Even in simple geometries, many complex fluids display nontrivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known for several decades, but in recent years, we have seen an upsurge in studies offering an ever-more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many phenomena that could only have been thought of separately before. In this review, we bring together recent research on shear banding in polymeric and soft glassy materials and highlight their similarities and disparities.

  10. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  11. PERCOLATION TRANSITION IN ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Tian; CHEN Yihong; XU Zhengmiao; XU Yuanze; HUANG Yun

    1994-01-01

    The electric conductivity, dynamic modulus and yield stress of the developed electrorheological fluid (ERF) are measured at different volume fraction and different electric field strength using a modified Rheosetrics Mechanical Spectrometer (Model 605). The percolation theory is introduced to explain electrorheological effect and found that the ERF's have the similar percolated network structure as that of other ordinary suspensions with a critical volume fraction value independent of electric field strength. A master curve of dimensionless modulus against dimensionless volume fraction is obtained. which shows that the essence of ER phenomenon actually is one kind of the second ofder phase transition.

  12. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  13. Complex fluids modeling and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Saramito, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.

  14. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  15. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  16. Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan David C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV can cross the placenta resulting in in-utero transmission. The goal of this study was to determine if HPV can be detected in amniotic fluid from women with intact amniotic membranes. Methods Residual amniotic fluid and cultured cell pellets from amniocentesis performed for prenatal diagnosis were used. PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers and GP5+/GP6+ primers were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HPV. Results There were 146 paired samples from 142 women representing 139 singleton pregnancies, 2 twin pregnancies, and 1 triplet pregnancy. The women were 78% Caucasian, 5% African American, 14% Asian, and 2% Hispanic. The average age was 35.2 years with a range of 23–55 years. All samples were β-globin positive. HPV was not detected in any of the paired samples. Conclusion Given the age range, race, and ethnicity of the study population, one would anticipate some evidence of HPV if it could easily cross the placenta, but there was none.

  17. Computational methods for fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ferziger, Joel H

    2002-01-01

    In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...

  18. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  19. Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino

    2013-05-01

    Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.

  20. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account

  1. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Carbon and sulfur isotopes as tracers of fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction in geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, A.; Keller, N. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Kjartansdottir, R.; Ono, S.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon and sulfur are among major components in geothermal systems. They are found in various oxidation state and present in solid phases and fluids (water and vapor). In order to study the reactions and mass movement within multiphase geothermal systems, we have combined geochemical fluid-fluid and fluid-rock modelling with sulfur and carbon isotope fractionation modelling and compared the results with measured carbon and sulfur isotopes in geothermal fluids (water and vapor) for selected low- and high-enthalpy geothermal systems in Iceland. In this study we have focused on δ34S for H2S in vapor and water and SO4 in water as well as δ13C for CO2 in vapor and water phases. Isotope fractionations for CO2 and H2S between vapor and liquid water, upon aqueous speciation and upon carbonate and sulfide mineral formation were revised. These were combined with reaction modelling involving closed system boiling and progressive water-rock interaction to constrain the mass movement and isotope abundance between various phases. The results indicate that for a closed system, carbon and sulfur isotope abundance is largely dependent on progressive fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction and the initial total δ34S and δ13C value of the system. Initially, upon progressive fluid rock interaction the δ34S and δ13C values for the bulk aqueous phase approach that of the host rocks. Secondary mineral formation may alter these values, the exact isotope value of the mineral and resulting aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation factor. In turn, aqueous speciation and mineral saturation depends on progressive fluid-rock interaction, fluid-fluid interaction, temperature and acid supply to the system. Depressurization boiling also results in isotope fractionation, the exact isotope value of the vapor and aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation fractor. In this way, carbon and sulfur isotopes may be used combined with

  3. Evaluation on performance of three-fluid and four-fluid heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Alfonso, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the effectiveness of multi-fluid type heat exchangers, where more than two fluids are involved at the same time, three-fluid, four-fluid and double two-fluid heat exchangers have been studied using various methods. Using general definition of maximum heat transfer rate, which can be considered as a single definition of Qmax, the single effectiveness of multi-fluid heat exchangers can be developed. The maximum heat transfer rate (Qmax) depends on heat capacity ...

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Viscoelastic Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Amey

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor instability between two linear viscoelastic fluids assuming that the perturbations at the interface are small. In the first half, the paper analyzes a stratified viscoelastic fluid in which I prove that the perturbations rise or fall exponentially without oscillating. The second half of the paper examines the effect of electric and magnetic fields on viscoelastic fluids. I show that it is possible to choose electric or magnetic field gradient such that the effective acceleration due to gravity is zero. If a heavy Newtonian fluid rests on top of a lighter Newtonian fluid such a choice of field gradient would have rendered the arrangement stable. If the fluids are viscoelastic, I show that a similar arrangement is unstable.

  5. Characteristics of fluid substitution in porous rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shengjie

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the effect of changes in fluid properties of rocks on the compressional-wave velocity VP and shear-wave velocity Vs is very important for understanding the rock physical properties, especially in oilfield exploration and development.The fluid substitution process was analyzed by using ultrasonic measurement and theoretical calculations.The results showed that the effect of fluid substitution on the rock elastic modulus was mainly controlled by fluid properties, saturation, and confining pressure.For a rock with specific properties and porosity, the result of theoretical prediction for fluid substitution accorded with the experimental result under high confining pressure (higher than 60 MPa for our experimental data), but failed to describe the trend of experimental result under low confining pressure and VP predicted by Gassmann's equation was higher than that measured by experiment.A higher porosity resulted in stronger sensitivity of the bulk modulus of saturated rocks to the change of fluid properties.

  6. Magnetic-fluid microelectromechanical light modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEO Jong-wook; WANG Xi-jun

    2005-01-01

    A new microfluidic microelectromechanical light modulator using a magnetic fluid is introduced. The optical reflection from the device is modulated by applying an electric current into an electrode, which is enclosed by ferromagnetic thin films as in an inductive head for a magnetic data storage device. The magnetic field produced by the current exerts a magnetic force on the magnetic fluid and drives the fluid to cover the cell surface. The surface tension of the fluid provides a restoring force when the field is reduced. The actuation of the fluid is completed in about 12 ms for both thin-to-thick and thick-to-thin fluid film switchings by magnetic forces and surface tension forces, respectively. It was observed that the switching speed was almost independent of the driving current, and no considerable thermal effect were observed when driven by a current up to 100 mA.

  7. Enhanced active swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms often self propel in fluids with complex rheology. While past theoretical work indicates that fluid viscoelasticity should hinder their locomotion, recent experiments on waving swimmers suggest a possible non-Newtonian enhancement of locomotion. We suggest a physical mechanism, based on fluid-structure interaction, leading to swimming in a viscoelastic fluid at a higher speed than in a Newtonian one. Using Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model, we solve for the shape of an active swimmer as a balance between the external fluid stresses, the internal driving moments, and the passive elastic resistance. We show that this dynamic balance leads to a generic transition from hindered rigid swimming to enhanced flexible locomotion. The results are physically interpreted as due to a viscoelastic suction increasing the swimming amplitude in a non-Newtonian fluid and overcoming viscoelastic damping.

  8. CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze cytokine levels in BAL fluid of patients with bronchiectasis due to mustard gas inhalation. Patients 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group. Intervention PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases. Results CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002. There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls. A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively. HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004 too. Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores. Conclusion The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.

  9. One dimensional motion of a viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PURUNI

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the friction has been studied on the one dimensional motion of a viscous fluid. This friction is usually schematized in various semiempirical formulae. In t-liis work the different scliematizations of the friction were not studied separately but it was shown that a solution exists for the fluid motion. The results give information on the damping of the fluid motion in the case of the seiches.

  10. Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, S.A.; Clark, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a collection of papers from the International Symposium on Complex and Supermolecular Fluids presents tutorials and minireviews focusing on the physical properties of complex fluids using the concepts and techniques of condensed matter physics. The book stresses the unifying principles, rather than chemical details, behind the physics of diverse materials. Principal topics include colloids, microemulsions, ferrofluids, and micellar systems. It characterizes supermolecular and complex fluids by exploiting their analogies to atomic systems.

  11. Lagrangian formulation of noncommutative fluid models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcial, M.V., E-mail: mateusmarcial@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Mendes, A.C.R., E-mail: albert@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Neves, C., E-mail: clifford@fat.uerj.b [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, 27537-000, Resende, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, W., E-mail: wilson@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Takakura, F.I., E-mail: takakura@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2010-08-02

    In this work we study Lagrangian formulations for the noncommutative versions of the irrotational and rotational fluid models. These formulations will be obtained by using the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic formalism. In this context, interesting results will be revealed, for example, a chiral behavior into both fluid models comes up. In fact, distinct and non-dynamically equivalent Lagrangian descriptions of the noncommutative versions of the fluid models can be proposed.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Viscoelastic Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Amey

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor instability between two linear viscoelastic fluids assuming that the perturbations at the interface are small. In the first half, the paper analyzes a stratified viscoelastic fluid in which I prove that the perturbations rise or fall exponentially without oscillating. The second half of the paper examines the effect of electric and magnetic fields on viscoelastic fluids. I show that it is possible to choose electric or magnetic field gradie...

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF FLUID PIPE LUMPED PARAMETER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiaowu; Wei Jianhua; Qiu Minxiu; Wu Genmao

    2004-01-01

    The traditional lumped parameter model of fluid pipe is introduced and its drawbacks are pointed out.Furthermore, two suggestions are put forward to remove these drawbacks.Firstly, the structure of equivalent circuit is modified, and then the evaluation of equivalent fluid resistance is change to take the frequency-dependent friction into account.Both simulation and experiment prove that this model is precise to characterize the dynamic behaviors of fluid in pipe.

  14. Performance Comparison and Selection of Transformer Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Yang; Liu Shi Jia

    2016-01-01

    Transformer fluid directly affects the working state of the components and the cooling efficiency of transformer. There are three kinds of transformer fluid used for electric locomotive, EMU and suburban rail vehicles: mineral oil, silicone liquid and synthetic ester based insulating oil. In this paper, the three kinds of oil are compared from the fire safety, environmental protection, reliability and low maintenance. It provides a strong basis for the selection of transformer fluid. By compr...

  15. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  16. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2000-06-12

    This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.

  17. Improving fluid balance monitoring on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapala, Sobanakumari; Gerth, Alice; Patel, Aarti; Syed, Nazia

    2015-01-01

    Clinical experience and nursing metrics have consistently identified poor documentation of fluid balance monitoring at Milton Keynes University Hospital, compromising patient safety and quality of care. This project aimed to increase the percentage of fluid balance charts correctly completed on the wards. Three areas for improvement were identified: understanding the importance of good fluid balance monitoring, correct identification of patients requiring monitoring, and ease of completion of...

  18. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of industrial applications of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The is the fourth Forum on Industrial Applications of Fluid Mechanics sponsored by the Fluid Mechanics Committee of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division. The Forum objective is to promote the discussion and interchange of current information on developing and state-of-the-art applications of fluid mechanics technology. The program is organized as a technical forum to encourage the presentation of new ideas, especially those which may be so innovative that a conservative review process might delay their dissemination to the fluids engineering community. Four sessions and a total of 17 papers are scheduled for this program. Three of the four sessions were devoted to contributed papers, while the fourth is a panel discussion with three invited presentations. All papers were reviewed editorially to assure that they are related to the forum theme The papers were not evaluated technically, and therefore carry no endorsement from the Fluid Mechanics Committee or the Fluids Engineering Division with regard to peer evaluation. The forum presentations will focus on specific applications of fluid mechanics technology. Lively discussion of the papers is encouraged at the forum. The Fluid Mechanics Committee plans to sponsor a forum with an industrial applications theme each year at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting. In 1991, the scope of the forum will be enlarged to include the topic of textile applications of fluid mechanics, and another panel session featuring speakers with industrial experience in different areas of fluid mechanics applications. In future years, it is anticipated that the forum will solicit papers from other areas where fluid mechanics technology is applied

  20. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A. (Inventor); Grover, William H. (Inventor); Skelley, Alison (Inventor); Lagally, Eric (Inventor); Liu, Chung N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  1. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Michael A.; Woloshun, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  2. Fluid management in major burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberal Mehmet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  3. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  4. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André

    2012-01-01

    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  5. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Fluid Sealing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The sealing performance of magnetic fluid is related to the magnetic fluid itself. Many factors can influence the magnetic field and the seal pressure differences of magnetic fluid seals, such as the sealing gap, the shaft eccentricity, the shaft diameter, the volume of the magnetic fluid and the centrifugal force. These factors are analyzed by numerical computation . When the seal material and structure are the same, the seal pressure difference is directly proportional to the magnetic field intensity and the saturation magnetization of the magnetic fluid. The sealing performance of the magnetic fluid will reduce with the increase of the sealing gap and shaft eccentricity. The sealing performance will increase with the volume of the magnetic fluid and decrease with the increase of the shaft diameter taking gravity into account. The increase of the shaft diameter is the same as the reduction of the volume of the magnetic fluid. The magnetic fluid cross-section can change because of the centrifugal force. Some improvements can reduce the influence of the centrifugal force. The centrifugal force can be utilized to improve the sealing performance.

  7. Effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on drilling fluids, also called drilling muds, which are essential to drilling processes in the exploration and production of oil and gas from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These fluids are usually discharged from drilling platforms into surrounding waters of the OCS and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In a program carried out by the EPA Environmental research Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, diverse marine species as well as microbiotic and macrobiotic communities were studied. Drilling fluids were toxic to marine organisms in certain concentrations and exposure regimes. Furthermore, the fluids adversely affected the benthos physically by burying them or by altering the substrates. Toxicity of the drilling-fluid components, used drilling fluids from active Gulf of Mexico sites, and laboratory-prepared drilling fluids varied considerably. for example 96-h LC50s were from 25 μ liter-1 to > 1500 μl liter -1 for clams, larval lobsters, mysids, and grass shrimp. In most instances, mortality was significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the diesel-oil content of the fluids collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Data and model simulations suggest a rapid dilution of drilling fluids released into OCS waters, resulting in concentrations below the acute-effect concentration for the water column organisms tested

  8. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  9. An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1999-01-01

    CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building.......CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building....

  10. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  11. Fluid Mechanics Optimising Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivadarou, Evgenia; Dalziel, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    The Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) is a new ``green'' approach in the synthesis of organic chemicals with many industrial applications in biodiesel generation, cosmetics, protein folding and pharmaceutical production. The VFD is a rapidly rotating tube that can operate with a jet feeding drops of liquid reactants to the base of the tube. The aim of this project is to explain the fluid mechanics of the VFD that influence the rate of reactions. The reaction rate is intimately related to the intense shearing that promotes collision between reactant molecules. In the VFD, the highest shears are found at the bottom of the tube in the Rayleigh and the Ekman layer and at the walls in the Stewardson layers. As a step towards optimising the performance of the VFD we present experiments conducted in order to establish the minimum drop volume and maximum rotation rate for maximum axisymmetric spreading without fingering instability. PhD candidate, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

  12. SALIVA AS A DIAGNOSTIC FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezelj-Ribaric Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a readily available oral fluid with many functions, from digestion, maintenance of oral tissues’ integrity, to caries prevention. Changes regarding its secretion may be divided into qualitative and quantitative: both of them are a consequence of certain conditions/diseases (e.g. internal factors or nutrients/drugs ingested (e.g. external factors. During the last 15 years, technological advances gave a significant momentum to utilization of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Analysis of saliva, just like the blood analysis, has two main objectives: to identify the subjects suffering from a certain disorder, and to follow the development and progress of therapy. This paper provides an overview of possibilities for the use of saliva for diagnostic purposes and gives specific examples of some clinical investigations, with the final aim to stimulate the use of this noninvasive means for the health care promotion.

  13. Molecular Rheology of Complex Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    –state viscosity between melts and solutions is still an open question. Branched polymer melts have more complex molecular structures. A stress maximum during the start–up of uniaxial extensional flow was reported in 1979 for a low–density polyethylene (LDPE) melt. Subsequently observations of a steady stress...... and branched polymer melts. We report the stress–strain measurements in extensional flows using a unique Filament Stretching Rheometer (FSR) in controlled strain rate mode and controlled stress mode. Extensional flow is difficult to measure reliably in Laboratory circumstances. In this thesis we first present...... fluids as a function of molecular chemistry has attracted a long history of collaboration between industry and academia. In industrial polymer processes, there is usually a combination of both shear and extensional flows. In some processing operations such as blow molding and fiber spinning, extensional...

  14. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified......Considering a coordinate-free formulation of helical symmetry rather than more traditional definitions based on coordinates, we discuss basic properties of helical vector fields and compare results from the literature obtained with other approaches. In particular, we discuss the role of the stream...

  15. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  16. A primer on quantum fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Barenghi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors. .

  17. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified...... and an extra parameter is introduced. In this setting two new flow topologies arise, but not more than two critical points occur for any combination of parameters....

  18. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  19. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2007-10-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for various human ailments is gaining popularity as it offers distinct advantages over serum. These include the non-invasive nature of saliva collection compared with phlebotomy, simplicity of collection even for individuals with a modest training and the cost-effective applicability for screening large populations. Whole saliva is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents while gland-specific saliva is useful for investigating pathology of major salivary glands. Broadly, saliva analysis is currently used for the diagnosis of infectious and malignant diseases, hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as for the assessment of therapeutic drug levels, particularly in monitoring drug abuse. This review addresses the current status of salivary diagnostics and their future potential.

  20. Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.