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Sample records for bronchial epithelial cell

  1. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Atsushi Yasukawa

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  2. SWCNTs induced autophagic cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Lee, Eun-Woo; Song, Jaewhan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being actively introduced in electronics, computer science, aerospace, and other industries. Thus, the urgent need for toxicological studies on CNTs is mounting. In this study, we investigated the alterations in cellular response with morphological changes induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. At 24h after exposure, SWCNTs rapidly decreased ATP production and cell viability as well a slight increase in the number of cells in the subG1 and G1 phases. In addition, SWCNTs increased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, but not SOD-2, and the number of cells generating ROS. The concentration of Cu and Zn ions also increased in a dose-dependent manner in cells exposed to SWCNTs. SWCNTs significantly enhanced the release of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and up-regulated the expression of chemokine- and cytokine-related genes. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy-related genes, especially the DRAM1 gene, and the autophagosome formation-related proteins, were clearly up-regulated together with an increase of autophagosome-like vacuoles. Based on these results, we suggest that SWCNTs induce autophagic cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic damage in human bronchial epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estradiol increases mucus synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Anthony Tam

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI. Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-β antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0 cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6 mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium.

  4. Montelukast suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells induced by eosinophils.

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    Hosoki, Koa; Kainuma, Keigo; Toda, Masaaki; Harada, Etsuko; Chelakkot-Govindalayathila, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Nagao, Mizuho; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2014-07-04

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism by which eosinophils can induce airway remodeling. Montelukast, an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, can suppress airway remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether montelukast can ameliorate airway remodeling by blocking EMT induced by eosinophils. EMT induced was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and human eosinophils or the eosinophilic leukemia cell lines, Eol-1. Montelukast inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of BEAS-2b cells, decreased the expression of vimentin and collagen I, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Montelukast mitigated the rise of TGF-β1 production and Smad3 phosphorylation. Co-culture of human eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells significantly enhanced the production of CysLTs compared with BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils alone. The increase of CysLTs was abolished by montelukast pre-treatment. Montelukast had similar effects when co-culture system of Eol-1 and BEAS-2B was used. This study showed that montelukast suppresses eosinophils-induced EMT of airway epithelial cells. This finding may explain the mechanism of montelukast-mediated amelioration of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

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    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  6. Rhinovirus infection induces cytotoxicity and delays wound healing in bronchial epithelial cells

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    Constantopoulos Andreas G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (RV, the most common triggers of acute asthma exacerbations, are considered not cytotoxic to the bronchial epithelium. Recent observations, however, have questioned this knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of RV to induce epithelial cytotoxicity and affect epithelial repair in-vitro. Methods Monolayers of BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells, seeded at different densities were exposed to RV serotypes 1b, 5, 7, 9, 14, 16. Cytotoxicity was assessed chromatometrically. Epithelial monolayers were mechanically wounded, exposed or not to RV and the repopulation of the damaged area was assessed by image analysis. Finally epithelial cell proliferation was assessed by quantitation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA by flow cytometry. Results RV1b, RV5, RV7, RV14 and RV16 were able to induce considerable epithelial cytotoxicity, more pronounced in less dense cultures, in a cell-density and dose-dependent manner. RV9 was not cytotoxic. Furthermore, RV infection diminished the self-repair capacity of bronchial epithelial cells and reduced cell proliferation. Conclusion RV-induced epithelial cytotoxicity may become considerable in already compromised epithelium, such as in the case of asthma. The RV-induced impairment on epithelial proliferation and self-repair capacity may contribute to the development of airway remodeling.

  7. Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarcone, M.C.; Duistermaat, E.; Schadewijk, A. van; Jedynksa, A.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Kooter, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular response of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells to diesel exhaust. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 311: L111–L123, 2016. First published May 17, 2016; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00064.2016.—Diesel emissions are the main source of air pollution in urban areas, and

  8. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

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    Wenqiang Feng

    Full Text Available Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI and B(aP compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  9. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

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    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  10. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  11. XB130 translocation to microfilamentous structures mediates NNK-induced migration of human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Wu, Qifei; Nadesalingam, Jeya; Moodley, Serisha; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-07-20

    Cigarette smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is the most potent carcinogen among cigarette smoking components, and is known to enhance migration of cancer cells. However, the effect of NNK on normal human bronchial epithelial cells is not well studied. XB130 is a member of actin filament associated protein family and is involved in cell morphology changes, cytoskeletal rearrangement and outgrowth formation, as well as cell migration. We hypothesized that XB130 mediates NNK-induced migration of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results showed that, after NNK stimulation, XB130 was translocated to the cell periphery and enriched in cell motility-associated structures, such as lamellipodia, in normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B cells. Moreover, overexpression of XB130 significantly enhanced NNK-induced migration, which requires both the N- and C-termini of XB130. Overexpression of XB130 enhanced NNK-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and promoted matrix metalloproteinase-14 translocation to cell motility-associated cellular structures after NNK stimulation. XB130-mediated NNK-induced cell migration may contribute to airway epithelial repair; however, it may also be involved in cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  12. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways

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    Danay Maestre-Batlle; Pena, Olga M.; Hirota, Jeremy A.; Evelyn Gunawan; Rider, Christopher F.; Darren Sutherland; Alexis, Neil E.; Chris Carlsten

    2017-01-01

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To ...

  13. [Airborne fine particle decreases the cell viability and induces inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells].

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    Hong, Zhicong; Luo, Xianyang; Cai, Chengfu; Xu, Jian; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2017-09-28

    To investigate the effects of airborne fine particle on cell viability and inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells.
 Methods: Atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected by PM2.5 sampler. PM2.5 morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were treated with PM2.5 at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/mL) for 12, 24 or 48 hours, and the cell activity were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). The mRNA expression levels of (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor,GM-CSF) and TNF-α were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of GM-CSF and TNF-α.
 Results: According to SEM, the shape of PM2.5 varied, and the diameter was different and mostly equal to or less than 2.5 μm. CCK-8 assay showed that different concentrations of PM2.5 exposure for 12 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours resulted in loss of cell viability of BEAS-2B cells (P<0.05). Different concentrations of PM2.5 increased the mRNA and protein expression of GM-CSF and TNF-α, and the higher concentration of PM2.5 induced higher expression, which have statistical significant difference between the groups (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Atmospheric PM2.5 can cause inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells. They can reduce cell viability, which may be related to the PM2.5 trigger and aggravation of bronchopulmonary inflammatory diseases.

  14. Endocytosis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Bronchial Epithelial and Mesothelial Cells

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    Kayo Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelial cells are crucial targets for the safety assessment of inhalation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, which resemble asbestos particles in shape. Intrinsic properties of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs are known to cause potentially hazardous effects on intracellular and extracellular pathways. These interactions alter cellular signaling and affect major cell functions, resulting in cell death, lysosome injury, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, and cytokine release. Furthermore, CNTs are emerging as a novel class of autophagy inducers. Thus, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms of MWCNT uptake into the human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs and human mesothelial cells (HMCs. We verified that MWCNTs are actively internalized into HBECs and HMCs and were accumulated in the lysosomes of the cells after 24-hour treatment. Next, we determined which endocytosis pathways (clathrin-mediated, caveolae-mediated, and macropinocytosis were associated with MWCNT internalization by using corresponding endocytosis inhibitors, in two nonphagocytic cell lines derived from bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelioma cells. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors significantly suppressed MWCNT uptake, whereas caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were also found to be involved in MWCNT uptake. Thus, MWCNTs were positively taken up by nonphagocytic cells, and their cytotoxicity was closely related to these three endocytosis pathways.

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

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    Fan Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apoptosis of lung structural cells contributes to the process of lung damage and remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our previous studies demonstrated that exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S can reduce the lung tissue pathology score, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation effects in COPD, but the effect of H2S in regulating cigarette smoke (CS induced bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear.Objectives: To investigate the effect of H2S on CS induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS and bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis.Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley rats randomly divided into four groups for treatment: control, CS, NaHS + CS, and propargylglycine (PPG + CS. The rats in the CS group were exposed to CS generated from 20 commercial unfiltered cigarettes for 4 h/day, 7 days/week for 4 months. Since the beginning of the third month, freshly prepared NaHS (14 μmol/kg and PPG (37.5 mg/kg were intraperitoneally administered 30 min before CS-exposure in the NaHS and PPG groups. 16HBE cells were pretreated with Taurine (10 mM, 5 mmol/L 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA or NaHS (100, 200, and 400 μM for 30 min, and then cells were exposed to 40 μmol/L nicotine for 72 h. ERS markers (GRP94, GRP78 and ERS-mediated apoptosis markers 4-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP, caspase-3 and caspase-12 were assessed in rat lung tissues and human bronchial epithelial cells. The apoptotic bronchial epithelial cells were detected by Hoechst staining in vitro and TUNEL staining in vivo.Results: In CS exposed rats, peritoneal injection of NaHS significantly inhibited CS induced overexpression ERS-mediated apoptosis markers and upregulation of apoptotic rate in rat lungs, and inhibiting the endogenous H2S production by peritoneal injection of PPG exacerbated these effects. In the nicotine-exposed bronchial epithelial cells, appropriate concentration of NaHS and ERS inhibitors taurine and 4-PBA inhibited

  16. Effects in cigarette smoke stimulated bronchial epithelial cells of a corticosteroid entrapped into nanostructured lipid carriers.

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    Bondì, Maria Luisa; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Gerbino, Stefania; Cavallaro, Gennara; Giammona, Gaetano; Botto, Chiara; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2014-11-29

    Nanomedicine studies have showed a great potential for drug delivery into the lung. In this manuscript nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) containing Fluticasone propionate (FP) were prepared and their biocompatibility and effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE) stimulated with cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) were tested. Biocompatibility studies showed that the NLC did not induce cell necrosis or apoptosis. Moreover, it was confirmed that CSE increased intracellular ROS production and TLR4 expression in bronchial epithelial cells and that FP-loaded NLC were more effective than free drug in modulating these processes. Finally, the nanoparticles increased GSH levels improving cell protection against oxidative stress. The present study shows that NLC may be considered a promising strategy to improve corticosteroid mediated effects in cellular models associated to corticosteroid resistance. The NLC containing FP can be considered good systems for dosage forms useful for increasing the effectiveness of fluticasone decreasing its side effects.

  17. Effects in cigarette smoke stimulated bronchial epithelial cells of a corticosteroid entrapped into nanostructured lipid carriers

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    Bond?, Maria Luisa; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Gerbino, Stefania; Cavallaro, Gennara; Giammona, Gaetano; Botto, Chiara; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanomedicine studies have showed a great potential for drug delivery into the lung. In this manuscript nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) containing Fluticasone propionate (FP) were prepared and their biocompatibility and effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE) stimulated with cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) were tested. Results Biocompatibility studies showed that the NLC did not induce cell necrosis or apoptosis. Moreover, it was confirmed that CSE increased in...

  18. Oxidant-induced corticosteroid unresponsiveness in human bronchial epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Irene; van Oosterhout, Antoon; Kliphuis, Nathalie; Jonker, Marnix; Hoffmann, Roland; Telenga, Eef; Klooster, Karin; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; ten Hacken, Nick; Postma, Dirkje; van den Berge, Maarten

    Background We hypothesised that increased oxidative stress, as present in the airways of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, induces epithelial damage and reduces epithelial responsiveness to suppressive effects of corticosteroids on proinflammatory cytokine production

  19. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  20. BMI-1 extends proliferative potential of human bronchial epithelial cells while retaining their mucociliary differentiation capacity.

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    Munye, Mustafa M; Shoemark, Amelia; Hirst, Robert A; Delhove, Juliette M; Sharp, Tyson V; McKay, Tristan R; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Baines, Deborah L; Howe, Steven J; Hart, Stephen L

    2017-02-01

    Air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of primary airway epithelial cells enables mucociliary differentiation providing an in vitro model of the human airway, but their proliferative potential is limited. To extend proliferation, these cells were previously transduced with viral oncogenes or mouse Bmi-1 + hTERT, but the resultant cell lines did not undergo mucociliary differentiation. We hypothesized that use of human BMI-1 alone would increase the proliferative potential of bronchial epithelial cells while retaining their mucociliary differentiation potential. Cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchial epithelial cells were transduced by lentivirus with BMI-1 and then their morphology, replication kinetics, and karyotype were assessed. When differentiated at ALI, mucin production, ciliary function, and transepithelial electrophysiology were measured. Finally, shRNA knockdown of DNAH5 in BMI-1 cells was used to model primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). BMI-1-transduced basal cells showed normal cell morphology, karyotype, and doubling times despite extensive passaging. The cell lines underwent mucociliary differentiation when cultured at ALI with abundant ciliation and production of the gel-forming mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B evident. Cilia displayed a normal beat frequency and 9+2 ultrastructure. Electrophysiological characteristics of BMI-1-transduced cells were similar to those of untransduced cells. shRNA knockdown of DNAH5 in BMI-1 cells produced immotile cilia and absence of DNAH5 in the ciliary axoneme as seen in cells from patients with PCD. BMI-1 delayed senescence in bronchial epithelial cells, increasing their proliferative potential but maintaining mucociliary differentiation at ALI. We have shown these cells are amenable to genetic manipulation and can be used to produce novel disease models for research and dissemination. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Dual effect of neutrophils on secretory component production by human bronchial epithelial cells

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    C. Pilette

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A decreased bronchial expression of secretory component (SC was demonstrated in severe COPD, and correlated with neutrophils. Mechanisms of epithelial cell/neutrophils interactions remain however poorly understood. Calu-3 (human bronchial epithelial cells were incubated after confluence (in triplicate conditions with various ratios of activated neutrophils (0.5:1 to 15:1, neutrophils: Calu-3 cells. After 48hrs of co-culture supernatants were assayed for SC by ELISA. SC production by Calu-3 cells increased at intermediate neutrophil numbers (316±32 versus 193±19ng·ml–1, ratio of 5:1 versus control, mean±SEM of 3 experiments, p = 0.05. In contrast, a trend for decrease in SC was observed with high neutrophil numbers (111±19 versus 193±19ng·ml–1, ratio of 15:1 versus control, p = 0.06. The addition of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor further increased SC upregulation at intermediate ratios, and inhibited the SC decrease at high neutrophil numbers. The mechanism of SC up-regulation by neutrophils did not implicate TNF-alpha or IL-1beta. This study provides direct evidence of a dual effect of neutrophils on epithelial SC. Our data suggest that neutrophils could differently affect epithelial immune secretory function according to the extent of neutrophil influx and/or to the reactivity of airway epithelial cells.

  2. Virodhamine and CP55,940 modulate cAMP production and IL-8 release in human bronchial epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkoumassi, E.; Dekkers, B. G. J.; Droege, M. J.; Elzinga, C. R. S.; Schmidt, M.; Meurs, H.; Zaagsma, J.; Nelemans, S. A.

    Background and purpose: We investigated expression of cannabinoid receptors and the effects of the endogenous cannabinoid virodhamine and the synthetic agonist CP55,940 on cAMP accumulation and interleukin-8 (IL-8) release in human bronchial epithelial cells. Experimental approach: Human bronchial

  3. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

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    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  4. β2-agonists promote host defense against bacterial infection in primary human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Weinberger Andrew R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway epithelial cells are critical in host defense against bacteria including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. β2-agonists are mainstay of COPD and asthma therapy, but whether β2-agonists directly affect airway epithelial host defense functions is unclear. Methods Epithelial cells from bronchial brushings of normal (n = 8, asthma (n = 8 and COPD (n = 8 subjects were grown in air-liquid interface cultures, and treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE and/or Th2 cytokine IL-13, followed by Mp infection and treatment with β2-agonists albuterol and formoterol for up to seven days. Mp and host defense proteins short palate, lung, and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1 and β-defensin-2 were quantified. Expression of β2-adrenergic receptors was also measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results (R- or racemic albuterol and (R,R- or racemic formoterol significantly decreased Mp levels in normal and asthma epithelial cells. Normal cells treated with Mp and (R- or racemic albuterol showed an increase in SPLUNC1, but not in β-defensin-2. COPD cells did not respond to drug treatment with a significant decrease in Mp or an increase in SPLUNC1. IL-13 attenuated drug effects on Mp, and markedly decreased SPLUNC1 and β2-adrenergic receptors. Conclusions These results for the first time show that β2-agonists enhance host defense functions of primary bronchial epithelial cells from normal and asthma subjects, which is attenuated by IL-13.

  5. Heat shock protein-27 protects human bronchial epithelial cells against oxidative stress–mediated apoptosis: possible implication in asthma

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    Merendino, Anna M.; Paul, Catherine; Vignola, Antonio M.; Costa, Maria A.; Melis, Mario; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Izzo, V.; Bousquet, J.; Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Inflammation of the human bronchial epithelium, as observed in asthmatics, is characterized by the selective death of the columnar epithelial cells, which desquamate from the basal cells. Tissue repair initiates from basal cells that resist inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the extent of apoptosis as well as the Hsp27 level of expression in epithelial cells from bronchial biopsy samples taken from normal and asthmatic subjects. Hsp27 is a chaperone whose expression protects against oxidative stress. We report that in asthmatic subjects the basal epithelium cells express a high level of Hsp27 but no apoptotic morphology. In contrast, apoptotic columnar cells are devoid of Hsp27 expression. Moreover, we observed a decreased resistance to hydrogen peroxide–induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial 16–HBE cells when they were genetically modified to express reduced levels of Hsp27. PMID:12482203

  6. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

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    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  7. Bronchial epithelial cells are rendered insensitive to glucocorticoid transactivation by transforming growth factor-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Christine R; Mok, Josephine Sl; Harris, Trudi; Xia, Yuxiu; Salem, Saad; Stewart, Alastair G

    2014-05-01

    We have previously shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) impairs glucocorticoid (GC) function in pulmonary epithelial cell-lines. However, the signalling cascade leading to this impairment is unknown. In the present study, we provide the first evidence that TGF-beta impairs GC action in differentiated primary air-liquid interface (ALI) human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Using the BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cell line, we also present a systematic examination of the known pathways activated by TGF-beta, in order to ascertain the molecular mechanism through which TGF-beta impairs epithelial GC action. GC transactivation was measured using a Glucocorticoid Response Element (GRE)-Secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter and measuring GC-inducible gene expression by qRT-PCR. GC transrepression was measured by examining GC regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. TGF-beta signalling pathways were investigated using siRNA and small molecule kinase inhibitors. GRα level, phosphorylation and sub-cellular localisation were determined by western blotting, immunocytochemistry and localisation of GRα-Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP). Data are presented as the mean ± SEM for n independent experiments in cell lines, or for experiments on primary HBEC cells from n individual donors. All data were statistically analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (Graphpad, San Diego, CA). In most cases, two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to analyse the data. In all cases, P <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. TGF-beta impaired Glucocorticoid Response Element (GRE) activation and the GC induction of several anti-inflammatory genes, but did not broadly impair the regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in A549 and BEAS-2B cell lines. TGF-beta-impairment of GC transactivation was also observed in differentiated primary HBECs. The TGF-beta receptor (ALK5) inhibitor SB431541 fully prevented

  8. Upregulation of pirin expression by chronic cigarette smoking is associated with bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis

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    Zabner Joseph

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke disrupts the protective barrier established by the airway epithelium through direct damage to the epithelial cells, leading to cell death. Since the morphology of the airway epithelium of smokers does not typically demonstrate necrosis, the most likely mechanism for epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke is apoptosis. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke directly up-regulates expression of apoptotic genes, which could play a role in airway epithelial apoptosis. Methods Microarray analysis of airway epithelium obtained by bronchoscopy on matched cohorts of 13 phenotypically normal smokers and 9 non-smokers was used to identify specific genes modulated by smoking that were associated with apoptosis. Among the up-regulated apoptotic genes was pirin (3.1-fold, p In vitro studies using human bronchial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE and an adenovirus vector encoding the pirin cDNA (AdPirin were performed to test the direct effect of cigarette smoke on pirin expression and the effect of pirin expression on apoptosis. Results Quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR confirmed a 2-fold increase in pirin expression in the airway epithelium of smokers compared to non-smokers (p Overexpression of pirin, using the vector AdPirin, in human bronchial epithelial cells was associated with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells assessed by both TUNEL assay (5-fold, p Conclusion These observations suggest that up-regulation of pirin may represent one mechanism by which cigarette smoke induces apoptosis in the airway epithelium, an observation that has implications for the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced diseases.

  9. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  10. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J Fah; Cho, Michael H; Mancini, John D; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M; Litonjua, Augusto A; Bakke, Per S; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A; Beaty, Terri H; Hersh, Craig P; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A; Rennard, Stephen I; Perrella, Mark A; Choi, Augustine M K; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K

    2013-05-01

    Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. eQTL of bronchial epithelial cells and bronchial alveolar lavage deciphers GWAS-identified asthma genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Hastie, A T; Hawkins, G A; Moore, W C; Ampleford, E J; Milosevic, J; Li, H; Busse, W W; Erzurum, S C; Kaminski, N; Wenzel, S E; Meyers, D A; Bleecker, E R

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified various genes associated with asthma, yet, causal genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remain elusive. We sought to dissect functional genes/SNPs for asthma by combining expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and GWASs. Cis-eQTL analyses of 34 asthma genes were performed in cells from human bronchial epithelial biopsy (BEC, n = 107) and from bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL, n = 94). For TSLP-WDR36 region, rs3806932 (G allele protective against eosinophilic esophagitis) and rs2416257 (A allele associated with lower eosinophil counts and protective against asthma) were correlated with decreased expression of TSLP in BAL (P = 7.9 × 10(-11) and 5.4 × 10(-4) , respectively) and BEC, but not WDR36. Surprisingly, rs1837253 (consistently associated with asthma) showed no correlation with TSLP expression levels. For ORMDL3-GSDMB region, rs8067378 (G allele protective against asthma) was correlated with decreased expression of GSDMB in BEC and BAL (P = 1.3 × 10(-4) and 0.04) but not ORMDL3. rs992969 in the promoter region of IL33 (A allele associated with higher eosinophil counts and risk for asthma) was correlated with increased expression of IL33 in BEC (P = 1.3 × 10(-6) ) but not in BAL. Our study illustrates cell-type-specific regulation of the expression of asthma-related genes documenting SNPs in TSLP, GSDMB, IL33, HLA-DQB1, C11orf30, DEXI, CDHR3, and ZBTB10 affect asthma risk through cis-regulation of its gene expression. Whenever possible, disease-relevant tissues should be used for transcription analysis. SNPs in TSLP may affect asthma risk through up-regulating TSLP mRNA expression or protein secretion. Further functional studies are warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Paena, Massimilano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten’s ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased ...

  13. Oxidative stress caused by pyocyanin impairs CFTR Cl(-) transport in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fischer, Horst; Kim, Eun-Jin; Barber, Katharine J; Mills, Aaron D; Kurth, Mark J; Gruenert, Dieter C; Suh, Jung H; Machen, Terry E; Illek, Beate

    2008-12-15

    Pyocyanin (N-methyl-1-hydroxyphenazine), a redox-active virulence factor produced by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is known to compromise mucociliary clearance. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to pyocyanin increased the rate of cellular release of H(2)O(2) threefold above the endogenous H(2)O(2) production. Real-time measurements of the redox potential of the cytosolic compartment using the redox sensor roGFP1 showed that pyocyanin (100 microM) oxidized the cytosol from a resting value of -318+/-5 mV by 48.0+/-4.6 mV within 2 h; a comparable oxidation was induced by 100 microM H(2)O(2). Whereas resting Cl(-) secretion was slightly activated by pyocyanin (to 10% of maximal currents), forskolin-stimulated Cl(-) secretion was inhibited by 86%. The decline was linearly related to the cytosolic redox potential (1.8% inhibition/mV oxidation). Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells homozygous for DeltaF508 CFTR failed to secrete Cl(-) in response to pyocyanin or H(2)O(2), indicating that these oxidants specifically target the CFTR and not other Cl(-) conductances. Treatment with pyocyanin also decreased total cellular glutathione levels to 62% and cellular ATP levels to 46% after 24 h. We conclude that pyocyanin is a key factor that redox cycles in the cytosol, generates H(2)O(2), depletes glutathione and ATP, and impairs CFTR function in Pseudomonas-infected lungs.

  14. Oxidative Stress By Pyocyanin Impairs CFTR Cl- Transport In Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fischer, Horst; Kim, Eun-Jin; Barber, Katharine J.; Mills, Aaron D.; Kurth, Mark J.; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Suh, Jung H.; Machen, Terry E.; Illek, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Pyocyanin (N-methyl-1-hydroxyphenazine), a redox-active virulence factor produced by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is known to compromise mucociliary clearance. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to pyocyanin increased the rate of cellular release of H2O2 3-fold above the endogenous H2O2 production. Real-time measurements of the redox-potential of the cytosolic compartment using the redox sensor roGFP1 showed that pyocyanin (100 μM) oxidized the cytosol from a resting value of -318 ± 5 mV by 48.0 ± 4.6 mV within 2 hours; a comparable oxidation was induced by 100 μM H2O2. While resting Cl- secretion was slightly activated by pyocyanin (to 10% of maximal currents), forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion was inhibited by 86%. The decline was linearly related to the cytosolic redox potential (1.8% inhibition/mV oxidation). CF bronchial epithelial cells homozygous for ΔF508 CFTR failed to secrete Cl- in response to pyocyanin or H2O2 indicating that these oxidants specifically target CFTR and not other Cl- conductances. Treatment with pyocyanin also decreased total cellular glutathione levels to 62% and cellular ATP levels to 46% after 24 hours. We conclude that pyocyanin is a key factor that redox cycles in the cytosol, generates H2O2, depletes glutathione and ATP, and impairs CFTR function in Pseudomonas infected lungs. PMID:18845244

  15. Reversal and Prevention of Arsenic-Induced Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Malignant Transformation by microRNA-200b

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhishan; Zhao, Yong; Smith, Eric; Gregory J. Goodall; Drew, Paul A.; Brabletz, Thomas; Yang, Chengfeng

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-recognized human carcinogen, yet the mechanism by which it causes human cancer has not been elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a big family of small noncoding RNAs and negatively regulate the expression of a large number of protein-coding genes. We investigated the role of miRNAs in arsenic-induced human bronchial epithelial cell malignant transformation and tumor formation. We found that prolonged exposure of immortalized p53-knocked down human bronchial epithelial cells (p...

  16. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Batlle, Danay; Pena, Olga M; Hirota, Jeremy A; Gunawan, Evelyn; Rider, Christopher F; Sutherland, Darren; Alexis, Neil E; Carlsten, Chris

    2017-02-06

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To date, a flow cytometric method to identify HBEC recovered from lower human airway samples is unavailable. In this study we present a flow cytometric method identifying HBEC as CD45 negative, EpCAM/pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) double-positive population after excluding debris, doublets and dead cells from the analysis. For validation, the HBEC panel was applied to primary HBEC resulting in 98.6% of live cells. In healthy volunteers, HBEC recovered from BAL (2.3% of live cells), BW (32.5%) and bronchial brushing samples (88.9%) correlated significantly (p = 0.0001) with the manual microscopy counts with an overall Pearson correlation of 0.96 across the three sample types. We therefore have developed, validated, and applied a flow cytometric method that will be useful to interrogate the role of the respiratory epithelium in multiple lung diseases.

  18. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells disrupt bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by targeting tight junctions through IL-13 in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Altunbulakli, Can; Morita, Hideaki; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Kubo, Terufumi; Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Rückert, Beate; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mübeccel; Takei, Fumio; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial barrier leakiness and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been separately linked to asthma pathogenesis; however, the influence of ILC2s on the bronchial epithelial barrier has not been investigated previously. We investigated the role of ILC2s in the regulation of bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and barrier function both in bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and general innate lymphoid cell- and ILC2-deficient mice. Cocultures of human ILC2s and bronchial epithelial cells were used to determine transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, and TJ mRNA and protein expressions. The effect of ILC2s on TJs was examined by using a murine model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation in wild-type, recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2) -/- , Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- , and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation to analyze the in vivo relevance of barrier disruption by ILC2s. ILC2s significantly impaired the epithelial barrier, as demonstrated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. This was in parallel to decreased mRNAs and disrupted protein expression of TJ proteins and was restored by neutralization of IL-13. Intranasal administration of recombinant IL-33 to wild-type and Rag2 -/- mice lacking T and B cells triggered TJ disruption, whereas Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation that lack ILC2s did not show any barrier leakiness. Direct nasal administration of IL-13 was sufficient to induce deficiency in the TJ barrier in the bronchial epithelium of mice in vivo. These data highlight an essential mechanism in asthma pathogenesis by demonstrating that ILC2s are responsible for bronchial epithelial TJ barrier leakiness through IL-13. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  19. Cigarette smoke causes caspase-independent apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic donors.

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    Fabio Bucchieri

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important links between air pollution and asthma. Amongst these pollutants, environmental cigarette smoke is a risk factor both for asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. As the barrier to the inhaled environment, the bronchial epithelium is a key structure that is exposed to cigarette smoke.Since primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis, we hypothesized that they would be susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cell death.PBECs from normal and asthmatic donors were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; cell survival and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and protective effects of antioxidants evaluated. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated using caspase inhibitors and immunofluorescent staining for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF.Exposure of PBEC cultures to CSE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell death. At 20% CSE, PBECs from asthmatic donors exhibited significantly more apoptosis than cells from non-asthmatic controls. Reduced glutathione (GSH, but not ascorbic acid (AA, protected against CSE-induced apoptosis. To investigate mechanisms of CSE-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 or -9 inhibitors were tested, but these failed to prevent apoptosis; in contrast, CSE promoted nuclear translocation of AIF from the mitochondria. GSH reduced the number of nuclear-AIF positive cells whereas AA was ineffective.Our results show that PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to CSE-induced apoptosis. This response involves AIF, which has been implicated in DNA damage and ROS-mediated cell-death. Epithelial susceptibility to CSE may contribute to the impact of environmental tobacco smoke in asthma.

  20. Administration of JTE013 abrogates experimental asthma by regulating proinflammatory cytokine production from bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashita, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Tatsuya; Kawa, Yoshitaka; Tamura, Daisuke; Nakata, Kyosuke; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Tachihara, Motoko; Kamiryo, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-09

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid that acts as a signal transducer by binding to S1P receptors (S1PR) 1 to 5. The S1P/S1PRs pathway has been associated with remodeling and allergic inflammation in asthma, but the expression pattern of S1PR and its effects on non-immune cells have not been completely clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of the signaling of S1P and S1PRs expressed in airway epithelial cells (ECs) to asthma responses in mice. Bronchial asthma was experimentally induced in BALB/c mice by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization followed by an OVA inhalation challenge. The effects of S1PR antagonists on the development of asthma were analyzed 24 h after the OVA challenge. Immunohistological analysis revealed S1PR1-3 expression on mouse airway ECs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that S1P greatly stimulated the induction of CCL3 and TIMP2 mRNA in human airway ECs, i.e., BEAS-2B cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the S1PR2 antagonist JTE013 inhibited the CCL3 gene expression in BEAS-2B cells. Immunohistological analysis also showed that the expression level of CCL3 was attenuated by JTE013 in asthmatic mice. Furthermore, JTE013 as well as anti-CCL3 antibody attenuated allergic responses. Intratracheal administration of JTE013 also attenuated eosinophilic reactions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. S1P induced transcription factor NFκB activation, while JTE013 greatly reduced the NFκB activation. JTE013 attenuated allergic airway reactions by regulating CCL3 production from bronchial ECs. The intratracheal administration of JTE013 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for bronchial asthma.

  1. Amantadine inhibits RANTES production by influenzavirus-infected human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yasukiyo; Hashimoto, Shu; Kujime, Kousei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Mizumura, Kenji; Shimizu, Kazufumi; Horie, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Amantadine can prevent and decrease airway inflammation by inhibiting influenza virus (IV) replication; however, the effect of amantadine on RANTES production by human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effect of amantadine on RANTES production and also analysed p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation to clarify the mechanism in the effect of amantadine on RANTES production, since we have previously shown that p38 MAP kinase and JNK regulate RANTES production by IV-infected BEC. BEC that had been preincubated with amantadine were infected with IV and then p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation in the cells and RANTES concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined. Amantadine-induced inhibition of virus replication resulted in a decrease in p38 MAP kinase and JNK activity and decreased expression of RANTES in IV-infected cells. Amantadine did not inhibit p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a non-viral stimulus. These results indicate that amantadine inhibits IV infection-induced RANTES production by human BEC and that the inhibition by amantadine of RANTES production might result from an indirect inhibitory effect of amantadine on p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation via the inhibition of virus replication, and we emphasize that amantadine may produce a beneficial effect on controlling bronchial asthma exacerbation caused by IV infection. PMID:11181433

  2. Secondhand smoke inhibits both Cl- and K+ conductances in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Noam A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is an independent risk factor for asthma, rhinosinusitis, and more severe respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Impaired mucociliary clearance with subsequent mucus retention contributes to the pathophysiology of each of these diseases, suggesting that altered epithelial salt and water transport may play an etiological role. To test the hypothesis that SHS would alter epithelial ion transport, we designed a system for in vitro exposure of mature, well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells to SHS. We show that SHS exposure inhibits cAMP-stimulated, bumetanide-sensitive anion secretion by 25 to 40% in a time-dependent fashion in these cells. Increasing the amount of carbon monoxide to 100 ppm from 5 ppm did not increase the amount of inhibition, and filtering SHS reduced inhibition significantly. It was determined that SHS inhibited cAMP-dependent apical membrane chloride conductance by 25% and Ba2+-sensitive basolateral membrane potassium conductance by 50%. These data confirm previous findings that cigarette smoke inhibits chloride secretion in a novel model of smoke exposure designed to mimic SHS exposure. They also extend previous findings to demonstrate an effect on basolateral K+ conductance. Therefore, pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure.

  3. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  4. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Aug

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1 to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  5. Synthetic double-stranded RNA induces interleukin-32 in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kyoko; Kawaguchi, Mio; Fujita, Junichi; Kokubu, Fumio; Huang, Shau-Ku; Morishima, Yuko; Matsukura, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Masatsugu; Ishii, Yukio; Satoh, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Tohru; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a novel cytokine and is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, including asthma and COPD. However, the regulatory mechanisms of IL-32 expression and its precise pathogenic role remain to be defined. Given that viral infections are known to potentially cause and exacerbate airway inflammation, in this study, we investigated the expression of IL-32 induced by synthetic double-stranded (ds) RNA, and its signaling mechanisms involved. Bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with synthetic dsRNA poly I:C. The levels of IL-32 expression were analyzed using real-time PCR and ELISA. The involvement of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and a subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p65 was determined by western blot analyses. TAK1 inhibitor, 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol and NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 were added to the culture to identify key signaling events leading to the expression of IL-32. Finally, the effect of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting TAK1 and p65 was investigated. dsRNA significantly induced IL-32 gene and protein expression, concomitant with activation of TAK1 and p65. Pretreatment of 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol diminished dsRNA-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB. Both 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol and BAY 11-7082 significantly abrogated dsRNA-induced IL-32 production. Moreover, transfection of the cells with siRNAs targeting TAK1 and p65 inhibited the expression of IL-32. The expression of IL-32 is induced by dsRNA via the TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway in bronchial epithelial cells. IL-32 is involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, and may be a novel therapeutic target for airway inflammatory diseases.

  6. Rhinovirus-bacteria coexposure synergistically induces CCL20 production from human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Maciejewski, Barbara A; Jamieson, Kyla C; Arnason, Jason W; Kooi, Cora; Wiehler, Shahina; Traves, Suzanne L; Leigh, Richard; Proud, David

    2017-05-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are triggered by viral or bacterial pathogens, with human rhinovirus (HRV) and nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHI) among the most commonly detected pathogens. Patients who suffer from concomitant viral and bacterial infection have more severe exacerbations. The airway epithelial cell is the initial site of viral and bacterial interactions, and CCL20 is an epithelial chemokine that attracts immature dendritic cells to the airways and can act as an antimicrobial. As such, it contributes to innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. We used primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells and the BEAS-2B cell line to examine the effects of bacterial-viral coexposure, as well as each stimulus alone, on epithelial expression of CXCL8 and, in particular, CCL20. HRV-bacterial coexposure induced synergistic production of CXCL8 and CCL20 compared with the sum of each stimulus alone. Synergistic induction of CCL20 did not require viral replication and occurred with two different HRV serotypes that use different viral receptors. Synergy was also seen with either NTHI or Pseudomonas aeruginosa Synergistic induction of CCL20 was transcriptionally regulated. Although NF-κB was required for transcription, it did not regulate synergy, but NF-IL-6 did appear to contribute. Among MAPK inhibitors studied, neither SB203580 nor PD98059 had any effect on synergy, whereas U0126 prevented synergistic induction of CCL20 by HRV and bacteria, apparently via "off-target" effects. Thus bacterial-viral coexposure synergistically increases innate immune responses compared with individual infections. We speculate that this increased inflammatory response leads to worse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide accelerates fine particulate matter-induced cell apoptosis in human lung bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Ru, Qin; Xiong, Qi; Chen, Lin; Tian, Xiang; Yue, Kai; Ma, Baomiao; Liu, Lu; Wu, Rihui; Xu, Congyue; Pi, Mingshan; Li, Chaoying

    2017-11-03

    The aim of the study has been to investigate the effect of the Standard Reference Material of fine particulate matter (SRM 2786) on cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells). Whether the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation could further accelerate cell apoptosis induced by SRM 2786 stimulation has also been determined. 16HBE cells were exposed to various doses of SRM 2786 with or without LPS. The following parameters: cytotoxicity, apoptotic rate, Bax/Bcl-2 expression, nitric oxide (NO) production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured. The results have shown that SRM 2786 induces cell damage and apoptosis of 16HBE cells as demonstrated by significant decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and increase in expression of Bax. When compared with the control cells, the apoptotic rate of cells treated by 500 μg/ml of SRM 2786 increased from 2.43±0.21% to 43.96±2.95% (p < 0.01). Further, there was an elevated production of NO and ROS post SRM 2786 treatment. The level of NO in cells treated with 500 μg/ml of SRM 2786 was 18.33±1.02 μmol/l whereas that of control cells was 1.58±0.31 μmol/l (p < 0.01). When compared with the control group, the level of intracellular ROS increased by 24% after treatment with 500 μg/ml of SRM 2786 (p < 0.05). In addition, LPS pre-treatment may accelerate cell apoptosis by increasing generation of NO and ROS followed by SRM 2786 stimulation. When compared to cells treated with 125 μg/ml of SRM 2786 alone, the levels of NO and ROS in cells pretreated with LPS increased by 28% and 11.6%, respectively (p < 0.05), and the apoptotic rate increased from 34.62±4.44% to 54.11±3.34% (p < 0.01). These findings have suggested that in vitro exposure to SRM 2786 could induce 16HBE cells apoptosis probably by means of the mechanism involving the generation of free radicals, while the degree of apoptosis would be further aggravated under inflammation condition. Int J Occup Med

  8. Upregulation of TMEM16A Protein in Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Bacterial Pyocyanin.

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    Emanuela Caci

    Full Text Available Induction of mucus hypersecretion in the airway epithelium by Th2 cytokines is associated with the expression of TMEM16A, a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. We asked whether exposure of airway epithelial cells to bacterial components, a condition that mimics the highly infected environment occurring in cystic fibrosis (CF, also results in a similar response. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells, treatment with pyocyanin or with a P. aeruginosa culture supernatant caused a significant increase in TMEM16A function. The Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion, triggered by stimulation with UTP, was particularly enhanced by pyocyanin in cells from CF patients. Increased expression of TMEM16A protein and of MUC5AC mucin by bacterial components was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in CF and non-CF cells. We also investigated TMEM16A expression in human bronchi by immunocytochemistry. We found increased TMEM16A staining in the airways of CF patients. The strongest signal was observed in CF submucosal glands. Our results suggest that TMEM16A expression/function is upregulated in CF lung disease, possibly as a response towards the presence of bacteria in the airways.

  9. Upregulation of TMEM16A Protein in Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Bacterial Pyocyanin.

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    Caci, Emanuela; Scudieri, Paolo; Di Carlo, Emma; Morelli, Patrizia; Bruno, Silvia; De Fino, Ida; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Gianotti, Ambra; Sondo, Elvira; Ferrera, Loretta; Palleschi, Alessandro; Santambrogio, Luigi; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Galietta, Luis J V

    2015-01-01

    Induction of mucus hypersecretion in the airway epithelium by Th2 cytokines is associated with the expression of TMEM16A, a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. We asked whether exposure of airway epithelial cells to bacterial components, a condition that mimics the highly infected environment occurring in cystic fibrosis (CF), also results in a similar response. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells, treatment with pyocyanin or with a P. aeruginosa culture supernatant caused a significant increase in TMEM16A function. The Ca2+-dependent Cl- secretion, triggered by stimulation with UTP, was particularly enhanced by pyocyanin in cells from CF patients. Increased expression of TMEM16A protein and of MUC5AC mucin by bacterial components was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in CF and non-CF cells. We also investigated TMEM16A expression in human bronchi by immunocytochemistry. We found increased TMEM16A staining in the airways of CF patients. The strongest signal was observed in CF submucosal glands. Our results suggest that TMEM16A expression/function is upregulated in CF lung disease, possibly as a response towards the presence of bacteria in the airways.

  10. Hypermethylation of PGCP gene is associated with human bronchial epithelial cells immortalization.

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    Gao, Chen; Xing, Xiumei; He, Zhini; Chen, Shen; Wang, Shan; Li, Qingye; Guo, Ping; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Huiyao; Chen, Liping; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jian; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Li, Daochuan

    2018-02-05

    Cell immortalization is the initial step for cancer development. To identify the differentially expressed genes regulated by DNA methylation over the course of human primary bronchial epithelial cell (HPBECs) immortalization, an immortalized HBE cell line (HBETT) was generated via introduction of an SV40 LT and a catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) into the HPBECs. Microarrays of mRNA and DNA methylation were performed to compare the transcriptomes and DNA methylomes between these two types of cells. The results from the mRNA microarray revealed many genes whose expression changed upon cell immortalization. We identified signatures including global hypomethylation, perturbation of ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt pathways associated with cell immortalization. Moreover, we revealed 155 differentiated methylation regions (DMRs) within the CpG islands (CGIs) of 42 genes and the perturbation of several key pathways that might be involved in HBE cell immortalization. Among these genes, the hypermethylation of the plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase (PGCP) gene appeared specifically in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of PGCP expression by promoter hypermethylation was observed in both immortal HBETT cells and benzo[a]pyrene (Bap)-transformed HBE cells. In conclusion, these findings provide new insight into the epigenetic modifications that are critical in the transition and maintenance of cell immortalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LINE-1 couples EMT programming with acquisition of oncogenic phenotypes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Aispuro, Ivan; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A; Field, Matthew; Moore, Sara; Ramos, Irma; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2017-11-28

    Although several lines of evidence have established the central role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the molecular events connecting EMT to malignancy remain poorly understood. This study presents evidence that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon couples EMT programming with malignancy in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). This conclusion is supported by studies showing that: 1) activation of EMT programming by TGF-β1 increases LINE-1 mRNAs and protein; 2) the lung carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene coregulates TGF-β1 and LINE-1 mRNAs, with LINE-1 positioned downstream of TGF-β1 signaling; and, 3) forced expression of LINE-1 in BEAS-2B cells recapitulates EMT programming and induces malignant phenotypes and tumorigenesis in vivo . These findings identify a TGFβ1-LINE-1 axis as a critical effector pathway that can be targeted for the development of precision therapies during malignant progression of intractable NSCLCs.

  12. NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition attenuates silica-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Li, Xiang; Yan, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Hong; Xie, Weiping; Kong, Hui

    2018-01-15

    Silicosis is an incurable and progressive lung disease characterized by chronic inflammation and fibroblasts accumulation. Studies have indicated a vital role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in fibroblasts accumulation. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical mediator of inflammation in response to a wide range of stimuli (including silica particles), and plays an important role in many respiratory diseases. However, whether NLRP3 inflammasome regulates silica-induced EMT remains unknown. Our results showed that silica induced EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, silica persistently activated NLRP3 inflammasome as indicated by continuously elevated extracellular levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of NLRP3, selective inhibitor MCC950, and caspase-1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK attenuated silica-induced EMT. Western blot analysis indicated that TAK1-MAPK-Snail/NF-κB pathway involved NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated EMT. Moreover, pirfenidone, a commercially and clinically available drug approved for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), effectively suppressed silica-induced EMT of 16HBE cells in line with NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition. Collectively, our results indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome is a promising target for blocking or retarding EMT-mediated fibrosis in pulmonary silicosis. On basis of this mechanism, pirfenidone might be a potential drug for the treatment of silicosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  14. Differential cytopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus prototypic and clinical isolates in primary pediatric bronchial epithelial cells

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    Coyle Peter V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV causes severe respiratory disease in infants. Airway epithelial cells are the principle targets of RSV infection. However, the mechanisms by which it causes disease are poorly understood. Most RSV pathogenesis data are derived using laboratory-adapted prototypic strains. We hypothesized that such strains may be poorly representative of recent clinical isolates in terms of virus/host interactions in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs. Methods To address this hypothesis, we isolated three RSV strains from infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis and compared them with the prototypic RSV A2 in terms of cytopathology, virus growth kinetics and chemokine secretion in infected PBEC monolayers. Results RSV A2 rapidly obliterated the PBECs, whereas the clinical isolates caused much less cytopathology. Concomitantly, RSV A2 also grew faster and to higher titers in PBECs. Furthermore, dramatically increased secretion of IP-10 and RANTES was evident following A2 infection compared with the clinical isolates. Conclusions The prototypic RSV strain A2 is poorly representative of recent clinical isolates in terms of cytopathogenicity, viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory responses induced following infection of PBEC monolayers. Thus, the choice of RSV strain may have important implications for future RSV pathogenesis studies.

  15. Rhinovirus-induced modulation of gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells from subjects with asthma

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    Bochkov, YA; Hanson, KM; Keles, S; Brockman-Schneider, RA; Jarjour, NN; Gern, JE

    2010-01-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infections trigger asthma exacerbations. Genome-wide expression analysis of RV1A-infected primary bronchial epithelial cells from normal and asthmatic donors was performed to determine whether asthma is associated with a unique pattern of RV-induced gene expression. Virus replication rates were similar in cells from normal and asthmatic donors. Overall, RV downregulated 975 and upregulated 69 genes. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles generated from microarrays and confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and cluster analysis showed some up- and downregulated genes in asthma cells involved in immune responses (IL1B, IL1F9, IL24, IFI44) and airway remodeling (LOXL2, MMP10, FN1). Notably, most of the asthma-related differences in RV-infected cells were also present in the cells before infection. These findings suggest that differences in RV-induced gene expression profiles of cells from normal and mild asthmatic subjects could affect the acute inflammatory response to RV and subsequent airway repair and remodeling. PMID:19710636

  16. ATP release and Ca2+ signalling by human bronchial epithelial cells following Alternaria aeroallergen exposure.

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    O'Grady, Scott M; Patil, Nandadavi; Melkamu, Tamene; Maniak, Peter J; Lancto, Cheryl; Kita, Hirohito

    2013-09-15

      Exposure of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from normal and asthmatic subjects to extracts from Alternaria alternata evoked a rapid and sustained release of ATP with greater efficacy observed in epithelial cells from asthmatic patients. Previously, Alternaria allergens were shown to produce a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) that was dependent on the coordinated activation of specific purinergic receptor (P2Y2 and P2X7) subtypes. In the present study, pretreatment with a cell-permeable Ca2+-chelating compound (BAPTA-AM) significantly inhibited ATP release, indicating dependency on [Ca2+]i. Alternaria-evoked ATP release exhibited a greater peak response and a slightly lower EC50 value in cells obtained from asthmatic donors compared to normal control cells. Furthermore, the maximum increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from Alternaria treatment was greater in cells from asthmatic patients compared to normal subjects. The vesicle transport inhibitor brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM significantly blocked Alternaria-stimulated incorporation of fluorescent lipid (FM1-43)-labelled vesicles into the plasma membrane and ATP release. In addition, inhibiting uptake of ATP into exocytotic vesicles with bafilomycin also reduced ATP release comparable to the effects of brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM. These results indicate that an important mechanism for Alternaria-induced ATP release is Ca2+ dependent and involves exocytosis of ATP. Serine and cysteine protease inhibitors also reduced Alternaria-induced ATP release; however, the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i typically observed following Alternaria exposure appeared to be independent of protease-activated receptor (PAR2) stimulation.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

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    Laura Cartularo

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress.

  18. Oxidative stress induced Interleukin-32 mRNA expression in human bronchial epithelial cells

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    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction and persistent inflammation in the airways and lung parenchyma. Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. Interleukin (IL)-32 expression has been reported to increase in the lung tissue of patients with COPD. Here, we show that IFNγ upregulated IL-32 expression and that oxidative stress augmented IFNγ-induced-IL-32 expression in airway epithelial cells. We further investigated transcriptional regulation responsible for IFNγ induced IL-32 expression in human airway epithelial cells. Methods Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were stimulated with H2O2 and IFNγ, and IL-32 expression was evaluated. The cell viability was confirmed by MTT assay. The intracellular signaling pathways regulating IL-32 expression were investigated by examining the regulatory effects of MAPK inhibitors and JAK inhibitor after treatment with H2O2 and IFNγ, and by using a ChIP assay to identify transcription factors (i.e. c-Jun, CREB) binding to the IL-32 promoter. Promoter activity assays were conducted after mutations were introduced into binding sites of c-Jun and CREB in the IL-32 promoter. IL-32 expression was also examined in HBE cells in which the expression of either c-Jun or CREB was knocked out by siRNA of indicated transcription factors. Results There were no significant differences of cell viability among groups. After stimulation with H2O2 or IFNγ for 48 hours, IL-32 expression in HBE cells was increased by IFNγ and synergistically upregulated by the addition of H2O2. The H2O2 augmented IFNγ induced IL-32 mRNA expression was suppressed by a JNK inhibitor, but not by MEK inhibitor, p38 inhibitor, and JAK inhibitor I. Significant binding of c-Jun and CREB to the IL-32 promoter was observed in the IFNγ + H2O2 stimulated HBE cells. Introducing mutations into the c-Jun/CREB binding sites in the IL-32 promoter prominently suppressed its transcriptional activity

  19. Inhibition of pyocyanin-potentiated IL-8 release by steroids in bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Pan, Nin Y; Hui, Wing S; Tipoe, George L; Taylor, Graham W; Leung, Raymond Y H; Lam, Wah K; Tsang, Kenneth W T; Mak, Judith C W

    2006-09-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the first targets of environmental stimuli and local cytokines. Pyocyanin-induced synergism with interleukin (IL)-1 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in triggering IL-8 release has been documented previously. In this study, IL-8 mRNA and protein expression were examined in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) stimulated with pyocyanin alone, and in combination with IL-1beta or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in the absence and presence of a group of glucocorticoids. IL-8 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR, and IL-8 protein by ELISA (cell supernatants). Pyocyanin alone produced no increase in IL-8 mRNA and release. However, pyocyanin upregulated the stimulatory effect of IL-1beta or PDBu on the release of IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect of pyocyanin on the IL-1beta- or PDBu-stimulated IL-8 release was reduced in the presence of dexamethasone, budesonide, and fluticasone. Budesonide and fluticasone were 10-fold more potent than dexamethasone. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, Go6976, also significantly reduced the stimulatory effect of pyocyanin on IL-1beta, and PDBu increased IL-8 release. In conclusion, this study shows that PKC signal pathway seems to be involved in the pyocyanin-mediated upregulation of the IL-1beta and PDBu-induced IL-8 release in BEAS-2B cells. These findings suggest that a vicious cycle perpetuating inflammation may exist in the biologic milieu of bronchiectatic patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to the production of pyocyanin. The priming action of pyocyanin appears to be blocked by glucocorticoids, thus providing in vitro data in support of the clinical efficacy of inhaled glucocorticoids as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  20. Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on proliferation and wound closure of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: role of glutathione

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    Rabe Klaus F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased airway epithelial proliferation is frequently observed in smokers. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to these epithelial changes, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on cell proliferation, wound closure and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. We also studied whether modulation of intracellular glutathione/thiol levels could attenuate CSC-induced cell proliferation. Methods Cells of the bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and subcultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells were used for the present study. The effect of CSC on epithelial proliferation was assessed using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation. Modulation of epithelial wound repair was studied by analysis of closure of 3 mm circular scrape wounds during 72 hours of culture. Wound closure was calculated from digital images obtained at 24 h intervals. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was assessed by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies. Results At low concentrations CSC increased proliferation of NCI-H292 cells, whereas high concentrations were inhibitory as a result of cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of CSC also increased epithelial wound closure of both NCI-H292 and PBEC, whereas at high concentrations closure was inhibited. At low, mitogenic concentrations, CSC caused persistent activation of ERK1/2, a MAPK involved in cell proliferation. Inhibition of cell proliferation by high concentrations of CSC was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic MAP kinases p38 and JNK. Modulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH/thiol levels using N-acetyl-L-cysteine, GSH or buthionine sulphoximine (BSO, demonstrated that both the stimulatory and the inhibitory effects of CSC were regulated in part by intracellular GSH levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CSC may increase cell proliferation and wound closure dependent on the local concentration of cigarette smoke

  1. A Cross-Study Biomarker Signature of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

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    Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Despite of advances in diagnosis and treatment, biomarkers of RSV infection are still unclear. To understand the host response and propose signatures of RSV infection, previous studies evaluated the transcriptional profile of the human bronchial epithelial cell line—BEAS-2B—infected with different strains of this virus. However, the evolution of statistical methods and functional analysis together with the large amount of expression data provide opportunities to uncover novel biomarkers of inflammation and infections. In view of those facts publicly available microarray datasets from RSV-infected BEAS-2B cells were analyzed with linear model-based statistics and the platform for functional analysis InnateDB. The results from those analyses argue for the reevaluation of previously reported transcription patterns and biological pathways in BEAS-2B cell lines infected with RSV. Importantly, this study revealed a biosignature constituted by genes such as ABCC4, ARMC8, BCLAF1, EZH1, FAM118A, FAM208B, FUS, HSPH1, KAZN, MAP3K2, N6AMT1, PRMT2, S100PBP, SERPINA1, TLK2, ZNF322, and ZNF337 which should be considered in the development of new molecular diagnosis tools.

  2. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

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    Neil McInnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or house dust mite allergen (HDM or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS. BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons. There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023. There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures.

  3. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

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    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  5. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  6. The species translation challenge—A systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to ‘translate’ the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies. PMID:25977767

  7. Dendritic cells from aged subjects contribute to chronic airway inflammation by activating bronchial epithelial cells under steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S; Agrawal, S; Vahed, H; Ngyuen, M; BenMohamed, L; Gupta, S; Agrawal, A

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of the elderly to respiratory infections are not well understood. The crosstalk between the dendritic cells (DCs) and epithelial cells is essential in maintaining tolerance as well as in generating immunity in the respiratory mucosa. DCs from aged subjects display an enhanced basal level of activation, which can affect the function of epithelial cells. Our results suggest that this is indeed the scenario as exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) to supernatants from unstimulated DCs of aged subjects resulted in activation of PBECs. The expression of CCL20, CCL26, CXCL10, mucin, and CD54 was significantly increased in the PBECs exposed to aged DC supernatants, but not to young DC supernatants. Furthermore, aged DC supernatants also enhanced the permeability of the PBEC barrier. We also found that DCs from aged subjects spontaneously secreted increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and metalloproteinase A disintegrin family of metalloproteinase 10, which can affect the functions of PBECs. Finally, we demonstrated that TNF-α, present in the supernatant of DCs from aged subjects, was the primary pro-inflammatory mediator that affected PBEC functions. Thus, age-associated alterations in DC–epithelial interactions contribute to chronic airway inflammation in the elderly, increasing their susceptibility to respiratory diseases. PMID:24759206

  8. Effects of ceftaroline on the innate immune and on the inflammatory responses of bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, E; Ferraro, M; Di Vincenzo, S; Siena, L; Gjomarkaj, M

    2016-09-06

    The tobacco smoking habit interferes with the innate host defence system against infections. Recurrent infections accelerated the functional respiratory decline. The present study assessed the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 and on pro-inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells (16HBE cell line and primary bronchial epithelial cells) with or without cigarette smoke extracts (CSE 10%). TLR2, TLR4, LPS binding and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) were assessed by flow cytometry, NFkB nuclear translocation by western blot analysis, IL-8 and HBD2 mRNA by Real Time PCR; the localization of NFkB on the HBD2 and IL-8 promoters by ChiP Assay. CSE increased TLR4, TLR2 expression, LPS binding and IL-8 mRNA; CSE decreased HBD2 (protein and mRNA), activated NFkB and promoted the localization of NFkB on IL-8 promoter and not on HBD2 promoter. Ceftaroline counteracted the CSE effect on TLR2 expression, on LPS binding, on IL-8 mRNA, HBD2 and NFkB in 16HBE. The effects of ceftaroline on HBD2 protein and on IL-8 mRNA were confirmed in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In conclusion, ceftaroline is able to counteract the effects of CSE on the innate immunity and pro-inflammatory responses modulating TLR2, LPS binding, NFkB activation and activity, HBD2 and IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth and differentiation of primary and passaged equine bronchial epithelial cells under conventional and air-liquid-interface culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeger Johannes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horses develop recurrent airway obstruction (RAO that resembles human bronchial asthma. Differentiated primary equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC in culture that closely mimic the airway cells in vivo would be useful to investigate the contribution of bronchial epithelium in inflammation of airway diseases. However, because isolation and characterization of EBEC cultures has been limited, we modified and optimized techniques of generating and culturing EBECs from healthy horses to mimic in vivo conditions. Results Large numbers of EBEC were obtained by trypsin digestion and successfully grown for up to 2 passages with or without serum. However, serum or ultroser G proved to be essential for EBEC differentiation on membrane inserts at ALI. A pseudo-stratified muco-ciliary epithelium with basal cells was observed at differentiation. Further, transepithelial resistance (TEER was more consistent and higher in P1 cultures compared to P0 cultures while ciliation was delayed in P1 cultures. Conclusions This study provides an efficient method for obtaining a high-yield of EBECs and for generating highly differentiated cultures. These EBEC cultures can be used to study the formation of tight junction or to identify epithelial-derived inflammatory factors that contribute to lung diseases such as asthma.

  10. Effect of Ambroxol and Beclomethasone on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitrosative Stress in Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Benedetto, Sabrina; Paleari, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Nitrosative stress is involved in different airway diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces neutrophil-related cytokine release and nitrosative stress in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells alone or with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Ambroxol protects against oxidative stress, and beclomethasone dipropionate is an anti-inflammatory drug. We evaluated the ability of ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate to inhibit LPS-induced expression/release of RANTES, IL-8, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT: nitrosative stress biomarker) in BEAS-2B ± PMNs stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml). The effect of ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate on IL-8, RANTES and iNOS levels was assessed by Western blot analysis; IL-8, MPO and 3-NT levels were measured by ELISA. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. In BEAS-2B alone, LPS (at 12 h) increased RANTES/iNOS expression and IL-8 levels (p Ambroxol suppressed LPS-induced RANTES expression and IL-8 release (p Ambroxol and beclomethasone dipropionate inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-8, MPO and 3-NT release (p Ambroxol/beclomethasone dipropionate combination potentiated the inhibition of IL-8 and 3-NT production in BEAS-2B with PMNs (p Ambroxol and/or beclomethasone dipropionate inhibited nitrosative stress and the release of neutrophilic inflammatory products in vitro. The additive effect of ambroxol and beclomethasone dipropionate on IL-8 and 3-NT inhibition suggests new therapeutic options in the treatment of neutrophil-related respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The low PLC-δ1 expression in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells induces upregulation of TRPV6 channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachel, Laura; Norez, Caroline; Jayle, Christophe; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2015-01-01

    Increase of Ca(2+) influx in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) cells has been reported to be related to Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC6) channel, which is implicated in a functional coupling with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR). Several members of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels family have already been described as emerging target for respiratory diseases. Two specific isoforms, TRPV5 and TRPV6 are of particular interest in the context of CF Ca(2+) homeostasis as they are highly selective toward Ca(2+) and constitutively activated. Thus, we investigated the involvement of these channels in Ca(2+) influx in CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cell lines. 16HBE14o-, CFBE41o- cell lines, primary human airway epithelial cells (hAEC) and freshly isolated human airway epithelial cells from CF and non-CF individuals were used. We showed that both channels are expressed in CF and non-CF cells and constitutive Ca(2+) influx was significantly higher (85%) in cells from CF individuals compared to cells from non-CF ones. Using the selective inhibitor of TRPV6 channel SOR-C27 and a siRNA strategy, our results revealed that TRPV6 was mostly involved in the increase of Ca(2+) influx. TRPV6 channel is negatively regulated by the PLC-PIP2 pathway. We measured the Ca(2+) influx in the presence of the non-specific PLC inhibitor, U73122, in non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells. Ca(2+) influx was increased by 33% with U73122 and this increase was largely reduced in the presence of SOR-C27. PLC inhibition in CF cells by U73122 had no effect on Ca(2+) influx. These results showed that PLC-PIP2 pathway is dysregulated in CF cells and leads to the increase of TRPV6 activity. The regulation of TRPV6 by PLC-PIP2 pathway implicates the specific PLC isoform, PLC-δ1. Immunoblot experiments revealed that expression of PLC-δ1 was decreased by 70% in CF cells. TRPV6 activity was normalized but not the level of expression of PLC-δ1

  12. Bilateral Entry and Release of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Induces Profound Apoptosis of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinrong; Hill, Terence E.; Morimoto, Chikao; Peters, Clarence J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects human bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, which exclusively infects and releases through the apical route, this virus can do so through either side of polarized Calu-3 cells. Infection results in profound apoptosis within 24 h irrespective of its production of titers that are lower than those of SARS-CoV. Together, our results provide new insights into the dissemination and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and may indicate that the virus differs markedly from SARS-CoV. PMID:23824802

  13. NiO nanoparticles induce apoptosis through repressing SIRT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wei-Xia; He, Min-Di; Mao, Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Qian, Feng-Hua [Department of Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Li, Yu-Ming [Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Pi, Hui-Feng; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; Lu, Yong-Hui; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Zhou, E-mail: lunazhou00@163.com [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-07-15

    With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni{sup 2+} inside the cells. NiONPs at doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/cm{sup 2} inhibited the cell viability. NiONPs' produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process, indicated by increased numbers of Annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activation. The expression of SIRT1 was markedly down-regulated by the NiONPs, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of p53 (tumor protein 53) and overexpression of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). However, overexpression of SIRT1 through resveratrol treatment or transfection clearly attenuated the NiONPs-induced apoptosis and activation of p53 and Bax. Our results suggest that the repression of SIRT1 may underlie the NiONPs-induced apoptosis via p53 hyperacetylation and subsequent Bax activation. Because SIRT1 participates in multiple biologic processes by deacetylation of dozens of substrates, this knowledge of the impact of NiONPs on SIRT1 may lead to an improved understanding of the toxic mechanisms of Nano-Ni and provide a molecular target to antagonize Nano-Ni toxicity. - Highlights: • NiONPs were taken up by BEAS-2B cells and released Ni{sup 2+}. • NiONPs produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process. • NiONPs repressed SIRT1 expression and activated p53 and Bax. • Overexpression of SIRT1 attenuated NiONPs-induced apoptosis via deacetylation p53.

  14. The molecular and cellular response of normal and progressed human bronchial epithelial cells to HZE particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Larsen, Jill

    We have used a model of non-oncogenically immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells to determine the response of such cells to particles found outside the protection of the earth’s electromagnetic field. We have identified an enhanced frequency of cellular transformation, as measured by growth in soft agar, for both 56Fe and 28Si (1 GeV/n) that is maximal (4-6 fold) at 0.25 Gy and 0.40 Gy, respectively. At 4 months post-irradiation 38 individual soft agar clones were isolated. These clones were characterized extensively for cellular and molecular changes. Gene expression analysis suggested that these clones had down-regulated several genes associated with anti-oxidant pathways including GLS2, GPX1 and 4, SOD2, PIG3, and NQO1 amongst others. As a result, many of these transformed clones were exposed to high levels of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS), although there appeared not to be any enhanced mitochondrial ROS. DNA repair pathways associated with ATM/ATR signaling were also upregulated. However, these transformants do not develop into tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice, suggesting that they have not progressed sufficiently to become oncogenic. Therefore we chose 6 soft agar clones for continuous culture for an additional 14 months. Amongst the 6 clones, only one clone showed any significant change in phenotype. Clone 3kt-ff.2a, propagated for 18 months, were 2-fold more radioresistant, had a shortened doubling time and the background rate of transformation more than doubled. Furthermore, the morphology of transformed clones changed. Clones from this culture are being compared to the original clone as well as the parental HBEC3KT and will be injected into immune-compromised mice for oncogenic potential. Oncogenically progressed HBECs, HBEC3KT cells that overexpress a mutant RAS gene and where p53 has been knocked down, designated HBEC3KTR53, responded quite differently to HZE particle exposure. First, these cells are more

  15. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu AL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ailing Liu,1,2,* Jinxiang Wu,1,* Aijun Li,2 Wenxiang Bi,3 Tian Liu,1 Liuzhao Cao,1 Yahui Liu,1 Liang Dong1 1Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence.Methods: Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway.Results: Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence.Conclusion: CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial

  16. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Scheffler; Hauke Dieken; Olaf Krischenowski; Christine Förster; Detlev Branscheid; Michaela Aufderheide

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the c...

  17. LncRNA LINC00341 mediates PM2.5-induced cell cycle arrest in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiqin; Wu, Jianjun; Peng, Xiaowu; Yang, Ti; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Lijian; Dai, Xin; Wang, Zhishan; Yang, Chengfeng; Yan, Bing; Jiang, Yiguo

    2017-07-05

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) could adhere to many toxic substances and cause respiratory diseases.However, the associated pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM2.5 on cell cycle progression in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) and the underlying mechanism mediated by lncRNAs. PM2.5 treatment inhibited cell proliferation in 16HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results of flow cytometry assay (FCM) showed that PM2.5 induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The lncRNA microarray analysis indicated that treatment with PM2.5 led to the alteration of lncRNA expression profiles. qRT-PCR were performed to confirm the differential expression of several candidate lncRNAs. lncRNA LINC00341 was significantly up-regulated in 16HBE cell after PM2.5 treatment. Further functional studies showed that knockdown of lncRNA LINC00341 reversed PM2.5-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and p21 expression. These results suggest that up-regulation of the lncRNA LINC00341 mediates PM2.5-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and probably through regulating the expression of p21. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  19. Histamine Stimulates Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Bronchial Epithelial Cells via Histamine H1 Receptor and Dual Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Balázs; Boudreau, Howard E.; Park, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Besides granulocytes, the airway epithelium can produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species and can contribute to asthma-related oxidative stress. Histamine is a major inflammatory mediator present in large quantities in asthmatic airways. Whether histamine triggers epithelium-derived oxidative stress is unknown. We therefore aimed at characterizing human airway epithelial H2O2 production stimulated by histamine. We found that air–liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and an immortalized BEC model (Cdk4/hTERT HBEC) produce H2O2 in response to histamine. The main source of airway epithelial H2O2 is an NADPH dual oxidase, Duox1. Out of the four histamine receptors (H1R–H4R), H1R has the highest expression in BECs and mediates the H2O2–producing effects of histamine. IL-4 induces Duox1 gene and protein expression levels and enhances histamine-induced H2O2 production by epithelial cells. Using HEK-293 cells expressing Duox1 or Duox2 and endogenous H1R, histamine triggers an immediate intracellular calcium signal and H2O2 release. Overexpression of H1R further increases the oxidative output of Duox-expressing HEK-293 cells. Our observations show that BECs respond to histamine with Duox-mediated H2O2 production. These findings reveal a mechanism that could be an important contributor to oxidative stress characteristic of asthmatic airways, suggesting novel therapeutic targets for treating asthmatic airway disease. PMID:23962049

  20. Expression of asthma susceptibility genes in bronchial epithelial cells and bronchial alveolar lavage in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingnan; Hawkins, Gregory A; Moore, Wendy C; Hastie, Annette T; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Milosevic, Jadranka; Li, Huashi; Busse, William W; Erzurum, Serpil C; Kaminski, Naftali; Wenzel, Sally E; Bleecker, Eugene R; Meyers, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genes associated with asthma, however expression of these genes in asthma-relevant tissues has not been studied. This study tested expression and correlation between GWAS-identified asthma genes and asthma or asthma severity. Correlation analyses of expression levels of GWAS-identified asthma genes and asthma-related biomarkers were performed in cells from human bronchial epithelial biopsy (BEC, n = 107) and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL, n = 94). Expression levels of asthma genes between BEC and BAL and with asthma or asthma severity were weakly correlated. The expression levels of IL18R1 were consistently higher in asthma than controls or in severe asthma than mild/moderate asthma in BEC and BAL (p asthma (P = 0.03). rs17772583 in RAD50 was significantly correlated with RAD50 expression in BAL and BEC (P = 7.4 × 10(-7) and 0.04) but was not associated with asthma. This is the first report studying the expression of GWAS-identified asthma genes in BEC and BAL. IL13, rather than RAD50, IL4, or IL5, is more likely to be the asthma susceptibility gene. Our study illustrates tissue-specific expression of asthma-related genes. Therefore, whenever possible, disease-relevant tissues should be used for transcription analysis.

  1. Reversal and prevention of arsenic-induced human bronchial epithelial cell malignant transformation by microRNA-200b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhishan; Zhao, Yong; Smith, Eric; Goodall, Gregory J; Drew, Paul A; Brabletz, Thomas; Yang, Chengfeng

    2011-05-01

    Arsenic is a well-recognized human carcinogen, yet the mechanism by which it causes human cancer has not been elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a big family of small noncoding RNAs and negatively regulate the expression of a large number of protein-coding genes. We investigated the role of miRNAs in arsenic-induced human bronchial epithelial cell malignant transformation and tumor formation. We found that prolonged exposure of immortalized p53-knocked down human bronchial epithelial cells (p53(low)HBECs) to low levels of arsenite (NaAsO₂, 2.5 μM) caused malignant transformation that was accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduction in the levels of miR-200 family members. Stably reexpressing miR-200b in arsenite-transformed cells (As-p53(low)HBECs) completely reversed their transformed phenotypes, as evidenced by inhibition of colony formation in soft agar and prevention of xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Moreover, stably expressing miR-200b alone in parental nontransformed p53(low)HBECs was sufficient to completely prevent arsenite exposure from inducing EMT and malignant transformation. Further mechanistic studies showed that depletion of miR-200 in arsenite-transformed cells involved induction of the EMT-inducing transcription factors zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 (ZEB1) and ZEB2 and increased methylation of miR-200 promoters. Stably expressing ZEB1 alone in parental nontransformed p53(low)HBECs was sufficient to deplete miR-200, induce EMT and cause cell transformation, phenocopying the oncogenic effect of 16-week arsenite exposure. These findings establish for the first time a causal role for depletion of miR-200b expression in human cell malignant transformation and tumor formation resulting from arsenic exposure.

  2. Differential expression of syndecan-1 mediates cationic nanoparticle toxicity in undifferentiated versus differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Xia, Tian; Meng, Huan; Xue, Min; George, Saji; Ji, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Rong; Wang, Meiying; France, Bryan; Rallo, Robert; Damoiseaux, Robert; Cohen, Yoram; Bradley, Kenneth A; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre E

    2011-04-26

    Most in vitro toxicity studies on engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) use transformed rather than primary cells for logistical reasons. However, primary cells may provide a more appropriate connection to in vivo toxicity because these cells maintain their phenotypic fidelity and are also capable of differentiating into lineages that may be differently affected by potentially hazardous ENMs. Few studies to date have focused on the role of cellular differentiation in determining ENM toxicity. We compared the response of undifferentiated and differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) that are coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) since this polymer is known to exert differential cytotoxicity depending on its molecular weight and cationic density. The attachment of cationic PEI polymers to the MSNP surface was used to assess these materials' toxicological potential in undifferentiated and differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, using a multiparametric assay that screens for an integrated set of sublethal and lethal response outcomes. MSNPs coated with high molecular weight (10 and 25 kD) polymers were more toxic in differentiated cells than particles coated with shorter length polymers. The increased susceptibility of the differentiated cells is in agreement with more abundant expression of a proteoglycan, syndecan-1, which contains copious heparin sulfate side chains. Pretreatment with heparinase to remove the negatively charged sulfates decreased MSNP-PEI binding to the cell surface and lowered the cytotoxic potential of the cationic particles. These data demonstrate the importance of studying cellular differentiation as an important variable in the response of primary cells to toxic ENM properties.

  3. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Injury and Prevents Development of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The present study was aimed to explore the chemopreventive effect of ursolic acid (UA on these diseases. In the CSE treated normal human bronchial epithelial cell model, UA alleviated cytotoxicity caused by CSE, recovered the intracellular redox balance, and relieved the stimulation of external deleterious factors as well. UA mitigated CSE-induced DNA damage through the Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway. Moreover, UA inhibited lung cancer development in the model established by A549 cells in nude mice in vivo. For the first time, our results indicate that UA could be developed as a potential lung cancer chemopreventive agent.

  4. Fungal β-Glucan Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Through ROS Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhua; Hua, Meng; Cui, Xuefan

    2018-02-01

    The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has developed as an important bridge between innate immune and infection recently, and has the ability to drive proteolytic procaspase-1 into bioactive caspase-1, then responsible for proteolytic processing of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Fungal β-glucan, a major component of fungal cell wall, triggers inflammatory response in multiple immune cells, but rarely described in epithelial cells. Also, the relationship between fungal β-glucan and NLRP3 inflammasome is not clear yet. In this study, we first identified that curdlan, a large particulate β-glucan, could activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS-primed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). RT-PCR and Western Blot showed that curdlan upregulate the mRNA as well as intracellular protein expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β in HBECs, along with the activity of caspase-1, and the level of mature IL-1β in cell supernatants was higher by ELISA detection. Further studies demonstrated that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome could be attenuated by NAC, an inhibitor of ROS. Thus, it indicated curdlan activate NLRP3 inflammasome through a pathway requiring ROS production in HBECs. These findings may provide a new therapeutic target, NLRP3 inflammasome, in invasive pulmonary fungal infections.

  5. Theophylline action on primary human bronchial epithelial cells under proinflammatory stimuli and steroidal drugs: a therapeutic rationale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallelli, Luca; Falcone, Daniela; Cannataro, Roberto; Perri, Mariarita; Serra, Raffaele; Pelaia, Girolamo; Maselli, Rosario; Savino, Rocco; Spaziano, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Theophylline is a natural compound present in tea. Because of its property to relax smooth muscle it is used in pharmacology for the treatment of airway diseases (ie, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma). However, this effect on smooth muscle is dose dependent and it is related to the development of side effects. Recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that theophylline, at low concentrations, also has anti-inflammatory effects related to the activation of histone deacetylases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of theophylline alone and in combination with corticosteroids on human bronchial epithelial cells under inflammatory stimuli. Theophylline administrated alone was not able to reduce growth-stimulating signaling via extracellular signal-regulated kinases activation and matrix metalloproteases release, whereas it strongly counteracts this biochemical behavior when administered in the presence of corticosteroids. These data provide scientific evidence for supporting the rationale for the pharmacological use of theophylline and corticosteroid combined drug.

  6. Arsenic-induced sub-lethal stress reprograms human bronchial epithelial cells to CD61¯ cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingshan; Chen, Bailing; Thakur, Chitra; Lu, Yongju; Chen, Fei

    2014-03-15

    In the present report, we demonstrate that sub-lethal stress induced by consecutive exposure to 0.25 µM arsenic (As3+) for six months can trigger reprogramming of the human bronchial epithelial cell (BEAS-2B) to form cancer stem cells (CSCs) without forced introduction of the stemness transcription factors. These CSCs formed from As3+-induced sub-lethal stress featured with an increased expression of the endogenous stemness genes, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Myc, and others that are associated with the pluripotency and self-renewal of the CSCs. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that 90% of the CSC cells are CD61¯, whereas 100% of the parental cells are CD61+. These CD61¯ CSCs are highly tumorigenic and metastatic to the lung in xenotransplantation tests in NOD/SCID Il2rγ-/- mice. Additional tests also revealed that the CD61¯ CSCs showed a significant decrease in the expression of the genes important for DNA repair and oxidative phosphorylation. To determine the clinical relevance of the above findings, we stratified human lung cancers based on the level of CD61 protein and found that CD61low cancer correlates with poorer survival of the patients. Such a correlation was also observed in human breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Taken together, our findings suggest that in addition to the traditional approaches of enforced introduction of the exogenous stemness circuit transcription factors, sub-lethal stress induced by consecutive low dose As3+ is also able to convert non-stem cells to the CSCs.

  7. Correlation between CCL26 production by human bronchial epithelial cells and airway eosinophils: Involvement in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Marie-Chantal; Chakir, Jamila; Archambault, Anne-Sophie; Joubert, Philippe; Provost, Véronique; Laviolette, Michel; Flamand, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    High pulmonary eosinophil counts are associated with asthma symptoms and severity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) produce CC chemokines, notably CCL26 (eotaxin-3), which recruits and activates eosinophils from asthmatic patients. This suggests that CCL26 production by BECs might be involved in persistent eosinophilia in patients with severe asthma despite treatment with high corticosteroid doses. We sought to determine whether CCL26 levels correlate with eosinophilia and asthma severity. Human CC chemokine expression was assessed by means of quantitative PCR or a quantitative PCR array in vehicle- or IL-13-treated BECs. CCL26 was quantitated by means of ELISA. Immunohistochemistry analyses of CCL26 and major basic protein were done on bronchial biopsy specimens. IL-13 selectively induced CCL26 expression by BECs. This increase was time-dependent and more prominent in BECs from patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. CCL26 levels measured in supernatants of IL-13-stimulated BECs also increased with asthma severity as follows: patients with severe eosinophilic asthma > patients with mild asthma ≈ healthy subjects. Immunohistochemistry analyses of bronchial biopsy specimens confirmed increased levels of CCL26 in the epithelium of patients with mild and those with severe eosinophilic asthma. Tissue eosinophil counts did not correlate with CCL26 staining. However, sputum CCL26 levels significantly correlated with sputum eosinophil counts (P asthma severity. They also suggest a role for CCL26 in the sustained inflammation observed in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma and reveal CCL26 as a potential target for treating patients with eosinophilic asthma that are refractory to classic therapies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Next-generation sequencing reveals low-dose effects of cationic dendrimers in primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Neus; Kohonen, Pekka; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Yuning; Karlsson, Hanna L; Palmberg, Lena; Nyström, Andreas; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-27

    Gene expression profiling has developed rapidly in recent years with the advent of deep sequencing technologies such as RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) and could be harnessed to predict and define mechanisms of toxicity of chemicals and nanomaterials. However, the full potential of these technologies in (nano)toxicology is yet to be realized. Here, we show that systems biology approaches can uncover mechanisms underlying cellular responses to nanomaterials. Using RNA Seq and computational approaches, we found that cationic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM-NH2) are capable of triggering down-regulation of cell-cycle-related genes in primary human bronchial epithelial cells at doses that do not elicit acute cytotoxicity, as demonstrated using conventional cell viability assays, while gene transcription was not affected by neutral PAMAM-OH dendrimers. The PAMAMs were internalized in an active manner by lung cells and localized mainly in lysosomes; amine-terminated dendrimers were internalized more efficiently when compared to the hydroxyl-terminated dendrimers. Upstream regulator analysis implicated NF-κB as a putative transcriptional regulator, and subsequent cell-based assays confirmed that PAMAM-NH2 caused NF-κB-dependent cell cycle arrest. However, PAMAM-NH2 did not affect cell cycle progression in the human A549 adenocarcinoma cell line. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying systems biology approaches to predict cellular responses to nanomaterials and highlight the importance of using relevant (primary) cell models.

  9. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei, E-mail: fchen@wayne.edu

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  10. Effects of Carbocysteine and Beclomethasone on Histone Acetylation/Deacetylation Processes in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Elisabetta; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Ferraro, Maria; Siena, Liboria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Dino, Paola; Vitulo, Patrizio; Bertani, Alessandro; Saibene, Federico; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Histone deacetylase expression/activity may control inflammation, cell senescence, and responses to corticosteroids. Cigarette smoke exposure, increasing oxidative stress, may negatively affect deacetylase expression/activity. The effects of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE), carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on chromatin remodeling processes in human bronchial epithelial cells are largely unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of cigarette smoke, carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) expression/activity, N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) expression, histone acetyltransferases (HAT) (p300/CBP) expression, p-CREB and IL-1 m-RNA expression, neutrophil chemotaxis. Increased p-CREB expression was observed in the bronchial epithelium of smokers. CSE increased p-CREB expression and decreased HDAC3 expression and activity and N-CoR m-RNA and protein expression. At the same time, CSE increased the expression of the HAT, p300/CBP. All these events increased acetylation processes within the cells and were associated to increased IL-1 m-RNA expression and neutrophil chemotaxis. The incubation of CSE exposed cells with carbocysteine and beclomethasone counteracted the effects of cigarette smoke on HDAC3 and N-CoR but not on p300/CBP. The increased deacetylation processes due to carbocysteine and beclomethasone dipropionate incubation is associated to reduced p-CREB, IL-1 m-RNA expression, neutrophil chemotaxis. These findings suggest a new role of combination therapy with carbocysteine and beclomethasone dipropionate in restoring deacetylation processes compromised by cigarette smoke exposure. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2851-2859, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Leptin positively regulates MUC5AC production and secretion induced by interleukin-13 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanming; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yunying; Sun, Lixin; Han, Wei

    2017-11-18

    Mucus hypersecretion and plugging of lower respiratory tract airways due to mucus plugs have long been recognized as the leading cause of the morbidity and mortality in asthma. MUC5AC protein is a major component of airway mucus. Here, we showed that interleukin (IL)-13 induced MUC5AC production and secretion, and leptin expression in the human bronchial epithelial cell line-16 (HBE16) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Leptin knockdown suppressed MUC5AC production and secretion induced by IL-13. We further investigated the molecular mechanism by which leptin functioned, and found that leptin regulated IL-13-induced MUC5AC production and secretion via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. Subsequently, Munc18b, a limiting component of the exocytic machinery of airway epithelial and mast cells, was found that when knockdown, MUC5AC secretion was significantly inhibited. SABiosciences ChIP search tool identified three STAT3 binding sites with Munc18b promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis further confirmed that Stat3 upregulated Munc18b expression by directly binding to its promoter. These data suggested that leptin promotes MUC5AC secretion via JAK2-STAT3-MUNC18b regulatory network. Taken together, our data highlight a positive feedback role and molecular mechanism for leptin in the control of MUC5AC production and secretion from airway epithelial cells stimulated by IL-13, which encourage further exploration of the therapeutic potentials of manipulating leptin in the treatment of mucus hypersecretion in chronic inflammation lung diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Oxidative stress and mitochondrion-related cell apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells induced by silica dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Rong, Yi; Cui, Xiuqing; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Xiao, Lili; Chen, Weihong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate oxidative stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis induced by silica dust in human normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cell apoptotic rate, the expression level of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA were measured after 16HBE cells were exposed to 37.5, 75, 150, 300 µg/mL respirable silica dust (diameter<2 µm, d50=1 µm)for 24 h in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)were tested after 16HBE cells were exposed to silica dust at above concentrations for 1.5, 3, 6, 12 h, respectively. Dose-dependent decreases of cell viability and the activity of SOD were observed when silica concentrations increased. The activity of LDH increased when silica concentrations elevated. Compared with the control group, cell viability significantly reduced in 75, 150, 300 µg/mL silica-treated groups (P<0.05). The activity of LDH significantly increased in 150, 300 µg/mL silica-treated groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05). The activity of SOD in all silica-treated groups were significantly lower in comparison with controls (P<0.05). Intracellular ROS levels reached peak values at 1.5 h of silica exposure and gradually dropped to the base level at 12 h. The relationship between ROS levels and silica exposure were dose-response at 1.5 h, 3 h and 6 h of exposure (P<0.05). Similar dose-dependent increase were observed for apoptotic rate and silica exposure (P<0.05). The expression levels of Bcl-2 mRNA decreased, and the expression levels of Bax mRNA increased when silica concentrations increased. The results showed that significantly positive correlations between ROS level and apoptotic rate (r=0.892,P<0.05)or the expression level of Bax mRNA (r=0.850,P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between ROS level and the expression level of Bcl-2 mRNA (r=-0.703,P<0.05). Silica dust could induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis in 16HBE cells. Oxidative stress

  13. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  14. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  15. Antibiotic transport across bronchial epithelial cells: Effects of molecular weight, LogP and apparent permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, Mariateresa; Haghi, Mehra; Russo, Paola; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2016-02-15

    The first step in developing a new inhalable formulation for the treatment of respiratory diseases is to understand the mechanisms involved in the absorption of drugs after lung deposition. This information could be important for the treatment of bacterial infection in the lung, where low permeability would probably be beneficial, or a systemic infection, where high permeability would be desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the transport of several antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, doxycycline and tobramycin) across human bronchial airway epithelium and to study the influence of molecular weight and LogP on the apparent permeability. The experiments were conducted using Calu-3 cells seeded in the apical compartment of 24-well Transwell® inserts. The antibiotics transport was measured in both apical to basolateral (A-B) and basolateral to apical (B-A) directions and the apparent permeability of each antibiotic was calculated. The A-B transport of ciprofloxacin and rifampicin was independent of the initial concentration in the donor compartment, suggesting the involvement of active transporters in their absorption. Moxifloxacin, doxycycline, azithromycin and tobramycin presented a low absorptive permeation in the A-B direction, indicating that these substances could be substrate for efflux pumps. Generally, all antibiotics studied showed low permeabilities in the B-A direction. These findings suggest that the inhalation route would be favorable for delivering these specific antibiotics for the treatment of respiratory infection, compared with present oral or intravenous administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Involvement of HIF-2α-mediated inflammation in arsenite-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Yuan; Pang, Ying; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Arsenic is a well established human carcinogen that causes diseases of the lung. Some studies have suggested a link between inflammation and lung cancer; however, it is unknown if arsenite-induced inflammation causally contributes to arsenite-caused malignant transformation of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation during neoplastic transformation induced in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by chronic exposure to arsenite. The results showed that, on acute or chronic exposure to arsenite, HBE cells over-expressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The data also indicated that HIF-2α was involved in arsenite-induced inflammation. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-8 were essential for the malignant progression of arsenite-transformed HBE cells. Thus, these experiments show that HIF-2α mediates arsenite-induced inflammation and that such inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. The results provide a link between the inflammatory response and the acquisition of a malignant transformed phenotype by cells chronically exposed to arsenite and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite induces inflammation. • Arsenite-induced the increases of IL-6 and IL-8 via HIF-2α. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. MicroRNA-19a enhances proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells by targeting TGFβR2 gene in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Salem, I; Fakhfakh, R; Bérubé, J-C; Jacques, E; Plante, S; Simard, M J; Bossé, Y; Chakir, J

    2015-02-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchial epithelium is considered a key player in coordinating airway wall remodeling. In mild asthma, the epithelium is damaged and fails to proliferate and to repair, whereas in severe asthma, the epithelium is highly proliferative and thicker. This may be due to different regulatory mechanisms. The purpose of our study was to determine the role of miRNAs in regulating proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells obtained from severe asthmatic subjects in comparison with cells obtained from mild asthmatics and healthy controls. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) were isolated by bronchoscopy from bronchial biopsies of healthy donors and patients with mild and severe asthma. MiRNA expression was evaluated using the TaqMan low-density arrays and qRT-PCR. Transfection studies of bronchial epithelial cells were performed to determine the target genes. Cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation test. MiR-19a was upregulated in epithelia of severe asthmatic subjects compared with cells from mild asthmatics and healthy controls. Functional studies based on luciferase reporter and Western blot assays suggest that miR-19a enhances cell proliferation of BEC in severe asthma through targeting TGF-β receptor 2 mRNA. Moreover, repressed expression of miR-19a increased SMAD3 phosphorylation through TGF-β receptor 2 signaling and abrogated BEC proliferation. Our study uncovers a new regulatory pathway involving miR-19a that is critical to the severe phenotype of asthma and indicates that downregulating miR-19a expression could be explored as a potential new therapy to modulate epithelium repair in asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    .... hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals...

  19. Characterising the mechanism of airway smooth muscle β2 adrenoceptor desensitization by rhinovirus infected bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van Ly

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (RV infections account for approximately two thirds of all virus-induced asthma exacerbations and often result in an impaired response to β2 agonist therapy. Using an in vitro model of RV infection, we investigated the mechanisms underlying RV-induced β2 adrenoceptor desensitization in primary human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC. RV infection of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC for 24 hours produced conditioned medium that caused β2 adrenoceptor desensitization on ASMCs without an effect on ASMCs viability. Less than 3 kDa size fractionation together with trypsin digestion of RV-induced conditioned medium did not prevent β2 adrenoceptor desensitization, suggesting it could potentially be mediated by a small peptide or lipid. RV infection of BECs, ASMCs and fibroblasts produced prostaglandins, of which PGE2, PGF2α and PGI2 had the ability to cause β2 adrenoceptor desensitization on ASMCs. RV-induced conditioned medium from HBECs depleted of PGE2 did not prevent ASMC β2 adrenoceptor desensitization; however this medium induced PGE2 from ASMCs, suggesting that autocrine prostaglandin production may be responsible. Using inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin receptor antagonists, we found that β2 adrenoceptor desensitization was mediated through ASMC derived COX-2 induced prostaglandins. Since ASMC prostaglandin production is unlikely to be caused by RV-induced epithelial derived proteins or lipids we next investigated activation of toll-like receptors (TLR by viral RNA. The combination of TLR agonists poly I:C and imiquimod induced PGE2 and β2 adrenoceptor desensitization on ASMC as did the RNA extracted from RV-induced conditioned medium. Viral RNA but not epithelial RNA caused β2 adrenoceptor desensitization confirming that viral RNA and not endogenous human RNA was responsible. It was deduced that the mechanism by which β2 adrenoceptor desensitization occurs was by pattern recognition receptor

  20. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examin...

  1. WNT/β-catenin pathway modulates the TNF-α-induced inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaewoong; Jung, Yoonju; Chae, Seyeon; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Seok-Min; Yoon, Yoosik

    2017-03-04

    In this study, TNF-α was found to activate the WNT/β-catenin pathway in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Levels of phospho-LRP6, Dvl-2, and phospho-GSK-3β were elevated, while that of Axin was reduced by TNF-α treatment. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin and the reporter activity of a β-catenin-responsive promoter were increased by TNF-α treatment. Under the same experimental conditions, TNF-α activated the NF-κB signaling, which includes the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and nuclear translocation and target DNA binding of NF-κB, and it was found that an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, JSH-23, inhibited TNF-α-induced Wnt signaling as well as NF-κB signaling. It was also found that recombinant Wnt proteins induced NF-κB nuclear translocations and its target DNA binding, suggesting that Wnt signaling and NF-κB signaling were inter-connected. TNF-α-induced modulations of IκB and NF-κB as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were significantly suppressed by the transfection of β-catenin siRNA compared to that of control siRNA. Transfection of a β-catenin expression plasmid augmented the TNF-α-induced modulations of IκB and NF-κB as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. These results clearly demonstrated that the WNT/β-catenin pathway modulates the inflammatory response induced by TNF-α, suggesting that this pathway may be a useful target for the effective treatment of bronchial inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM(10) and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM(10) collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM(10) exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  4. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 is highly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells of untreated asthma and it increases cell proliferation along with fibronectin production in airway constitutive cells.

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    Shiobara, Taichi; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Taiji; Arai, Ryo; Horigane, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hayashi, Yumeko; Shimizu, Yasuo; Takemasa, Akihiro; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2016-03-14

    Type 2 helper T-cell cytokines including IL-13 play a central role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (BA). During the course of our research, our attention was drawn to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) as one of the molecules that were induced from bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) by IL-13 stimulation. DPP4 could become a new biomarker or therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DPP4 in the asthmatic airway, and its role in the pathophysiology of asthma. BECs were isolated from patients with inhaled corticosteroid-treated asthma (stBA) and inhaled corticosteroid-naïve asthma (snBA) using bronchoscopy. DPP4 mRNA expression in freshly isolated BECs and primary cultured BECs with or without IL-13 stimulation was investigated by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The distribution of DPP4 protein was determined by immunostaining of transbronchial lung biopsy specimens from asthma patients. The effect of recombinant human (rh) DPP4 on the proliferation of lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) and bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) was examined, as well as its effect on the production of fibronectin (FN). DPP4 mRNA was strongly expressed in freshly isolated BECs in snBA, and its expression was significantly enhanced by IL-13 stimulation. DPP4 mRNA expression in BECs of snBA significantly correlated with exhaled nitric oxide. Biopsied tissues of the asthmatic airway revealed strong expression of DPP4 protein in BECs from snBA subjects. rhDPP4 stimulated the proliferation of HFL-1 and BSMCs, and it also enhanced production of FN from these airway cells. DPP4 may be involved in the pathologic features of asthmatic airway inflammation and cell proliferation and FN production.

  6. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca2+ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

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    Ju Hee Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca2+ signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL- 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca2+ signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca2+ signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca2+ signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca2+ pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca2+ response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm.

  7. Silica particle size and shape: in vitro effects on extracellular matrix metabolism and viability of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M; Lilli, C; Calvitti, M; Rosati, E; Luca, G; Lumare, A; Gambelunghe, A; Murgia, N; Muzi, G; Bellucci, C

    2012-01-01

    Crystal micro-morphology and dimension of silica particles could be responsible for the high prevalence of silicosis as recently found among goldsmiths. In the present study we investigated two samples of silica particles with different surface sizes and shapes for their capacity to induce changes in ECM component production. In addition we investigated if their different effects could be related to cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured with or without a sample of Silica used for casting gold jewellery, named in our experiments Silica P or a commercial sample of Silica with different physical and chemical properties, named in our experiments Silica F. After 48 h of exposure PCR analysis determined levels of several matrix components. As induction of the apoptosis cascade, annexin assay, caspase 3 activity and cellular cytoxicity by MTT assay were assayed. Silica F promoted fibronectin, MMP12, tenascin C and Integrins b5 gene expressions more than Silica P. Silica P stimulated more TGFß1 and its TGFßR1 receptor than Silica F. Cytotoxic effects were induced by the two samples of Silica. On the contrary, no alteration in classic apoptotic marker protein expression was observed in presence of either Silica F or Silica P, suggesting silica particles affect ECM production and metalloproteases through a mechanism that does not involve apoptotic activation. Different Silica micromorphology and TGFß signal pathway are linked to lung fibrotic effects but the potential role Silica in apoptotic and toxic reaction remains to be ascertained.

  8. Reactive oxygen intermediates are involved in IL-8 production induced by hyperosmotic stress in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Loitsch, S M; von Mallinckrodt, C; Kippenberger, S; Steinhilber, D; Wagner, T O; Bargon, J

    2000-09-24

    Changes in the osmolarity of the airway surface fluid have been described to be involved in the pathogenesis of exercise induced asthma, and are suggested as the major cause of the lung disease in cystic fibrosis. In this study, we examined the signaling pathway of hyperosmotic challenge to interleukin-8 (IL-8). Hyperosmolarity (NaCl) caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in IL-8 expression and secretion in bronchial epithelial cells. These effects could be blocked by antioxidants, such as DMSO, DMTU, DTT, and beta-mercaptoethanol, suggesting an involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in the signal transduction of hyperosmolarity-induced IL-8 synthesis. Since IL-8 is regulated by MAP kinases, we examined the influence of MAP kinase inhibitors on hyperosmolarity-induced IL-8 expression. The results show that this induction is regulated by p38 MAPK and not by ERK1/2. Furthermore, antioxidants blocked the activation of p38 MAPK induced by hyperosmolarity. These results suggest that ROIs are critical for p38 MAPK mediated IL-8 expression by hyperosmolarity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, an appropriate in vitro model to study heavy metals induced carcinogenesis

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    Park, Youn-hee; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu

    2015-09-15

    Occupational and environmental exposure to arsenic (III) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)) have been confirmed to cause lung cancer. Mechanisms of these metals carcinogenesis are still under investigation. Selection of cell lines to be used is essential for the studies. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells are the cells to be utilized by most of scientists. However, due to p53 missense mutation (CCG → TCG) at codon 47 and the codon 72 polymorphism (CGC → CCC) in BEAS-2B cells, its usage has frequently been questioned. The present study has examined activity and expression of 53 and its downstream target protein p21 upon acute or chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic and Cr(VI). The results show that short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) was able to activate both p53 and p21. Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to these two metals caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells reductions in p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 were observed, while the total p53 protein level remained the same compared to those in passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit elevated p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation at Ser15, but reduced phosphorylation at Ser392 and total p53 protein level compared to passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were elevated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells. These results demonstrate that p53 is able to respond to exposure of arsenic or Cr(VI), suggesting that BEAS-2B cells are an appropriate in vitro model to investigate arsenic or Cr(VI) induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) activates p53 and p21. • Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) causes cell transformation and tumorigenesis. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit

  10. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Lung-Chi [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM{sub 10} and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM{sub 10} collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM{sub 10} exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  11. Dapsone inhibits IL-8 secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and resolves airway inflammation in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Soichiro; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Rubin, Bruce K

    2011-10-01

    IL-8 is an important activator and chemoattractant for neutrophils that is produced by normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 pathways. Dapsone, a synthetic sulfone, is widely used to treat chronic neutrophil dermatoses. We investigated the effects of dapsone on polarized IL-8 secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NHBE cells and further evaluated its ability to decrease LPS-induced inflammation in the ferret airway. NHBE cells were grown at air-liquid interface (ALI) to ciliated differentiation. Baseline and endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated IL-8 secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at air and basal sides with and without dapsone. Western blotting was used to determine signaling pathways. In vivo, ferrets were exposed to intratracheal LPS over a period of 5 days. Once inflammation was established, oral or nebulized dapsone was administered for 5 days. Intraepithelial neutrophil accumulation was analyzed histologically, and mucociliary transport was measured on the excised trachea. Dapsone, 1 μg/mL, did not influence unstimulated (basal) IL-8 secretion. Apical LPS stimulation induced both apical and basolateral IL-8, but basolateral LPS increased only basolateral IL-8. Dapsone inhibited polarized IL-8 secretion from ALI-conditioned cells. Dapsone also decreased LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA level. LPS led to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. LPS also induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, an effect that was inhibited by dapsone. Both oral and aerosol dapsone decreased LPS-induced intraepithelial neutrophil accumulation, but only treatment with aerosol dapsone restored mucociliary transport to normal. Dapsone, given either systemically or as an aerosol, may be useful in treating neutrophilic airway inflammation.

  12. Intracellular Chloride Concentration Changes Modulate IL-1β Expression and Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cultured Cells.

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    Clauzure, Mariángeles; Valdivieso, Ángel G; Massip-Copiz, María M; Mori, Consuelo; Dugour, Andrea V; Figueroa, Juan M; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. Several cellular functions are altered in CF cells. However, it is not clear how the CFTR failure induces those alterations. We have found previously several genes differentially expressed in CF cells, including c-Src, MUC1, MTND4, and CISD1 (CFTR-dependent genes). Recently, we also reported the existence of several chloride-dependent genes, among them GLRX5 and RPS27. Here, varying the intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-) ]i of IB3-1 CF bronchial epithelial cells, we show that IL-1β mRNA expression and secretion are also under Cl(-) modulation. The response to Cl(-) is biphasic, with maximal effects at 75 mM Cl(-) . The regulation of the IL-1β mRNA expression involves an IL-1β autocrine effect, since in the presence of the IL-1β receptor antagonist IL1RN or anti-IL-1β blocking antibody, the mRNA response to Cl(-) disappeared. Similar effects were obtained with the JNK inhibitor SP600125, the c-Src inhibitor PP2 and the IKK inhibitor III (BMS-345541). On the other hand, the IL-1β secretion is still modulated by Cl(-) in the presence of IL-1RN, IL-1β blocking antibody, or cycloheximide, suggesting that Cl(-) is affecting the IL-1β maturation/secretion, which in turn starts an autocrine positive feedback loop. In conclusion, the Cl(-) anion acts as a second messenger for CFTR, modulating the IL-1β maturation/secretion. The results also imply that, depending on its intracellular concentration, Cl(-) could be a pro-inflammatory mediator. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2131-2140, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein by airway proteases enhances virus entry into human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

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    Yiu-Wing Kam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the activation of viral envelope glycoproteins through cleavage by either intracellular or extracellular proteases. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of protease cleavage and its impact on the efficiency of viral entry, we investigated the susceptibility of a recombinant native full-length S-protein trimer (triSpike of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV to cleavage by various airway proteases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PURIFIED TRISPIKE PROTEINS WERE READILY CLEAVED IN VITRO BY THREE DIFFERENT AIRWAY PROTEASES: trypsin, plasmin and TMPRSS11a. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and amino acid sequencing analyses identified two arginine residues (R667 and R797 as potential protease cleavage site(s. The effect of protease-dependent enhancement of SARS-CoV infection was demonstrated with ACE2 expressing human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE. Airway proteases regulate the infectivity of SARS-CoV in a fashion dependent on previous receptor binding. The role of arginine residues was further shown with mutant constructs (R667A, R797A or R797AR667A. Mutation of R667 or R797 did not affect the expression of S-protein but resulted in a differential efficacy of pseudotyping into SARS-CoVpp. The R667A SARS-CoVpp mutant exhibited a lack of virus entry enhancement following protease treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that SARS S-protein is susceptible to airway protease cleavage and, furthermore, that protease mediated enhancement of virus entry depends on specific conformation of SARS S-protein upon ACE2 binding. These data have direct implications for the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV along the respiratory system and, furthermore expand the possibility of identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV.

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

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    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD.

  15. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

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    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  16. Smoking cessation and bronchial epithelial remodelling in COPD : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Therese S.; Sont, Jacob K.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Gosman, Margot; Postma, Dirkje S.; Bajema, Ingeborg M.; Timens, Wim; Mauad, Thais; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Kauffman, H. F.; Boezen, H. M.; Jansen, D. F.; Vonk, J.; Barentsen, M. D. W.; Timens, W.; Zeinstra-Smit, M.; Luteijn, A. J.; van der Molen, T.; ter Veen, G.; Gosman, Margot ME; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; van Maaren, M. S.; Postma, D. S.; Veltman, C. A.; Verbokkem, A.; Verhage, I.; Vink-Kloosters, H. K.; Snoeck-Stroband, J. B.; Thiadens, H.; Sont, J. K.; Bajema, I.; Gast-Strookman, J.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Janssen, K.; Lapperre, T. S.; Rabe, K. F.; van Schadewijk, A.; Schrumpf, J. A.; Smit-Bakker, J.; Stolk, J.; Tire, A. C. J. A.; van der Veen, H.; Wijffels, M. M. E.; Willems, L. N. A.; Sterk, P. J.; Mauad, T.; de Reus, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD) is associated with bronchial epithelial changes, including squamous cell metaplasia and goblet cell hyperplasia. These features are partially attributed to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR). Whereas smoking cessation

  17. Acetylcholine leads to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) mediated oxidative/nitrosative stress in human bronchial epithelial cell line.

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    Profita, Mirella; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Di Sano, Caterina; Anzalone, Giulia; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Riccobono, Loredana; Bonanno, Anna; Siena, Liboria; Pieper, Michael Paul; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) is involved in the mechanism of oxidative/nitrosative stress. We investigated whether acetylcholine (ACh) generates oxidative/nitrosative stress in bronchial epithelial cells during airway inflammation of COPD and evaluated the effects of Tiotropium, a once-daily antimuscarinic drug, and Olodaterol, a long-acting β2-agonist on these mechanisms. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) were stimulated (4h, 37°C) with induced sputum supernatants (ISSs) from healthy controls (HC) (n=10), healthy smokers (HS) (n=10) or COPD patients (n=10), as well as with ACh (from 1μM to 100μM). The activation of STAT-1 pathway (STAT-1Ser727 and STAT-1Tyr701) and iNOS was evaluated in the cell lysates by Western blot analysis as well as nitrotyrosine levels by ELISA, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by flow cytometry. Finally, the effect of Tiotropium (Spiriva®) (100nM), alone or in combination with Olodaterol (1nM), was tested in this model. ISSs from COPD patients significantly increased the phosphorylation of STAT-1Ser727 and STAT-1Tyr701, iNOS and ROS/Nitrotyrosine when compared with ISSs from HC or HS subjects in 16-HBE cells. Furthermore, synthetic ACh increased all these parameters in stimulated 16HBE when compared with untreated cells. Tiotropium and Olodaterol reduced the oxidative/nitrosative stress generated by ACh and ISSs. We concluded that ACh mediated the oxidative/nitrosative stress involving the STAT-1 pathway activation in human bronchial epithelial cells during COPD. β2-Long acting and antimuscarinic drugs, normally used in the treatment of COPD as bronchodilator, might be able to control these cellular events. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Cigarette Smoke-Induced Epigenomic Changes Precede Sensitization of Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Single-Step Transformation by KRAS Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Michelle; Hwang, Stephen Y; Kagiampakis, Ioannis; Phallen, Jillian; Patil, Ashwini; O'Hagan, Heather M; Murphy, Lauren; Zahnow, Cynthia A; Gabrielson, Edward; Velculescu, Victor E; Easwaran, Hariharan P; Baylin, Stephen B

    2017-09-11

    We define how chronic cigarette smoke-induced time-dependent epigenetic alterations can sensitize human bronchial epithelial cells for transformation by a single oncogene. The smoke-induced chromatin changes include initial repressive polycomb marking of genes, later manifesting abnormal DNA methylation by 10 months. At this time, cells exhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal changes, anchorage-independent growth, and upregulated RAS/MAPK signaling with silencing of hypermethylated genes, which normally inhibit these pathways and are associated with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer. These cells, in the absence of any driver gene mutations, now transform by introducing a single KRAS mutation and form adenosquamous lung carcinomas in mice. Thus, epigenetic abnormalities may prime for changing oncogene senescence to addiction for a single key oncogene involved in lung cancer initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicochemical characteristics and bronchial epithelial cell cytotoxicity of Folpan 80 WG® and Myco 500®, two commercial forms of folpet

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    Baldi Isabelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides, in particular folpet, have been found in rural and urban air in France in the past few years. Folpet is a contact fungicide and has been widely used for the past 50 years in vineyards in France. Slightly water-soluble and mostly present as particles in the environment, it has been measured at average concentration of 40.1 μg/m3 during its spraying, 0.16–1.2 μg/m3 in rural air and around 0.01 μg/m3 in urban air, potentially exposing both the workers and the general population. However, no study on its penetration by inhalation and on its respiratory toxicity has been published. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of folpet particles (morphology, granulometry, stability in its commercial forms under their typical application conditions. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of these particles and the generation of reactive oxygen species were assessed in vitro on respiratory cells. Results Granulometry of two commercial forms of folpet (Folpan 80WG® and Myco 500® under their typical application conditions showed that the majority of the particles (>75% had a size under 5 μm, and therefore could be inhaled by humans. These particles were relatively stable over time: more than 75% of folpet remained in the particle suspension after 30 days under the typical application conditions. The inhibitory concentration (IC50 on human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o- was found to be between 2.89 and 5.11 μg/cm2 for folpet commercial products after 24 h of exposure. Folpet degradation products and vehicles of Folpan 80 WG® did not show any cytotoxicity at tested concentrations. At non-cytotoxic and subtoxic concentrations, Folpan 80 WG® was found to increase DCFH-DA fluorescence. Conclusion These results show that the particles of commercial forms of folpet are relatively stable over time. Particles could be easily inhaled by humans, could reach the conducting airways and are

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Multidrug-Resistant Strain M Induces Low IL-8 and Inhibits TNF-α Secretion by Bronchial Epithelial Cells Altering Neutrophil Effector Functions

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    Denise Kviatcovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available M strain, the most prevalent multidrug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb in Argentina, has mounted mechanisms to evade innate immune response. The role of human bronchial epithelium in Mtb infection remains unknown as well as its crosstalk with neutrophils (PMN. In this work, we evaluate whether M and H37Rv strains invade and replicate within bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-6 and how conditioned media (CM derived from infected cells alter PMN responses. We demonstrated that M infects and survives within Calu-6 without promoting death. CM from M-infected Calu-6 (M-CM did not attract PMN in correlation with its low IL-8 content compared to H37Rv-CM. Also, PMN activation and ROS production in response to irradiated H37Rv were impaired after treatment with M-CM due to the lack of TNF-α. Interestingly, M-CM increased H37Rv replication in PMN which would allow the spreading of mycobacteria upon PMN death and sustain IL-8 release. Thus, our results indicate that even at low invasion/replication rate within Calu-6, M induces the secretion of factors altering the crosstalk between these nonphagocytic cells and PMN, representing an evasion mechanism developed by M strain to persist in the host. These data provide new insights on the role of bronchial epithelium upon M infection.

  1. The function and significance of SELENBP1 downregulation in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process.

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    Gu-Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our quantitative proteomic study showed that selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1 was progressively decreased in human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. However, there is little information on expression and function of SELENBP1 during human lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC carcinogenesis. METHODS: iTRAQ-tagging combined with 2D LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. SELENBP1, member of selenoproteins family and progressively downregulated in this process, was selected to further study. Both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect SELENBP1 expression in independent sets of tissues of bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis, and ability of SELENBP1 for discriminating NBE (normal bronchial epithelium from preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC was evaluated. The effects of SELENBP1 downregulation on the susceptibility of benzo(apyrene (B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation were determined. RESULTS: 102 differentially expressed proteins were identified by quantitative proteomics, and SELENBP1 was found and confirmed being progressively decreased in the human bronchial epithelial carcinogenic process. The sensitivity and specificity of SELENBP1 were 80% and 79% in discriminating NBE from preneoplastic lesions, 79% and 82% in discriminating NBE from invasive LSCC, and 77% and 71% in discriminating preneoplastic lesions from invasive LSCC, respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of SELENBP1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE cells significantly increased the efficiency of B[a]P-induced cell transformation. CONCLUSIONS: The present data shows for the first time that decreased SELENBP1 is an early event in LSCC, increases B[a]P-induced human bronchial epithelial cell transformation, and might serve as a novel potential biomarker for early detection of LSCC.

  2. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  3. The characterization of the human cell line Calu-3 under different culture conditions and its use as an optimized in vitro model to investigate bronchial epithelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Jerman, Urška Dragin; Lasič, Eva; Hevir-Kene, Neli; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Peternel, Luka; Kristan, Katja

    2015-03-10

    In this study we have investigated the effects of different cell culture conditions on the Calu-3 epithelial cell model. Calu-3 cells were cultured in media A-MEM at the air-liquid (A-L) or liquid-liquid (L-L) interface for one or three wks (weeks). Different cryomethods were tested and the cell line was characterized using histochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, transepithelial resistance (TEER) measurements, permeability studies, and gene profiling of 84 drug transporters. Cell culture was successful in A-MEM with only 2.5% FBS. Cell proliferation and viability depended on the cryopreservation method. All Calu-3 models expressed CK7, occludin, and E-cadherin. The A-L interface resulted in a more biomimetic native bronchial epithelium displaying pseudostratified columnar epithelium with more microvilli and secretory vesicles than at the L-L interface, where the epithelium was cuboidal, but exhibited higher TEER values and lower dextran permeabilities. Longer time in culture significantly decreased dextran permeability and increased the expression of specific drug transporters. Drug transporter expression was also notably influenced by the culture interface, where the A-L interface yielded a higher expression of drug transporter genes than the L-L interface. Since cell culture interface and time in culture affect Calu-3 cell differentiation, barrier integrity, permeability properties, and drug transporter expression, culture conditions need to be considered and standardized when using the Calu-3 cell line as an in vitro model for aerosol drug delivery and screening of bronchial drug candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Downregulation of Bit1 expression promotes growth, anoikis resistance, and transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells via Erk activation-dependent suppression of E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Gray, Selena; Pham, Tri; Delgardo, Mychael; Nguyen, An; Do, Stephen; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Biliran, Hector

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bit1 protein exerts tumor-suppressive function in NSCLC through induction of anoikis and inhibition of EMT. Having this dual tumor suppressive effect, its downregulation in the established human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line resulted in potentiation of tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. However, the exact role of Bit1 in regulating malignant growth and transformation of human lung epithelial cells, which are origin of most forms of human lung cancers, has not been examined. To this end, we have downregulated the endogenous Bit1 expression in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of Bit1 enhanced the growth and anoikis insensitivity of BEAS-2B cells. In line with their acquired anoikis resistance, the Bit1 knockdown BEAS-2B cells exhibited enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro but failed to form tumors in vivo. The loss of Bit1-induced transformed phenotypes was in part attributable to the repression of E-cadherin expression since forced exogenous E-cadherin expression attenuated the malignant phenotypes of the Bit1 knockdown cells. Importantly, we show that the loss of Bit1 expression in BEAS-2B cells resulted in increased Erk activation, which functions upstream to promote TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin. These collective findings indicate that loss of Bit1 expression contributes to the acquisition of malignant phenotype of human lung epithelial cells via Erk activation-induced suppression of E-cadherin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cigarette smoke induces mucin hypersecretion and inflammatory response through the p66shc adaptor protein-mediated mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Yu, H M; Zhou, X D; Huang, H P; Han, Zh; Kolosov, V P; Perelman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The p66Shc adaptor protein is a newly recognized mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and might play a role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway epithelial cell injury. CS can induce an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which can cause mitochondrial depolarization and injury through the oxidative stress-mediated Serine36 phosphorylation of p66Shc. The excessive production of ROS can trigger an inflammatory response and mucin hypersecretion by enhancing the transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucin genes. Therefore, we speculate that p66Shc plays an essential role in airway epithelial cell injury and the process of mucin generation in CS-induced chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Our present study focuses on the role of p66Shc in ROS generation, and on the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion in CS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We found that CS disturbed the mitochondrial function by increasing the level of phosphorylated p66Shc in these cells and that the effects were significantly reduced by silencing p66Shc. Conversely, the ectopic overexpression of wild-type p66Shc enhanced these effects. We also found that high levels of ROS inhibited FOXO3a transcriptional activity, which led to NF-κB activation. Subsequently, activated NF-κB promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production and mucin hypersecretion. Thus, manipulating p66Shc might offer a new therapeutic modality with which to treat chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-03-14

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.

  7. Cadmium induces cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells through upregulation of eIF5A1 and NF-kappaB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Du, Ji-Ying [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Huang, Dong-Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y., E-mail: andytylau@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were dosed with cadmium (Cd). • A low level (2 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h elicited negligible cytotoxicity. • High levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h induced cell death. • High levels of Cd can upregulate the protein levels of eIF5A1 and NF-κB p65. • We suggest that eIF5A1 level is possibly modulated by NF-κB. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and Cd compounds are widely-distributed in the environment and well-known carcinogens. Here, we report that in CdCl{sub 2}-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the level of p53 is dramatically decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the observed Cd-induced cytotoxicity is not likely due to the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Therefore, this prompted us to further study the responsive pro-apoptotic factors by proteomic approaches. Interestingly, we identified that high levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd can significantly upregulate the protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (eIF5A1) and redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB p65. Moreover, there is an enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as chromatin-binding in Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. We also show that small interfering RNA-specific knockdown of eIF5A1 in Cd-exposed cells attenuated the Cd cytotoxicity, indicating the potential role of eIF5A1 in Cd cytotoxicity. As eIF5A1 is reported to be related with cell apoptosis but little is known about its transcriptional control, we hypothesize that NF-κB might likely modulate eIF5A1 gene expression. Notably, by bioinformatic analysis, several potential NF-κB binding sites on the upstream promoter region of eIF5A1 gene can be found. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that indeed there is enhanced NF-κB binding on eIF5A1 promoter region of Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time a regulatory mechanism for the pro

  8. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm 2 ) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (V t ), resistance (R t ), and short circuit current (I sc ) were measured. Particle effects on Na + and Cl¯ channels and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm 2 ) increased basal V t . Only 16.7μg/cm 2 GMA-MS increased basal V t significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I sc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R t were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V t , R t , and I sc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na + transport and Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na + absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of SO{sub 2} derivatives on expressions of MUC5AC and IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruijin; Meng, Ziqiang [Shanxi University, Institute of Environmental Medicine and Toxicology, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-12-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a common air pollutant, and inhaled SO{sub 2} in airway epithelium easily forms its soluble derivatives in vivo (bisulfite and sulfite), which are toxic to the respiratory system and related to the exacerbation of asthma. To investigate the effects of SO{sub 2} derivatives on the expressions of asthma related genes (MUC5AC and IL-13), the mRNA and protein levels of the two genes in cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells were analyzed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay, immunocytochemistry method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results showed that the mRNA expressions of MUC5AC and IL-13 were significantly increased at different concentrations of SO{sub 2} derivatives (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mM), and the maximum appeared at 0.01 mM for MUC5AC (3.9-fold) or at 0.001 mM for IL-13 (4.7-fold). Meanwhile, SO{sub 2} derivatives significantly increased the mRNA levels at 0, 0.5, 1, 4 and 24 h post-exposure with the maximum at 4 h post-exposure (25-fold for MUC5AC and 41-fold for IL-13). Furthermore, the protein levels of MUC5AC and IL-13 in BEP2D cells were significantly increased at different concentrations and different time courses exposed to SO{sub 2} derivatives, along with the maximum at 4 h post-exposure. These results lead to a conclusion that SO{sub 2} derivatives can increase the expressions of MUC5AC and IL-13 genes on the transcription and translation levels, and it suggests that SO{sub 2} derivatives can induce mucus over-production and inflammation responses in human bronchial epithelial cells and may have relations with asthma diseases. This might be one of the possible mechanisms that SO{sub 2} aggravates asthma disease. (orig.)

  10. Biological impact of cigarette smoke compared to an aerosol produced from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, U; Gonzalez Suarez, I; Xiang, Y; Dossin, E; Guy, P A; Mathis, C; Marescotti, D; Goedertier, D; Martin, F; Peitsch, M C; Hoeng, J

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious and fatal diseases. The best way for smokers to avoid health risks is to quit smoking. Using modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) may be an alternative to reduce the harm caused for those who are unwilling to quit smoking, but little is known about the toxic effects of MRTPs, nor were the molecular mechanisms of toxicity investigated in detail. The toxicity of an MRTP and the potential molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in high-content screening tests and whole genome transcriptomics analyses using human bronchial epithelial cells. The prototypic (p)MRTP that was tested had less impact than reference cigarette 3R4F on the cellular oxidative stress response and cell death pathways. Higher pMRTP aerosol extract concentrations had impact on pathways associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics and the reduction of oxidative damage. A pMRTP aerosol concentration up to 18 times higher than the 3R4F caused similar perturbation effects in biological networks and led to the perturbation of networks related to cell stress, and proliferation biology. These results may further facilitate the development of a systems toxicology-based impact assessment for use in future risk assessments in line with the 21st century toxicology paradigm, as shown here for an MRTP. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Triiodothyronine Represses MUC5AC Expression by Antagonizing Sp1 Binding to Its Promoter in Human Bronchial Epithelial HBE16 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a distinguished feature of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Interestingly, in this condition thyroid function is impaired with decreased level of triiodothyronine (T3, indicating potential link between low level of T3 and mucus hypersecretion. But the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study we aimed to elucidate the effect of T3 on MUC5AC secretion in human bronchial epithelial HBE16 cells and further investigate how T3 regulates MUC5AC gene expression at transcriptional level. By RT-PCR and ELISA we showed that T3 inhibited MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein secretion in HBE16 cells. Furthermore, luciferase assay and site-directed mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that T3 repressed MUC5AC expression at transcriptional level and the mechanism might partly lie in the specific inhibition of Sp1 binding to the promoter. Our results suggest that decreased T3 level leads to the release of repression of MUC5AC expression and thus contributes to mucus hypersecretion.

  12. Regulatory peptides modulate adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to bronchial epithelial cells through regulation of interleukins, ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB/IkappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Tan, Yu-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2006-02-01

    A complex network of regulatory neuropeptides controls airway inflammation reaction, in which airway epithelial cells adhering to and activating leukocytes is a critical step. To study the effect of intrapulmonary regulatory peptides on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and its mechanism, several regulatory peptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were investigated. The results demonstrated that VIP and EGF showed inhibitory effects both on the secretion of IL-1, IL-8 and the adhesion of PMNs to BECs, whereas ET-1 and CGRP had the opposite effect. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antibody could block the adhesion of PMNs to ozone-stressed BECs. Using immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that VIP and EGF down-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 in BECs, while ET-1 and CGRP up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. NF-kappaB inhibitor MG132 blocked ICAM-1 expression induced by ET-1 and CGRP. Furthermore, in electric mobility shift assay (EMSA), VIP and EGF restrained the binding activity of NF-kappaB to the NF-kappaB binding site within the ICAM-1 promoter in ozone-stressed BECs, while CGRP and ET-1 promoted this binding activity. IkappaB degradation was consistent with NF-kappaB activation. These observations indicate that VIP and EGF inhibit inflammation, while ET-1 and CGRP enhance the inflammation reaction.

  13. Fine particulate matter from urban ambient and wildfire sources from California's San Joaquin Valley initiate differential inflammatory, oxidative stress, and xenobiotic responses in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama Wong, L S; Aung, H H; Lamé, M W; Wegesser, T C; Wilson, D W

    2011-12-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) exposure has been correlated with pathogenesis of acute airway inflammatory disease such as asthma and COPD. PM size and concentration have been studied extensively, but the additional effects of particulate components such as biological material, transition metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could also impact initial disease pathogenesis. In this study, we compared urban ambient particulate matter (APM) collected from Fresno, California with wildfire (WF) particulate matter collected from Escalon, California on early transcriptional responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE). Global gene expression profiling of APM treated HBE activated genes related to xenobiotic metabolism (CYP 1B1), endogenous ROS generation and response genes (DUOX1, SOD2, PTGS2) and pro-inflammatory responses associated with asthma or COPD such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, and CCL20. WF PM treatments also induced a pro-inflammatory gene response, but elicited a more robust xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress response. Inhibitor studies targeting endotoxin, ROS, and trace metals, found endotoxin inhibition had modest selective inhibition of inflammation while inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and transition metals had broad effects suggesting additional interactions with xenobiotic metabolism pathways. APM induced a greater inflammatory response while WF PM had more marked metabolism and ROS related responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene-derived hydroxyhydroperoxides on the expression of oxidative stress response genes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashiro, Maiko; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Zhang, Zhenfa; Sexton, Kenneth G; Gold, Avram; Jaspers, Ilona; Fry, Rebecca C; Surratt, Jason D

    2018-02-21

    Isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which comprise a large portion of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), can be formed through various gaseous precursors, including isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE), and isoprene hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). The composition of the isoprene-derived SOA affects its reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential and its ability to alter oxidative stress-related gene expression. In this study we assess effects of isoprene SOA derived solely from ISOPOOH oxidation on human bronchial epithelial cells by measuring the gene expression changes in 84 oxidative stress-related genes. In addition, the thiol reactivity of ISOPOOH-derived SOA was measured through the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Our findings show that ISOPOOH-derived SOA alter more oxidative-stress related genes than IEPOX-derived SOA but not as many as MAE-derived SOA on a mass basis exposure. More importantly, we found that the different types of SOA derived from the various gaseous precursors (MAE, IEPOX, and ISOPOOH) have unique contributions to changes in oxidative stress-related genes that do not total all gene expression changes seen in exposures to atmospherically relevant compositions of total isoprene-derived SOA mixtures. This study suggests that amongst the different types of known isoprene-derived SOA, MAE-derived SOA are the most potent inducer of oxidative stress-related gene changes but highlights the importance of considering isoprene-derived SOA as a total mixture for pollution controls and exposure studies.

  15. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuejiao [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  16. Hypoxia and nickel inhibit histone demethylase JMJD1A and repress Spry2 expression in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haobin; Kluz, Thomas; Zhang, Ronghe; Costa, Max

    2010-12-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes commonly occurs in human cancers via increasing DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications at gene promoters. However, little is known about how pathogenic environmental factors contribute to cancer development by affecting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Previously, we reported that both hypoxia and nickel (an environmental carcinogen) increased global histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in cells through inhibiting a novel class of iron- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of histone demethylase JMJD1A by hypoxia and nickel could lead to repression/silencing of JMJD1A-targeted gene(s). By using Affymetrix GeneChip and ChIP-on-chip technologies, we identified Spry2 gene, a key regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, as one of the JMJD1A-targeted genes in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Both hypoxia and nickel exposure increased the level of H3K9me2 at the Spry2 promoter by inhibiting JMJD1A, which probably led to a decreased expression of Spry2 in BEAS-2B cells. Repression of Spry2 potentiated the nickel-induced ERK phosphorylation, and forced expression of Spry2 in BEAS-2B cells decreased the nickel-induced ERK phosphorylation and significantly suppressed nickel-induced anchorage-independent growth. Taken together, our results suggest that histone demethylases could be targets of environmental carcinogens and their inhibition may lead to altered gene expression and eventually carcinogenesis.

  17. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 via the Akt and nuclear factor-κB-dependent pathway, leading to suppression of adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jireh; Ko, Su H; Yoo, Do Y; Lee, Jin Y; Kim, Yeong-Jeon; Choi, Seul M; Kang, Kyung K; Yoon, Ho J; Kim, Hyeyoung; Youn, Jeehee; Kim, Jung M

    2012-09-01

    5,7-Dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxyflavone (eupatilin), the active pharmacological ingredient from Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), is reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal epithelial cells. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanism of eupatilin-induced attenuation of bronchial epithelial inflammation. This study investigates the role of eupatilin in the adhesion of inflammatory cells such as monocytes and eosinophils to bronchial epithelial cells. Stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of surface adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), in which eupatilin significantly inhibited the expression of those adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Eupatilin suppressed the TNF-α-induced activation of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signals in BEAS-2B cells. The IκB kinase (IKK) activation was also significantly reduced in eupatilin-pre-treated BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. However, eupatilin did not influence AP-1 activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Suppression of NF-κB signalling induced by eupatilin resulted in the inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules and the adhesion of monocytes and eosinophils to BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, eupatilin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt in TNF-α-stimulated BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, leading to down-regulation of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression and finally to suppression of the inflammatory cell adhesion to epithelial cells. These results suggest that eupatilin can inhibit the adhesion of inflammatory cells to bronchial epithelial cells via a signalling pathway, including activation of Akt and NF-κB, as well as expression of adhesion molecules. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  19. Adamtsl2 deletion results in bronchial fibrillin microfibril accumulation and bronchial epithelial dysplasia – a novel mouse model providing insights into geleophysic dysplasia

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    Dirk Hubmacher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the secreted glycoprotein ADAMTSL2 cause recessive geleophysic dysplasia (GD in humans and Musladin–Lueke syndrome (MLS in dogs. GD is a severe, often lethal, condition presenting with short stature, brachydactyly, stiff skin, joint contractures, tracheal-bronchial stenosis and cardiac valve anomalies, whereas MLS is non-lethal and characterized by short stature and severe skin fibrosis. Although most mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1 cause Marfan syndrome (MFS, a microfibril disorder leading to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ dysregulation, domain-specific FBN1 mutations result in dominant GD. ADAMTSL2 has been previously shown to bind FBN1 and latent TGFβ-binding protein-1 (LTBP1. Here, we investigated mice with targeted Adamtsl2 inactivation as a new model for GD (Adamtsl2−/− mice. An intragenic lacZ reporter in these mice showed that ADAMTSL2 was produced exclusively by bronchial smooth muscle cells during embryonic lung development. Adamtsl2−/− mice, which died at birth, had severe bronchial epithelial dysplasia with abnormal glycogen-rich inclusions in bronchial epithelium resembling the cellular anomalies described previously in GD. An increase in microfibrils in the bronchial wall was associated with increased FBN2 and microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP1 staining, whereas LTBP1 staining was increased in bronchial epithelium. ADAMTSL2 was shown to bind directly to FBN2 with an affinity comparable to FBN1. The observed extracellular matrix (ECM alterations were associated with increased bronchial epithelial TGFβ signaling at 17.5 days of gestation; however, treatment with TGFβ-neutralizing antibody did not correct the epithelial dysplasia. These investigations reveal a new function of ADAMTSL2 in modulating microfibril formation, and a previously unsuspected association with FBN2. Our studies suggest that the bronchial epithelial dysplasia accompanying microfibril dysregulation in Adamtsl2−/− mice

  20. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal and sensitive COPD-diseased human bronchial epithelial cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, B; Platel, A; Antherieu, S; Alleman, L Y; Hardy, E M; Perdrix, E; Grova, N; Riffault, V; Appenzeller, B M; Happillon, M; Nesslany, F; Coddeville, P; Lo-Guidice, J-M; Garçon, G

    2017-11-01

    Even though clinical, epidemiological and toxicological studies have progressively provided a better knowledge of the underlying mechanisms by which air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) exerts its harmful health effects, further in vitro studies on relevant cell systems are still needed. Hence, aiming of getting closer to the human in vivo conditions, primary human bronchial epithelial cells derived from normal subjects (NHBE) or sensitive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-diseased patients (DHBE) were differentiated at the air-liquid interface. Thereafter, they were repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5 to study the occurrence of some relevant genetic and/or epigenetic endpoints. Concentration-, exposure- and season-dependent increases of OH-B[a]P metabolites in NHBE, and to a lesser extent, COPD-DHBE cells were reported; however, there were more tetra-OH-B[a]P and 8-OHdG DNA adducts in COPD-DHBE cells. No increase in primary DNA strand break nor chromosomal aberration was observed in repeatedly exposed cells. Telomere length and telomerase activity were modified in a concentration- and exposure-dependent manner in NHBE and particularly COPD-DHBE cells. There were a global DNA hypomethylation, a P16 gene promoter hypermethylation, and a decreasing DNA methyltransferase activity in NHBE and notably COPD-DHBE cells repeatedly exposed. Changes in site-specific methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation of histone H3 (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K27ac, and H3S10ph) and related enzyme activities occurred in a concentration- and exposure-dependent manner in all the repeatedly exposed cells. Collectively, these results highlighted the key role played by genetic and even epigenetic events in NHBE and particularly sensitive COPD-DHBE cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5 and their different responsiveness. While these specific epigenetic changes have been already described in COPD and even lung cancer phenotypes, our

  1. Distinct transcriptome profiles identified in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to γ-rays and different elemental particles of high Z and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Peyton, Michael; Girard, Luc; Xie, Yang; Minna, John D; Story, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Ionizing radiation composed of accelerated ions of high atomic number (Z) and energy (HZE) deposits energy and creates damage in cells in a discrete manner as compared to the random deposition of energy and damage seen with low energy radiations such as γ- or x-rays. Such radiations can be highly effective at cell killing, transformation, and oncogenesis, all of which are concerns for the manned space program and for the burgeoning field of HZE particle radiotherapy for cancer. Furthermore, there are differences in the extent to which cells or tissues respond to such exposures that may be unrelated to absorbed dose. Therefore, we asked whether the energy deposition patterns produced by different radiation types would cause different molecular responses. We performed transcriptome profiling using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) after exposure to γ-rays and to two different HZE particles (28Si and 56Fe) with different energy transfer properties to characterize the molecular response to HZE particles and γ-rays as a function of dose, energy deposition pattern, and time post-irradiation. Clonogenic assay indicated that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for 56Fe was 3.91 and for 28Si was 1.38 at 34% cell survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression segregated samples according to the radiation species followed by the time after irradiation, whereas dose was not a significant parameter for segregation of radiation response. While a subset of genes associated with p53-signaling, such as CDKN1A, TRIM22 and BTG2 showed very similar responses to all radiation qualities, distinct expression changes were associated with the different radiation species. Gene enrichment analysis categorized the differentially expressed genes into functional groups related to cell death and cell cycle regulation for all radiation types, while gene pathway analysis revealed that the pro-inflammatory Acute Phase Response Signaling was specifically induced

  2. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Fredine T; Mitchell, Leah A; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E; Burchiel, Scott W

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  3. An antagonist of the platelet-activating factor receptor inhibits adherence of both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae to cultured human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla SD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shakti D Shukla,1,* Rory L Fairbairn,1,* David A Gell,1 Roger D Latham,1 Sukhwinder S Sohal,1,2 Eugene H Walters,1 Ronan F O’Toole11Breathe Well Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: COPD is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. Tobacco smoking, the primary risk factor for the development of COPD, induces increased expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr in the lung epithelium. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Streptococcus pneumoniae adhere to PAFr on the luminal surface of human respiratory tract epithelial cells.Objective: To investigate PAFr as a potential drug target for the prevention of infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of acute exacerbations in COPD patients, NTHi and S. pneumoniae.Methods: Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. PAFr expression levels were determined using immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The epithelial cells were challenged with either NTHi or S. pneumoniae labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and bacterial adhesion was measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of a well-evaluated antagonist of PAFr, WEB-2086, on binding of the bacterial pathogens to BEAS-2B cells was then assessed. In silico studies of the tertiary structure of PAFr and the binding pocket for PAF and its antagonist WEB-2086 were undertaken.Results: PAFr expression by bronchial epithelial cells was upregulated by CSE, and significantly associated with increased bacterial adhesion. WEB-2086 reduced the epithelial adhesion by both NTHi and S. pneumoniae to levels observed for non-CSE-exposed cells. Furthermore, it was nontoxic toward the bronchial epithelial

  4. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse heal...

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures – Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number. PMID:27494700

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures - Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A Vasquez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number.

  7. Cigarette smoke extract induces placental growth factor release from human bronchial epithelial cells via ROS/MAPK(ERK-1/2/Egr-1 axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dong Wu,1,* Yalian Yuan,1,* Zhixiu Lin,2,* Tianwen Lai,1 Min Chen,1 Wen Li,1 Quanchao Lv,1 Binfan Yuan,1 Dongmin Li,1 Bin Wu1 1Department of Respiratory, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, 2Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Etiological evidence demonstrates that there is a significant association between cigarette smoking and chronic airway inflammatory disease. Abnormal expression of placental growth factor (PlGF has been reported in COPD, and its downstream signaling molecules have been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of airway epithelial cell apoptosis and emphysema. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induced PlGF expression in airway microenvironment remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 [ERK-1/2]/early growth response-1 (Egr-1 pathway on CSE-induced PlGF upregulation in human bronchial epithelium (HBE. The data obtained with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunofluorescence staining analyses showed that CSE-induced Egr-1 activation was mainly mediated through production of ROS and activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2 cascade. The binding of Egr-1 to the PlGF promoter was corroborated by an ELISA-based DNA binding activity assay. These results demonstrate that ROS activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2/Egr-1 pathway is a main player in the regulatory mechanism for CSE-induced PlGF production and that the use of an antioxidant could partly abolish these effects. Understanding the mechanisms of PlGF upregulation by CSE in the airway microenvironment may provide rational therapeutic interventions for cigarette smoking

  8. Utility of bronchial lavage fluids for epithelial growth factor receptor mutation assay in lung cancer patients: Comparison between cell pellets, cell blocks and matching tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Nakata, Rie; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Shigeto, Shohei; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-02-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is necessary for the selection of suitable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cytology specimens are known to be suitable for EGFR mutation detection, although tissue specimens should be prioritized; however, there are limited studies that examine the utility of bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) in mutation detection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of BLF specimens for the detection of EGFR mutations using a conventional quantitative EGFR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Initially, quantification cycle (Cq) values of cell pellets, cell-free supernatants and cell blocks obtained from three series of 1% EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer cell line samples were compared for mutation detection. In addition, PCR analysis of BLF specimens obtained from 77 consecutive NSCLC patients, detecting EGFR mutations was validated, and these results were compared with those for the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens obtained by surgical resection or biopsy of 49 of these patients. The Cq values for mutation detection were significantly lower in the cell pellet group (average, 29.58) compared with the other groups, followed by those in cell-free supernatants (average, 34.15) and in cell blocks (average, 37.12) for all three series (P<0.05). Mutational status was successfully analyzed in 77 BLF specimens, and the results obtained were concordant with those of the 49 matching FFPE tissue specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in 10 cytological specimens that contained insufficient tumor cells. EGFR mutation testing with BLF specimens is therefore a useful and reliable method, particularly when sufficient cancer cells are not obtained.

  9. In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal 
in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian LI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ①Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ②Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ①The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ②Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ①Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace;

  10. Effects of in vitro exposure to hay dust on the gene expression of chemokines and cell-surface receptors in primary bronchial epithelial cell cultures established from horses with chronic recurrent airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Dorothy M; Matychak, Marybeth; Reyner, Claudia L; Erb, Hollis N; Young, Jean C

    2009-03-01

    To examine effects of in vitro exposure to solutions of hay dust, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or beta-glucan on chemokine and cell-surface receptor (CSR) gene expression in primary bronchial epithelial cell cultures (BECCs) established from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). BECCs established from bronchial biopsy specimens of 6 RAO-affected horses and 6 healthy horses. 5-day-old BECCs were treated with PBS solution, hay dust solutions, LPS, or beta-glucan for 6 or 24 hours. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), IL-1beta, toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 4, IL-1 receptor 1, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was measured with a kinetic PCR assay. Treatment with PBS solution for 6 or 24 hours was not associated with a significant difference in chemokine or CSR expression between BECCs from either group of horses. In all BECCs, treatment with hay dust or LPS for 6 hours increased IL-8, CXCL2, and IL-1beta gene expression > 3-fold; at 24 hours, only IL-1beta expression was upregulated by > 3-fold. In all BECCs, CSR gene expression was not increased following any treatment. With the exception of a 3.7-fold upregulation of CXCL2 in BECCs from RAO-affected horses (following 6-hour hay dust treatment), no differences in chemokine or CSR gene expression were detected between the 2 groups. At 24 hours, CXCL2 gene expression in all BECCs was downregulated. Epithelial CXCL2 upregulation in response to hay dust particulates may incite early airway neutrophilia in horses with RAO.

  11. Regulation of bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by type 2 cytokines and histone deacetylases in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Wanke, Kerstin; Sokolowska, Milena; Bendelja, Kreso; Rückert, Beate; Globinska, Anna; Jakiela, Bogdan; Kast, Jeannette I; Idzko, Marco; Akdis, Mübeccel; Sanak, Marek; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2017-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form a barrier on the apical side of neighboring epithelial cells in the bronchial mucosa. Changes in their integrity might play a role in asthma pathogenesis by enabling the paracellular influx of allergens, toxins, and microbes to the submucosal tissue. The regulation of bronchial epithelial TJs by TH2 cells and their cytokines and their involvement in epigenetic regulation of barrier function were investigated. The expression, regulation, and function of TJs were determined in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of control and asthmatic primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) by means of analysis of transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, mRNA expression, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. HBECs from asthmatic patients showed a significantly low TJ integrity in ALI cultures compared with HBECs from healthy subjects. TH2 cell numbers and levels of their cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, decreased barrier integrity in ALI cultures of HBECs from control subjects but not in HBECs from asthmatic patients. They induced a physical separation of the TJs of adjacent cells in immunofluorescence staining of the TJ molecules occludin and zonula occludens-1. We observed that expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 9, and Silent information regulator genes (sirtuins [SIRTs]) 6 and 7 were significantly high in HBECs from asthmatic patients. IL-4 and IL-13 significantly increased the expression of HDACs and SIRTs. The role of HDAC activation on epithelial barrier leakiness was confirmed by HDAC inhibition, which improved barrier integrity through increased synthesis of TJ molecules in epithelium from asthmatic patients to the level seen in HBECs from control subjects. Our data demonstrate that barrier leakiness in asthmatic patients is induced by TH2 cells, IL-4, and IL-13 and HDAC activity. The inhibition of endogenous HDAC activity reconstitutes defective barrier by increasing TJ expression. Copyright © 2016

  12. [Effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway on apoptosis induced by chloroacetic acid in human normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, T; Yang, M; Li, Y X; Jia, Q; Yu, G C; Dai, Y F

    2017-05-20

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway on apoptosis induced by chloroacetic acid in human normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells. Methods: 16HBE cells were exposed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mmol/L chloroacetic acid for 24 h in vitro. The cytotoxicity induced by chloroacetic acid was assessed by CCK-8 and LDH assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. The protein expression levels of phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK were determined by western blotting. 16HBE cells were pretreated with MAPK signaling pathway specific inhibitors including SB203580, U0126 and SP600125 for 1 h, and these cells were subsequently treated with 2.5 mmol/L chloroacetic acid for 24 h. The expressions of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK as well as the changes of cell viability and apoptosis were measured after pretreated with inhibitors for 1 h. Results: The cell viability by CCK-8 and LDH methods gradually reduced in a dose-dependent manner when chloroacetic acid concentrations elevated (P<0.05) , and their correlation coefficients were -0.902 and -0.825, respectively. The detection efficiency of CCK-8 assay significantly increased compared with LDH assay (P<0.05) . The cell apoptosis rates, which were (17.2±4.0) %, (24.6± 4.2) %, (39.3 ± 5.7) % in 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mmol/L chloroacetic acid-treated groups, were higher than that of the control group[ (5.6 ± 3.0) %] (P<0.05) . There was a time-or dose-dependent change in the protein expressions of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK. Compared with the control, the levels of p-p38 had 2.1 and 2.6-fold increases in 16 and 24 h treated groups (P<0.01) , while the levels of p-ERK1/2 distinctly decreased by 37% and 52% (P<0.01) . In comparison with the control group, the expressions of p-p38 had 1.9 and 2.6-fold increases in 1.5 and 2.5 mmol/L treatment groups (P<0.01) , whereas the expressions of p-ERK1/2 significantly decreased by

  13. The role of γδ T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Hossein; Tamaoka, Meiyo; Campbell, Holly R; Martin, James G

    2007-01-01

    Background Acute exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas causes epithelial injury and airway dysfunction. γδ T cells are present in the mucosal surface of the airways and may contribute to the injury/repair response of the epithelium. Methods C57Bl/6J (wild type) and TCR-δ-/- mice exposed to Cl2 (400 ppm) for 5 minutes underwent measurements of airway responses to i.v. methacholine (MCh) at 1, 3, and 5 days after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to determine epithelial and leukocyte counts, and protein content. Tissue repair was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity and by expression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) mRNA by real-time PCR. Results Wild type mice developed a greater degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh at 1 day post exposure to Cl2 compared with TCR-δ-/- mice. Epithelial cell counts in BAL after Cl2 exposure were greater in TCR-δ-/- mice, but macrophages showed a later peak and granulocyte numbers were lower in TCR-δ-/- than in wild type mice. Both groups had increased levels of total protein content in BAL after Cl2 exposure that resolved after 3 and 5 days, respectively. Epithelial proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining was increased at 1 and 3 days post exposure and was similar in the two groups. KGF mRNA was constitutively expressed in both groups and did not increase significantly after Cl2 but expression was lower in TCR-δ-/- mice. Conclusion The severity of airway epithelial injury after Cl2 is greater in TCR-δ-/- mice but the inflammatory response and the change in airway responsiveness to methacholine are reduced. The rates of epithelial regeneration are comparable in both groups. PMID:17343743

  14. Pulmonary proteases in the cystic fibrosis lung induce interleukin 8 expression from bronchial epithelial cells via a heme/meprin/epidermal growth factor receptor/Toll-like receptor pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cosgrove, Sonya

    2012-02-01

    A high intrapulmonary protease burden is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the resulting dysregulation of the protease\\/anti-protease balance has serious implications for inflammation in the CF lung. Because of this inflammation, micro-bleeds can occur releasing hemoglobin into the lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas proteases (Pseudomonas elastase and alkaline protease) and the neutrophil proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3) are capable of almost complete degradation of hemoglobin in vitro but that NE is the predominant protease that cleaves hemoglobin in vivo in CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One of the effects of this is the release of heme, and in this study we show that heme stimulates IL-8 and IL-10 protein production from DeltaF508 CFBE41o(-) bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, heme-induced IL-8 expression utilizes a novel pathway involving meprin, EGF receptor, and MyD88. Meprin levels are elevated in CF cell lines and bronchial brushings, thus adding to the proinflammatory milieu. Interestingly, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, in addition to its ability to neutralize NE and protease-3, can also bind heme and neutralize heme-induced IL-8 from CFBE41o(-) cells. This study illustrates the proinflammatory effects of micro-bleeds in the CF lung, the process by which this occurs, and a potential therapeutic intervention.

  15. Pulmonary Proteases in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Induce Interleukin 8 Expression from Bronchial Epithelial Cells via a Heme/Meprin/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Toll-like Receptor Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cosgrove, Sonya

    2011-03-04

    A high intrapulmonary protease burden is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), and the resulting dysregulation of the protease\\/anti-protease balance has serious implications for inflammation in the CF lung. Because of this inflammation, micro-bleeds can occur releasing hemoglobin into the lung. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the protease-rich environment of the CF lung on human hemoglobin and to assess the proinflammatory effect of heme on CF bronchial epithelium. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas proteases (Pseudomonas elastase and alkaline protease) and the neutrophil proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3) are capable of almost complete degradation of hemoglobin in vitro but that NE is the predominant protease that cleaves hemoglobin in vivo in CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One of the effects of this is the release of heme, and in this study we show that heme stimulates IL-8 and IL-10 protein production from ΔF508 CFBE41o(-) bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, heme-induced IL-8 expression utilizes a novel pathway involving meprin, EGF receptor, and MyD88. Meprin levels are elevated in CF cell lines and bronchial brushings, thus adding to the proinflammatory milieu. Interestingly, α(1)-antitrypsin, in addition to its ability to neutralize NE and protease-3, can also bind heme and neutralize heme-induced IL-8 from CFBE41o(-) cells. This study illustrates the proinflammatory effects of micro-bleeds in the CF lung, the process by which this occurs, and a potential therapeutic intervention.

  16. Modulation of ENaC, CFTR, and iNOS expression in bronchial epithelial cells after stimulation with Staphylococcus epidermidis (94B080) and Staphylococcus aureus (90B083).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rashida; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Björkqvist, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria affect the respiratory epithelium, which is covered by airway surface liquid (ASL) and mucus. Ion concentrations in the ASL are determined by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). Neonatal sepsis is a major risk factor for subsequent pulmonary disease in preterm newborns. Predominating are coagulase-negative staphylococci (e.g., Staphylococccus epidermidis and Staphylococccus aureus). The aim of this study was to investigate modulation of CFTR, ENaC, mucins, proinflammatory cytokines, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in respiratory epithelial cells after S. epidermidis 94B080 and S. aureus 90B083 exposure. Bronchial epithelial cells were incubated with S. epidermidis 94B080 and S. aureus 90B083 (neonatal blood isolates) for 1-36 h. Expression of CFTR, ENaC, iNOS, and mucins was analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Release of cytokines was analyzed by ELISA, and production of NO by the Griess assay. Expression of CFTR significantly decreased after 36 h incubation with S. epidermidis and more prominently with S. aureus, whereas S. epidermidis caused a significant increase in the expression of β- and γ-ENaC. Expression of iNOS increased, but NO was not detected. Both staphylococci caused a decrease in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. S. aureus induced increased secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and transforming nuclear factor (TNF)-α in a time-dependent manner as compared with S. epidermidis. In conclusion, expression of ENaC, CFTR, and iNOS is modulated by exposure to S. aureus 90B083 and S. epidermidis 94B080. S. aureus is more potent in causing release of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α by bronchial epithelial cells as compared with S. epidermidis. The mRNA expression for the mucus proteins MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B could not be measured, neither in the presence nor in the absence of bacteria. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The impact of allergic rhinitis and asthma on human nasal and bronchial epithelial gene expression.

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    Ariane H Wagener

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The link between upper and lower airways in patients with both asthma and allergic rhinitis is still poorly understood. As the biological complexity of these disorders can be captured by gene expression profiling we hypothesized that the clinical expression of rhinitis and/or asthma is related to differential gene expression between upper and lower airways epithelium. OBJECTIVE: Defining gene expression profiles of primary nasal and bronchial epithelial cells from the same individuals and examining the impact of allergic rhinitis with and without concomitant allergic asthma on expression profiles. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 18 subjects (6 allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis; 6 allergic rhinitis; 6 healthy controls. The estimated false discovery rate comparing 6 subjects per group was approximately 5%. RNA was extracted from isolated and cultured epithelial cells from bronchial brushings and nasal biopsies, and analyzed by microarray (Affymetrix U133+ PM Genechip Array. Data were analysed using R and Bioconductor Limma package. For gene ontology GeneSpring GX12 was used. RESULTS: The study was successfully completed by 17 subjects (6 allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis; 5 allergic rhinitis; 6 healthy controls. Using correction for multiple testing, 1988 genes were differentially expressed between healthy lower and upper airway epithelium, whereas in allergic rhinitis with or without asthma this was only 40 and 301 genes, respectively. Genes influenced by allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were linked to lung development, remodeling, regulation of peptidases and normal epithelial barrier functions. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in epithelial gene expression between the upper and lower airway epithelium, as observed in healthy subjects, largely disappear in patients with allergic rhinitis with or without asthma, whilst new differences emerge. The present data identify several pathways and genes that might be

  18. Nasal epithelial cells can act as a physiological surrogate for paediatric asthma studies.

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    Surendran Thavagnanam

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Differentiated paediatric epithelial cells can be used to study the role of epithelial cells in asthma. Nasal epithelial cells are easier to obtain and may act as a surrogate for bronchial epithelium in asthma studies. We assessed the suitability of nasal epithelium from asthmatic children to be a surrogate for bronchial epithelium using air-liquid interface cultures. METHODS: Paired nasal and bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children (n = 9 were differentiated for 28 days under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Morphological and physiological markers were analysed using immunocytochemistry, transepithelial-electrical-resistance, Quantitative Real-time-PCR, ELISA and multiplex cytokine/chemokine analysis. RESULTS: Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic children exhibit similar cytokine responses to stimulation with IL-13 compared with paired bronchial epithelial cells. Morphologically however, nasal epithelial cells differed significantly from bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic patients under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Nasal epithelial cells exhibited lower proliferation/differentiation rates and lower percentages of goblet and ciliated cells when unstimulated, while exhibiting a diminished and varied response to IL-13. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that morphologically, nasal epithelial cells would not be a suitable surrogate due to a significantly lower rate of proliferation and differentiation of goblet and ciliated cells. Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells respond similarly to exogenous stimulation with IL-13 in cytokine production and could be used as a physiological surrogate in the event that bronchial epithelial cells are not available.

  19. "Epithelial Cell TRPV1-Mediated Airway Sensitivity as a Mechanism for Respiratory Symptoms Associated with Gulf War Illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    with TRP activation-mediated synthesis of NGF leading to further sensitization of sensory afferents and epithelial cells suggests a mechanism by which......samples, we will use the bronchial epithelial cells for challenges with capsaicinoid ligand. The bronchial epithelial cells obtained from study subjects

  20. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Ling, Min [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Liang, Xiao [Mental Health Center of Xuhui-CDC, Shanghai 200232 (China); Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Bian, Qian [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  1. Comparison analysis of microRNAs in response to EV71 and CA16 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells by high-throughput sequencing to reveal differential infective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yajie; Song, Jie; Liu, Longding; Li, Jing; Tang, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Lichun; Fan, Shengtao; Feng, Ming; Li, Qihan

    2017-01-15

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that 154 known and 47 novel miRNAs exhibited remarkable differences in expression. Of these, 65 miRNAs, including 58 known and 7 novel miRNAs, presented opposite trends in EV71- and CA16-infected samples. Subsequently, we mainly focused on the 56 known differentially expressed miRNAs by further screening for targets prediction. GO and pathway analysis of these targets demonstrated that 18 biological processes, 7 molecular functions, 1 cellular component and 123 pathways were enriched. Among these pathways, Cadherin signalling pathway, Wnt signalling pathway and angiogenesis showed significant alterations. The regulatory networks of these miRNAs with predicted targets, GOs, pathways and transcription factors were determined, which suggested that miRNAs displayed intricate regulatory mechanisms during the infection phase. Consequently, we specifically analysed the hierarchical GO categories of the predicted targets involved in adhesion. The results indicated that the distinct changes induced by EV71 and CA16 infection may be partly linked to airway epithelial barrier function. Taken together, our data provide useful insights that help elucidate the different host-pathogen interactions following EV71 and CA16 infection and might offer novel therapeutic targets for these infections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso fruit extracts and identified components alter expression of interleukin 8 gene in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchetti Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-6, IL-1β and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 are released from airway epithelial cells. In order to reduce the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients, new therapies have been developed and in this respect, medicinal plant extracts have been studied. In this article we have investigated the possible use of bergamot extracts (Citrus bergamia Risso and their identified components to alter the expression of IL-8 associated with the cystic fibrosis airway pathology. Methods The extracts were chemically characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography. Both bergamot extracts and main detected chemical constituents were assayed for their biological activity measuring (a cytokines and chemokines in culture supernatants released from cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cells treated with TNF-α by Bio-Plex cytokine assay; (b accumulation of IL-8 mRNA by real-time PCR. Results The extracts obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso epicarps contain components displaying an inhibitory activity on IL-8. Particularly, the most active molecules were bergapten and citropten. These effects have been confirmed by analyzing mRNA levels and protein release in the CF cellular models IB3-1 and CuFi-1 induced with TNF-α or exposed to heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions These obtained results clearly indicate that bergapten and citropten are strong inhibitors of IL-8 expression and could be proposed for further studies to verify possible anti-inflammatory properties to reduce lung inflammation in CF patients.

  3. Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Dominika; Szymański, Jędrzej; Patalas-Krawczyk, Paulina; Michalska, Bernadeta; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Prill, Monika; Partyka, Małgorzata; Drabik, Karolina; Walczak, Jarosław; Sewer, Alain; Johne, Stephanie; Luettich, Karsta; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; Duszyński, Jerzy; Szczepanowska, Joanna; van der Toorn, Marco; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2018-02-12

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 μg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 μg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Altogether, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM has a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles from moderate blend concentrations of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells-The FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Tonje S; Refsnes, Magne; Magnusson, Pål; Oczkowski, Michał; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Mruk, Remigiusz; Myhre, Oddvar; Lankoff, Anna; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel fuel fuels are introduced at an increasing extent as a more carbon-neutral alternative to reduce CO 2 -emissions, compared to conventional diesel fuel. In the present study we have investigated the impact of increasing the use of 1st generation fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel from current 7% blend (B7) to 20% blend (B20), or by increasing the biodiesel content by adding 2nd generation hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) based biodiesel (SHB; Synthetic Hydrocarbon Biofuel) on toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in an in vitro system. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 4 and 20h to DEP from B7, B20 and SHB at different concentrations, and examined for effects on gene expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), CXCL8 (IL-8), CYP1A1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results show that both B20 and SHB were more potent inducers of IL-6 expression compared to B7. Only B20 induced statistically significant increases in CXCL8 expression. By comparison the rank order of potency to induce CYP1A1 was SHB>B7>B20. No statistically significant difference were observed form HO-1 expression, suggesting that the differences in cytokine responses were not due to oxidative stress. The results show that even moderate increases in biodiesel blends, from 7% to 20%, may increase the proinflammatory potential of emitted DEP in BEAS-2B cells. This effect was observed for both addition of 1st generation FAME and 2nd generation HVO biodiesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of epithelial cells in bronchoalveolar lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotto, S; Rado, V; Dal Vecchio, A; Milani, G; Fabbri, L M; Maestrelli, P

    1993-01-01

    1. Damage to the bronchial epithelium occurs after the inhalation of toxic substances and allergens, and through virus infections and it may lead to increased desquamation of epithelial cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 2. In this study we compared two methods of staining the epithelial cells of BAL, the conventional cytochemical May Grunwald-Giemsa stain (MGG) and an immunocytochemical technique using a monoclonal antibody anti-human cytokeratin (CK) detected with APAAP immuno-alkaline phosphatase. BAL was obtained from 13 subjects and the epithelial cells were cytocentrifuged either immediately after collection (fraction A) or after washing (fraction B). 3. Higher percentages of epithelial cells were identified in fraction A with CK (20.0 +/- 5.1%) than in fraction A with MGG (11.2 +/- 2.3%), which recognized only ciliated epithelial cells. In fact a proportion of CK-positive cells (34%) in fraction A were not ciliated. Underestimation of epithelial cells by MGG compared to CK was more pronounced in fraction B (8.0 +/- 2.9% and 22.9 +/- 3.0%, respectively) as there was a relative loss of ciliated CK+ cells after washings. 4. These results suggest that immunocytochemical staining with an anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody is more sensitive than using the MGG stain in detecting epithelial cells in BAL.

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of African urban aerosols (Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou in Benin) and their toxic effects in human bronchial epithelial cells during the dry season 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adon, Jacques; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboue, Veronique; Baeza, Armelle; Akpo, Aristide; Bahino, Julien; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Keita, Sékou

    2017-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the WP2-DACCIWA program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on domestic fire site, traffic sites and waste burning site of two West-African capitals (Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou, Benin) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Such an impact is still largely unknown, especially for the particles emitted by intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of this study is centered on the following key scientific question: what is the link between aerosol size differentiated composition and inflammation markers for the main combustion sources prevailing in South West Africa during dry and wet seasons? To tackle this question, intensive campaigns in Abidjan and Cotonou have been conducted in July 2015, January and July 2016, and January 2017. In this paper, we will present our first results for the campaign of January 2016. In terms of aerosol size differentiated composition, main aerosol components (mass, black carbon, organic carbon, water soluble particles ...) were measured. We may notice that PM measured for all the sites is generally higher than WHO norms. Organic carbon and dust particles are the two more important contributors for the ultra-fine and fine particle sizes with more organic carbon in Abidjan and dust particles in Cotonou respectively. In terms of in vitro biological studies on sampled aerosols on these sites, size-fractionated PM from the different sampling sites were compared for their ability to induce a proinflammatory response characterized by the release of the cytokine IL-6 by human bronchial epithelial cells. PM from waste burning site did not induce significant IL-6 release whatever the size fraction whereas PM from domestic fire were the most reactive especially the ultra-fine fraction. Ultra-fine particles from traffic (Abidjan and Cotonou) always induced a dose-dependent IL-6 release. A tentative cross-analysis between

  7. A 3D epithelial-mesenchymal co-culture model of human bronchial tissue recapitulates multiple features of airway tissue remodeling by TGF-β1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Ishimori, Kanae; Ito, Shigeaki

    2017-11-22

    The collagen gel contraction assay measures gel size to assess the contraction of cells embedded in collagen gel matrices. Using the assay with lung fibroblasts is useful in studying the lung tissue remodeling process in wound healing and disease development. However, the involvement of bronchial epithelial cells in this process should also be investigated. We applied a layer of mucociliary differentiated bronchial epithelial cells onto collagen gel matrices with lung fibroblasts. This co-culture model enables direct contact between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. We stimulated the culture with transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 as an inducer of tissue remodeling for 21 days, and measured gel size, histological changes, and expression of factors related to extracellular matrix homeostasis. TGF-β1 exerted a concentration-dependent effect on collagen gel contraction and on contractile myofibroblasts in the mesenchymal collagen layer. TGF-β1 also induced expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin in the basal layer of the epithelium, suggesting the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the expression of various genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins was upregulated. Fibrotic tenascin-C accumulated in the sub-epithelial region of the co-culture model. Our findings indicate that TGF-β1 can affect both epithelial and mesenchymal cells, and induce gel contraction and structural changes. Our novel in vitro co-culture model will be a useful tool for investigating the roles of epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and their interactions in the airway remodeling process.

  8. A Transcriptome-driven Analysis of Epithelial Brushings and Bronchial Biopsies to Define Asthma Phenotypes in U-BIOPRED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Hsi Scott; Pavlidis, Stelios; Loza, Matthew; Baribaud, Fred; Rowe, Anthony; Pandis, Ioannis; Hoda, Uruj; Rossios, Christos; Sousa, Ana; Wilson, Susan J; Howarth, Peter; Dahlen, Barbro; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Chanez, Pascal; Shaw, Dominick; Krug, Norbert; Sandstrӧm, Thomas; De Meulder, Bertrand; Lefaudeux, Diane; Fowler, Stephen; Fleming, Louise; Corfield, Julie; Auffray, Charles; Sterk, Peter J; Djukanovic, Ratko; Guo, Yike; Adcock, Ian M; Chung, Kian Fan

    2017-02-15

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by diverse immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms. Using transcriptomic profiling of airway tissues, we sought to define the molecular phenotypes of severe asthma. The transcriptome derived from bronchial biopsies and epithelial brushings of 107 subjects with moderate to severe asthma were annotated by gene set variation analysis using 42 gene signatures relevant to asthma, inflammation, and immune function. Topological data analysis of clinical and histologic data was performed to derive clusters, and the nearest shrunken centroid algorithm was used for signature refinement. Nine gene set variation analysis signatures expressed in bronchial biopsies and airway epithelial brushings distinguished two distinct asthma subtypes associated with high expression of T-helper cell type 2 cytokines and lack of corticosteroid response (group 1 and group 3). Group 1 had the highest submucosal eosinophils, as well as high fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels, exacerbation rates, and oral corticosteroid use, whereas group 3 patients showed the highest levels of sputum eosinophils and had a high body mass index. In contrast, group 2 and group 4 patients had an 86% and 64% probability, respectively, of having noneosinophilic inflammation. Using machine learning tools, we describe an inference scheme using the currently available inflammatory biomarkers sputum eosinophilia and fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels, along with oral corticosteroid use, that could predict the subtypes of gene expression within bronchial biopsies and epithelial cells with good sensitivity and specificity. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of a transcriptomics-driven approach to phenotyping that segments patients who may benefit the most from specific agents that target T-helper cell type 2-mediated inflammation and/or corticosteroid insensitivity.

  9. Induction by TNF-α of IL-6 and IL-8 in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial IB3-1 Epithelial Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Borgatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a microencapsulation procedure for the entrapment and manipulation of IB3-1 cystic fibrosis cells. The applied method is based on generation of monodisperse droplets by a vibrational nozzle. Different experimental parameters were analyzed, including frequency and amplitude of vibration, polymer pumping rate and distance between the nozzle and the gelling bath. We have found that the microencapsulation procedure does not alter the viability of the encapsulated IB3-1 cells. The encapsulated IB3-1 cells were characterized in term of secretomic profile, analyzing the culture medium by Bio-Plex strategy. The experiments demonstrated that most of the analyzed proteins, were secreted both by the free and encapsulated cells, even if in a different extent. In order to determine the biotechnological applications of this procedure, we determined whether encapsulated IB3-1 cells could be induced to pro-inflammatory responses, after treatment with TNF-α. In this experimental set-up, encapsulated and free IB3-1 cells were treated with TNF-α, thereafter the culture media from both cell populations were collected. As expected, TNF-α induced a sharp increase in the secretion of interleukins, chemokines and growth factors. Of great interest was the evidence that induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 occurs also by encapsulated IB3-1 cells.

  10. Induction by TNF-α of IL-6 and IL-8 in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial IB3-1 Epithelial Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatti, Monica; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Breveglieri, Giulia; Gambari, Roberto; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microencapsulation procedure for the entrapment and manipulation of IB3-1 cystic fibrosis cells. The applied method is based on generation of monodisperse droplets by a vibrational nozzle. Different experimental parameters were analyzed, including frequency and amplitude of vibration, polymer pumping rate and distance between the nozzle and the gelling bath. We have found that the microencapsulation procedure does not alter the viability of the encapsulated IB3-1 cells. The encapsulated IB3-1 cells were characterized in term of secretomic profile, analyzing the culture medium by Bio-Plex strategy. The experiments demonstrated that most of the analyzed proteins, were secreted both by the free and encapsulated cells, even if in a different extent. In order to determine the biotechnological applications of this procedure, we determined whether encapsulated IB3-1 cells could be induced to pro-inflammatory responses, after treatment with TNF-α. In this experimental set-up, encapsulated and free IB3-1 cells were treated with TNF-α, thereafter the culture media from both cell populations were collected. As expected, TNF-α induced a sharp increase in the secretion of interleukins, chemokines and growth factors. Of great interest was the evidence that induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 occurs also by encapsulated IB3-1 cells. PMID:20936184

  11. Bronchial epithelium: morphology, function and pathophysiology in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der V.H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Versnel, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Summary : Human bronchial epithelium has a number of mechanical functions, including mucociliary clearance and protection against noxious agents. Bronchial epithelial cells are also able to release a variety of mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and arachidonic acid

  12. Hypoxia and nickel inhibit histone demethylase JMJD1A and repress Spry2 expression in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Haobin; Kluz, Thomas; Zhang, Ronghe; Costa, Max

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes commonly occurs in human cancers via increasing DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications at gene promoters. However, little is known about how pathogenic environmental factors contribute to cancer development by affecting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Previously, we reported that both hypoxia and nickel (an environmental carcinogen) increased global histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in cells through inhibiting a novel class of iron-...

  13. FEATURES OF TRANSFORMATIONS OF RED BLOOD CELLS IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Suprun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA is noted recently. That’s why its treatment remains an urgent problem in allergology. Along with congenital atopy, a significant role in formation and development of a disease is given to hyperreactivity of bronchial tubes which is connected with a alterations of their epithelial membranes. However, sampling of bronchial epithelium cells is carried out by means of bronchoscopy with a biopsy which is an invasive procedure. Therefore, bronchial hyperreactivity is a relative contraindication for this intervention. Meanwhile, there exists a non-invasive method of integrated cellular membrane assessment.Analysis of membrane transformation in erythrocytes which do not have their own metabolism may be an informative model of cellular membranes in the organism in general. We have examined 52 persons (2 to 17 years old including 20 children with bronchial asthma and the comparison group comprising 32 healthy ageand sex-matched children. Percentage of spontaneous red blood cells (RBC transformation in the patients was carried out by means of light microscopy in whole blood smears made of native cell suspension. Children with bronchial asthma (2.6% exhibited more frequent occurrence of destructive RBC forms than in healthy children (0.8%, р < 0.05, with predominance of stomatocytes (0.55% and 0,1% which were >5-fold more common in children with bronchial asthma (р < 0.05. Respectively, transitional forms were significantly more often encountered in control group (39.9% against 34.12%, р < 0.05. Bronchial asthma is characterized by stomatocytic way of RBC transformation.An indicator of compensatory transformation (a ratio of transitional-to-destructive RBC forms seems to represent an integrative criterion for membrane ability of reversal to normal state. Children suffering from bronchial asthma (р < 0.05 have decreased levels of this compensatory transformation indicator as compared to healthy children (2

  14. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examine cell cycle perturbation upon exposure using a normal human bronchial epithelial cell culture (BEAS-2B). BEAS-2B cells were treated with low (0, 1, 2 µM) and apoptotic (3 µM) doses of Zn2+ plus 1 µM pyrithione, a Zn2+-specific ionophore facilitating cellular uptake, for up to 24 h. Fixed cells were then stained with propidium iodine (PI) and cell cycle phase was determined by fluorescent image cytometry. Initial results report the percentage of cells in the S phase after 18 h exposure to 1, 2, and 3 µM Zn2+ were similar (8%, 7%, and 12%, respectively) compared with 7% in controls. Cells exposed to 3 µM Zn2+ increased cell populations in G2/M phase (76% versus 68% in controls). Interestingly, exposure to 1 µM Zn2+ resulted in decreased (59%) cells in G2/M. While preliminary, these pilot studies suggest Zn2+ alters cell cycle in BEAS-2B cells, particularly in the G2/M phase. The G2/M checkpoint maintains DNA integrity by enabling initiation of DNA repair or apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the adaptive and apoptotic responses to Zn2+ exposure may be mediated via perturbation of the cell cycle at the G2/M checkpoint. This work was a collaborative summer student project. The st

  15. Gastric Epithelial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLS, JASON C.; SHIVDASANI, RAMESH A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells. PMID:21144849

  16. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  17. Tracheal dysplasia precedes bronchial dysplasia in mouse model of N-nitroso trischloroethylurea induced squamous cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Ghosh

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC is the second leading cause of lung cancer death in the US and has a 5-year survival rate of only 16%. Histological changes in the bronchial epithelium termed dysplasia are precursors to invasive SCC. However, the cellular mechanisms that cause dysplasia are unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we used topical application of N-nitroso-tris chloroethylurea (NTCU for 32 weeks to induce squamous dysplasia and SCC in mice. At 32 weeks the predominant cell type in the dysplastic airways was Keratin (K 5 and K14 expressing basal cells. Notably, basal cells are extremely rare in the normal mouse bronchial epithelium but are abundant in the trachea. We therefore evaluated time-dependent changes in tracheal and bronchial histopathology after NTCU exposure (4, 8, 12, 16, 25 and 32 weeks. We show that tracheal dysplasia occurs significantly earlier than that of the bronchial epithelium (12 weeks vs. 25 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of K5+/K14+ tracheal basal cells and a complete loss of secretory (Club cell secretory protein expressing CCSP+ and ciliated cells. TUNEL staining of NTCU treated tissues confirmed that the loss of CCSP+ and ciliated cells was not due to apoptosis. However, mitotic index (measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed that NTCU treatment increased proliferation of K5+ basal cells in the trachea, and altered bronchial mitotic population from CCSP+ to K5+ basal cells. Thus, we demonstrate that NTCU-induced lung epithelial dysplasia starts in the tracheal epithelium, and is followed by basal cell metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium. This analysis extends our knowledge of the NTCU-SCC model by defining the early changes in epithelial cell phenotypes in distinct airway locations, and this may assist in identifying new targets for future chemoprevention studies.

  18. Low-grade B-cell bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Siddiqui, Anita Karim; Rai, Kanti R

    2002-01-01

    Low-grade B-cell bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma is a distinct subgroup of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Chronic antigen stimulation, triggered by autoimmune process or persistent infection may precede the development of BALT lymphoma. The lymphoma cells originate from the marginal zone and by invading the bronchial epithelial tissue, give rise to the lymphoepithelial lesion. BALT lymphoma shares the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic characteristics of other mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. A majority of the patients are asymptomatic and pulmonary lesions are incidentally discovered on a routine chest radiograph. However, the clinical and radiographic features of BALT lymphoma are nonspecific. The disease is often localized at the time of diagnosis and responds favorably to local treatment, but the optimal management is not clearly defined. Overall, BALT lymphoma has a favorable prognosis and is associated with long-term survival.

  19. Impact Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Organotypic Bronchial Epithelial Tissue Cultures: A Comparison of Mono-Culture and Coculture Model Containing Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R.; Xiang, Yang; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Leroy, Patrice; Kuehn, Diana; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Organotypic 3D cultures of epithelial cells are grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI) and resemble the in vivo counterparts. Although the complexity of in vivo cellular responses could be better manifested in coculture models in which additional cell types such as fibroblasts were incorporated, the presence of another cell type could mask the response of the other. This study reports the impact of whole cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on organotypic mono- and coculture models to evaluate the relevancy of organotypic models for toxicological assessment of aerosols. Two organotypic bronchial models were directly exposed to low and high concentrations of CS of the reference research cigarette 3R4F: monoculture of bronchial epithelial cells without fibroblasts (BR) and coculture with fibroblasts (BRF) models. Adenylate kinase (AK)-based cytotoxicity, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/1B1 activity, tissue histology, and concentrations of secreted mediators into the basolateral media, as well as transcriptomes were evaluated following the CS exposure. The results demonstrated similar impact of CS on the AK-based cytotoxicity, CYP1A1/1B1 activity, and tissue histology in both models. However, a greater number of secreted mediators was identified in the basolateral media of the monoculture than in the coculture models. Furthermore, annotation analysis and network-based systems biology analysis of the transcriptomic profiles indicated a more prominent cellular stress and tissue damage following CS in the monoculture epithelium model without fibroblasts. Finally, our results indicated that an in vivo smoking-induced xenobiotic metabolism response of bronchial epithelial cells was better reflected from the in vitro CS-exposed coculture model. PMID:26085348

  20. The effects on bronchial epithelial mucociliary cultures of coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter from an underground railway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J; Cooper, Matthew J; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick W; Howarth, Peter H; Cassee, Flemming R; Teagle, Damon A H; Palmer, Martin R; Davies, Donna E

    2015-05-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether the metal-rich nature of such particles exerts toxic effects in mucus-covered airway epithelial cell cultures or whether there is an increased risk posed by the ultrafine fraction. Monolayer and mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed to size-fractionated underground railway PM (1.1-11.1 µg/cm(2)) and release of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-8 was assayed. ROS generation was measured, and the mechanism of generation studied using desferrioxamine (DFX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by RT-qPCR. Particle uptake was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Underground PM increased IL-8 release from PBECs, but this was diminished in mucus-secreting ALI cultures. Fine and ultrafine PM generated a greater level of ROS than coarse PM. ROS generation by ultrafine PM was ameliorated by DFX and NAC, suggesting an iron-dependent mechanism. Despite the presence of mucus, ALI cultures displayed increased HO-1 expression. Intracellular PM was observed within vesicles, mitochondria, and free in the cytosol. The results indicate that, although the mucous layer appears to confer some protection against underground PM, ALI PBECs nonetheless detect PM and mount an antioxidant response. The combination of increased ROS-generating ability of the metal-rich ultrafine fraction and ability of PM to penetrate the mucous layer merits further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  1. Cigarette Smoke Decreases Innate Responses of Epithelial Cells to Rhinovirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Jane; Lee, Rachel U.; Doerner, Astrid M; Herschbach, Jack; Zuraw, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with a significant increase in the risk for respiratory viral infections. The airway epithelium is the primary target for both cigarette smoke and respiratory viral infection. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on the response of airway epithelial cells to rhinovirus infection. We found that pre-exposure of BEAS-2B cells or primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) reduced the induction of mRN...

  2. Glyoxalase I drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via argpyrimidine-modified Hsp70, miR-21 and SMAD signalling in human bronchial cells BEAS-2B chronically exposed to crystalline silica Min-U-Sil 5: Transformation into a neoplastic-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognelli, Cinzia; Gambelunghe, Angela; Muzi, Giacomo; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Glyoxalase I (Glo1) is the main scavenging enzyme of methylglyoxal (MG), a potent precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are known to control multiple biological processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a multistep phenomenon associated with cell transformation, playing a major role in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Crystalline silica is a well-known occupational health hazard, responsible for a great number of human pulmonary diseases, such as silicosis. There is still much debate concerning the carcinogenic role of crystalline silica, mainly due to the lack of a causal demonstration between silica exposure and carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that EMT might play a role in crystalline silica-induced lung neoplastic transformation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether, and by means of which mechanism, the antiglycation defence Glo1 is involved in Min-U-Sil 5 (MS5) crystalline silica-induced EMT in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells chronically exposed, and whether this is associated with the beginning of a neoplastic-like transformation process. By using gene silencing/overexpression and scavenging/inhibitory agents, we demonstrated that MS5 induced hydrogen peroxide-mediated c-Jun-dependent Glo1 up-regulation which resulted in a decrease in the Argpyrimidine-modified Hsp70 protein level which triggered EMT in a novel mechanism involving miR-21 and SMAD signalling. The observed EMT was associated with a neoplastic-like phenotype. The results obtained provide a causal in vitro demonstration of the MS5 pro-carcinogenic transforming role and more importantly they provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in this process, thus opening new paths in research concerning the in vivo study of the carcinogenic potential of crystalline silica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased myoepithelial cells of bronchial submucosal glands in fatal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F H Y; Williams, D J; James, A; McPhee, L J; Mitchell, I; Mauad, T

    2010-01-01

    Fatal asthma is characterised by enlargement of bronchial mucous glands and tenacious plugs of mucus in the airway lumen. Myoepithelial cells, located within the mucous glands, contain contractile proteins which provide structural support to mucous cells and actively facilitate glandular secretion. To determine if myoepithelial cells are increased in the bronchial submucosal glands of patients with fatal asthma. Autopsied lungs from 12 patients with fatal asthma (FA), 12 patients with asthma dying of non-respiratory causes (NFA) and 12 non-asthma control cases (NAC) were obtained through the Prairie Provinces Asthma Study. Transverse sections of segmental bronchi from three lobes were stained for mucus and smooth muscle actin and the area fractions of mucous plugs, mucous glands and myoepithelial cells determined by point counting. The fine structure of the myoepithelial cells was examined by electron microscopy. FA was characterised by significant increases in mucous gland (p = 0.003), mucous plug (p = 0.004) and myoepithelial cell areas (p = 0.017) compared with NAC. When the ratio of myoepithelial cell area to total gland area was examined, there was a disproportionate and significant increase in FA compared with NAC (p = 0.014). Electron microscopy of FA cases revealed hypertrophy of the myoepithelial cells with increased intracellular myofilaments. The NFA group showed changes in these features that were intermediate between the FA and NAC groups but the differences were not significant. Bronchial mucous glands and mucous gland myoepithelial cell smooth muscle actin are increased in fatal asthma and may contribute to asphyxia due to mucous plugging.

  4. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  5. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalvia, Maria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Castellani, Stefano [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); D’Antonio, Palma [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Perna, Giuseppe [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Carbone, Annalucia [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Capozzi, Vito [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conese, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.conese@unifg.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in

  6. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Charleata A; Hamm, Jonathan T

    2009-07-10

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30mug/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-alpha, while CSC doses above 20mug/ml CSC significantly activated NF-kappaB. As NF-kappaB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30mug/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30mug/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-alpha, NF-kappaB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  7. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  8. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2010-01-27

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients.

  9. High mobility group box 1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Statt, Sarah; Wu, Reen; Chang, Hao-Teng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Wang, Chien-Neng; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lee, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-07

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in bronchial remodeling and loss of lung function in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Previous studies showed the involvement of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the pathology of chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. However, the role of HMGB1 in EMT of human airway epithelial cells is still unclear. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to show that HMGB1 treatment regulated EMT-related gene expression in human primary-airway epithelial cells. The top five upregulated genes were SNAI2, FGFBP1, VIM, SPARC (osteonectin), and SERPINE1, while the downregulated genes included OCLN, TJP1 (ZO-1), FZD7, CDH1 (E-cadherin), and LAMA5. We found that HMGB1 induced downregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1, and upregulation of vimentin mRNA transcription and protein translation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we observed that HMGB1 induced AKT phosphorylation, resulting in GSK3β inactivation, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin to induce EMT in human airway epithelial cells. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor (LY294006) and β-catenin shRNA reversed HMGB1-induced EMT. Moreover, HMGB1 induced expression of receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE), but not that of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4, and RAGE shRNA inhibited HMGB1-induced EMT in human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, we found that HMGB1 induced EMT through RAGE and the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  10. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that

  11. Isolation and culture of biliary epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Joplin, R

    1994-01-01

    At one time it was thought that biliary epithelial cells simply formed the lining to the tubular conduits which constitute the biliary tract. Development of in vitro systems for culturing biliary epithelial cells has enabled functional studies which increasingly show that this is far from true, and that biliary epithelial cells do have important functional roles. Disruption of these functions may be involved in the generation of pathology. Most functional studies to date have utilised cells i...

  12. Increased ERK signalling promotes inflammatory signalling in primary airway epithelial cells expressing Z α1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Emily F A; Dickens, Jennifer A; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Haq, Imran; Kwok, Hang Fai; Ordóñez, Adriana; Murphy, Gillian; Stolk, Jan; Lomas, David A; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Marciniak, Stefan J

    2014-02-15

    Overexpression of Z α1-antitrypsin is known to induce polymer formation, prime the cells for endoplasmic reticulum stress and initiate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. However, whether endogenous expression in primary bronchial epithelial cells has similar consequences remains unclear. Moreover, the mechanism of NF-κB activation has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report excessive NF-κB signalling in resting primary bronchial epithelial cells from ZZ patients compared with wild-type (MM) controls, and this appears to be mediated by mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, EGF receptor and ADAM17 activity. Moreover, we show that rather than being a response to protein polymers, NF-κB signalling in airway-derived cells represents a loss of anti-inflammatory signalling by M α1-antitrypsin. Treatment of ZZ primary bronchial epithelial cells with purified plasma M α1-antitrypsin attenuates this inflammatory response, opening up new therapeutic options to modulate airway inflammation in the lung.

  13. Translocation of Ricin Across Polarized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    world for their valuable oil used in numerous products, such as soaps, cosmetics , medicines, motor oil, and nylon (Olsnes, 2004). Castor bean plants...were treated with ricin and anti- dgRTA IgG and then stained to visualize DNA, actin, and ZO- 1 for morphological analysis using confocal microscopy...2007), American Society for Microbiology , Toronto, Canada. Spiekermann, G.M., Finn, P.W., Ward, E.S., Dumont, J., Dickinson, B.L., Blumberg, R.S

  14. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. (3H)arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein.

  15. Acinetobacter baumannii invades epithelial cells and outer membrane protein A mediates interactions with epithelial cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Jun Sik; Lee, Yoo Chul; Park, Tae In; Lee, Je Chul

    2008-01-01

    ... of A. baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA) in interactions with epithelial cells. A. baumannii invaded epithelial cells by a zipper-like mechanism, which is associated with microfilament- and microtubule-dependent uptake mechanisms...

  16. IL-13 alters mucociliary differentiation and ciliary beating of human respiratory epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoukili, Jamila; Perret, Eric; Willems, Tom; Minty, Adrian; Parthoens, Eef; Houcine, Odile; Coste, Andre; Jorissen, Mark; Marano, Francelyne; Caput, Daniel; Tournier, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    In animal models of asthma, interleukin-13 (IL-13) induces goblet cell metaplasia, eosinophil infiltration of the bronchial mucosa, and bronchial hyperreactivity, but the basis of its effects on airway epithelia remain unknown. Lesions of the epithelial barrier, frequently observed in asthma and other chronic lung inflammatory diseases, are repaired through proliferation, migration, and differentiation of epithelial cells. An inflammatory process may then, therefore, influence epithelial regeneration. We have thus investigated the effect of IL-13 on mucociliary differentiation of human nasal epithelial cells in primary culture. We show that IL-13 alters ciliated cell differentiation and increases the proportion of secretory cells. IL-13 downregulates the actin-binding protein ezrin and other cytoskeletal components. IL-13 also impairs lateral cell contacts and interferes with the apical localization of ezrin seen in differentiated ciliated cells. In addition, an IL-4 antagonistic mutant protein (Y124D), which binds to the IL-4 receptor α subunit, a common chain of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors, inhibits IL-13’s effects. IL-13 also decreases ciliary beat frequency in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that, in human allergic asthmatic responses, IL-13 affects both ciliated and secretory cell differentiation, leading to airway damage and obstruction. PMID:11748265

  17. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  18. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir eOsherov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just innocent bystanders or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome.

  19. Polarization Affects Airway Epithelial Conditioning of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Chhoden, Tashi; Arge, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form polarized barriers that interact with inhaled allergens and are involved in immune homeostasis. We examined how monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) are affected by contact with the airway epithelium. In traditional setups, bronchial epithelial cell lines...... were allowed to polarize on filter inserts, and MDDCs were allowed to adhere to the epithelial basal side. In an optimized setup, the cell application was reversed, and the culture conditions were modified to preserve cellular polarization and integrity. These two parameters were crucial for the MDDCs...... to sample allergens administered to the apical side. Allergen uptake depended on both polarization and the nature of the allergen. AEC conditioning led to decreased birch allergen-specific proliferation of autologous T cells and a trend toward decreased secretion of the Th2-specific cytokines IL-5 and IL-13...

  20. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  1. Cigarette smoke suppresses Bik to cause epithelial cell hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebratu, Yohannes A; Schwalm, Kurt; Smith, Kevin R; Schuyler, Mark; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant regulation of airway epithelial cell numbers in airways leads to increased mucous secretions in chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Because the Bcl-2 family of proteins is crucial for airway epithelial homeostasis, identifying the players that reduce cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mucous cell metaplasia can help to develop effective therapies. To identify the Bcl-2 family of proteins that play a role in reducing CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia. We screened for dysregulated expression of the Bcl-2 family members. We identified Bik to be significantly reduced in bronchial brushings of patients with chronic epithelial cell hyperplasia compared with nondiseased control subjects. Reduced Bik but increased MUC5AC mRNA levels were also detected when normal human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to CS or when autopsy tissues from former smokers with and without chronic bronchitis were compared. Similarly, exposure of C57Bl/6 mice to CS resulted in increased numbers of epithelial and mucous cells per millimeter of basal lamina, along with reduced Bik but increased Muc5ac expression, and this change was sustained even when mice were allowed to recover in filtered air for 8 weeks. Restoring Bik expression significantly suppressed CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia in differentiated primary HAEC cultures and in airways of mice in vivo. Bik blocked nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK1/2 to induce apoptosis of HAECs. The conserved Leu61 within Bik and ERK1/2 activation were essential to induce cell death in hyperplastic mucous cells. These studies show that CS suppresses Bik expression to block airway epithelia cell death and thereby increases epithelial cell hyperplasia in chronic bronchitis.

  2. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol reverses TNFα-induced increase in airway epithelial cell permeability through CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Valerie C M; Kendall, David A; Roberts, Richard E

    2016-11-15

    Despite pharmacological treatment, bronchial hyperresponsiveness continues to deteriorate as airway remodelling persists in airway inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses bronchoconstriction with an anti-inflammatory action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on bronchial epithelial cell permeability after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα. Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells were cultured at air-liquid interface. Changes in epithelial permeability were measured using Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER), then confirmed with a paracellular permeability assay and expression of tight junction proteins by Western blotting. Treatment with THC prevented the TNFα-induced decrease in TEER and increase in paracellular permeability. Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor-like immunoreactivity was found in Calu-3 cells. Subsequent experiments revealed that pharmacological blockade of CB2, but not CB1 receptor inhibited the THC effect. Selective stimulation of CB2 receptors displayed a similar effect to that of THC. TNFα decreased expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1, which was prevented by pre-incubation with THC. These data indicate that THC prevents cytokine-induced increase in airway epithelial permeability through CB2 receptor activation. This highlights that THC, or other cannabinoid receptor ligands, could be beneficial in the prevention of inflammation-induced changes in airway epithelial cell permeability, an important feature of airways diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterning bacterial communities on epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dwidar

    Full Text Available Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions.

  4. Alternaria extract activates autophagy that induces IL-18 release from airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Hiroki; Okazaki, Shintaro; Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Hosoki, Koa; Yasutomi, Motoko; Sur, Sanjiv; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-09-04

    Alternaria alternata is a major outdoor allergen that causes allergic airway diseases. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) has been shown to induce airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 and thereby initiate Th2-type responses. We investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in IL-18 release from ALT-E-stimulated airway epithelial cells. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were stimulated with ALT-E in the presence of different inhibitors of autophagy or caspases. IL-18 levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. The numbers of autophagosomes, an LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, and p62 degradation were determined by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin, which inhibit the formation of preautophagosomal structures and autolysosomes, respectively, suppressed ALT-E-induced IL-18 release by cells, whereas caspase 1 and 8 inhibitors did not. ALT-E-stimulation increased autophagosome formation, LC-3 conversion, and p62 degradation in airway epithelial cells. LPS-stimulation induced the LC3 conversion in A549 cells, but did not induce IL-18 release or p62 degradation. Unlike LPS, ALT-E induced airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 via an autophagy dependent, caspase 1 and 8 independent pathway. Although autophagy has been shown to negatively regulate canonical inflammasome activity in TLR-stimulated macrophages, our data indicates that this process is an unconventional mechanism of IL-18 secretion by airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pellino-1 Selectively Regulates Epithelial Cell Responses to Rhinovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Julie A.; Prince, Lynne R.; Parker, Lisa C.; Stokes, Clare A.; de Bruin, Harold G.; van den Berge, Maarten; Heijink, Irene H.; Whyte, Moira K.

    2012-01-01

    Pellino-1 has recently been identified as a regulator of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling, but its roles in regulation of responses of human cells to human pathogens are unknown. We investigated the potential roles of Pellino-1 in the airways. We show for the first time that Pellino-1 regulates responses to a human pathogen, rhinovirus minor group serotype 1B (RV-1B). Knockdown of Pellino-1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was associated with impaired production of innate immune cytokines such as CXCL8 from human primary bronchial epithelial cells in response to RV-1B, without impairment in production of antiviral interferons (IFN), and without loss of control of viral replication. Pellino-1 actions were likely to be independent of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) regulation, since Pellino-1 knockdown in primary epithelial cells did not alter responses to IL-1 but did inhibit responses to poly(I·C), a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activator that does not signal via IRAK-1 to engender a response. These data indicate that Pellino-1 represents a novel target that regulates responses of human airways to human viral pathogens, independently of IRAK signaling. Neutralization of Pellino-1 may therefore provide opportunities to inhibit potentially harmful neutrophilic inflammation of the airways induced by respiratory viruses, without loss of control of the underlying viral infection. PMID:22514342

  6. The effect of Asian sand dust-activated respiratory epithelial cells on activation and migration of eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, You-Jin; Kim, Seon-Tae

    2013-09-01

    CONTEST: Asian sand dust (ASD) contains various chemical and microbiological materials. ASD aggravate the inflammatory response of respiratory epithelial cells and symptoms of asthma. To evaluate the inflammatory effects of ASD on the activation of bronchial epithelial cells and the effect on the activation and migration of eosinophils. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to three forms of ASD: particles less than 10 μm in diameter (PM), dried sand dust (SD) and sand dust collected from the Gobi Desert (GB). Activation of the epithelial cells was determined using interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), and eotaxin. Eosinophil migration was induced with bronchial epithelial cell conditioned medium. Eosinophils were stimulated with the ASDs and production of superoxide and eosinophil cationic protein was measured. PM and SD enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES. However, only IL-6 production was significantly increased with GB. Conditioned medium stimulated PM and SD enhanced the migration of eosinophils. PM and SD strongly activated eosinophils. ASD, which contains smaller particles and air pollutants, might exacerbate the inflammatory process of bronchial tissue and asthmatic symptoms with the production of inflammatory mediators and tissue eosinophilia.

  7. [Cell-molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide-induced damaging effect on bronchial epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, O N; Lebedeva, E S; Kuzubova, N A; Preobrazhenskaia, T N

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and reactive nitrogen species play a key role in the development environment related diseases by initiation of cell death and damage of bronchoalveolar epithelium. This review examines the possible cell-molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide-induced damaging effect on bronchial epithelium.

  8. SPLUNC1 regulation in airway epithelial cells: role of toll-like receptor 2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Sean

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections including Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp contribute to various chronic lung diseases. We have shown that mouse short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1 protein was able to inhibit Mp growth. Further, airway epithelial cells increased SPLUNC1 expression upon Mp infection. However, the mechanisms underlying SPLUNC1 regulation remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated if SPLUNC1 production following Mp infection is regulated through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 signaling. Methods Airway epithelial cell cultures were utilized to reveal the contribution of TLR2 signaling including NF-κB to SPLUNC1 production upon bacterial infection and TLR2 agonist stimulation. Results Mp and TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 increased SPLUNC1 expression in tracheal epithelial cells from wild type, but not TLR2-/- BALB/c mice. RNA interference (short-hairpin RNA of TLR2 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells under air-liquid interface cultures significantly reduced SPLUNC1 levels in Mp-infected or Pam3CSK4-treated cells. Inhibition and activation of NF-κB pathway decreased and increased SPLUNC1 production in airway epithelial cells, respectively. Conclusions Our data for the first time suggest that airway epithelial TLR2 signaling is pivotal in mycoplasma-induced SPLUNC1 production, thus improving our understanding of the aberrant SPLUNC1 expression in airways of patients suffering from chronic lung diseases with bacterial infections.

  9. Chemokine release from human rhinovirus-infected airway epithelial cells promotes fibroblast migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelfoon, Christopher; Shariff, Sami; Traves, Suzanne L; Kooi, Cora; Leigh, Richard; Proud, David

    2016-07-01

    Thickening of the lamina reticularis, a feature of remodeling in the asthmatic airways, is now known to be present in young children who wheeze. Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is a common trigger for childhood wheezing, which is a risk factor for subsequent asthma development. We hypothesized that HRV-infected epithelial cells release chemoattractants to recruit fibroblasts that could potentially contribute to thickening of the lamina reticularis. We sought to investigate whether conditioned medium from HRV-infected epithelial cells can trigger directed migration of fibroblasts. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone or infected with HRV-16. Conditioned medium from both conditions were tested as chemoattractants for human bronchial fibroblasts in the xCELLigence cell migration apparatus. HRV-conditioned medium was chemotactic for fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gαi-coupled receptors, prevented their migration. Production of epithelial chemoattractants required HRV replication. Multiplex analysis of epithelial supernatants identified CXCL10, CXCL8, and CCL5 as Gαi-coupled receptor agonists of potential interest. Subsequent analysis confirmed that fibroblasts express CXCR3 and CXCR1 receptors and that CXCL10 and, to a lesser extent, CXCL8, but not CCL5, are major contributors to fibroblast migration caused by HRV-conditioned medium. CXCL10 and CXCL8 produced from HRV-infected epithelial cells are chemotactic for fibroblasts. This raises the possibility that repeated HRV infections in childhood could contribute to the initiation and progression of airway remodeling in asthmatic patients by recruiting fibroblasts that produce matrix proteins and thicken the lamina reticularis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Downregulation of integrin β4 decreases the ability of airway epithelial cells to present antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Liu

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial cells have been demonstrated to be accessory antigen presentation cells (APC capable of activating T cells and may play an important role in the development of allergic airway inflammation of asthma. In asthmatic airways, loss of expression of the adhesion molecule integrin β4 (ITGB4 and an increase in Th2 inflammation bias has been observed in our previous study. Given that ITGB4 is engaged in multiple signaling pathways, we studied whether disruption of ITGB4-mediated cell adhesion may contribute to the adaptive immune response of epithelial cells, including their ability to present antigens, induce the activate and differentiate of T cells. We silenced ITGB4 expression in bronchial epithelial cells with an effective siRNA vector and studied the effects of ITGB4 silencing on the antigen presentation ability of airway epithelial cells. T cell proliferation and cytokine production was investigated after co-culturing with ITGB4-silenced epithelial cells. Surface expression of B7 homologs and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II was also detected after ITGB4 was silenced. Our results demonstrated that silencing of ITGB4 resulted in impaired antigen presentation processes and suppressed T cell proliferation. Meanwhile, decrease in Th1 cytokine production and increase in Th17 cytokine production was induced after co-culturing with ITGB4-silenced epithelial cells. Moreover, HLA-DR was decreased and the B7 homologs expression was different after ITGB4 silencing. Overall, this study suggested that downregulation of ITGB4 expression in airway epithelial cells could impair the antigen presentation ability of these cells, which further regulate airway inflammation reaction in allergic asthma.

  11. Coronavirus infection of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first host cells to be infected by incoming c oronaviruses. Recent observations in vitro show that coronaviruses are released from a specific side of these polarized cells, and this polarized release might be important for the spread of the infection in vivo. Mechanisms for

  12. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Promotes Pulmonary Epithelial Cell Senescence and Is Associated with COPD Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Ho; Chand, Hitendra S; Bruse, Shannon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Royer, Christopher; McDonald, Jacob; Qualls, Clifford; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Lin, Yong; Mallampalli, Rama; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Nyunoya, Toru

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is consistent in humans and animal models of COPD and to investigate the role of this protein in lung epithelial cells. CTGF in lung epithelial cells of ex-smokers with COPD was compared with ex-smokers without COPD by immunofluorescence. A total of twenty C57Bl/6 mice and sixteen non-human primates (NHPs) were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks. Ten mice of these CS-exposed mice and eight of the CS-exposed NHPs were infected with H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV), while the remaining ten mice and eight NHPs were mock-infected with vehicle as control. Both mRNA and protein expression of CTGF in lung epithelial cells of mice and NHPs were determined. The effects of CTGF overexpression on cell proliferation, p16 protein, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity were examined in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). In humans, CTGF expression increased with increasing COPD severity. We found that protein expression of CTGF was upregulated in lung epithelial cells in both mice and NHPs exposed to CS and infected with IAV compared to those exposed to CS only. When overexpressed in HBECs, CTGF accelerated cellular senescence accompanied by p16 accumulation. Both CTGF and p16 protein expression in lung epithelia are positively associated with the severity of COPD in ex-smokers. These findings show that CTGF is consistently expressed in epithelial cells of COPD lungs. By accelerating lung epithelial senescence, CTGF may block regeneration relative to epithelial cell loss and lead to emphysema.

  13. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  14. Demographics and cell types of bronchial carcinoma of a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, T K; Shahidullah, M; Debnath, C R; Hasan, I; Alam, N A; Paul, G K; Pandit, H

    2013-01-01

    Geographical and socio-economic factors such as climate, culture, ethnic origin, diet and life style such as smoking have been noted to influence the occurrence of bronchial carcinoma. We conducted this study to document the frequency of various histological types of bronchial carcinoma and correlated it with their demographic characteristics. This descriptive study was carried out among admitted patient with the suspicion of Bronchial carcinoma from January 2010 to January 2011 in medicine units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Among those only 30 consecutive histopathologically &/or cytological confirmed cases of Bronchial carcinoma were included in the study. No age, gender, environmental or occupational limits were applied for the selection of patients. Patients already diagnosed by some other hospital presenting to our unit with complications were not included in the study. Age rang were 26-70 years. Majority of patients i.e. 63.33% (n=19) were found to be in their fourth and sixth decade of life. Males were 86.66% (n=26) as compared to females 13.44% (n=4) and male to female ratio were 6.5:1. The majority of the patients were belonged to urban areas 63.34% (n=19), while 36.66% (n=11) came from the Rural population. In this study smokers were 86.66% (n=26) and nonsmokers were 13.33% (n=4). In Occupational distribution farmers were 33.33% (n=10), service holders were 20% (n=6), businessman were 16.66% (n=5), all the female were house wife 13.33% (n=4). Specimens for histopathological study were collected by trans-thoracic needle aspiration under CT or ultrasono-guided. The results of cell types in histopathologically proven 30 Bronchial carcinoma patients were; 10(33.36%) adenocarcinoma, 7(23.33%) squamous cell carcinoma, 6(20%) small cell carcinoma, 4(13.33%) large cell carcinoma and 3(10%) non-small cell carcinoma.

  15. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  16. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  17. Epithelial cell-cell junctions and plasma membrane domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    Epithelial cells form a barrier against the environment, but are also required for the regulated exchange of molecules between an organism and its surroundings. Epithelial cells are characterised by a remarkable polarization of their plasma membrane, evidenced by the appearance of structurally,

  18. Human Rhinovirus Infection of Epithelial Cells Modulates Airway Smooth Muscle Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Sami; Shelfoon, Christopher; Holden, Neil S; Traves, Suzanne L; Wiehler, Shahina; Kooi, Cora; Proud, David; Leigh, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Airway remodeling, a characteristic feature of asthma, begins in early life. Recurrent human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are a potential inciting stimulus for remodeling. One component of airway remodeling is an increase in airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) mass with a greater proximity of the ASMCs to the airway epithelium. We asked whether human bronchial epithelial cells infected with HRV produced mediators that are chemotactic for ASMCs. ASMC migration was investigated using the modified Boyden Chamber and the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer (ACEA Biosciences Inc., San Diego, CA). Multiplex bead analysis was used to measure HRV-induced epithelial chemokine release. The chemotactic effects of CCL5, CXCL8, and CXCL10 were also examined. Supernatants from HRV-infected epithelial cells caused ASMC chemotaxis. Pretreatment of ASMCs with pertussis toxin abrogated chemotaxis, as did treatment with formoterol, forskolin, or 8-bromo-cAMP. CCL5, CXCL8, and CXCL10 were the most up-regulated chemokines produced by HRV-infected airway epithelial cells. When recombinant CCL5, CXCL8, and CXCL10 were used at levels found in epithelial supernatants, they induced ASMC chemotaxis similar to that seen with epithelial cell supernatants. When examined individually, CCL5 was the most effective chemokine in causing ASMC migration, and treatment of supernatant from HRV-infected epithelial cells with anti-CCL5 antibodies significantly attenuated ASMC migration. These findings suggest that HRV-induced CCL5 can induce ASMC chemotaxis and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in patients with asthma.

  19. Silica induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Paul M; Perkins, Timothy N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Mossman, Brooke T; Reynaert, Niki L

    2013-02-12

    In myeloid cells the inflammasome plays a crucial role in innate immune defenses against pathogen- and danger-associated patterns such as crystalline silica. Respirable mineral particles impinge upon the lung epithelium causing irreversible damage, sustained inflammation and silicosis. In this study we investigated lung epithelial cells as a target for silica-induced inflammasome activation. A human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were exposed to toxic but nonlethal doses of crystalline silica over time to perform functional characterization of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, bFGF and HMGB1. Quantitative RT-PCR, caspase-1 enzyme activity assay, Western blot techniques, cytokine-specific ELISA and fibroblast (MRC-5 cells) proliferation assays were performed. We were able to show transcriptional and translational upregulation of the components of the NLRP3 intracellular platform, as well as activation of caspase-1. NLRP3 activation led to maturation of pro-IL-1β to secreted IL-1β, and a significant increase in the unconventional release of the alarmins bFGF and HMGB1. Moreover, release of bFGF and HMGB1 was shown to be dependent on particle uptake. Small interfering RNA experiments using siNLRP3 revealed the pivotal role of the inflammasome in diminished release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, danger molecules and growth factors, and fibroblast proliferation. Our novel data indicate the presence and functional activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells, which prolongs an inflammatory signal and affects fibroblast proliferation, mediating a cadre of lung diseases.

  20. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more hydroxylated as required...

  1. Role of Aspergillus fumigatus in Triggering Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Airway Epithelial Cells and Skewing the Cells toward a T-helper 2 Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Tetsuya; Kato, Atsushi; Bhushan, Bharat; Norton, James E; Suh, Lydia A; Carter, Roderick G; Gupta, Dave S; Schleimer, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) infection and sensitization are common and promote Th2 disease in individuals with asthma. Innate immune responses of bronchial epithelial cells are now known to play a key role in determination of T cell responses upon encounter with inhaled pathogens. We have recently shown that extracts of AF suppress JAK-STAT signaling in epithelial cells and thus may promote Th2 bias. To elucidate the impact of AF on human bronchial epithelial cells, we tested the hypothesis that AF can modulate the response of airway epithelial cells to favor a Th2 response and explored the molecular mechanism of the effect. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were treated with AF extract or fractionated AF extract before stimulation with poly I:C or infection with human rhinovirus serotype 16 (HRV16). Expression of CXCL10 mRNA (real-time RT-PCR) and protein (ELISA) were measured as markers of IFN-mediated epithelial Th1-biased responses. Western blot was performed to evaluate expression of IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), NF-κB, and tyrosine-protein phosphatase nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11), which are other markers of Th1 skewing. Knockdown experiments for protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and PTPN11 were performed to analyze the role of PAR-2 in the mechanism of suppression by AF. AF and a high-molecular-weight fraction of AF extract (HMW-AF; > 50 kD) profoundly suppressed poly I:C- and HRV16-induced expression of both CXCL10 mRNA and protein from NHBE cells via a mechanism that relied upon PAR-2 activation. Both AF extract and a specific PAR-2 activator (AC-55541) suppressed the poly I:C activation of phospho-IRF-3 without affecting activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HMW-AF extract enhanced the expression of PTPN11, a phosphatase known to inhibit IFN signaling, and concurrently suppressed poly I:C-induced expression of both CXCL10 mRNA and protein from NHBE cells. These results show that exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to AF extract

  2. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  3. Airway epithelial cell tolerance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verghese Margrith W

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The respiratory tract epithelium is a critical environmental interface that regulates inflammation. In chronic infectious airway diseases, pathogens may permanently colonize normally sterile luminal environments. Host-pathogen interactions determine the intensity of inflammation and thus, rates of tissue injury. Although many cells become refractory to stimulation by pathogen products, it is unknown whether the airway epithelium becomes either tolerant or hypersensitive in the setting of chronic infection. Our goals were to characterize the response of well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to understand whether repeated exposure induced tolerance and, if so, to explore the mechanism(s. Methods The apical surface of well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures was repetitively challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates or the bacterial media control. Toxicity, cytokine production, signal transduction events and specific effects of dominant negative forms of signaling molecules were examined. Additional experiments included using IL-1β and TNFα as challenge agents, and performing comparative studies with a novel airway epithelial cell line. Results An initial challenge of the apical surface of polarized human airway epithelial cells with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture filtrates induced phosphorylation of IRAK1, JNK, p38, and ERK, caused degradation of IκBα, generation of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factor activity, and resulted in IL-8 secretion, consistent with activation of the Toll-like receptor signal transduction pathway. These responses were strongly attenuated following a second Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or IL-1β, but not TNFα, challenge. Tolerance was associated with decreased IRAK1 protein content and kinase activity and dominant negative IRAK1 inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa -stimulated NF-κB transcriptional

  4. CDDO-Me protects normal lung and breast epithelial cells but not cancer cells from radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients.

  5. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie L. Holmes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D. Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

  6. Functional and cytometric examination of different human lung epithelial cell types as drug transport barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Kim, Chong-Kook; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-03-01

    To develop inhaled medications, various cell culture models have been used to examine the transcellular transport or cellular uptake properties of small molecules. For the reproducible high throughput screening of the inhaled drug candidates, a further verification of cell architectures as drug transport barriers can contribute to establishing appropriate in vitro cell models. In the present study, side-by-side experiments were performed to compare the structure and transport function of three lung epithelial cells (Calu-3, normal human bronchial primary cells (NHBE), and NL-20). The cells were cultured on the nucleopore membranes in the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture conditions, with cell culture medium in the basolateral side only, starting from day 1. In transport assays, paracellular transport across all three types of cells appeared to be markedly different with the NHBE or Calu-3 cells, showing low paracellular permeability and high TEER values, while the NL-20 cells showed high paracellular permeability and low TEER. Quantitative image analysis of the confocal microscope sections further confirmed that the Calu-3 cells formed intact cell monolayers in contrast to the NHBE and NL-20 cells with multilayers. Among three lung epithelial cell types, the Calu-3 cell cultures under the ALI condition showed optimal cytometric features for mimicking the biophysical characteristics of in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, the Calu-3 cell monolayers could be used as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeted drug transport studies.

  7. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  8. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  9. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump after curative lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, Caroline; Corbusier, Florence; Kyratzi, Eirini; Sokolow, Youri; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Goldman, Serge

    2016-05-01

    Focal areas of FDG uptake may occur at the bronchial stump following curative lobectomy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), even in the absence of suspicious CT changes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the significance of such PET/CT findings. FDG-PET/CT scans performed in 54 patients after lobectomy for NSCLC were reviewed. The presence of focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump, associated CT abnormalities, SUVmax, and normalized SUV (SUVnorm = SUVmax/mean liver SUV) were recorded. Final diagnosis was based on biopsy or imaging follow-up. Focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump were detected in 30 patients (56 %). Mean SUVmax was 4.0 ± 1.9 (range; 2.2-12.1) and mean SUVnorm was 1.8 ± 0.8 (range; 0.9-4.5). Biopsy showed recurrence in two patients. In these patients, SUVnorm was respectively 4.4 and 4.5 (with SUVmax of 8.8 and 12.1), whereas SUVnorm was lower than 4.0 in those without recurrence, with mean SUVnorm of 1.6 ± 0.5 (range; 0.9-3.4) and mean SUVmax of 3.6 ± 0.9 (range; 2.2-5.8). The CT component of the PET/CT revealed ill-defined peribronchial soft tissue opacity only in both patients with recurrence. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump is a frequent finding after pulmonary lobectomy. Moderate levels of FDG uptake (i.e., SUVnorm < 4.0) without corresponding abnormal CT findings might be a dual criterion for diagnosing benign post-surgical changes.

  10. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump after curative lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyzer, Caroline; Corbusier, Florence; Kyratzi, Eirini; Gevenois, Pierre Alain [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Sokolow, Youri [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium); Goldman, Serge [Universite libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    Focal areas of FDG uptake may occur at the bronchial stump following curative lobectomy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), even in the absence of suspicious CT changes. The purpose of our study was to investigate the significance of such PET/CT findings. FDG-PET/CT scans performed in 54 patients after lobectomy for NSCLC were reviewed. The presence of focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump, associated CT abnormalities, SUVmax, and normalized SUV (SUVnorm = SUVmax/mean liver SUV) were recorded. Final diagnosis was based on biopsy or imaging follow-up. Focal areas of FDG uptake at the bronchial stump were detected in 30 patients (56 %). Mean SUVmax was 4.0 ± 1.9 (range; 2.2-12.1) and mean SUVnorm was 1.8 ± 0.8 (range; 0.9-4.5). Biopsy showed recurrence in two patients. In these patients, SUVnorm was respectively 4.4 and 4.5 (with SUVmax of 8.8 and 12.1), whereas SUVnorm was lower than 4.0 in those without recurrence, with mean SUVnorm of 1.6 ± 0.5 (range; 0.9-3.4) and mean SUVmax of 3.6 ± 0.9 (range; 2.2-5.8). The CT component of the PET/CT revealed ill-defined peribronchial soft tissue opacity only in both patients with recurrence. FDG uptake at the bronchial stump is a frequent finding after pulmonary lobectomy. Moderate levels of FDG uptake (i.e., SUVnorm < 4.0) without corresponding abnormal CT findings might be a dual criterion for diagnosing benign post-surgical changes. (orig.)

  11. [Bronchial asthma pathogenesis and genetic prognosis development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmasova, I P; Sepiashvili, R I; Sepiashvili, Ia R; Malova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review is dedicated to an actual problem--genetic prognosis of risk of bronchial asthma development that is quite a complex aspect of studies from a methodological viewpoint. Bronchial asthma--heterogeneous disease by both etiology and clinical characteristics. At the same time genetic prognosis is based on the unity of pathogenetic mechanisms of development, though in immunological reactions that are the base of this disease, alternative variants are possible. The aim of this review is carrying out parallels between modern achievements in the field of deciphering trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma pathogenesis and object of genetic studies based on these mechanisms. Among the examined conceptions--role of epithelial tissue in trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma, variants of key role of immune system cells, first of all, T-helpers of various types for further development of inflammatory-effector reactions with damage characteristic for this disease. Compliance of contemporary approaches of genetic studies and novel concepts of bronchial asthma pathogenesis is shown.

  12. Effects of vitamin D on airway epithelial cell morphology and rhinovirus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brockman-Schneider

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been linked to reduced risk of viral respiratory illness. We hypothesized that vitamin D could directly reduce rhinovirus (RV replication in airway epithelium. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC were treated with vitamin D, and RV replication and gene expression were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cytokine/chemokine secretion was measured by ELISA, and transepithelial resistance (TER was determined using a voltohmmeter. Morphology was examined using immunohistochemistry. Vitamin D supplementation had no significant effects on RV replication, but potentiated secretion of CXCL8 and CXCL10 from infected or uninfected cells. Treatment with vitamin D in the form of 1,25(OH2D caused significant changes in cell morphology, including thickening of the cell layers (median of 46.5 µm [35.0-69.0] vs. 30 µm [24.5-34.2], p<0.01 and proliferation of cytokeratin-5-expressing cells, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. Similar effects were seen for 25(OHD. In addition to altering morphology, higher concentrations of vitamin D significantly upregulated small proline-rich protein (SPRR1β expression (6.3 fold-induction, p<0.01, suggestive of squamous metaplasia. Vitamin D treatment of hBECs did not alter repair of mechanically induced wounds. Collectively, these findings indicate that vitamin D does not directly affect RV replication in airway epithelial cells, but can influence chemokine synthesis and alters the growth and differentiation of airway epithelial cells.

  13. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...experience in ovary research (ovarian physiology , oogonial stem cells) to work on this project. We also ! 5! obtained approval of our animal

  14. Arsenic compromises conducting airway epithelial barrier properties in primary mouse and immortalized human cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Sherwood

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM and submicromolar (0.8 μM arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-. We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway.

  15. Lactobacillus decelerates cervical epithelial cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Vielfort

    Full Text Available We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells.

  16. MUCOUS CELLS IN THE EPITHELIAL LINING OF DENTIGEROUS CYST

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiksha; Sangeeta; Sumanta; Prashanti; Sathyajitraje; Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial lining of both the developmental and inflammatory cysts of odontogenic origin are primarily composed of squamous epithelium. Various forms of metaplasia and degenerations are observed in these epithelial linings e.g. mucous cells, ciliated cells, para and/or orthokeratinization and formation of hyaline bodies. The present study was designed to investigate the incidences of mucous cells in the epithelial lining of dentigerous cyst. Mucous cells were observed ...

  17. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  18. Neurotrophins in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renz Harald

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic bronchial asthma (BA is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, development of airway hyperreactivity and recurrent reversible airway obstruction. T-helper 2 cells and their products have been shown to play an important role in this process. In contrast, the mechanisms by which immune cells interact with the cells residing in lung and airways, such as neurons, epithelial or smooth muscle cells, still remains uncertain. Sensory and motor neurons innervating the lung exhibit a great degree of functional plasticity in BA defined as 'neuronal plasticity'. These neurons control development of airway hyperresponsiveness and acute inflammatory responses, resulting in the concept of 'neurogenic inflammation'. Such quantitative and/or qualitative changes in neuronal functions are mediated to a great extent by a family of cytokines, the neurotrophins, which in turn are produced by activated immune cells, among others in BA. We have therefore developed the concept that neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor link pathogenic events in BA to dysfunctions of the immune and nervous system.

  19. Cell reintegration: Stray epithelial cells make their way home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tyler J; Bergstralh, Dan T

    2017-06-01

    Ongoing work shows that misplaced epithelial cells have the capacity to reintegrate back into tissue layers. This movement appears to underlie tissue stability and may also control aspects of tissue structure. A recent study reveals that cell reintegration in at least one tissue, the Drosophila follicular epithelium, is based on adhesion molecules that line lateral cell surfaces. In this article we will review these observations, discuss their implications for epithelial tissue development and maintenance, and identify future directions for study. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of epiplakin-knockdown in cultured corneal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kokado, Masahide; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate effects of knockdown of epiplakin gene expression on the homeostasis of cultured corneal epithelial cell line. We previously reported acceleration of corneal epithelial wound healing in an epiplakin-null mouse. Methods Gene expression of epiplakin was knockdowned by employing siRNA transfection in SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line. Protein expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin was examined by western blotting. Cell migration and prolifer...

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin directly oxidizes glutathione and decreases its levels in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Yunxia Q; Reszka, Krzysztof J; Spitz, Douglas R; Denning, Gerene M; Britigan, Bradley E

    2004-07-01

    Production of pyocyanin enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence. Many of pyocyanin's in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic effects on human cells appear to result from its ability to redox cycle. Pyocyanin directly accepts electrons from NADH or NADPH with subsequent electron transfer to oxygen, generating reactive oxygen species. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an important cellular antioxidant, and it contributes to the regulation of redox-sensitive signaling systems. Using the human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and the A549 human type II alveolar epithelial cell lines, we tested the hypothesis that pyocyanin can deplete airway epithelial cells of GSH. Incubation of both cell types with pyocyanin led to a concentration-dependent loss of cellular GSH (up to 50%) and an increase in oxidized GSH (GSSG) in the HBE, but not A549 cells, at 24 h. An increase in total GSH, mostly as GSSG, was detected in the culture media, suggesting export of GSH or GSSG from the pyocyanin-exposed cells. Loss of GSH could be due to pyocyanin-induced H(2)O(2) formation. However, overexpression of catalase only partially prevented the pyocyanin-mediated decline in cellular GSH. Cell-free electron paramagnetic resonance studies revealed that pyocyanin directly oxidizes GSH, forming pyocyanin free radical and O(2)(-). Pyocyanin oxidized other thiol-containing compounds, cysteine and N-acetyl-cysteine, but not methionine. Thus GSH may enhance pyocyanin-induced cytotoxicity by functioning as an alternative source of reducing equivalents for pyocyanin redox cycling. Pyocyanin-mediated alterations in cellular GSH may alter epithelial cell functions by modulating redox sensitive signaling events.

  2. Novel application of artificial dermis plus autologous vital epithelial cells: improved wound epithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Tzu; Kwan, Po-Cheung; Wong, Yong-Kie

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate artificial dermis with the simultaneous addition of autologous epithelial cells for oral lesion defect reconstruction. Surgical wounds reconstructed with artificial dermis plus scraped epithelial cells were evaluated in 5 patients with oral benign lesions or squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical follow-up indices included scar formation and tissue surface texture observation. The neomucosal layers were analyzed histologically to establish the degree of epithelialization. Clinical observation showed that the oral mucosal texture was smoother in artificial dermis with added epithelial cells at 4 weeks postoperation compared with artificial dermis alone. The wound contraction and scar formation processes were slow. Viable epithelial cells with flat rete ridges remained in the artificial dermis, and a neoepithelial layer was present in the histological findings. We showed that healthy granulation tissue and neoepithelial formation in artificial dermis with epithelial cells was beneficial for the repair of oral defects. Scraping oral epithelial cells and applying them to artificial dermis assisted in the early preparation of composite grafts and minimized requirement for donor sites. This technique may improve the treatment of patients with oral benign tumors and early-stage squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of epithelial cell polarity by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Rocio; Kralicek, Sarah E; Hecht, Gail A

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial cells constitute a physical barrier that aids in protecting the host from microbial pathogens. Polarized epithelial cells contain distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains separated by intercellular junctions, including tight junctions (TJs), which contribute to the maintenance of apical-basal polarity. Polarity complexes also contribute to the establishment of TJ formation. Several pathogens perturb epithelial TJ barrier function and structure in addition to causing a loss of apical-basal polarity. Here, we review the impact of pathogenic bacteria on the disruption of cell-cell junctions and epithelial polarity. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Small RNA profiling reveals deregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in bronchial smooth muscle cells from asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Elena; Miglino, Nicola; Hashim, Adnan; Nassa, Giovanni; Stellato, Claudia; Tamm, Michael; Baty, Florent; Brutsche, Martin; Weisz, Alessandro; Borger, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in particular, define several pathologic processes. Asthma is characterized by airway hyperreactivity, chronic inflammation, and airway wall remodeling. Asthma-specific miRNA profiles were reported for bronchial epithelial cells, whereas sncRNA expression in asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) cells is almost completely unexplored. We sought to determine whether the primary BSM sncRNA expression profile is altered in asthmatic patients and identify targets of differentially expressed sncRNAs. Small RNA sequencing was used for sncRNA profiling in BSM cells (from 8 asthmatic and 6 nonasthmatic subjects). sncRNA identification and differential expression analysis was performed with iMir software. Experimentally validated miRNA targets were identified by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and putative piRNA targets were identified by using miRanda software. BSM cells from asthmatic patients showed abnormal expression of 32 sncRNAs (26 miRNAs, 5 piRNAs, and 1 small nucleolar RNA). Target prediction for deregulated miRNAs and piRNAs revealed experimentally validated and predicted mRNA targets expressed in the BSM cells. Thirty-eight of these mRNAs represent major targets for deregulated miRNAs and might play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma. Interestingly, 6 of these mRNAs were previously associated with asthma, considered as novel therapeutic targets for treatment of this disease, or both. Signaling pathway analysis revealed involvement of 38 miRNA-targeted mRNAs in increased cell proliferation through phosphatase and tensin homolog and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. BSM cells of asthmatic patients are characterized by aberrant sncRNA expression that recapitulates multiple pathologic phenotypes of these cells. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  6. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  7. Interferon-β induces a long-lasting antiviral state in human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaajetaan, Giel R; Geelen, Tanja H; Vernooy, Juanita H; Dentener, Mieke A; Reynaert, Niki L; Rohde, Gernot G; Beuken, Erik V; Grauls, Gert E; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Stassen, Frank R

    2013-02-01

    Interferon-β (IFNβ) induces strong antiviral effects and is therefore an attractive agent to prevent or reduce the incidence of virus-mediated exacerbations in asthmatic or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We therefore investigated the effects of prophylactic IFNβ on respiratory epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus (RV). A549 cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed for 18 h to IFNβ. Then, IFNβ was either removed or maintained in the supernatant for the rest of the experiment and cells were infected with RV-1B at t = 0 or 72 h after the initial exposure to IFNβ. Viral RNA levels were decreased in both cell types. Furthermore, both viral RNA and infectious virus levels in the supernatant of infected A549 cells were still significantly reduced at 72 h after removal of IFNβ. This pronounced antiviral pre-treatment effect was associated with increased expression of the antiviral genes IFN-stimulated protein of MR15000 (ISG15) and Myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) and the effect was maintained even when IFNβ levels in the supernatant of A549 cells were undetectable. These data show that IFNβ has not only a strong, but also a long-lasting protective effect against RV infection of respiratory epithelium. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Dyall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis is becoming more widely accepted as a model for carcinogenesis. Tumours are heterogeneous both at the molecular and cellular level, containing a small population of cells that possess highly tumourigenic “stem-cell” properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumour-initiating cells, have the ability to self-renew, generate xenografts reminiscent of the primary tumour that they were derived from, and are chemoresistant. The characterisation of the CSC population within a tumour that drives its growth could provide novel target therapeutics against these cells specifically, eradicating the cancer completely. There have been several reports describing the isolation of putative cancer stem cell populations in several cancers; however, no defined set of markers has been identified that conclusively characterises “stem-like” cancer cells. This paper highlights the current experimental approaches that have been used in the field and discusses their limitations, with specific emphasis on the identification and characterisation of the CSC population in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  9. The Contribution of the Airway Epithelial Cell to Host Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Frauke Stanke

    2015-01-01

    In the context of cystic fibrosis, the epithelial cell has been characterized in terms of its ion transport capabilities. The ability of an epithelial cell to initiate CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport has been recognized early as a means to regulate the thickness of the epithelial lining fluid and recently as a means to regulate the pH, thereby determining critically whether or not host defense proteins such as mucins are able to fold appropriately. This review describes how t...

  10. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Intestinal transport: studies with isolated epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmich, G.A.

    1979-12-01

    Isolated intestinal epithelial cells have been extremely useful for characterizing the nature of intestinal absorption processes and for providing insight into the energetics of Na/sup +/-dependent transport systems. This report describes a number of experimental approaches which have been used for investigating the specific epithelial transport systems involved in sugar absorption, but provides information which ultimately should prove useful for characterizing a number of different intestinal transport events. Similar experiments should also prove useful for exploring the effect of environmental agents on the function of intestinal tissue. In the case of sugars, net absorption is accomplished via a mucosal, Na/sup +/-dependent concentrative transport system acting in sequence with a passive serosal system which does not require Na/sup +/. The serosal system limits the full gradient-forming capability of the muscosal system. Agents such as phloretin or cytochalasin B which inhibit serosal transport allow the cells to establish sugar gradients as high as 70 fold in contrast to 10 to 15 fold gradients observed for control cells. Sevety-fold sugar gradients cannot be explained in terms of the energy available in the electrochemical potential for Na/sup +/ if the Na/sub 2/: sugar coupling stoichiometry is 1:1 as commonly assumed. New information indicates that the true Na/sup +/:sugar stoichiometry is in fact 2:1. Flow of two Na/sup +/ ions per sugar molecule down the transmembrane electrochemical potential for Na/sup +/ provides more than sufficient energy to account for observed 70 fold sugar gradients. If flow of sugar by other routes could be completely inhibited, theoretical sugar gradients as high as 400 could be achieved assuming that the cells maintain a membrane potential of -36 mV as measured for intact tissue.

  12. Brief exposure to cigarette smoke impairs airway epithelial cell innate anti-viral defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jayden; Chen, Linping; Gangell, Catherine; Sly, Peter D; Fantino, Emmanuelle; Liu, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Human rhinovirus (hRV) infections commonly cause acute upper respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations. Environmental cigarette smoke exposure is associated with a significant increase in the risk for these infections in children. To determine the impact of short-term exposure to cigarette smoke on innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells infected with hRV. A human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBEC-3KT) was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 30 min and subsequently infected with hRV serotype 1B. Viral-induced cytokine release was measured with AlphaLISA and viral replication quantified by shed viral titer and intracellular viral copy number 24h post-infection. CSE induced a concentration-dependent decrease in CXCL10 (peffects were maintained when infection was delayed up to 24h post CSE exposure. Exogenous IFN-β treatment at t=0 after infection blunts the effects of CSE on viral replication (pexposure of 30 min to cigarette smoke has a lasting impact on epithelial innate defence providing a plausible mechanism for the increase in respiratory infections seen in children exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium induces apoptosis in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sadanandan, Bindu; Thomas, Renard; Wilson, Bobby L. [Texas Southern University, Environmental Toxicology Program, Department of Chemistry, Houston, TX (United States); Ravichandran, Prabakaran; Sharma, Chidananda S.; Ramesh, Vani; Hall, Joseph C.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T. [Norfolk State University, Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive material present everywhere in the environment. It is toxic because of its chemical or radioactive properties. Uranium enters environment mainly from mines and industry and cause threat to human health by accumulating in lungs as a result of inhalation. In our previous study, we have shown the effectiveness of antioxidant system response to the oxidative stress induced by uranyl acetate (UA) in rat lung epithelial (LE) cells. As part of our continuing studies; here, we investigated the mechanism underlying when LE cells are exposed to different concentration of UA. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptotic signaling pathways. LE cells treated with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM of UA results in dose and time-dependent increase in activity of both caspases-3 and -8. Increase in the concentration of cytochrome-c oxidase in cytosol was seen in LE cells treated with 1 mM UA as a result of mitochondria membrane permeability. The cytochrome-c leakage may trigger the apoptotic pathway. TUNEL assay performed in LE cells treated with 1 mM of UA showed significant incorporation of dNTPs in the nucleus after 24 h. In the presence of the caspase inhibitors, we observed the significant decrease in the activity of caspases-8 and -3 in 0.5 and 1 mM UA-treated LE cells. (orig.)

  14. Cigarette smoke decreases innate responses of epithelial cells to rhinovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Jane; Lee, Rachel U; Doerner, Astrid M; Herschbach, Jack; Zuraw, Bruce L

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with a significant increase in the risk for respiratory viral infections. The airway epithelium is the primary target for both cigarette smoke and respiratory viral infection. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on the response of airway epithelial cells to rhinovirus infection. We found that pre-exposure of BEAS-2B cells or primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) reduced the induction of mRNA of the chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5 by either the viral mimic polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) or human rhinovirus 16 (HRV-16) infection. The HRV-16-induced release of CXCL10 and CCL5 was also significantly suppressed by CSE. Activation of the IFN mediator STAT-1 and the activation of JNK by poly I:C and HRV-16 were partially suppressed by pre-exposure to CSE. In contrast, the poly I:C-induced and HRV-16-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was unaffected by CSE. HRV-16-stimulated IFN-β mRNA was also significantly reduced by CSE. Because suppression of the IFN response to viral infection was associated with increased viral production, we assessed HRV-16 RNA concentrations. Exposure to CSE resulted in an increase in HRV-16 RNA at 48 hours after the infection of BEAS-2B cells. These data demonstrate that exposure to CSE alters the response of airway epithelial cells to HRV infection, leading to decreased activation of the IFN-STAT-1 and SAP-JNK pathways, the suppression of CXCL10 and CCL5 production, and increased viral RNA. A diminished, early epithelial-initiated antiviral response to rhinovirus infection could contribute to the increased susceptibility of subjects to prolonged respiratory viral infections after exposure to cigarette smoke.

  15. Bronchial thermoplasty and the role of airway smooth muscle: are we on the right direction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzella F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Menzella,1 Mirco Lusuardi,2 Carla Galeone,1 Nicola Facciolongo1 1Department of Medical Specialties, Pneumology Unit, IRCCS – Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, 2Unit of Respiratory Rehabilitation, AUSL Reggio Emilia, S Sebastiano Hospital, Correggio, Italy Abstract: Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways that includes eosinophils, basal membrane thickening, epithelial sloughing, vascular changes, smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and mucous gland hyperplasia. Recently, there have been studies on the role of hypersensitivity and inflammation in asthma, but the role of bronchial smooth muscle remains unclear. Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic procedure that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of severe refractory asthma, based on the local delivery of radio frequency at 65°C to the airways, with the aim of controlling bronchospasm through a reduction of airway smooth muscle (ASM. Several recent studies have shown significant improvement in clinical outcomes of bronchial thermoplasty for asthma, including symptom control, reduction in exacerbation and hospitalization rates, improved quality of life, and reduction in number of working days or school days lost due to asthma. Data from these recent studies have shown reduction in ASM following bronchial thermoplasty and changes in inflammation patterns. It has also been argued that bronchial thermoplasty may have modulating effects on neuroendocrine epithelial cells, bronchial nerve endings, TRPV1 nerve receptors, and type-C unmyelinated fibers in the bronchial mucosa. This may involve interrupting the central and local reflexes responsible for the activation of bronchospasm in the presence of bronchial hyperreactivity. Several questions remain regarding the use of bronchial thermoplasty, mechanism of action, selection of appropriate patients, and long-term effects. In this review, the role of ASM in the

  16. Nutrients released by gastric epithelial cells enhance Helicobacter pylori growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Karin; van der Ende, Arie

    2004-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori survives and proliferates in the human gastric mucosa. In this niche, H. pylori adheres to the gastric epithelial cells near the tight junctions. In vitro, H. pylori proliferated well in tissue-culture medium near gastric epithelial cells. However, in the absence of

  17. In vitro effect of smokeless tobacco on gingival epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Beklen

    2017-05-01

    Epithelial cells are the first line of defense against pathogens in the oral cavity. The results suggest that smokeless tobacco not only inhibits the growth of epithelial cells but also induce the generation of inflammatory cytokines which leads to smokeless tobacco-exacerbated disease.

  18. Heterogeneity and stochastic growth regulation of biliary epithelial cells dictate dynamic epithelial tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Kenji; Kaneko, Kota; Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Okada, Hajime; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2016-07-19

    Dynamic remodeling of the intrahepatic biliary epithelial tissue plays key roles in liver regeneration, yet the cellular basis for this process remains unclear. We took an unbiased approach based on in vivo clonal labeling and tracking of biliary epithelial cells in the three-dimensional landscape, in combination with mathematical simulation, to understand their mode of proliferation in a mouse liver injury model where the nascent biliary structure formed in a tissue-intrinsic manner. An apparent heterogeneity among biliary epithelial cells was observed: whereas most of the responders that entered the cell cycle upon injury exhibited a limited and tapering growth potential, a select population continued to proliferate, making a major contribution in sustaining the biliary expansion. Our study has highlighted a unique mode of epithelial tissue dynamics, which depends not on a hierarchical system driven by fixated stem cells, but rather, on a stochastically maintained progenitor population with persistent proliferative activity.

  19. The Pseudomonas secretory product pyocyanin inhibits catalase activity in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Yunxia Q; Reszka, Krzysztof J; Rasmussen, George T; Abdalla, Maher Y; Denning, Gerene M; Britigan, Bradley E

    2003-11-01

    Pyocyanin, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has many deleterious effects on human cells that relate to its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Human cells possess several mechanisms to protect themselves from ROS, including manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and catalase. Given the link between pyocyanin-mediated epithelial cell injury and oxidative stress, we assessed pyocyanin's effect on MnSOD, CuZnSOD, and catalase levels in the A549 human alveolar epithelial cell line and in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. In both cell types, CuZnSOD and MnSOD were unaltered, but over 24 h pyocyanin significantly decreased cellular catalase activity and protein content. Pyocyanin also decreased catalase mRNA. Overexpression of MnSOD in A549 cells prevented pyocyanin-mediated loss of catalase protein, but catalase activity still declined. Furthermore, pyocyanin decreased catalase activity, but not protein, in A549 cells overexpressing human catalase. These data suggest a direct effect of pyocyanin on catalase activity. Addition of pyocyanin to catalase in a cell-free system also decreased catalase activity. Mammalian catalase binds four NADPH molecules, helping maintain enzyme activity. Spin-trapping data suggest that pyocyanin directly oxidizes this NADPH, producing superoxide. We conclude that pyocyanin may decrease cellular catalase activity via both transcriptional regulation and direct inactivation of the enzyme. Decreased cellular catalase activity and failure to augment MnSOD could contribute to pyocyanin-dependent cytotoxicity.

  20. Isolation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kathryn; Albares, Luke; Wendt, Chris; Hubel, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The long-term outcome of lung transplants is poor with 60%-70% of patients developing chronic rejection. Chronic rejection is manifested histologically by obliterative bronchiolitis with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the clinical surrogate. Recent studies suggest that fibroblasts and epithelial cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) may be a clinically relevant biomarker for BOS. The goal of this investigation was to develop a fast, repeatable method to individually isolate these low-frequency cell types. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells were isolated from BAL using attachment methods and the phenotype of the cells confirmed using immunostaining for vimentin (fibroblasts) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, epithelial cells). Both fibroblasts and epithelial cells were isolated in every sample of BAL processed with the frequency of fibroblasts ranging from 0.03% to 0.48% and epithelial cells ranging from 0.05% to 1.5% of the total sample. Additional studies were performed using cytospins of cells after macrophages were depleted; cells exhibiting characteristics of both fibroblasts and epithelial cells were observed. The frequency of the cells of interest suggests that conventional methods of immunomagnetic isolation will not be effective in isolating these subpopulations. Finally, some of the low-frequency cells isolated via cytospin exhibit characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (which was not observed in plating incubations), indicating that the epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition fibroblasts may be nonadherent. In future studies, this technique and dataset may be of use to statistically correlate low-frequency cell type abundance to the onset and development of BOS.

  1. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  2. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  3. CXCR3 surface expression in human airway epithelial cells: cell cycle dependence and effect on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mark O; Yang, Yi; Ji, Rong; Reddy, P J; Shahabuddin, Syed; Litvin, Judith; Rogers, Thomas J; Kelsen, Steven G

    2006-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) constitutively express the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3, which when activated, induces directed cell migration. The present study in HBEC examined the relative expression of the CXCR3 splice variants CXCR3-A and -B, cell cycle dependence of CXCR3 expression, and the effects of the CXCR3 ligand, the interferon-gamma-inducible CXC chemokine I-TAC/CXCL11, on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Both CXCR3-A and -B mRNA, assessed by real-time RT-PCR, were expressed in normal HBEC (NHBEC) and the HBEC line 16-HBE. However, CXCR3-B mRNA was 39- and 6-fold greater than CXCR3-A mRNA in NHBEC and 16-HBE, respectively. Although most HBEC (>80%) assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy contained intracellular CXCR3, only a minority (75%) were in the S + G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle. Stimulation of CXCR3 with I-TAC enhanced thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation and increased p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data indicate that 1) human airway epithelial cells primarily express CXCR3-B mRNA, 2) surface expression of CXCR3 is largely confined to the S + G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle, and 3) activation of CXCR3 induces DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and activation of MAPK pathways. We speculate that activation of CXCR3 exerts a mitogenic effect in HBEC, which may be important during airway mucosal injury in obstructive airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Increased fucosyl glycoconjugate by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances adherences of Pasteurella multocida type A in the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-02-03

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of how Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae enhances secondary Pasteurella multocida type A infection which leads to porcine enzootic pneumonia in infected pigs. Sixteen pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae and then euthanized at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post inoculation. In situ hybridization for M. hyopneumoniae DNA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin histochemistry for fucosyl glycoconjugate, was performed in serial lung sections to determine alteration of fucosyl glycoconjugate in M. hyopneumoniae-infected bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Bacterial overlay assay was performed to determine the affinity of P. multocida type A with L-fucose. The luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells that were stained with UEA-I always showed hybridization signals for M. hyopneumoniae but it was negative in the unaffected parts of the lung from M. hyopneumoniae-infected pigs and in lung from negative control pigs. Colocalization of M. hyopneumoniae and UEA-I was especially prominent in the luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells in serial section of lung. The mean number of M. hyopneumoniae-positive cells correlated with the mean number of UEA-I-positive cells in lungs from infected pigs throughout the experiment. All eight P. multocida type A isolates from naturally occurring enzootic pneumonia, bound strongly at levels of 2 μg and 5 μg of L-fucose. The results of the present study demonstrate that M. hyopneumoniae increases the L-fucose composition to enhance adherence of P. multocida type A to the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells.

  5. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  6. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio eRojas; Yolanda eLorenzo; Kristiane eHuag-Berg; Bjørn eNicolaissen; Mahara eValverde

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many org...

  7. miR-126 is downregulated in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells and regulates TOM1 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oglesby, Irene K

    2010-02-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases in which the role of microRNAs has yet to be explored. Predicted to be regulated by miR-126, TOM1 (target of Myb1) has been shown to interact with Toll-interacting protein, forming a complex to regulate endosomal trafficking of ubiquitinated proteins. TOM1 has also been proposed as a negative regulator of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-induced signaling pathways. MiR-126 is highly expressed in the lung, and we now show for the first time differential expression of miR-126 in CF versus non-CF airway epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-126 downregulation in CF bronchial epithelial cells correlated with a significant upregulation of TOM1 mRNA, both in vitro and in vivo when compared with their non-CF counterparts. Introduction of synthetic pre-miR-126 inhibited luciferase activity in a reporter system containing the full length 3\\'-untranslated region of TOM1 and resulted in decreased TOM1 protein production in CF bronchial epithelial cells. Following stimulation with LPS or IL-1beta, overexpression of TOM1 was found to downregulate NF-kappaB luciferase activity. Conversely, TOM1 knockdown resulted in a significant increase in NF-kappaB regulated IL-8 secretion. These data show that miR-126 is differentially regulated in CF versus non-CF airway epithelial cells and that TOM1 is a miR-126 target that may have an important role in regulating innate immune responses in the CF lung. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report of a role for TOM1 in the TLR2\\/4 signaling pathways and the first to describe microRNA involvement in CF.

  8. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  9. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  10. Quantitative assessment of cytosolic Salmonella in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Knodler

    Full Text Available Within mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium inhabits a membrane-bound vacuole known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV. We have recently shown that wild type S. Typhimurium also colonizes the cytosol of epithelial cells. Here we sought to quantify the contribution of cytosolic Salmonella to the total population over a time course of infection in different epithelial cell lines and under conditions of altered vacuolar escape. We found that the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, acts on vacuolar, but not cytosolic, Salmonella. After chloroquine treatment, vacuolar bacteria are not transcriptionally active or replicative and appear degraded. Using a chloroquine resistance assay, in addition to digitonin permeabilization, we found that S. Typhimurium lyses its nascent vacuole in numerous epithelial cell lines, albeit with different frequencies, and hyper-replication in the cytosol is also widespread. At later times post-infection, cytosolic bacteria account for half of the total population in some epithelial cell lines, namely HeLa and Caco-2 C2Bbe1. Both techniques accurately measured increased vacuole lysis in epithelial cells upon treatment with wortmannin. By chloroquine resistance assay, we also determined that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1, but not SPI-2, the virulence plasmid nor the flagellar apparatus, was required for vacuolar escape and cytosolic replication in epithelial cells. Together, digitonin permeabilization and the chloroquine resistance assay will be useful, complementary tools for deciphering the mechanisms of SCV lysis and Salmonella replication in the epithelial cell cytosol.

  11. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

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    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial

  12. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  13. A systems toxicology approach for comparative assessment: Biological impact of an aerosol from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and cigarette smoke on human organotypic bronchial epithelial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R; Mathis, Carole; Schlage, Walter K; Frentzel, Stefan; Leroy, Patrice; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Ortega-Torres, Laura; Johne, Stephanie; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Kratzer, Gilles; Merg, Celine; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    This study reports a comparative assessment of the biological impact of a heated tobacco aerosol from the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2 and smoke from a combustible 3R4F cigarette. Human organotypic bronchial epithelial cultures were exposed to an aerosol from THS2.2 (a candidate modified-risk tobacco product) or 3R4F smoke at similar nicotine concentrations. A systems toxicology approach was applied to enable a comprehensive exposure impact assessment. Culture histology, cytotoxicity, secreted pro-inflammatory mediators, ciliary beating, and genome-wide mRNA/miRNA profiles were assessed at various time points post-exposure. Series of experimental repetitions were conducted to increase the robustness of the assessment. At similar nicotine concentrations, THS2.2 aerosol elicited lower cytotoxicity compared with 3R4F smoke. No morphological change was observed following exposure to THS2.2 aerosol, even at nicotine concentration three times that of 3R4F smoke. Lower levels of secreted mediators and fewer miRNA alterations were observed following exposure to THS2.2 aerosol than following 3R4F smoke. Based on the computational analysis of the gene expression changes, 3R4F (0.13 mg nicotine/L) elicited the highest biological impact (100%) in the context of Cell Fate, Cell Proliferation, Cell Stress, and Inflammatory Network Models at 4 h post-exposure. Whereas, the corresponding impact of THS2.2 (0.14 mg nicotine/L) was 7.6%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

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    Emilio eRojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes.Over a thirty year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been litlle employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  15. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  16. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

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    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  17. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

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    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  18. The presence of specialized epithelial cells on the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in the mouse.

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    Tango, M; Suzuki, E; Gejyo, F; Ushiki, T

    2000-03-01

    The aggregation of lymphoid cells in the bronchial mucosa has been named the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and investigated in comparison with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). To elucidate precisely the structure and function of the BALT, the present study examined the age-related change in the mouse BALT by light microscopy. We also observed the characteristics of the overlying epithelium, especially the lectin-binding properties of the epithelial cells, by the combined use of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By LM, lymphoid aggregates were not recognizable in the bronchial mucosa of young (8-10 week-old) mice, while they were commonly found at the second to fourth branching portions of the bronchial tree in older (32-40 week-old) mice. The epithelium overlying the lymphoid aggregates of the mature mice often contained a large number of mononuclear cells. Lectin cytochemistry revealed that UEA1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1) positive cells were not only restricted to the overlying epithelium of the BALT in the older mice but also found in a cell group in the mucous epithelium at the branching portions in the young mice. Comparison between the LM and SEM images of the UEA1-stained whole mount specimens clarified the surface morphology of the lectin-stained epithelial cells, showing them to be non-ciliated cells with a large number of short microvillous projections on the apical surface. TEM studies further demonstrated that the UEA1 reaction products appeared on the plasma membrane of the non-ciliated cells which often enfolded lymphocytes in the old mice. Latex microbeads, which were administrated intratracheally, were selectively taken up by the UEA1-positive cells of the BALT. These results indicate that the mouse BALT has specialized epithelial cells similar to the UEA1 positive M cells in the GALT and probably functions as a part of the mucosal immune system. This study

  19. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstralh, Dan T.; Lovegrove, Holly?E.; St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from NPG via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb3248 Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epi...

  20. Proximal location of mouse prostate epithelial stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimura, Akira; Koikawa, Yasuhiro; Salm, Sarah; Takao, Tetsuya; Coetzee, Sandra; Moscatelli, David; Shapiro, Ellen; Lepor, Herbert; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wilson, E. Lynette

    2002-01-01

    Stem cells are believed to regulate normal prostatic homeostasis and to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We show here that the proximal region of mouse prostatic ducts is enriched in a subpopulation of epithelial cells that exhibit three important attributes of epithelial stem cells: they are slow cycling, possess a high in vitro proliferative potential, and can reconstitute highly branched glandular ductal structures in collagen gels. We propos...

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus can infect basal cells and alter human airway epithelial differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B David Persson

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing severe respiratory illness in infants and immune compromised patients. The ciliated cells of the human airway epithelium have been considered to be the exclusive target of RSV, although recent data have suggested that basal cells, the progenitors for the conducting airway epithelium, may also become infected in vivo. Using either mechanical or chemical injury models, we have demonstrated a robust RSV infection of p63+ basal cells in air-liquid interface (ALI cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, proliferating basal cells in 2D culture were also susceptible to RSV infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that RSV infection of this progenitor cell would influence the differentiation status of the airway epithelium. RSV infection of basal cells on the day of seeding (MOI≤0.0001, resulted in the formation of an epithelium that showed a profound loss of ciliated cells and gain of secretory cells as assessed by acetylated α-tubulin and MUC5AC/MUC5B immunostaining, respectively. The mechanism driving the switch in epithelial phenotype is in part driven by the induced type I and type III interferon response that we demonstrate is triggered early following RSV infection. Neutralization of this response attenuates the RSV-induced loss of ciliated cells. Together, these data show that through infection of proliferating airway basal cells, RSV has the potential to influence the cellular composition of the airway epithelium. The resulting phenotype might be expected to contribute towards both the severity of acute infection, as well as to the longer-term consequences of viral exacerbations in patients with pre-existing respiratory diseases.

  2. α1-Antitrypsin reduces rhinovirus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Reena; Jiang, Di; Wu, Qun; Chu, Hong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections target airway epithelium and are the leading cause of acute exacerbations of COPD. Cigarette smoke (CS) increases the severity of viral infections, but there is no effective therapy for HRV infection. We determined whether α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces HRV-16 infection in CS-exposed primary human airway epithelial cells. Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and patients diagnosed with COPD were cultured at air-liquid interface to induce mucociliary differentiation. These cells were treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin for 2 hours and then exposed to air or whole cigarette smoke (WCS) with or without HRV-16 (5×10(4) 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose [TCID50]/transwell) infection for 24 hours. WCS exposure significantly increased viral load by an average of fivefold and decreased the expression of antiviral genes interferon-λ1, OAS1, and MX1. When A1AT was added to WCS-exposed cells, viral load significantly decreased by an average of 29-fold. HRV-16 infection significantly increased HRV-16 receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression in air-exposed cells, which was decreased by A1AT. A1AT-mediated reduction of viral load was not accompanied by increased epithelial antiviral gene expression or by inhibiting the activity of 3C protease involved in viral replication or maturation. Our findings demonstrate that A1AT treatment prevents a WCS-induced increase in viral load and for the first time suggest a therapeutic effect of A1AT on HRV infection.

  3. α1-Antitrypsin reduces rhinovirus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reena Berman, Di Jiang, Qun Wu, Hong Wei Chu Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Human rhinovirus (HRV infections target airway epithelium and are the leading cause of acute exacerbations of COPD. Cigarette smoke (CS increases the severity of viral infections, but there is no effective therapy for HRV infection. We determined whether α1-antitrypsin (A1AT reduces HRV-16 infection in CS-exposed primary human airway epithelial cells. Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and patients diagnosed with COPD were cultured at air–liquid interface to induce mucociliary differentiation. These cells were treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin for 2 hours and then exposed to air or whole cigarette smoke (WCS with or without HRV-16 (5×104 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose [TCID50]/transwell infection for 24 hours. WCS exposure significantly increased viral load by an average of fivefold and decreased the expression of antiviral genes interferon-λ1, OAS1, and MX1. When A1AT was added to WCS-exposed cells, viral load significantly decreased by an average of 29-fold. HRV-16 infection significantly increased HRV-16 receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression in air-exposed cells, which was decreased by A1AT. A1AT-mediated reduction of viral load was not accompanied by increased epithelial antiviral gene expression or by inhibiting the activity of 3C protease involved in viral replication or maturation. Our findings demonstrate that A1AT treatment prevents a WCS-induced increase in viral load and for the first time suggest a therapeutic effect of A1AT on HRV infection. Keywords: α1-antitrypsin, rhinovirus, COPD, cigarette smoke, ICAM-1

  4. Capsular Polysaccharide of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Induces Sheep Airway Epithelial Cell Apoptosis via ROS-Dependent JNK/P38 MAPK Pathways

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    Zhongjia Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between invading Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae and sheep airway epithelial cells, biological effects and possible molecular mechanism of capsular polysaccharide of M. ovipneumoniae (CPS in the induction of cell apoptosis were explored using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface (ALI. The CPS of M. ovipneumoniae was first isolated and purified. Results showed that CPS had a cytotoxic effect by disrupting the integrity of mitochondrial membrane, accompanied with an increase of reactive oxygen species and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Of importance, the CPS exhibited an ability to induce caspase-dependent cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Mechanistically, the CPS induced extrinsic cell apoptosis by upregulating FAS/FASL signaling proteins and cleaved-caspase-8 and promoted a ROS-dependent intrinsic cell apoptosis by activating a JNK and p38 signaling but not ERK1/2 signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK pathways. These findings provide the first evidence that CPS of M. ovipneumoniae induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in sheep bronchial epithelial cells, which may be mainly attributed by a ROS-dependent JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

  5. Chemokine receptors expression on CD3+ blood cells in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Joanna; Rymarczyk, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Chemokines and their receptors participate in pathomechanism of bronchial asthma. The aim of the study was to analyze the pattern of chemokine receptor expression on T cells in severe asthmatics and to compare to mild-to-moderate patients and controls. Flow cytometric analysis of CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR7, CCR8 expression on CD3(+)CD8(-) and CD3(+)CD8(+) cells was performed in patients with different severity of chronic asthma and in controls. Percentages of CD3(+)CD8(+) cells expressing CXCR1 were significantly lower in severe asthmatic than in mild-to-moderate asthmatics and in controls. Percentages of CD3(+)CD8(+) cells expressing CCR7 were significantly lower in the severe asthma group than in control group. Percentages of CD3(+)CD8(-) cells expressing CXCR1, CXCR2 and CCR8 were significantly lower in the severe asthma group than in mild-to-moderate asthmatics and in controls. The number of cells CD3(+)CD8(-) and CD3(+)CD8(+) expressing of CXCR1 was significantly lower in the group of patients using more than 800μg of budesonide daily than in the group of patients using less than 400μg of budesonide. Percentages of CD3(+)CD8(-) cells expressing CXCR3, CCR4 and CCR5 were visibly higher (not significantly) in chronic mild-to-moderate asthma than in healthy controls and severe asthmatics. These results may indicate impairment of some chemokine expression on T cells in severe asthma patients. Moreover participation of both chemokine receptors related to Th1 and Th2 responses in mild-to-moderate asthma and attenuation of these responses in severe asthma has been suggested. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. The Contribution of the Airway Epithelial Cell to Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    In the context of cystic fibrosis, the epithelial cell has been characterized in terms of its ion transport capabilities. The ability of an epithelial cell to initiate CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport has been recognized early as a means to regulate the thickness of the epithelial lining fluid and recently as a means to regulate the pH, thereby determining critically whether or not host defense proteins such as mucins are able to fold appropriately. This review describes how the epithelial cell senses the presence of pathogens and inflammatory conditions, which, in turn, facilitates the activation of CFTR and thus directly promotes pathogens clearance and innate immune defense on the surface of the epithelial cell. This paper summarizes functional data that describes the effect of cytokines, chemokines, infectious agents, and inflammatory conditions on the ion transport properties of the epithelial cell and relates these key properties to the molecular pathology of cystic fibrosis. Recent findings on the role of cystic fibrosis modifier genes that underscore the role of the epithelial ion transport in host defense and inflammation are discussed.

  7. The Contribution of the Airway Epithelial Cell to Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stanke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of cystic fibrosis, the epithelial cell has been characterized in terms of its ion transport capabilities. The ability of an epithelial cell to initiate CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport has been recognized early as a means to regulate the thickness of the epithelial lining fluid and recently as a means to regulate the pH, thereby determining critically whether or not host defense proteins such as mucins are able to fold appropriately. This review describes how the epithelial cell senses the presence of pathogens and inflammatory conditions, which, in turn, facilitates the activation of CFTR and thus directly promotes pathogens clearance and innate immune defense on the surface of the epithelial cell. This paper summarizes functional data that describes the effect of cytokines, chemokines, infectious agents, and inflammatory conditions on the ion transport properties of the epithelial cell and relates these key properties to the molecular pathology of cystic fibrosis. Recent findings on the role of cystic fibrosis modifier genes that underscore the role of the epithelial ion transport in host defense and inflammation are discussed.

  8. Rhythmic Pressure Waves Induce Mucin5AC Expression via an EGFR-Mediated Signaling Pathway in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyi; Li, Qi; Kolosov, Victor P.; Perelman, Juliy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmic pressure waves (RPW), mimicking the mechanical forces generated during normal breathing, play a key role in airway surface liquid (ASL) homeostasis. As a major component of ASL, we speculated that the mucin5AC (MUC5AC) expression must also be regulated by RPW. However, fewer researches have focused on this question. Therefore, our aim was to test the effect and mechanism of RPW on MUC5AC expression in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared with the relevant controls, the transcriptional level of MUC5AC and the protein expressions of MUC5AC, the phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor (p-EGFR), phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK), and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) were all significantly increased after mechanical stimulation. However, this effect could be significantly attenuated by transfecting with EGFR-siRNA. Similarly, pretreating with the inhibitor of ERK or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt separately or jointly also significantly reduced MUC5AC expression. Collectively, these results indicate that RPW modulate MUC5AC expression via the EGFR-PI3K-Akt/ERK-signaling pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:23768102

  9. Activation of autophagy rescues amiodarone-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells and pulmonary toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Yo; Oh, Sehee; Choi, You-Jin; Oh, Seon-Hee; Yang, Young-Su; Yang, Mi-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Amiodarone, bi-iodinated benzofuran derivative, is one of the most frequently prescribed and efficacious antiarrhythmic drugs. Despite its low incidence, amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is of great concern and the leading cause of discontinuation. Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process that mediates continuous recycling of intracellular materials when nutrients are scarce. It either leads to a survival advantage or initiates death processes in cells under stress. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Amiodarone treatment-induced autophagy in H460 human lung epithelial cells and BEAS-2B normal human bronchial epithelial cells was demonstrated by increased LC3-II conversion, Atg7 upregulation, and autophagosome formation. Autophagic flux, as determined by the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1, was also increased following amiodarone treatment. To determine the role of autophagy in amiodarone toxicity, amiodarone-induced cell death was evaluated in the presence of 3-methyladenine or by knocking down the autophagy-related genes Atg7. Inhibition of autophagy decreased cellular viability and significantly increased apoptosis. Intratracheal instillation of amiodarone in rats increased the number of inflammatory cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and periodic acid-Schiff-positive staining in bronchiolar epithelial cells. However, induction of autophagy by rapamycin treatment inhibited amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, amiodarone treatment induced autophagy, which is involved in protection against cell death and pulmonary toxicity.

  10. Arsenic alters transcriptional responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and decreases antimicrobial defense of human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Britton C; Rayack, Erica J; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen. Bronchial epithelial cells line the airway surface, providing a physical barrier and serving critical roles in antimicrobial defense and signaling to professional immune cells. We used RNA-seq to define the transcriptional response of HBE cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and investigated how arsenic affected HBE gene networks in the presence and absence of the bacterial challenge. Environmentally relevant levels of arsenic significantly changed the expression of genes involved in cellular redox homeostasis and host defense to bacterial infection, and decreased genes that code for secreted antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Using pathway analysis, we identified Sox4 and Nrf2-regulated gene networks that are predicted to mediate the arsenic-induced decrease in lysozyme secretion. In addition, we demonstrated that arsenic decreased lysozyme in the airway surface liquid, resulting in reduced lysis of Microccocus luteus. Thus, arsenic alters the expression of genes and proteins in innate host defense pathways, thereby decreasing the ability of the lung epithelium to fight bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland); Egan, Jim J. [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Doran, Peter P., E-mail: peter.doran@ucd.ie [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  12. Proteoglycan synthesis and Golgi organization in polarized epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Gunnar; Akslen-Hoel, Linn K; Grøndahl, Frøy; Kjos, Ingrid; Prydz, Kristian

    2012-12-01

    A large number of complex glycosylation mechanisms take place in the Golgi apparatus. In epithelial cells, glycosylated protein molecules are transported to both the apical and the basolateral surface domains. Although the prevailing view is that the Golgi apparatus provides the same lumenal environment for glycosylation of apical and basolateral cargo proteins, there are indications that proteoglycans destined for the two opposite epithelial surfaces are exposed to different conditions in transit through the Golgi apparatus. We will here review data relating proteoglycan and glycoprotein synthesis to characteristics of the apical and basolateral secretory pathways in epithelial cells.

  13. Association of stem cell factor gene expression with severity and atopic state in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Safaa I; El-Hefnway, Sally M; Abd El Gayed, Eman M; Abdelaal, Gehan A

    2017-01-18

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory and remodeling disorder of the airways, in which many cells, cellular elements, and cytokines play important roles. Stem cell factor (SCF) may contribute to the inflammatory changes occurring in asthma. We aimed to show the expression of SCF gene in patients with asthma as a means of diagnosis and its association with severity and atopic state in these patients. This study was carried out on 80 subjects, 50 asthmatic patients and 30 age and gender matched healthy control persons. They were subjected to full history taking, general and local chest examination, spirometric measurements (pre and post broncodilators) using a spirometer, serum IgE, and real time PCR for assessment of SCF mRNA expression. This study showed significant difference between the studied groups regarding pulmonary function tests (P bronchial asthma.

  14. Inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against Streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Sanna; Toivanen, Marko; Arkko, Satu; Ruponen, Marika; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. Inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice has been found to have antiadhesive activity against different bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. In this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum and Empetrum hermaphroditum L.) juice fractions against pneumococcal binding was tested using human bronchial cells (Calu-3) as an adhesion model. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the berry juice fractions was tested. It was found that the studied berry juice fractions had antiadhesion activity and cranberry juice was the most active. The adhesion inhibition activity of cranberry juice was nearly 90% at a concentration of 8.7 mg/g of soluble solids. The antimicrobial activity of the studied berry juice fractions was found to be remarkable; pneumococcal growth was inhibited totally at a concentration of ∼86 mg/g. Both antiadhesion and antimicrobial activities were reduced after solid-phase extraction of the berry juices, which may suggest molecular synergistic effects of the berry juice molecules against S. pneumoniae. The findings indicate that cranberry, bilberry and crowberry juices have potential against pneumococcal infections. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Human amniotic epithelial cells inhibit growth of epithelial ovarian cancer cells via TGF‑β1-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shixia; Zhang, Qiuwan; Wang, Qian; Lai, Dongmei

    2017-11-01

    It is reported that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) endow intrinsic antitumor effects on certain kinds of cancer. This research was designed to evaluate whether hAECs endowed potential anticancer properties on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vivo and in vitro, which has not been reported before. In this study, we established a xenografted BALB/c nude mouse model by subcutaneously co-injecting ovarian cancer cell line, SK-OV-3, and hAECs for 28 days. In ex vivo experiments, CCK‑8 cell viability assay, real-time PCR, cell counting assay, cell cycle analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay were used to detect the effects of hAEC‑secreted factors on the proliferation and cell cycle progression of EOC cells. A cytokine array was conducted to detect anticancer-related cytokines released from hAECs. Human recombinant TGF‑β1 and TGF‑β1 antibody were used to treat EOC cells and analyzed whether TGF‑β1 contributed to the cell cycle arrest. Results from in vivo and ex vivo experiments showed that hAEC-secreted factors and rhTGF‑β1 decreased proliferation of EOC cells and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which could be partially reversed by excess TGF‑β1 antibody. These data indicate that hAECs endow potential anticancer properties on epithelial ovarian cancer in vivo and in vitro which is partially mediated by hAEC‑secreted TGF‑β1-induced cell cycle arrest. This study suggests a potential application of hAEC‑based therapy against epithelial ovarian cancer.

  16. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes...... such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered...

  17. Oxidation of thiols and modification of redox-sensitive signaling in human lung epithelial cells exposed to Pseudomonas pyocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iman M; Britigan, Bradley E; Abdalla, Maher Y

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pyocyanin exposure on mitochondrial GSH, other cellular thiols (thioredoxin-1, Trx-1), and oxidant-sensitive signaling pathways hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) in A549 and HBE cell lines. A549 human type II alveolar epithelial cells and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were treated with varying concentrations of pyocyanin extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial thiols and oxidant sensitive signal transduction proteins (HIF-1α and HO-1) were measured. Exposure to pyocyanin generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular mitochondria and altered total cellular glutathione (GSH). Pyocyanin, at concentrations present in conditions in vivo, increased oxidized Trx-1 in A549 human type II alveolar epithelial cells and HBE cells by 184 and 74%, respectively. Oxidized mitochondrial glutathione (GSSG) was elevated more than twofold in both cell types. Pyocyanin also increased the cellular oxidant-sensitive proteins HIF-1α and HO-1. Data indicate that pyocyanin-induced alterations in mitochondrial and cytosolic thiols, as well as oxidant-sensitive proteins, may contribute to P. aeruginosa-mediated lung injury.

  18. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2.1 Cell culture. RLE-6TN epithelial cells (ATCC Rockville, MD, USA) have been immortalized by transfection of rat alveolar type II cells with SV40 DNA (Driscoll et al 1995). Cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified .... candidate because it is bound to desferrioxamine with a stability constant near 1031. The hint that ...

  19. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongwei Wang

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is the most common proliferative abnormality of the prostate affecting elderly men throughout the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing BPH, although whether anti-diabetic medications preventing the development of BPH remains to be defined. We have previously found that stromally expressed insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 promotes benign prostatic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms. Here, we seek to understand if metformin, a first line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells through reducing the expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R and regulating cell cycle.BPE cell lines BPH-1 and P69, murine fibroblasts3T3 and primary human prostatic fibroblasts were cultured and tested in this study. Cell proliferation and the cell cycle were analyzed by MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of IGF-1R was determined by western-blot and immunocytochemistry. The level of IGF-1 secretion in culture medium was measured by ELISA.Metformin (0.5-10mM, 6-48h significantly inhibited the proliferation of BPH-1 and P69 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Treatment with metformin for 24 hours lowered the G2/M cell population by 43.24% in P69 cells and 24.22% in BPH-1 cells. On the other hand, IGF-1 (100ng/mL, 24h stimulated the cell proliferation (increased by 28.81% in P69 cells and 20.95% in BPH-1 cells and significantly enhanced the expression of IGF-1R in benign prostatic epithelial cells. Metformin (5mM abrogated the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells induced by IGF-1. In 3T3 cells, the secretion of IGF-1 was significantly inhibited by metformin from 574.31pg/ml to 197.61pg/ml. The conditioned media of 3T3 cells and human prostatic fibroblasts promoted the proliferation of epithelial cells and the expression of IGF-1R

  20. CD18-mediated adhesion is required for the induction of a proinflammatory phenotype in lung epithelial cells by mononuclear cell-derived extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Tommaso; Scalise, Valentina; Passalacqua, Ilaria; Giusti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Stefania; Balia, Cristina; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Berrettini, Stefano; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Dolo, Vincenza; Celi, Alessandro

    2018-02-21

    Extracellular vesicles are submicron vesicles that upregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators by lung epithelial cells. We investigated whether these structures adhere to lung epithelial cells, and whether adhesion is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Extracellular vesicles were generated by stimulation of normal human mononuclear cells with the calcium ionophore A23187, and labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Adhesion of vesicles to monolayers of immortalized bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and alveolar (A549) cells was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. The role of candidate adhesion receptors was evaluated with inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and soluble peptides. The synthesis of proinflammatory mediators was assessed by ELISA. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the generation of closed vesicles with an approximate size range between 50 and 600 nm. Adhesion of extracellular vesicles to epithelial cells was upregulated upon stimulation of the latter with tumor necrosis factor-α. Adhesion was blocked by an anti-CD18 antibody, by peptides containing the sequence RGD and, to a lesser extent, by an antibody to ICAM-1. The same molecules also blocked the upregulation of the synthesis of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced by extracellular vesicles. CD18-mediated adhesion of extracellular vesicles is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  2. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R; Murugesan, Senthil V; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2015-07-15

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Characterisation of cell adhesion in airway epithelial cell types using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; Brandenburg, S M; Noordhoek, J A; Postma, D S; Slebos, D-J; van Oosterhout, A J M

    Research on epithelial cell lines and primary epithelium is required to dissect the mechanisms underlying the structural abnormalities in airway epithelium observed for respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The novel electric cell-substrate impedance

  4. From cells to tissue: A continuum model of epithelial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shuji; Marcq, Philippe; Sugimura, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional continuum model of epithelial tissue mechanics was formulated using cellular-level mechanical ingredients and cell morphogenetic processes, including cellular shape changes and cellular rearrangements. This model incorporates stress and deformation tensors, which can be compared with experimental data. Focusing on the interplay between cell shape changes and cell rearrangements, we elucidated dynamical behavior underlying passive relaxation, active contraction-elongation, and tissue shear flow, including a mechanism for contraction-elongation, whereby tissue flows perpendicularly to the axis of cell elongation. This study provides an integrated scheme for the understanding of the orchestration of morphogenetic processes in individual cells to achieve epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

  5. In Vitro Compatibility of Contact Lenses With Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ajay K; Fadli, Zohra; Lakkis, Carol; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-07-18

    To determine the interaction of contact lenses of different materials with corneal epithelial cells grown in tissue culture. Two different corneal epithelial cell lines were grown to confluence in culture media. Two hydrogel contact lenses with and without polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) {1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST (1-Day ACUVUE [hydrogel lenses]) and a silicone hydrogel contact lens, AIR OPTIX NIGHT & DAY} were removed from their blister packs, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and applied to the cells. After exposure for 24 hr at 37°C, lenses were removed, and the corneal cells and supernatants processed. Supernatants from the cell assays were used to quantify the amount of 17 different cytokines that were produced using a multiplex bead assay. Cells were stained to assess amount of cell death (apoptosis or necrosis) or stained to determine the level of mitochondrial activity. Stimulants of necrotic death (latex) or apoptotic death (sorbitol) were used as positive controls. Cells produced cytokines during normal growth. Exposure of cells to the hydrogel lenses resulted in only minimal changes to normal production of cytokines, but latex or sorbitol produced the most change. Exposure of the cells to all three lenses caused 4% to 23% reduction in mitochondrial activity, whereas exposure to the positive controls caused 71% to 98% reduction in mitochondrial activity. Exposure of the corneal epithelial cells to contact lenses produced minimal morphological changes, whereas exposure to latex or sorbitol produced significant changes to the human corneal epithelial cell line. Exposure of corneal epithelial cells to contact lenses had minimal impact on their physiology. There was no difference in epithelial cell responses to hydrogel with or without PVP compared with the silicone hydrogel contact lens.

  6. Differences in gene expression and cytokine production by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Timothy N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis, and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at non-toxic and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 106μm2/cm2. Bio-Plex analysis was also used to determine profiles of secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to both particles. Finally, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE were used to comparatively assess silica particle-induced alterations in gene expression. Results Microarray analysis at 24 hours in BEAS 2B revealed 333 and 631 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite at low (75 and high (150 × 106μm2/cm2 amounts, respectively (p 6μm2/cm2 induced 108 significant gene changes. Bio-Plex analysis of 27 human cytokines and chemokines revealed 9 secreted mediators (p FOS, ATF3, IL6 and IL8 early and over time (2, 4, 8, and 24 h. Patterns of gene expression in NHBE cells were similar overall to BEAS 2B cells. At 75 × 106μm2/cm2, there were 339 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite and 42 by amorphous silica. Comparison of genes in response to cristobalite (75 × 106μm2/cm2 revealed 60 common, significant gene alterations in NHBE and BEAS 2B cells. Conclusions Cristobalite silica, as compared to synthetic amorphous silica particles at equal surface area concentrations, had comparable effects on the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells. However, effects on gene expression, as well as secretion of cytokines and chemokines, drastically differed, as the crystalline silica induced more intense responses. Our studies indicate that toxicological testing of particulates by surveying viability and

  7. Differences in gene expression and cytokine production by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Timothy N; Shukla, Arti; Peeters, Paul M; Steinbacher, Jeremy L; Landry, Christopher C; Lathrop, Sherrill A; Steele, Chad; Reynaert, Niki L; Wouters, Emiel F M; Mossman, Brooke T

    2012-02-02

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B) exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at non-toxic and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 106μm2/cm2). Bio-Plex analysis was also used to determine profiles of secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to both particles. Finally, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were used to comparatively assess silica particle-induced alterations in gene expression. Microarray analysis at 24 hours in BEAS 2B revealed 333 and 631 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite at low (75) and high (150 × 106μm2/cm2) amounts, respectively (p silica micro-particles at high amounts (150 × 106μm2/cm2) induced 108 significant gene changes. Bio-Plex analysis of 27 human cytokines and chemokines revealed 9 secreted mediators (p crystalline silica, but none were induced by amorphous silica. QRT-PCR revealed that cristobalite selectively up-regulated stress-related genes and cytokines (FOS, ATF3, IL6 and IL8) early and over time (2, 4, 8, and 24 h). Patterns of gene expression in NHBE cells were similar overall to BEAS 2B cells. At 75 × 106μm2/cm2, there were 339 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite and 42 by amorphous silica. Comparison of genes in response to cristobalite (75 × 106μm2/cm2) revealed 60 common, significant gene alterations in NHBE and BEAS 2B cells. Cristobalite silica, as compared to synthetic amorphous silica particles at equal surface area concentrations, had comparable effects on the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells. However, effects on gene expression, as well as secretion of cytokines and chemokines, drastically differed

  8. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chun-Hua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Liu, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Huang, Shelly [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, Peng-Yuan, E-mail: medp7123@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yang, Ping-Chang, E-mail: yangp@mcmaster.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  9. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstralh, Dan T; Lovegrove, Holly E; St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epithelium; the cuboidal follicle epithelium, the columnar early embryonic ectoderm, and the pseudostratified neuroepithelium. Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside the epithelial layer. Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial layer back into it. Our findings reveal a robust mechanism that protects epithelia against the consequences of misoriented divisions.

  10. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP, were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  11. Effects of epiplakin-knockdown in cultured corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokado, Masahide; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2016-05-20

    To investigate effects of knockdown of epiplakin gene expression on the homeostasis of cultured corneal epithelial cell line. We previously reported acceleration of corneal epithelial wound healing in an epiplakin-null mouse. Gene expression of epiplakin was knockdowned by employing siRNA transfection in SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line. Protein expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin was examined by western blotting. Cell migration and proliferation were examined by using scratch assay and Alamar blue assay, respectively. Scratch assay and Alamar blue assay showed migration and proliferation of the cells was accelerated by epiplakin knockdown. siRNA-knockdown of epiplakin suppressed protein expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin. Decreased expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin might be included in the mechanisms of cell migration acceleration in the absence of epiplakin. The mechanism of cell proliferation stimulation by epiplakin knockdown is to be investigated.

  12. A functional tandem between transient receptor potential canonical channels 6 and calcium-dependent chloride channels in human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Johanna; Dannhoffer, Luc; Antigny, Fabrice; Vachel, Laura; Jayle, Christophe; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline

    2015-10-15

    TRPC6 plays important human physiological functions, notably in artery and arterioles constriction, in regulation of vascular volume and in bronchial muscle constriction. It is implicated in pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and seems to play a role in cancer development. Previously, we identified Guanabenz, an α2-adrenergic agonist used for hypertension treatment (Wytensin®), as an activator of calcium-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in human Cystic Fibrosis (CF) nasal epithelial cells by transiently increasing [Ca2+]i via an influx of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, using assays to measure chloride channel activity, we show that guanabenz is an activator of CaCC in freshly dissociated human bronchial epithelial cells from three CF patients with various genotypes (F508del/F508del, F508del/R1066C, F508del/H1085R). We further characterised the effect of guanabenz and show that it is independent of α-adrenergic receptors, is inhibited by the TRPC family inhibitor SKF-96365 but not by the TRPV family inhibitor ruthenium red. Using western-blotting, Ca2+ measurements and iodide efflux assay, we found that TRPC1 siRNA has no effect on guanabenz induced responses whereas TRPC6 siRNA prevented the guanabenz-dependent Ca2+ influx and the CaCC-dependent activity stimulated by guanabenz. In conclusion, we show that TRPC6 channel is pivotal for the activation of CaCC by guanabenz through a α2-adrenergic-independent pathway in human airway epithelial cells. We suggest propose a functional coupling between TRPC6 and CaCC and guanabenz as a potential TRPC6 activator for exploring TRPC6 and CaCC channel functions and corresponding channelopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endothelial protein C receptor in renal tubular epithelial cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... However, troglitazone had protective effects of EPCR on injured cells. Key words: Endothelial protein C receptor, renal tubular epithelial cell, troglitazone, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β; high glucose. ..... induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells through an extracellular signal- regulated ...

  14. Toxic mechanisms of copper oxide nanoparticles in epithelial kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    2015-01-01

    CuO NPs have previously been reported as toxic to a range of cell cultures including kidney epithelial cells from the frog, Xenopus laevis (A6). Here we examine the molecular mechanisms affecting toxicity of Cu in different forms and particle sizes. A6 cells were exposed to ionic Cu (Cu2+) or CuO...

  15. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Timothy N; Dentener, Mieke A; Stassen, Frank R; Rohde, Gernot G; Mossman, Brooke T; Wouters, Emiel F M; Reynaert, Niki L

    2016-06-15

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalvia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; D'Antonio, Palma; Perna, Giuseppe; Carbone, Annalucia; Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Capozzi, Vito; Conese, Massimo

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2008-06-26

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

  18. Increased epithelial-free areas in thymuses with altered EphB-mediated thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ceca, Javier; Montero-Herradón, Sara; Alfaro, David; Zapata, Agustín G

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial-free areas, present in both thymic cortex and medulla, have been studied in WT and EphB-deficient mice that have important alterations in the development of thymic epithelium due to the lack of proper thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell interactions. In both WT and mutant thymuses, the number and size of epithelial-free areas are significantly larger in the medulla than in the cortex. The two parameters show a reverse correlation: low numbers of these areas course with large epithelial-free areas and vice versa. However, their structure and cell content are similar in mutant and WT thymuses. Cortical epithelial-free areas just contain DP thymocytes, while the medullary ones consist of SP cells, blood vessels, mesenchyme-derived ER-TR7+ cells and components of the extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin). Other components, such as desmin, αSMA, PDGFRβ and Ng2, frequently associated with blood vessel walls, also appear. Vimentin, although present in medullary epithelial-free areas, does not co-express with epithelial cells. Other markers related to epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, such as Snail, Slug or FSP1, are not expressed. These results suggest that alterations in the cell interactions between distinct thymic cell components that induce both increased proportions of apoptotic thymic epithelial cells and altered behavior of the mesenchyme associated with the medullary vasculature could explain the appearance of these areas and their differences in the cortex and medulla.

  19. Monitoring of seasonal variability in bronchial hyper-responsiveness and sputum cell counts in non-asthmatic subjects with rhinitis and effect of specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, R; Li Gotti, F; Mangano, G; Mastruzzo, C; Pistorio, M P; Crimi, N

    2003-07-01

    Bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) is documented in a proportion of non-asthmatic individuals with allergic rhinitis (NAAR) and reflects inflammatory events in the lower airways. Natural exposure to allergens is known to modulate BHR and the level of airway inflammation in asthma, but less consistently in NAAR. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) attenuates symptoms possibly by reducing BHR and airway inflammation. The influence of natural exposure to Parietaria pollen on BHR and sputum cell counts of NAAR was investigated and the effect of Parietaria SIT examined. Thirty NAAR, monosensitized to Parietaria judaica, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of the effects of a Parietaria pollen vaccine on symptoms/medication score, BHR to inhaled methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and cell counts in the sputum collected out of and during the pollen seasons for 36 months. Seasonal variation in BHR to inhaled methacholine and AMP and changes in sputum cell counts were documented. Changes were consistent for AMP, but not methacholine, and invariably associated with modifications in sputum eosinophils and epithelial cells. The clinical efficacy of Parietaria SIT was associated with a decline in the seasonal deterioration of BHR to AMP, whereas no significant effect was observed on BHR to methacholine or sputum cell differentials. Between-groups comparison of the seasonal changes in PC15 methacholine values and sputum cell differentials calculated as the AUC were not statistically significant, whereas a significant difference in PC15 AMP was demonstrated throughout the study (P=0.029), the median (inter-quartile range) AUC values being 2478.5 (1153.3-3600.0) and 1545.5 (755.3-1797.9) for the SIT- and placebo-treated group, respectively. Bronchial airways of NAAR exhibit features of active inflammation that deteriorate during natural allergen exposure, particularly with regard to BHR to AMP. The clinical efficacy of

  20. Capsular Polysaccharide is a Main Component of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in the Pathogen-Induced Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Sheep Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjia Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI model. Results showed that CPS derived from M. ovipneumoniae could activate toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated inflammatory responses, along with an elevated expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 as well as various inflammatory-associated mediators, representatively including proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL1β, TNFα, and IL8, and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL10 and TGFβ of TLR signaling cascade. Mechanistically, the CPS-induced inflammation was TLR initiated and was mediated by activations of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathways. Of importance, a blockage of CPS with specific antibody led a significant reduction of M. ovipneumoniae-induced inflammatory responses in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that CPS is a key virulent component of M. ovipneumoniae, which may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response induced by M. ovipneumoniae infections.

  1. Bronchial Secretory Immunoglobulin A Deficiency Correlates With Airway Inflammation and Progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Justin M.; Lawson, William E.; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Milstone, Aaron P.; Massion, Pierre P.; Ocak, Sebahat; Ware, Lorraine B.; Lee, Jae Woo; Bowler, Russell P.; Kononov, Alexey V.; Randell, Scott H.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Although airway inflammation can persist for years after smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the mechanisms of persistent inflammation are largely unknown. Objectives: We investigated relationships between bronchial epithelial remodeling, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression, secretory IgA (SIgA), airway inflammation, and mural remodeling in COPD. Methods: Lung tissue specimens and bronchoalveolar lavage were obtained from lifetime nonsmokers and former smokers with or without COPD. Epithelial structural changes were quantified by morphometric analysis. Expression of pIgR was determined by immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed for IgA, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, and cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus antigens. Total IgA and SIgA were measured by ELISA and IgA transcytosis was studied using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. Measurements and Main Results: Areas of bronchial mucosa covered by normal pseudostratified ciliated epithelium were characterized by pIgR expression with SIgA present on the mucosal surface. In contrast, areas of bronchial epithelial remodeling had reduced pIgR expression, localized SIgA deficiency, and increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration. In small airways (<2 mm), these changes were associated with presence of herpesvirus antigens, airway wall remodeling, and airflow limitation in patients with COPD. Patients with COPD had reduced SIgA in bronchoalveolar lavage. Air–liquid interface epithelial cell cultures revealed that complete epithelial differentiation was required for normal pIgR expression and IgA transcytosis. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that epithelial structural abnormalities lead to localized SIgA deficiency in COPD airways. Impaired mucosal immunity may contribute to persistent airway inflammation and progressive airway remodeling in COPD. PMID:21512171

  2. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    Diffusion gradients of morphogens have been inferred as a basis for the control of morphogenesis in hydra, and morphogenetic substances have been found which, on the basis of their molecular weight (MW), should be able to pass gap junctions. There have been several reports of the presence of gap...... junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  3. Vulnerability of Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Oncogenic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    escape senescence and acquire genomic changes. Nature 2001;409:633–7. 10. Olsen CL, Gardie B, Yaswen P, Stampfer MR. Raf-1- induced growth arrest in...p16INK4a. Cell 88:593–602. 10. Olsen CL, Gardie B, Yaswen P, Stampfer MR (2002) Raf-1-induced growth arrest in human mammary epithelial cells is p16...Cycle 3, 244–246. Olsen CL, Gardie B, Yaswen P, Stampfer MR (2002) Raf-1-induced growth arrest in human mammary epithelial cells is p16-independent and

  4. Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Röpke, C; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes, we examined whether human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) expressed HLA-DP molecules. We present evidence that TEC obtained from short time culture express low but significant levels of HLA-DP molecules. The expression of HLA-DP molecules was comparable to or higher than the expression...... of HLA-DP allospecific primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) CD4 T cell lines. IFN-gamma treatment strongly upregulated the HLA-DP allospecific PLT responses whereas other PLT responses remained largely unchanged. In conclusion, these data indicate that human thymus epithelial cells express significant levels...

  5. HIV Infects Bronchial Epithelium and Suppresses Components of the Mucociliary Clearance Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapaiyan, S; Parira, T; Dutta, R; Agudelo, M; Morris, A; Nair, M; Unwalla, H J

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent lung infections and pneumonia are emerging as significant comorbidities in the HIV-infected population in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV infection has been reported to suppress nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Since the primary components driving nasal MCC and bronchial MCC are identical, it is possible that bronchial MCC is affected as well. Effective MCC requires optimal ciliary beating which depends on the maintenance of the airway surface liquid (ASL), a function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and the integrity of the signaling mechanism that regulates ciliary beating and fluid secretion. Impairment of either component of the MCC apparatus can compromise its efficacy and promote microbial colonization. We demonstrate that primary bronchial epithelium expresses HIV receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and can be infected by both R5 and X4 tropic strains of HIV. We show that HIV Tat suppresses CFTR biogenesis and function in primary bronchial epithelial cells by a pathway involving TGF-β signaling. HIV infection also interferes with bronchial epithelial cell differentiation and suppresses ciliogenesis. These findings suggest that HIV infection suppresses tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance and this may predispose HIV-infected patients to recurrent lung infections, pneumonia and chronic bronchitis.

  6. Alteration of circulating type 2 follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells underlies the comorbid association of allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Shigehara, Katsunori; Miyajima, Satsuki; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Kawata, Koji; Yamashita, Keiji; Nagaya, Tomonori; Kumagai, Ayako; Sato, Akinori; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Seki, Nobuhiko; Takano, Kenichi; Kokai, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo; Ichimiya, Shingo

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common allergic disorder of the airway, is often accompanied by bronchial asthma. However, little is known about the mechanism by which AR advances to AR comorbid with bronchial asthma (AR+Asthma). To determine the pathophysiologic features of AR and AR+Asthma, we examined subsets of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and regulatory B (Breg) cells in peripheral blood from AR and AR+Asthma patients. The results showed polarization of Tfh2 cells within Tfh cell subsets in both AR and AR+Asthma cases. Interestingly, the %Breg cells in total B cells were decreased in AR cases and, more extensively, in AR+Asthma cases. Moreover, we found significant correlations of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophil levels with the index %Tfh2 cells per %Breg cells. Our findings indicate that relative decrease in Breg cells under the condition of Tfh2 cell skewing is a putative exaggerating factor of AR to bronchial asthma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of the interactions between eosinophil cationic protein and airway epithelial cells by traditional Chinese herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is cytotoxic to bacteria, viruses, parasites and mammalian cells. Cells are damaged via processes of pore formation, permeability alteration and membrane leaking. Some clinical studies indicate that ECP gathers in the bronchial tract of asthma sufferers, damages bronchial and airway epithelial cells, and leads to in breathing tract inflammation; therefore, prevention of the cytotoxicity caused by ECP may serve as an approach to treat airway inflammation. To achieve the purpose, reduction of the ECP-cell interactions is rational. In this work, the Chinese herbal combinative network was generated to predict and identify the functional herbs from the pools of prescriptions. It was useful to select the node herbs and to demonstrate the relative binding ability between ECP and Beas-2B cells with or withour herb treatments. Results Eighty three Chinese herbs and prescriptions were tested and five effective herbs and six prescription candidates were selected. On the basis of effective single-herbal drugs and prescriptions, a combinative network was generated. We found that a single herb, Gan-cao, served as a node connecting five prescriptions. In addition, Sheng-di-huang, Dang-guei and Mu-tong also appeared in five, four and three kinds of prescriptions, respectively. The extracts of these three herbs indeed effectively inhibited the interactions between ECP and Beas-2B cells. According to the Chinese herbal combinative network, eight of the effective herbal extracts showed inhibitory effects for ECP internalizing into Beas-2B cells. The major components of Gang-cao and Sheng-di-huang, glycyrrhizic acid and verbascose, respectively, reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells effectively. Conclusions Since these Chinese herbs reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells and inhibited subsequent ECP entrance into cells, they were potential for mitigating the airway inflammation symptoms. Additionally, we

  8. The origin of epithelial neoplasms after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M.J.; Cleef, P.H. van; Schattenberg, A.V.M.B.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed five women, who have developed epithelial neoplasms after sex-mismatched stem cell transplants. Using in situ hybridization for sex chromosome-specific DNA probes and immunohistochemistry we identified the origin of the tumor cells. We conclude that none of the non-hematologic

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Shatha; Lina, Taslima T; Gonzalez, Jazmin; Pinchuk, Irina V; Beswick, Ellen J; Reyes, Victor E

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium has cells with features that make them a powerful line of defense in innate mucosal immunity. Features that allow gastrointestinal epithelial cells to contribute in innate defense include cell barrier integrity, cell turnover, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shape gram negative bacterium that selectively colonizes the gastric epithelium of more than half of the world’s population. The infection invariably becomes persistent due to highly specialized mechanisms that facilitate H. pylori’s avoidance of this initial line of host defense as well as adaptive immune mechanisms. The host response is thus unsuccessful in clearing the infection and as a result becomes established as a persistent infection promoting chronic inflammation. In some individuals the associated inflammation contributes to ulcerogenesis or neoplasia. H. pylori has an array of different strategies to interact intimately with epithelial cells and manipulate their cellular processes and functions. Among the multiple aspects that H. pylori affects in gastric epithelial cells are their distribution of epithelial junctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation, stimulation of cytokine production, and cell transformation. Some of these processes are initiated as a result of the activation of signaling mechanisms activated on binding of H. pylori to cell surface receptors or via soluble virulence factors that gain access to the epithelium. The multiple responses by the epithelium to the infection contribute to pathogenesis associated with H. pylori. PMID:25278677

  10. Endothelial protein C receptor in renal tubular epithelial cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role within the protein C pathway in regulating coagulation and inflammation. It was reported that EPCR was expressed in large vessels, placenta, heart, liver and lung endothelial cell. However, there are a few studies concerned about renal epithelial cells.

  11. The role of epithelial cell adhesion molecule N-glycosylation on apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Xue; Gao, Jiujiao; Sun, Yan; Liu, Tingjiao; Yan, Qiu; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-03-01

    Glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. It has been demonstrated that knockdown of epithelial cell adhesion molecule promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, and caused cell-cycle arrest. In this study, we investigated whether and how N-glycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule influenced the apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We applied the N-glycosylation mutation epithelial cell adhesion molecule plasmid to express deglycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule and then to study its function. Our results showed that deglycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. Deglycosylation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule enhanced the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil, promoting apoptosis by downregulating the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and upregulating the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Caspase 3 via the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings are important for a better understanding of epithelial cell adhesion molecule apoptosis regulation and suggest epithelial cell adhesion molecule as a potential target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Rapamycin Prolongs the Survival of Corneal Epithelial Cells in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Gidfar; Farnoud Y. Milani; Milani, Behrad Y.; Xiang Shen; Medi Eslani; Ilham Putra; Michael J. Huvard; Hossein Sagha; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2017-01-01

    Rapamycin has previously been shown to have anti-aging effects in cells and organisms. These studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of rapamycin on primary human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by bright field microscopy. Cell proliferation and cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of differentiation markers was evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot. Senescence was evaluated by senescence-associated ?-Galactosid...

  13. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ≤ 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2–0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05–0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ≤ 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. Part A: 102A: 3393–3400, 2014. PMID:24142706

  14. Factors influencing the exfoliation of cervicovaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, J; Mikhail, M S; Palan, P R; Payraudeau, P H; Romney, S L

    1992-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association of smoking and exfoliation of cervicovaginal epithelial cells while controlling for other factors that may potentially influence cell exfoliation (e.g., presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or koilocytes, the use of oral contraceptives, age, and the phase of the menstrual cycle). Cervicovaginal lavage specimens and epidemiologic questionnaires were obtained with informed consent from 190 women. The cervicovaginal lavage samples were processed to separate other contaminants. The number of squamous epithelial cells counted was expressed as cells per milliliter of lavage. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the number of exfoliated epithelial cells was significantly higher in smokers (p < 0.01) and also in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (p < 0.05). The other studied variables had no detectable effect. The findings suggest that smoking or the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia may induce an acceleration in the exfoliation of cervicovaginal epithelial cells. This may alter cell maturation and may be a factor in the oncogenic process.

  15. Osmosignaling and volume regulation in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Christina H; Bot, Alice G M; de Jonge, Hugo R; Tilly, Ben C

    2007-01-01

    Most cells have to perform their physiological functions under a variable osmotic stress, which, because of the relatively high permeability of the plasma membrane for water, may result in frequent alterations in cell size. Intestinal epithelial cells are especially prone to changes in cell volume because of their high capacity of salt and water transport and the high membrane expression of various nutrient transporters. Therefore, to avoid excessive shrinkage or swelling, enterocytes, like most cell types, have developed efficient mechanisms to maintain osmotic balance. This chapter reviews selected model systems that can be used to investigate cell volume regulation in intestinal epithelial cells, with emphasis on the regulatory volume decrease, and the methods available to study the compensatory redistribution of (organic) osmolytes. In addition, a brief summary is presented of the pathways involved in osmosensing and osmosignaling in the intestine.

  16. Tiotropium attenuates IL-13-induced goblet cell metaplasia of human airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Bouwman, Susanne; van den Berge, Maarten; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that acetylcholine is both a neurotransmitter and acts as a local mediator, produced by airway cells including epithelial cells. In vivo studies have demonstrated an indirect role for acetylcholine in epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we aimed to investigate direct

  17. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [3H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Peptidases: Modulation by cytokincs and glucocorticoids ill vitro and in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe airways can be divided in the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx. and the lower respiratory tract. consisting of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. This structure provides an enormous surface area where the exchange of oxygen and

  19. Influenza enhances caspase-1 in bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic volunteers and is associated with pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The leading cause of asthma exacerbation is respiratory viral infection. Innate antiviral defense pathways are altered in the asthmatic epithelium, yet involvement of inflammasome signaling in virus-induced asthma exacerbation is not known. Objective: This study com...

  20. SELENIUM-DEFICIENCY MODIFIES INFLUENZA INFECTION OF DIFFERENTIATED HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional status of the host is important in the defense against invading pathogens. Many studies regarding the effects of host nutritional status on the immune response have demonstrated that suboptimal host nutrition results in impaired host immunity and increased suscept...

  1. Inhibitory effects of ameloblastin on epithelial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noriko; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Kamegawa, Mariko; Matsukizono, Miho; Akebiyama, Yasuo; Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2014-08-01

    Ameloblastin is an enamel matrix protein expressed in several tissues. Many potential mechanisms have been identified by which ameloblastin functions as an extracellular matrix protein. However, the biological effects of ameloblastin on gingival epithelial cells remain unclear. In the present study, we established a novel system to purify recombinant human ameloblastin and clarified its biological functions in epithelial cells in vitro. Recombinant human ameloblastin was isolated from COS-7 cells overexpressing HaloTag-fused human ameloblastin by the HaloTag system and then purified further by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. SCC-25 cells, derived from human oral squamous cell carcinoma, were treated with recombinant ameloblastin and then cell survival was assessed by a WST-1 assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The novel purification system allowed effective recovery of the recombinant ameloblastin proteins at a high purity. Recombinant ameloblastin protein was found to suppress the proliferation of SCC-25 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ameloblastin treatment induced cell cycle arrest G1 phase. We developed a procedure for production of highly purified recombinant human ameloblastin. Biological analyses suggest that ameloblastin induces cell cycle arrest in epithelial cells and regulates the progression of periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  3. Biomaterial surface proteomic signature determines interaction with epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Tran, Simon D; Abughanam, Ghada; Laurenti, Marco; Zuanazzi, David; Mezour, Mohamed A; Xiao, Yizhi; Cerruti, Marta; Siqueira, Walter L; Tamimi, Faleh

    2017-05-01

    Cells interact with biomaterials indirectly through extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins adsorbed onto their surface. Accordingly, it could be hypothesized that the surface proteomic signature of a biomaterial might determine its interaction with cells. Here, we present a surface proteomic approach to test this hypothesis in the specific case of biomaterial-epithelial cell interactions. In particular, we determined the surface proteomic signature of different biomaterials exposed to the ECM of epithelial cells (basal lamina). We revealed that the biomaterial surface chemistry determines the surface proteomic profile, and subsequently the interaction with epithelial cells. In addition, we found that biomaterials with surface chemistries closer to that of percutaneous tissues, such as aminated PMMA and aminated PDLLA, promoted higher selective adsorption of key basal lamina proteins (laminins, nidogen-1) and subsequently improved their interactions with epithelial cells. These findings suggest that mimicking the surface chemistry of natural percutaneous tissues can improve biomaterial-epithelial integration, and thus provide a rationale for the design of improved biomaterial surfaces for skin regeneration and percutaneous medical devices. Failure of most biomaterials originates from the inability to predict and control the influence of their surface properties on biological phenomena, particularly protein adsorption, and cellular behaviour, which subsequently results in unfavourable host response. Here, we introduce a surface-proteomic screening approach using a label-free mass spectrometry technique to decipher the adsorption profile of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on different biomaterials, and correlate it with cellular behaviour. We demonstrated that the way a biomaterial selectively interacts with specific ECM proteins of a given tissue seems to determine the interactions between the cells of that tissue and biomaterials. Accordingly, this approach can

  4. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...... block alloactivation, had no inhibitory effect on RPE-mediated T-cell apoptotic responses in MHC class II-specific CD4+ T-cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells express FasL and induce TCR-independent apoptosis in activated human T cells through Fas-FasL interaction. Retinal pigment...

  5. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    block alloactivation, had no inhibitory effect on RPE-mediated T-cell apoptotic responses in MHC class II-specific CD4+ T-cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells express FasL and induce TCR-independent apoptosis in activated human T cells through Fas-FasL interaction. Retinal pigment...... human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...

  6. Aneuploidy, oncogene amplification and epithelial to mesenchymal transition define spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; McNeil, Nicole E; Yi, Ming; Nguyen, Quang-Tri; Hu, Yue; Wangsa, Danny; Mack, David L; Hummon, Amanda B; Case, Chanelle; Cardin, Eric; Stephens, Robert; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Ried, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Human epithelial cancers are defined by a recurrent distribution of specific chromosomal aneuploidies, a trait less typical for murine cancer models induced by an oncogenic stimulus. After prolonged culture, mouse epithelial cells spontaneously immortalize, transform and become tumorigenic. We assessed genome and transcriptome alterations in cultures derived from bladder and kidney utilizing spectral karyotyping, array CGH, FISH and gene expression profiling. The results show widespread aneuploidy, yet a recurrent and tissue-specific distribution of genomic imbalances, just as in human cancers. Losses of chromosome 4 and gains of chromosome 15 are common and occur early during the transformation process. Global gene expression profiling revealed early and significant transcriptional deregulation. Chromosomal aneuploidy resulted in expression changes of resident genes and consequently in a massive deregulation of the cellular transcriptome. Pathway interrogation of expression changes during the sequential steps of transformation revealed enrichment of genes associated with DNA repair, centrosome regulation, stem cell characteristics and aneuploidy. Genes that modulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and genes that define the chromosomal instability phenotype played a dominant role and were changed in a directionality consistent with loss of cell adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation. Comparison with gene expression changes during human bladder and kidney tumorigenesis revealed remarkable overlap with changes observed in the spontaneously transformed murine cultures. Therefore, our novel mouse models faithfully recapitulate the sequence of genomic and transcriptomic events that define human tumorigenesis, hence validating them for both basic and preclinical research.

  7. Apicobasal Polarity Controls Lymphocyte Adhesion to Hepatic Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Reglero-Real

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. Leukocyte infiltration and crosstalk with dysfunctional epithelial barriers are crucial for the inflammatory response. Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. Upon cell depolarization, hepatic ICAM-1 becomes exposed and increases lymphocyte binding. Polarized hepatic cells prevent ICAM-1 exposure to lymphocytes by redirecting basolateral ICAM-1 to apical domains. Loss of ICAM-1 polarity occurs in human inflammatory liver diseases and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. We propose that adhesion receptor polarization is a parenchymal immune checkpoint that allows functional epithelium to hamper leukocyte binding. This contributes to the haptotactic guidance of leukocytes toward neighboring damaged or chronically inflamed epithelial cells that expose their adhesion machinery.

  8. Continuous cytokine exposure of colonic epithelial cells induces DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2005-01-01

    by inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS). NO as well as other ROS are potential DNA damaging agents. The aim was to determine the effect of long-term cytokine exposure on NO formation and DNA damage in epithelial cells. METHODS: A colonic cell line (HT29) was stimulated for 1-10 weeks with interferon...... stimulated cells had increased DNA instability (Pcytokine exposure induces an iNOS dependent up-regulation of ROS production and DNA instability. This mechanism...

  9. The similarity between human embryonic stem cell-derived epithelial cells and ameloblast-lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Linthicum, Logan; DenBesten, Pamela K; Zhang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to human ameloblast-lineage cells (ALCs), as a way to determine their potential use as a cell source for ameloblast regeneration. Induced by various concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), retinoic acid (RA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) for 7 days, hESCs adopted cobble-stone epithelial phenotype (hESC-derived epithelial cells (ES-ECs)) and expressed cytokeratin 14. Compared with ALCs and oral epithelial cells (OE), ES-ECs expressed amelogenesis-associated genes similar to ALCs. ES-ECs were compared with human fetal skin epithelium, human fetal oral buccal mucosal epithelial cells and human ALCs for their expression pattern of cytokeratins as well. ALCs had relatively high expression levels of cytokeratin 76, which was also found to be upregulated in ES-ECs. Based on the present study, with the similarity of gene expression with ALCs, ES-ECs are a promising potential cell source for regeneration, which are not available in erupted human teeth for regeneration of enamel.

  10. The similarity between human embryonic stem cell-derived epithelial cells and ameloblast-lineage cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Linthicum, Logan; DenBesten, Pamela K; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to human ameloblast-lineage cells (ALCs), as a way to determine their potential use as a cell source for ameloblast regeneration. Induced by various concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), retinoic acid (RA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) for 7 days, hESCs adopted cobble-stone epithelial phenotype (hESC-derived epithelial cells (ES-ECs)) and expressed cytokeratin 14. Compared with ALCs and oral epithelial cells (OE), ES-ECs expressed amelogenesis-associated genes similar to ALCs. ES-ECs were compared with human fetal skin epithelium, human fetal oral buccal mucosal epithelial cells and human ALCs for their expression pattern of cytokeratins as well. ALCs had relatively high expression levels of cytokeratin 76, which was also found to be upregulated in ES-ECs. Based on the present study, with the similarity of gene expression with ALCs, ES-ECs are a promising potential cell source for regeneration, which are not available in erupted human teeth for regeneration of enamel. PMID:23538640

  11. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  13. Enzyme activity of blood cells and bronchial epithelium in hypoxia of patients with dust disease of lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Ivanova, L.A.; Gorizontova, M.N.; Palagushina, A.I.

    1986-05-01

    This paper focuses on changes in metabolism of cells in reaction of organism to hypoxemia in chronic dust-induced bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Investigation of 41 patients with bronchitis and 22 with pneumoconiosis was conducted within parameters of oxygenation of blood and severity of illness using cytochemical techniques and oximetry. Results show quantitative and morphologic changes in erythrocytes and lymphocytes were not significant, but changes in their metabolism were. A table, Cytochemical Changes in Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes in Cells of Bronchial Epithelium in Dust-Induced Bronchitis and Pneumoconiosis Depending on Degree of Hypoxemia, displays changes (1) in glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes; (2) in alpha-glucose phosphate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase of lymphocytes; and (3) in alpha-glucose dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase of bronchial epithelium. Results demonstrate that in patients with dust-induced disease changes in energy enzymes of blood cells occur. In bronchitis activity of metabolic enzymes in response to degree of hypoxemia increases stimulating respiration and glycolysis. In pneumoconiosis activity of metabolic enzymes is high in early stages of disease, but does not change in relation to hypoxemia being the result of the coniotic process. Difference in response to hypoxemia in the two diseases confirms the difference in their pathogenesis and nosological independence of two forms of dust-induced disease though produced by a single etiologic factor. 6 refs.

  14. AM251 Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyo Yoshinaga

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of renal tubular epithelial cells is one of the causative mechanisms of kidney fibrosis. In our study, we screened lipophilic compounds using a lipid library including approximately 200 lipids to identify those that suppressed EMT induced by a transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 stimulus. Initial screening was performed with the immortalized HK-2 renal tubule epithelial cell line. The most promising compounds were further tested in RPTEC primary renal tubule epithelial cells. We found that the synthetic lipid AM251 suppressed two hallmark events associated with EMT, the upregulation of collagen 1A1 (COL1A1 and downregulation of E-cadherin. Though AM251 is known to act as an antagonist for the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and an agonist for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRP55, the suppression of EMT by AM251 was not mediated through either receptor. Microarray analyses revealed that AM251 inhibited induction of several EMT transcription factors such as SNAIL1, which is the key inducer of EMT, and the AP-1 transcription factors FOSB and JUNB. Activation of SMAD2/3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK was inhibited by AM251, with greater inhibition of the latter, indicating that AM251 acted upstream of SMAD/p38 MAPK in the TGF-β signaling pathway. Our findings regarding the effects of AM251 on the TGF-β signaling pathway may inform development of a novel therapeutic agent suppressing EMT, thus preventing kidney fibrosis.

  15. Sodium selectivity of semicircular canal duct epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbidge Donald G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by semicircular canal duct (SCCD epithelial cells is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of vestibular endolymph. It was previously shown that the epithelial cells could absorb Na+ under control of a glucocorticoid hormone (dexamethasone and the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride. The most commonly-observed target of amiloride is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, comprised of the three subunits α-, β- and γ-ENaC. However, other cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive in a similar concentration range. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCCD epithelial cells absorb only Na+ or also K+ through an amiloride-sensitive pathway. Parasensory K+ absorption could contribute to regulation of the transduction current through hair cells, as found to occur via vestibular transitional cells [S. H. Kim and D. C. Marcus. Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear. Hear.Res. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2011.05.003, 2011]. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6197, whole-cell patch clamp and transepithelial recordings in primary cultures of rat SCCD. α-, β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present. The selectivity of the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial and cell membrane currents was observed in Ussing chamber and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. The cell membrane currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, but the Na+ selectivity disappeared when the cells were cultured on impermeable supports. Transepithelial currents across SCCD were also carried exclusively by Na+. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride-sensitive absorptive flux of SCCD mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel, likely αβγ-ENaC. These epithelial cells therefore absorb only Na+ via the amiloride-sensitive pathway and do not provide a parasensory K+ efflux from the

  16. Mitochondrial transfer of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells to airway epithelial cells attenuates cigarette smoke-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yuelin; Yeung, Sze C; Liang, Yingmin; Liang, Xiaoting; Ding, Yue; Ip, Mary S M; Tse, Hung-Fat; Mak, Judith C W; Lian, Qizhou

    2014-09-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds great promise in the repair of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because CS leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, we aimed to investigate the potential benefit of mitochondrial transfer from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) to CS-exposed airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Rats were exposed to 4% CS for 1 hour daily for 56 days. At Days 29 and, human iPSC-MSCs or adult bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were administered intravenously to CS-exposed rats. CS-exposed rats exhibited severe alveolar destruction with a higher mean linear intercept (Lm) than sham air-exposed rats (P < 0.001) that was attenuated in the presence of iPSC-MSCs or BM-MSCs (P < 0.01). The attenuation of Lm value and the severity of fibrosis was greater in the iPSC-MSC-treated group than in the BM-MSC-treated group (P < 0.05). This might have contributed to the novel observation of mitochondrial transfer from MSCs to rat airway epithelial cells in lung sections exposed to CS. In vitro studies further revealed that transfer of mitochondria from iPSC-MSCs to bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) was more effective than from BM-MSCs, with preservation of adenosine triphosphate contents. This distinct mitochondrial transfer occurred via the formation of tunneling nanotubes. Inhibition of tunneling nanotube formation blocked mitochondrial transfer. Our findings indicate a higher mitochondrial transfer capacity of iPSC-MSCs than BM-MSCs to rescue CS-induced mitochondrial damage. iPSC-MSCs may thus hold promise for the development of cell therapy in COPD.

  17. Regulation of COX-2 expression and IL-6 release by particulate matter in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yutong; Usatyuk, Peter V; Gorshkova, Irina A; He, Donghong; Wang, Ting; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N; Samet, Jonathan M; Spannhake, Ernst Wm; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is a risk factor for human respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The delivery of PM to airway epithelial cells has been linked to release of proinflammatory cytokines; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced inflammatory responses are not well-characterized. This study demonstrates that PM induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and IL-6 release through both a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent NF-kappaB pathway and an ROS-independent C/EBPbeta pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in culture. Treatment of HBEpCs with Baltimore PM induced ROS production, COX-2 expression, and IL-6 release. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or EUK-134, in a dose-dependent manner, attenuated PM-induced ROS production, COX-2 expression, and IL-6 release. The PM-induced ROS was significantly of mitochondrial origin, as evidenced by increased oxidation of the mitochondrially targeted hydroethidine to hydroxyethidium by reaction with superoxide. Exposure of HBEpCs to PM stimulated phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta, while the NF-kappaB inhibitor, Bay11-7082, or C/EBPbeta siRNA attenuated PM-induced COX-2 expression and IL-6 release. Furthermore, NAC or EUK-134 attenuated PM-induced activation of NF-kappaB; however, NAC or EUK-134 had no effect on phosphorylation of C/EBPbeta. In addition, inhibition of COX-2 partly attenuated PM-induced Prostaglandin E2 and IL-6 release.

  18. Mechanisms of GM-CSF increase by diesel exhaust particles in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S; Bonvallot, V; Fournier, T; Baeza-Squiban, A; Aubier, M; Marano, F

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) stimulates human airway epithelial cells to secrete the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-8, interleukin-1beta, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) involved in allergic diseases. In the present paper, we studied the mechanisms underlying the increase in GM-CSF release elicited by DEPs using the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-. RT-PCR analysis has shown an increase in GM-CSF mRNA levels after DEP treatments. Comparison of the effects of DEPs, extracted DEPs, or extracts of DEPs has shown that the increase in GM-CSF release is mainly due to the adsorbed organic compounds and not to the metals present on the DEP surface because the metal chelator desferrioxamine had no inhibitory effect. Furthermore, radical scavengers inhibited the DEP-induced GM-CSF release, showing involvement of reactive oxygen species in this response. Moreover genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, abrogated the effects of DEPs on GM-CSF release, whereas protein kinase (PK) C, PKA, cyclooxygenase, or lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. PD-98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase, diminished the effects of DEPs, whereas SB-203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, had a lower effect, and DEPs did actually increase the active, phosphorylated form of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase as shown by Western blotting. In addition, cytochalasin D, which inhibits the phagocytosis of DEPs, reduced the increase in GM-CSF release after DEP treatment. Together, these data suggest that the increase in GM-CSF release is mainly due to the adsorbed organic compounds and that the effect of native DEPs requires endocytosis of the particles. Reactive oxygen species and tyrosine kinase(s) may be involved in the DEP-triggered signaling of the GM-CSF response.

  19. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind; Meijer, Coby; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of markers of cancer stem cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in small cell lung cancer is not known. We retrospectively studied these markers in the biopsy tissue of patients with small cell lung cancer and correlated them with overall survival and the strongest

  20. Nerve Invasion by Epithelial Cells in Benign Breast Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jan Chan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nerve invasion by glandular epithelial cells in a lesion is usually regarded as invasive carcinoma. However, some benign conditions in the pancreas, prostate, breast and other organs may show involvement of nerve bundles by benign epithelial cells. We report an 18-year-old female with nerve invasion in benign breast disease. The lesion in her right breast revealed fibrocystic changes with ductal hyperplasia and stromal sclerosis. Perineural and intraneural involvement by bland-looking small ducts lined by 2 layers of cells including an outer layer of myoepithelial cells were found, suggestive of benign nerve invasion. There was no evidence of malignant cells in any of the sections. The patient remains well after 31 months of follow-up. About 44 cases of nerve invasion in benign breast diseases have been reported in the literature. It is necessary to carefully evaluate nerve involvement in breast lesions to avoid over-diagnosis and inappropriate operation.

  1. [STR genotyping from trace epithelial cells on fountain pen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Mei, Shan-Zong; Li, Yong-Hong; Feng, Yan; Yu, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yue

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of STR genotyping from trace epithelial cells on fountain pen and to discuss the impact of conservation time on DNA typing. Seven fountain pens were separately used by each of the 17 volunteers 20 minutes per day for a month and then were preserved on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28. DNA was extracted from the epithelial cells on fountain pen by silicon bead and was genotyped by Identifier kit. The corresponding control samples were buccal swabs of the above volunteers. The detectable numbers of loci were counted for assessment. There were statistically significant differences in the DNA genotyping by detectable numbers of gene loci between buccal swabs and epithelial cells on fountain pen of different conservation times (P fountain pen preserved on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and the corresponding oral swabs were also statistically significant (P fountain pen if the tests were performed within 24 hours. The trace epithelial cells on fountain pen can be used as biological samples for personal identification, but the conservation time would have influence on the results of DNA genotyping.

  2. Membrane dynamics and the regulation of epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, JM; Maier, O; van IJzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    2003-01-01

    Plasma membranes of epithelial cells consist of two domains, an apical and a basolateral domain, the surfaces of which differ in composition. The separation of these domains by a tight junction and the fact that specific transport pathways exist for intracellular communication between these domains

  3. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Jayanta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When grown in three-dimensional (3D cultures, epithelial cells typically form cystic organoids that recapitulate cardinal features of in vivo epithelial structures. Characterizing essential cell actions and their roles, which constitute the system's dynamic phenotype, is critical to gaining deeper insight into the cystogenesis phenomena. Methods Starting with an earlier in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA1 that validated for several Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cell culture attributes, we built a revised analogue (ISEA2 to increase overlap between analogue and cell culture traits. Both analogues used agent-based, discrete event methods. A set of axioms determined ISEA behaviors; together, they specified the analogue's operating principles. A new experimentation framework enabled tracking relative axiom use and roles during simulated cystogenesis along with establishment of the consequences of their disruption. Results ISEA2 consistently produced convex cystic structures in a simulated embedded culture. Axiom use measures provided detailed descriptions of the analogue's dynamic phenotype. Dysregulating key cell death and division axioms led to disorganized structures. Adhering to either axiom less than 80% of the time caused ISEA1 to form easily identified morphological changes. ISEA2 was more robust to identical dysregulation. Both dysregulated analogues exhibited characteristics that resembled those associated with an in vitro model of early glandular epithelial cancer. Conclusion We documented the causal chains of events, and their relative roles, responsible for simulated cystogenesis. The results stand as an early hypothesis–a theory–of how individual MDCK cell actions give rise to consistently roundish, cystic organoids.

  4. The Role of SnoN and Ski in Mammary Epithelial Cell Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Deng

    2007-01-01

    .... Higher level of Ski/SnoN is found in transformed mammary epithelial cells. Ski/SnoN might play a role in regulation of the transformation of mammary epithelial cell by antagonizing TGF signaling pathway...

  5. Transport Mechanism of Nicotine in Primary Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Nagahiro, Machi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, there is little information concerning the transport mechanism of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized the uptake of nicotine in rat primary cultured type II (TII) and transdifferentiated type I-like (TIL) epithelial cells. In both TIL and TII cells, [(3)H]nicotine uptake was time and temperature-dependent, and showed saturation kinetics. [(3)H]Nicotine uptake in these cells was not affected by Na(+), but was sensitive to extracellular and intracellular pH, suggesting the involvement of a nicotine/proton antiport system. The uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in these cells was potently inhibited by organic cations such as clonidine, diphenhydramine, and pyrilamine, but was not affected by substrates and/or inhibitors of known organic cation transporters such as carnitine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and tetraethylammonium. In addition, the uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in TIL cells was stimulated by preloading the cells with unlabeled nicotine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine, but not with tetraethylammonium. These results suggest that a novel proton-coupled antiporter is involved in the uptake of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells and its absorption from the lungs into the systemic circulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Biomechanics of epithelial cell islands analyzed by modeling and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Coburn, Luke; Noppe, Adrian; Caldwell, Benjamin J; Moussa, Elliott; Yap, Chloe; Priya, Rashmi; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Roberts, Anthony P; Yap, Alpha S; Neufeld, Zoltan; Gomez, Guillermo A

    2016-01-01

    We generated a new computational approach to analyze the biomechanics of epithelial cell islands that combines both vertex and contact-inhibition-of-locomotion models to include both cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Examination of the distribution of cell protrusions (adhesion to the substrate) in the model predicted high order profiles of cell organization that agree with those previously seen experimentally. Cells acquired an asymmetric distribution of protrusions (and traction forces) that decreased when moving from the edge to the island center. Our in silico analysis also showed that tension on cell-cell junctions (and monolayer stress) is not homogeneous across the island. Instead it is higher at the island center and scales up with island size, which we confirmed experimentally using laser ablation assays and immunofluorescence. Moreover, our approach has the minimal elements necessary to reproduce mechanical crosstalk between both cell-cell and cell substrate adhesion systems. We found that an i...

  7. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balder, Rachel; Lipski, Serena; Lazarus, John J; Grose, William; Wooten, Ronald M; Hogan, Robert J; Woods, Donald E; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2010-09-28

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649) that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA, was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells) and A549 (type II pneumocytes), as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE). Consistent with these findings, disruption of the boaA gene in B. mallei ATCC23344 reduced adherence to all three cell types by ~50%. The genomes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and DD503 were also found to contain boaA and inactivation of the gene in DD503 considerably decreased binding to monolayers of HEp2 and A549 cells and to NHBE cultures.A second YadA-like gene product highly similar to BoaA (65% identity) was identified in the published genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 (locus # BPSL1705). The gene specifying this protein, termed boaB, appears to be B. pseudomallei-specific. Quantitative attachment assays demonstrated that recombinant E. coli expressing BoaB displayed greater binding to A549 pneumocytes, HEp2 cells and NHBE cultures. Moreover, a boaB mutant of B. pseudomallei DD503 showed decreased adherence to these respiratory cells. Additionally, a B. pseudomallei strain lacking expression of both boaA and boaB was impaired in its ability to thrive inside J774A.1 murine macrophages

  8. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Results Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649 that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA, was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells and A549 (type II pneumocytes, as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE. Consistent with these findings, disruption of the boaA gene in B. mallei ATCC23344 reduced adherence to all three cell types by ~50%. The genomes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and DD503 were also found to contain boaA and inactivation of the gene in DD503 considerably decreased binding to monolayers of HEp2 and A549 cells and to NHBE cultures. A second YadA-like gene product highly similar to BoaA (65% identity was identified in the published genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 (locus # BPSL1705. The gene specifying this protein, termed boaB, appears to be B. pseudomallei-specific. Quantitative attachment assays demonstrated that recombinant E. coli expressing BoaB displayed greater binding to A549 pneumocytes, HEp2 cells and NHBE cultures. Moreover, a boaB mutant of B. pseudomallei DD503 showed decreased adherence to these respiratory cells. Additionally, a B. pseudomallei strain lacking expression of both boaA and boaB was impaired in its ability to

  9. Nitric oxide gas phase release in human small airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Vinod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an imbalance in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO is elevated in asthma, and is a potentially useful non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. However, the origin and underlying mechanisms of intersubject variability of exhaled NO are not yet fully understood. We have previously described NO gas phase release from normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs, tracheal origin. However, smaller airways are the major site of morbidity in asthma. We hypothesized that IL-13 or cytomix (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ stimulation of differentiated small airway epithelial cells (SAECs, generation 10–12 and A549 cells (model cell line of alveolar type II cells in culture would enhance NO gas phase release. Methods Confluent monolayers of SAECs and A549 cells were cultured in Transwell plates and SAECs were allowed to differentiate into ciliated and mucus producing cells at an air-liquid interface. The cells were then stimulated with IL-13 (10 ng/mL or cytomix (10 ng/mL for each cytokine. Gas phase NO release in the headspace air over the cells was measured for 48 hours using a chemiluminescence analyzer. Results In contrast to our previous result in NHBE, baseline NO release from SAECs and A549 is negligible. However, NO release is significantly increased by cytomix (0.51 ± 0.18 and 0.29 ± 0.20 pl.s-1.cm-2, respectively reaching a peak at approximately 10 hours. iNOS protein expression increases in a consistent pattern both temporally and in magnitude. In contrast, IL-13 only modestly increases NO release in SAECs reaching a peak (0.06 ± 0.03 pl.s-1.cm-2 more slowly (30 to 48 hours, and does not alter NO release in A549 cells. Conclusion We conclude that the airway epithelium is a probable source of NO in the exhaled breath, and intersubject variability may be due, in part, to variability in the type (Th1 vs Th2 and location (large vs small airway

  10. In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0184 TITLE: In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell Dissemination PRINCIPAL...Sep 2013 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell...understand the early events that accompany invasive behavior in vivo , we proposed to develop a lineage-labeling system to detect and isolate cells of lung

  11. Cytotoxic Effect of Lipophilic Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol Nanoparticles on Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; Badireddy, Appala Raju; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Francisco, Contreras-Cordero Juan; Israel, Martinez-Gonzalez Gustavo; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Chellam, Shankararaman; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth nanoparticles have many interesting properties to be applied in biomedical and medicinal sectors, however their safety in humans have not been comprehensively investigated. The objective of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of bismuth dimercaptopropanol nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) on epithelial cells. The nanoparticles are composed of 18.7 nm crystallites on average and have a rhombohedral structure, agglomerating into chains-like or clusters of small nanoparticles. Based on MTT viability assay and fluorescence microscopy, cytotoxicity was not observed on monkey kidney cells after growing with 5 µM of BisBAL NPs for 24 h. Employing same techniques, identical results were obtained with human epithelial cells (HeLa), showing a not strain-dependent phenomenon. The absence of toxic effects on epithelial cells growing with BisBAL NPs was corroborated with long-time experiments (24-72 hrs.), showing no difference in comparison with growing control (cells without nanoparticles). Further, genotoxicity assays, comet assay and fluorescent microscopy and electrophoresis in bromide-stained agarose gel revealed no damage to genomic DNA of MA104 cells after 24 h. of exposition to BisBAL NPs. Finally, the effect of bismuth nanoparticles on protein synthesis was studied in cells growing with BisBAL NPs for 24 h. SDS-PAGE assays showed no difference between treated and untreated cells, suggesting that BisBAL NPs did not interfere with protein synthesis. Hence BisBAL NPs do not appear to exert cytotoxic effects suggesting their biological compatibility with epithelial cells.

  12. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  13. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Yao; Qi, Xia; Duan, Haoyun; Xie, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a well-known neuroprotective cytokine, has been found to play an important role in neurogenesis and functional regulations of neural stem cells. As one of the most innervated tissue, however, the role of CNTF in cornea epithelium remains unclear. This study was to explore the roles and mechanisms of CNTF in the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and wound healing of both normal and diabetic mouse corneal epithelium. In mice subjecting to mechanical removal of corneal epithelium, the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing were promoted by exogenous CNTF application, while delayed by CNTF neutralizing antibody. In cultured corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, CNTF enhanced the colony-forming efficiency, stimulated the mitogenic proliferation, and upregulated the expression levels of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell-associated transcription factors. Furthermore, the promotion of CNTF on the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing was mediated by the activation of STAT3. Moreover, in diabetic mice, the content of CNTF in corneal epithelium decreased significantly when compared with that of normal mice, and the supplement of CNTF promoted the diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing, accompanied with the advanced activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and the regeneration of corneal nerve fibers. Thus, the capability of expanding corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and promoting corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration indicates the potential application of CNTF in ameliorating limbal stem cell deficiency and treating diabetic keratopathy. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Melanosome Motility in Fish Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Smith, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Several model systems have been developed to investigate mechanism and regulation of intracellular organelle motility. The fish retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell represents a novel yet simple system for the study of organelle motility. Primary cultures of dissociated RPE cells are easily prepared and amenable to motility studies. In vivo, melanin-containing pigment granules (melanosomes) within fish RPE migrate distances up to 100 μm in response to light flux. When dissociated from the epithelial layer and cultured in vitro, RPE cells attach to the substrate with the apical projections extending radially from the central cell body. Melanosomes can be chemically triggered to aggregate or disperse throughout the projections, and are easily observed using phase contrast microscopy. Melanosome migration in RPE apical projections is dependent on actin filaments, and thus renders this model system useful for investigations of actin-dependent organelle motility.

  15. File list: DNS.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: DNS.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Unc.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_epithelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. In vitro co-culture of epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells on aligned nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppan, Purushothaman; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2017-12-01

    Esophagus is a complex, hollow organ consisting of epithelial cells in the inner mucosal layer and smooth muscle cells in the outer muscle layer. In the present study, we have evaluated the in vitro co-culture of epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells on the aligned nanofibrous scaffold made of PHBV, PHBV-gelatin, PCL and PCL-gelatin developed through electrospinning using rotating drum collector. Epithelial cells were labeled with cell tracker green while the smooth muscle cells were labeled with cell tracker red. Labeled cells were seeded on the aligned nanofibers matrices and tracked using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both epithelial and smooth muscle cells attach, extend, and proliferate over these nanofibrous matrices. Confocal z-sectioning shows that epithelial and smooth muscle cells tend to separate into two distinct layers on a single nanofiber system mimicking the in vivo anatomy. Cell viability assay showed that both types of cells are viable and also interact with each other. The functional gene expression of respective cell types demonstrates that both epithelial and smooth muscle cells are phenotypically as well as functionally active when they were co-cultured. Thus the study highlighted that aligned nanofibrous scaffolds could be potential alternative graft for esophageal tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Smad2 overexpression enhances adhesion of gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Shimoe, Masayuki; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Ugawa, Yuki; Kochi, Shinsuke; Ideguchi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2016-11-01

    Gingival epithelial cells play an important role in preventing the initiation of periodontitis, by their hemidesmosomal adhesion to the tooth root surface. Adhesion requires integrin-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that are intricately regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. However, the mechanisms underlying the interplay between adhesion molecules and TGF-β, especially the respective roles of Smad2 and Smad3, remain elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of Smad overexpression on gingival epithelial cell adhesion and expression profiles of integrin and ECM-related genes. Human gingival epithelial cells immortalized by the SV40 T-antigen were transfected with Smad2- and Smad3-overexpression vectors. A cell adhesion assay involving fluorescence detection of attached cells was performed using the ArrayScan imaging system. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the kinetics of integrin and ECM gene expression. In vitro and in vivo localization of adhesion molecules was examined by immunofluorescence analysis. By using SB431542, a specific inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor, Smad2/3 signaling was confirmed to be dominant in TGF-β1-induced cell adhesion. The Smad2-transfectant demonstrated higher potency for cell adhesion and integrin expression (α2, α5, β4, and β6) than the Smad3-transfectant, whereas little or no change in ECM expression was observed in either transfectant. Moreover, the gingival epithelium of transgenic mice that overexpressed Smad2 driven by the keratin 14 promoter showed increased integrin α2 expression. These findings indicate the crucial role of Smad2 in increased adhesion of gingival epithelial cells via upregulation of integrin α2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of TGF-β on ocular surface epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Maria Jesús; Calder, Virginia; Corrales, Rosa M; García-Vázquez, Carmen; Narayanan, Srihari; Herreras, José M; Stern, Michael E; Calonge, Margarita; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia

    2013-02-01

    A role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the pathogenesis of some ocular surface diseases has been proposed. We determined if secretion of TGF-β and expression of TGF-β receptors RI, RII, and RIII by human ocular surface epithelial cells were modified under inflammatory conditions. We also determined how these cells responded to TGF-β. A human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line and a conjunctival epithelial cell line (IOBA-NHC) were exposed to TGF-β1 and -β2 and to proinflammatory cytokines. TGF-β receptor mRNAs were analyzed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in both cell lines, and in conjunctival, limbal, and corneal epithelial cells from post-mortem human specimens. Expression of TGF-β receptors and pSMAD2/SMAD2 were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Secretion of TGF-β isoforms, cytokine/chemokine, and metalloproteinases (MMPs) were analyzed in cell supernatants by immunobead-based assays. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) secretion was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β isoform and receptor gene expression was determined by RT-PCR in conjunctival epithelium of dry eye (DE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results showed that TGF-β RI expression was down-regulated with IL-4 exposure, whereas TGF-β RII and TGF-β2 were upregulated by TNF-α in HCE cells. TGF-β RIII receptor expression was upregulated in IOBA-NHC cells by TNF-α and IFN-γ. SMAD2 phosphorylation occurred in HCE and IOBA-NHC cells after TGF-β treatment. TGF-β significantly up- and down-regulated secretion of several cytokines/chemokines by both cell lines and MMP by HCE cells. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 were upregulated and TGF-β RIII mRNA was down-regulated in DE conjunctival epithelium. These results show that TGF-β plays an important role in directing local inflammatory responses in ocular surface epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bronchial stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Emad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial stents are mostly used as a Palliative relief of symptoms often caused by airway obstruction, It is also used for sealing of stump fistulas after pneumonectomy and dehiscence after bronchoplastic operations. Advances in airway prosthetics have provided a variety of silicone stents, expandable metal stents, and pneumatic dilators, enabling the correction of increasingly complex anatomical problems. Several series have been published describing the application and results of these techniques. This manuscript reviews the historical development of stents, types, indication, outcome, and complications. Alternative therapies for tracheobronchial stenting were also reviewed

  1. Cryptococcus–Epithelial Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M. Taylor-Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Infections with this fungus tend to be predominantly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. Infections initiate with inhalation of cryptococcal cells and entry of the pathogen into the lungs. The bronchial epithelial cells of the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus engage with. Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review. C. neoformans has been shown to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells, although if the role of the capsule is in aiding or hindering this adhesion is debatable. The epithelia are also able to react to cryptococci with the release of cytokines and chemokines to start the immune response to this invading pathogen. The activity of surfactant components that line this mucosal barrier towards Cryptococcus and the metabolic and transcriptional reaction of cryptococci when encountering epithelial cells will also be discussed.

  2. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...... induced apoptosis in several activated T-cell populations and T-cell lines, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3-negative T-cell lines. In contrast, RPE cells induced little or no apoptosis in resting peripheral T cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II monoclonal antibodies, which...

  3. ATM-activated autotaxin (ATX) propagates inflammation and DNA damage in lung epithelial cells: a new mode of action for silica-induced DNA damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2017-12-07

    Silica exposure is a common risk factor for lung cancer. It has been claimed that key elements in cancer development are activation of inflammatory cells that indirectly induce DNA damage and proliferative stimuli in respiratory epithelial cells. We studied DNA damage induced by silica particles in respiratory epithelial cells and focused the role of the signaling enzyme autotaxin (ATX). A549 and 16 bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) lung epithelial cells were exposed to silica particles. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, ATX, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and DNA damage (γH2AX, pCHK1, pCHK2, comet assay) were end points. Low doses of silica induced NLRP3 activation, DNA damage accumulation, and ATM phosphorylation. A novel finding was that ATM induced ATX generation and secretion. Not only silica but also rotenone, camptothecin and H2O2 activated ATX via ATM, suggesting that ATX is part of a generalized ATM response to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Surprisingly, ATX inhibition mitigated DNA damage accumulation at later time points (6-16 h), and ATX transfection caused NLRP3 activation and DNA damage. Furthermore, the product of ATX enzymatic activity, lysophosphatidic acid, recapitulated the effects of ATX transfection. These data indicate an ATM-ATX-dependent loop that propagates inflammation and DSB accumulation, making low doses of silica effective inducers of DSBs in epithelial cells. We conclude that an ATM-ATX axis interconnects DSBs with silica-induced inflammation and propagates these effects in epithelial cells. Further studies of this adverse outcome pathway may give an accurate assessment of the lowest doses of silica that causes cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Morphologic Analysis of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells in Bronchial Washing Cytology: Comparison of Liquid-Based Preparation and Conventional Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeon Seok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cytopathic effects of cytomegalovirus (CMV infection have been well described since the virus was first reported; however, the morphology of CMV infection has not been clearly studied. We examined the difference in detailed cytologic findings in bronchial washing cytology between liquid-based and conventionally prepared smears. Methods: Bronchial washing cytology was processed using either the conventional preparation (CP or liquid-based preparation (LBP. Sixty-nine cells with typical cytopathic effects of CMV infection were detected on CP slides and 18 cells on LBP slides. Using the image analyzer, area, circumference, major axis, and minor axis of the cytoplasm, nucleus, and intranuclear inclusion were measured in singly scattered CMV-infected cells, and histiocytes were used as a control. Results: The mean cytoplasmic area of CMV-infected cells was 1.47 times larger than that of histiocytes in CP and 2.92 times larger in LBP (p<.05. The mean nuclear area of CMV-infected cells was 2.61 times larger than that of histiocytes in CP and 4.25 times larger in LBP (p<.05. The nucleus to cytoplasm ratio and intranuclear inclusion to cytoplasm ratio of the mean area, circumference, major axis, and minor axis in CP were larger than those in LBP (p<.05. Conclusions: The sizes of cytoplasm, nucleus, and intranuclear inclusion were larger in LBP than in CP, indicating that CMV-infected cells are easily detectable in LBP. However, the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio was larger in CP, suggesting that differentiation from malignancy or regenerative atypia requires caution in CP.

  5. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2 cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today.

  6. On the Sulfation and Methylation of Catecholestrogens in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Ying; Yasuda, Shin; Liu, Ming-Yih; Wu, Yi-yong; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2008-01-01

    .... The present study was designed to examine the role of sulfation in the metabolism of CEs. MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF 10A human mammary epithelial cells were metabolically labeled with [35S...

  7. Generation of stratified squamous epithelial progenitor cells from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets.

  8. Generation of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Yasuda, Miyuki; Miyashita, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Yoko; Yoshida, Tetsu; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Okano, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto

    2011-01-01

    Background Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. Methodology/Principal Findings We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method) with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets. PMID:22174914

  9. Temporal Monitoring of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells Using Microfluidics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Blume

    Full Text Available The airway epithelium is exposed to a variety of harmful agents during breathing and appropriate cellular responses are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence has highlighted the contribution of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the development of many chronic respiratory diseases. Despite intense research efforts, the responses of the airway barrier to environmental agents are not fully understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models that recapitulate the complex in vivo situation accurately. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we describe a novel dynamic 3D in vitro model of the airway epithelium, incorporating fully differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface and a basolateral microfluidic supply of nutrients simulating the interstitial flow observed in vivo. Through combination of the microfluidic culture system with an automated fraction collector the kinetics of cellular responses by the airway epithelium to environmental agents can be analysed at the early phases for the first time and with much higher sensitivity compared to common static in vitro models. Following exposure of primary differentiated epithelial cells to pollen we show that CXCL8/IL-8 release is detectable within the first 2h and peaks at 4-6h under microfluidic conditions, a response which was not observed in conventional static culture conditions. Such a microfluidic culture model is likely to have utility for high resolution temporal profiling of toxicological and pharmacological responses of the airway epithelial barrier, as well as for studies of disease mechanisms.

  10. PEI-engineered respirable particles delivering a decoy oligonucleotide to NF-κB: inhibiting MUC2 expression in LPS-stimulated airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ungaro

    Full Text Available A specific and promising approach to limit inflammation and mucin iperproduction in chronic lung diseases relies on specific inhibition of nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB by a decoy oligonucleotide (dec-ODN. To fulfill the requirements dictated by translation of dec-ODN therapy in humans, inhalable dry powders were designed on a rational basis to provide drug protection, sustained release and to optimize pharmacological response. To this end, large porous particles (LPP for dec-ODN delivery made of a sustained release biomaterial (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA and an "adjuvant" hydrophilic polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI were developed and their effects on LPS-stimulated human airway epithelial cells evaluated. The composite PLGA/PEI particles containing dec-ODN (i.e., LPP(PEI were successfully engineered for widespread deposition in the lung and prolonged release of intact dec-ODN in vitro. LPP(PEI caused a prolonged inhibition of IL-8 and MUC2 expression in CF human bronchial epithelial cells and human epithelial pulmonary NCI-H292 cells, respectively, as compared to naked dec-ODN. Nonetheless, as compared to previously developed LPP, the presence of PEI was essential to construct a dec-ODN delivery system able to act in mucoepidermoid lung epithelial cells. In perspective, engineering LPP with PEI may become a key factor for tuning carrier properties, controlling lung inflammation and mucin production which, in turn, can foster in vivo translation of dec-ODN therapy.

  11. Barrier disrupting effects of alternaria alternata extract on bronchial epithelium from asthmatic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Marina S; Loxham, Matthew; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dennison, Patrick W; Shamji, Betty W H; Edwards, Matthew J; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    Sensitization and exposure to the allergenic fungus Alternaria alternata has been associated with increased risk of asthma and asthma exacerbations. The first cells to encounter inhaled allergens are epithelial cells at the airway mucosal surface. Epithelial barrier function has previously been reported to be defective in asthma. This study investigated the contribution of proteases from Alternaria alternata on epithelial barrier function and inflammatory responses and compared responses of in vitro cultures of differentiated bronchial epithelial cells derived from severely asthmatic donors with those from non-asthmatic controls. Polarised 16HBE cells or air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial cultures from non-asthmatic or severe asthmatic donors were challenged apically with extracts of Alternaria and changes in inflammatory cytokine release and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were measured. Protease activity in Alternaria extracts was characterised and the effect of selectively inhibiting protease activity on epithelial responses was examined using protease inhibitors and heat-treatment. In 16HBE cells, Alternaria extracts stimulated release of IL-8 and TNFα, with concomitant reduction in TER; these effects were prevented by heat-treatment of the extracts. Examination of the effects of protease inhibitors suggested that serine proteases were the predominant class of proteases mediating these effects. ALI cultures from asthmatic donors exhibited a reduced IL-8 response to Alternaria relative to those from healthy controls, while neither responded with increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) release. Only cultures from asthmatic donors were susceptible to the barrier-weakening effects of Alternaria. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium of severely asthmatic individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of Alternaria.

  12. Hepatic stellate cells promote upregulation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Teruya; Shiraha, Hidenori; Sawahara, Hiroaki; Uchida, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Iwamuro, Masaya; Kataoka, Junro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Kuwaki, Takeshi; Onishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-09-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness of cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is known as a tumor stemness marker of HCC. To investigate the relationship between microenvironment and stemness, we performed an in vitro co-culture assay. Four HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) were co-cultured with the TWNT-1 immortalized hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which create a microenvironment with HCC. Cell proliferation ability was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while migration ability was assessed by a wound healing assay. Expression of EpCAM was analyzed by immunoblotting and FCM. HCC cell lines were co-cultured with TWNT-1 treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for TGF-β and HB-EGF; we then analyzed proliferation, migration ability and protein expression using the methods described above. Proliferation ability was unchanged in HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Migration ability was increased in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) directly (216.2±67.0, 61.0±22.0, 124.0±66.2 and 51.5±40.3%) and indirectly (102.5±22.0, 84.6±30.9, 86.1±25.7 and 73.9±29.7%) co-cultured with TWNT-1 compared with the HCC uni-culture. Immunoblot analysis revealed increased EpCAM expression in the HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Flow cytometry revealed that the population of E-cadherin-/N-cadherin+ and EpCAM-positive cells increased and accordingly, EMT and stemness in the HCC cell line were activated. These results were similar in the directly and indirectly co-cultured samples, indicating that humoral factors were at play. Conversely, HCC cell lines co-cultured with siRNA‑treated TWNT-1 showed decreased migration ability, a decreased population of EpCAM-positive and E-cadherin-/N-cadherin+ cells. Taken together, humoral factors secreted from TWNT-1

  13. Neoplastic transformation of human thyroid epithelial cells by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zdenko

    Neoplastic transformation of human thyroid epithelial cells has been investigated following exposure to ionizing radiation in vitro. The effects of radiation type, irradiation regime, and postirradiation passaging were examined using a human thyroid epithelial cell line, designated HToriS, which was previously immortalized with SV40 genome. Exponentially growing HToriS cells were irradiated with graded doses of 137 Cs gamma- and 238pu alpha-irradiation. Cells were irradiated with either a single or multiple doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy gamma-radiation, or single doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 1.5 Gy gamma-radiation. Following passaging, the cells were transplanted into the athymic nude mice, and the animals were screened for tumour formation. Statistically significant increases in tumour incidence were obtained with both gamma- and alpha-irradiation and with both single and multiple irradiation regimes as compared with the un-irradiated group. Regardless of radiation type and or radiation regime there appears to be a trend, with increasing doses of radiation, in which tumour incidence increases and reaches a maximum, after which the tumour incidence decreases. Tumours were characterized by histopathological examination as undifferentiated carcinomas. Investigation of expression time following irradiation demonstrated that post-irradiation passaging, generally regarded as a critical step for expression of radiation-induced DNA damage, was not a prerequisite for the neoplastic conversion of irradiated cells with this system. Cell lines were established from the tumours and their identification and characterization carried out. All cell lines established were determined to be derived from the parent HTori3 cells by DNA fingerprinting, karyotype analysis, cytokeratin staining, and SV40 large T-antigen staining. Tumorigenicity of the cell lines was confirmed by retransplantation. Comparison of the morphology in vitro showed that the tumour cell lines retained the

  14. Small molecule mediated proliferation of primary retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Jonathan G; Elliott, Jimmy; Deshmukh, Vishal; de Lichtervelde, Lorenzo; Shen, Weijun; Tremblay, Matthew S; Peters, Eric C; Cho, Charles Y; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Wang, Shaomei; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-07-19

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form a monolayer adjacent to the retina and play a critical role in the visual light cycle. Degeneration of RPE cells results in retinal disorders such as age-related macular degeneration. Cell transplant strategies have potential therapeutic value for such disorders; however, risks associated with an inadequate supply of donor cells limit their therapeutic success. The identification of factors that proliferate RPE cells ex vivo could provide a renewable source of cells for transplantation. Here, we report that a small molecule (WS3) can reversibly proliferate primary RPE cells isolated from fetal and adult human donors. Following withdrawal of WS3, RPE cells differentiate into a functional monolayer, as exhibited by their expression of mature RPE genes and phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Furthermore, chemically expanded RPE cells preserve vision when transplanted into dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a well-established model of retinal degeneration.

  15. Osmoregulation of chloride channels in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Lim (Christina)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The plasma membrane of mammalian cells is formed by two layers of lipids (lipid bilayer), primarily phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol, in which many different proteins are embedded. Phospholipid consists of a glycerol backbone esterified to fatty acids

  16. Transforming growth factor beta-1 induces snail transcription factor in epithelial cell lines: mechanisms for epithelial mesenchymal transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peinado, Hector; Quintanilla, Miguel; Cano, Amparo

    2003-01-01

    .... We show here that transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) induces Snail expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by a mechanism dependent on the MAPK signaling pathway...

  17. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Yeon Sook

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise...

  18. Epithelial rotation is preceded by planar symmetry breaking of actomyosin and protects epithelial tissue from cell deformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Viktorinová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.

  19. Epithelial rotation is preceded by planar symmetry breaking of actomyosin and protects epithelial tissue from cell deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorinová, Ivana; Henry, Ian; Tomancak, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.

  20. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-10-13

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  1. Serratia marcescens is injurious to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, John B; Boisen, Nadia; Lindsay, Brianna; Santiago, Araceli; Ouma, Collins; Ombok, Maurice; Fields, Barry; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children in low-income countries. Although numerous pathogens cause diarrhea, the etiology of many episodes remains unknown. Serratia marcescens is incriminated in hospital-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea. We have recently found that Serratia spp. may be found more commonly in the stools of patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatic control children. We therefore investigated the possible enteric pathogenicity of S. marcescens in vitro employing a polarized human colonic epithelial cell (T84) monolayer. Infected monolayers were assayed for bacterial invasion, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. We observed significantly greater epithelial cell invasion by S. marcescens compared to Escherichia coli strain HS (p = 0.0038 respectively). Cell invasion was accompanied by reduction in TEER and secretion of IL-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) extracellular concentration rapidly increased within a few hours of exposure of the monolayer to S. marcescens. Scanning electron microscopy of S. marcescens-infected monolayers demonstrated destruction of microvilli and vacuolization. Our results suggest that S. marcescens interacts with intestinal epithelial cells in culture and induces dramatic alterations similar to those produced by known enteric pathogens.

  2. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and function of the intestinal epithelial stem cell marker Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-M; Yan, H-C; Fu, H-L; Xu, G-F; Wang, X-Q

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the pig Bmi1 gene (BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene), which has been indicated as an intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) marker in other mammals. This paper provides the first report of the function of Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells and a brief description of its underlying mechanism. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology was used to clone the complete pig Bmi1 sequence, and a Bmi1-pcDNA3.1 vector was constructed for transfection into an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). The proliferation ability of the cells was estimated using the MTT assay and the EdU incorporation method at different time points after seeding. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA abundances of cell cycle-related genes were also measured. The results indicated that the pig Bmi1 cDNA is 3,193 bp in length and consists of a 981 bp open reading frame, a 256 bp 5´ untranslated region (UTR), and a 1,956 bp 3' UTR. The transcript contains no signal peptides, and there are no transmembrane regions in the pig Bmi1 coded protein, which has a total of 326 AA. The overexpression of the pig Bmi1 in the IPEC-1 cells led to increased cell proliferation and a lower percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases (P cells in the G2 phase (P 0.05). Our data suggested that pig Bmi1 can increase the proliferation of IPEC-1 cells by promoting the G1/S transition and the overall cell cycle process.

  3. Protective Effects of Trehalose on the Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Aragona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE, the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.

  4. The origin of stroma surrounding epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Tomoko; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Fumio; Nishimura, Sadako; Tanaka, Hideo; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Chiyoda, Tatsuyuki; Iguchi, Yoko; Yamagami, Wataru; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stroma is thought to play an important role in tumor behavior, including invasion or metastasis and response to therapy. Cancer stroma is generally thought either to be non-neoplastic cells, including tissue-marrow or bone-marrow-derived fibroblasts, or to originate in epithelial mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the status of the p53 gene in both the cancer cells and the cancer stroma in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to elucidate the origin of the stroma. Samples from 16 EOC patients were included in this study. Tumor cells and adjacent nontumor stromal cells were microdissected and DNA was extracted separately. We analyzed p53 sequences (exons 5-8) of both cancer and stromal tissues in all cases. Furthermore, we examined p53 protein expression in all cases. Mutations in p53 were detected in 9 of the 16 EOCs: in 8 of these cases, the mutations were detected only in cancer cells. In 1 case, the same mutation (R248Q) was detected in both cancer and stromal tissues, and p53 protein expression was detected in both the cancer cells and the cancer stroma. Most cancer stroma in EOC is thought to originate from non-neoplastic cells, but some parts of the cancer stroma might originate from cancer cells.

  5. CCL20, (gamma)(delta) T cells, and IL-22 in corneal epithelial healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6 (+) IL-17(+) gamma delta T cells migrate into the epithelium. Gamma delta T-cell-deficient (TCRd(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mR...

  6. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18β-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa.

  7. A multi-omics approach identifies key hubs associated with cell type-specific responses of airway epithelial cells to staphylococcal alpha-toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Richter

    Full Text Available Responsiveness of cells to alpha-toxin (Hla from Staphylococcus aureus appears to occur in a cell-type dependent manner. Here, we compare two human bronchial epithelial cell lines, i.e. Hla-susceptible 16HBE14o- and Hla-resistant S9 cells, by a quantitative multi-omics strategy for a better understanding of Hla-induced cellular programs. Phosphoproteomics revealed a substantial impact on phosphorylation-dependent signaling in both cell models and highlights alterations in signaling pathways associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts as well as the actin cytoskeleton as key features of early rHla-induced effects. Along comparable changes in down-stream activity of major protein kinases significant differences between both models were found upon rHla-treatment including activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPK1/3 signaling in S9 and repression in 16HBE14o- cells. System-wide transcript and protein expression profiling indicate induction of an immediate early response in either model. In addition, EGFR and MAPK1/3-mediated changes in gene expression suggest cellular re