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Sample records for brominated flame retardant

  1. Hormonal activities of new brominated flame retardants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2012), s. 820-824. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Brominated flame retardants * 2,4,6-Tribromophenol * Endocrine disruptors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  2. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, J G; Becher, G; Berg, van den, C.A.; Boer; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume are the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Because of their persistence and low biodegradation profile, several of the PBDE ...

  3. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of new brominated flame retardants: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Covino, Stefano; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2014), s. 153-167. ISSN 0147-6513 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ecotoxicity * brominated flame retardants * biodegradation * review Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014

  4. Endocrine effects of some new brominated flame retardants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    Praha : VŠCHT, 2012. s. 77-78. ISBN 978-80-7080-811-5. [Průmyslová ekologie /3./. 20.03.2012-23.03.2012, Hustopeče u Brna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Brominated flame retardants * Endocrine disruptors Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the European environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, R.J.; Allchin, C.R.; Boer, de J.; Covaci, A.; Herzke, D.; Lepom, P.; Morris, S.; Tronczynski, J.; Wit, de C.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we review those data which have recently become available for brominated flame retardants (particularly the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)) in samples from the European environment. Environmental compartments studied comprise the atmosphere, sedime

  6. Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. PMID:25454234

  7. Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in the River Aire (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the occurrence and risk of PBDEs, new brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants along a river affected by urban and industrial pressures (River Aire, UK). Tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl)ethyl] phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were detected in all samples, with TCPP present at the highest concentrations, ranging from 113 to 26 050 ng L-1. BDE-209 was detected in most of the sampled sites, ranging from 17 to 295 ng L−1, while hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB) were seldom detected. A risk quotients based on predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) and flame retardants water concentration proved significant risk for adverse effects for algae, Daphnia and fish in sites close to industrial and urban sewage discharges. This study provides a protocol for the risk estimation of priority and new generation flame retardants based on river concentrations and toxicological values. -- Highlights: •Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants were monitored in River Aire (UK). •BDE-209 and organophosphorus flame retardants were detected at high concentrations. •A risk assessment was performed based on water concentration and acute toxicity data. •Low to significant risk for adverse effects was observed for algae, fish and Daphnia. -- Organophosphorus flame retardants and BDE-209 were detected at high concentrations along River Aire (UK) and a risk assessment indicated significant risk for adverse effects to aquatic organisms

  8. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We examined the flame retardants in electronics, curtains, wallpaper and insulator. → Use of alternative brominated and organophosphate flame retardants was suggested. → All the products investigated also contained PBDEs, TBBPA and polybromophenols. → Incorporation of recycled materials containing hazardous substance was suggested. - Abstract: The concentrations of traditional brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained bromine at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the bromine content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern.

  9. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A process for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) removal in plastic was established. ► The plastic became bromine-free with the structure maintained after this treatment. ► BFRs transferred into alcohol solvent were easily debrominated by metallic copper. - Abstract: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E and E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90 °C, 2 h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  10. Occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants : With emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Thuresson, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, which are used to slow down or inhibit the development of fires. BFRs are incorporated into a wide range of consumer products that are considered as potential fire hazards, such as TV-sets, household appliances, computers, and textiles. The production and use of BFRs is extensive and consists of mainly tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecan (HBCD). BFRs in general, but...

  11. Assessing oestrogenic effects of brominated flame retardants Hexabromocyclododecane and Tetrabromobisphenol A on MCF-7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorosh, Andriy; Děd, Lukáš; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pěknicová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2010), s. 35-39. ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : endocrine disruptors * BRF - brominated flame retardant * MCF-7 cells * TFF1 - trefoil factor Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010

  12. Ship-source pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are groups of anthropogenic contaminants that have been routinely used in many applications for several decades. Prior to the discovery of their detrimental health effects and subsequent implementation of regulatory measures they were widely applied in shipbuilding. They are still found onboard active and inactive ships and pose a risk to human and environment. Therefore, it is important to continue to carry out preven...

  13. Toxicity of brominated flame retardants with focus on retinoid system disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Litens Karlsson, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brominated flame retardants (BFR) are detected in the environment and biota all over the world. They contribute to the human body burden of industrial chemicals and exposure is mainly via food. Indoor dust contributes substantially in some exposure situations, which involve small children. Regulatory restrictions and bans have been introduced as some BFRs can impact proper development, potentially via the endocrine system. Objectives: The study aim was to clarify the role of...

  14. Shuttle Environmental Assurance: Brominated Flame Retardants - Concerns, Drivers, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are widely used in the manufacture of electrical and electronic components and as additives in formulations for foams, plastics and rubbers. The United States (US) and the European Union (EU)have increased regulation and monitoring of of targeted BFRs, such as Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) due to the bioaccumulative effects in humans and animals. In response, manufacturers and vendors of BFR-containing materials are changing flame-retardant additives, sometimes without notifying BFR users. In some instances, Deca-bromodiphenylether (Deca-BDE) and other families of flame retardants are being used as replacement flame retardants for penta-BDE and octa-BDE. The reformulation of the BFR-containing material typically results in the removal of the targeted PBDE and replacement with a non-PBDE chemical or non-targeted PBDE. Many users of PBDE -based materials are concerned that vendors will perform reformulation and not inform the end user. Materials performance such as flammability, adhesion , and tensile strength may be altered due to reformulation. The requalification of newly formulated materials may be required, or replacement materials may have to be identified and qualified. The Shuttle Enviornmental Assurance (SEA) team indentified a risk to the Space Shuttle Program associated with the possibility that targeted PBDEs may be replaced without notification. Resultant decreases in flame retardancy, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) compatibility, or material performance could have serious consequences.

  15. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  16. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  17. Microbial degradation of the brominated flame retardant TBNPA by groundwater bacteria: laboratory and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Noa; Bernstein, Anat; Gelman, Faina; Ronen, Zeev

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the biodegradation of the brominated flame retardant tribromoneopentylalcohol (TBNPA) by a groundwater enrichment culture was investigated using a dual carbon ((13)C/(12)C)- bromine ((81)Br/(79)Br) stable isotope analysis. An indigenous aerobic bacterial consortium was enriched from the polluted groundwater underlying an industrial site in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where TBNPA is an abundant pollutant. Aerobic biodegradation was shown to be rapid, with complete debromination within a few days, whereas anaerobic biodegradation was not observed. Biodegradation under aerobic conditions was accompanied by a significant carbon isotope effect with an isotopic enrichment factor of ɛCbulk = -8.8‰ ± 1.5‰, without any detectable bromine isotope fractionation. It was found that molecular oxygen is necessary for biodegradation to occur, suggesting an initial oxidative step. Based on these results, it was proposed that H abstraction from the C-H bond is the first step of TBNPA biodegradation under aerobic conditions, and that the C-H bond cleavage results in the formation of unstable intermediates, which are rapidly debrominated. A preliminary isotopic analysis of TBNPA in the groundwater underlying the industrial area revealed that there are no changes in the carbon and bromine isotope ratio values downstream of the contamination source. Considering that anoxic conditions prevail in the groundwater of the contaminated site, the lack of isotope shifts in TBNPA indicates the lack of TBNPA biodegradation in the groundwater, in accordance with our findings. PMID:27183339

  18. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ15N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  19. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements

  20. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrian, Alexia, E-mail: alexia.aldrian@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Ledersteger, Alfred, E-mail: a.ledersteger@saubermacher.at [Saubermacher Dienstleistungs AG, Hans-Roth-Straße 1, 8073 Feldkirchen bei Graz (Austria); Pomberger, Roland, E-mail: roland.pomberger@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  1. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-02-01

    This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements. PMID:25464945

  2. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (<111 ng/g) than those for octa- and deca-BDE commercially derived PBDEs, with maximum values of 15,107 and 1,603,343 ng/g, respectively, in all the household products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required.

  3. Accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine food chains: Field measurements and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, K.; Hendriks, J.; Huijbregts, M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Vethaak, D.

    2005-01-01

    Food chain accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine environments is compared to model estimations and fresh water field data. The food chain consists of herbivores, detritivores and primary and secondary carnivores i.e. fish, fish-eating birds and marin

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  5. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine compounds in duplicate diet samples from a Portuguese academic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs. PMID:27367176

  6. Thermal Recycling of Brominated Flame Retardants with Fe2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Ahmed, Oday H; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2016-08-01

    Plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) constitute the major fraction of nonmetallic content in e-waste. Co-pyrolysis of BFRs with hematite (Fe2O3) represents a viable option for the thermal recycling of BFRs. Consensus of experimental findings confirms the excellent bromine fixation ability of Fe2O3 and the subsequent formation of iron bromides. This contribution provides a comprehensive mechanistic account of the primary reactions between a cluster model of Fe2O3 and major bromine-bearing products from the decomposition of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA), the most commonly deployed BFR. We estimate the thermo-kinetic parameters for interactions of Fe2O3 with HBr, brominated alkanes and alkenes, bromobenzene, and bromophenol. Dissociative addition of HBr at a Fe-O bond proceeds through a trivial barrier of 8.2 kcal/mol with fitted parameters in the Arrhenius equation of k(T) = 7.96 × 10(11) exp(-6400/RT) s(-1). The facile and irreversible nature for HBr addition to Fe2O3 accords with the experimentally reported 90% reduction in HBr emission when Fe2O3 interacts with TBBA pyrolysates. A detailed kinetic analysis indicates that, transformation of Fe2O3 into iron bromides and oxybromides occurs via successive addition of HBr to Fe(Br)-O(H) entities. Elimination of a water molecule proceeds through an intramolecular H transfer. A direct elimination one-step mechanism operates in the dehydrohalogenation of bromoethane into ethene over Fe2O3. Dissociative decomposition and direct elimination channels assume comparable reaction rates in formation of acetylene from vinyl bromide. Results from this study provide an atomic-based insight into a promising thermal recycling route of e-waste. PMID:27366936

  7. Brominated flame retardants in the indoor environment - Comparative study of indoor contamination from three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Audy, Ondřej; Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Romanak, Kevin; Melymuk, Lisa; Krátká, Martina; Kukučka, Petr; Okeme, Joseph; Saini, Amandeep; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of more than 20 brominated flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging FRs, were measured in air, dust and window wipes from 63 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic and the United States in the spring and summer of 2013. Among the PBDEs, the highest concentrations were generally BDE-209 in all three matrices, followed by Penta-BDEs. Among alternative FRs, EHTBB and BEHTBP were detected at the highest concentrations. DBDPE was also a major alternative FR detected in dust and air. Bromobenzenes were detected at lower levels than PBDEs and other alternative FRs; among the bromobenzenes, HBB and PBEB were the most abundant compounds. In general, FR levels were highest in the US and lowest in the Czech Republic - a geographic trend that reflects the flame retardants' market. No statistically significant differences were detected between bedroom and living room FR concentrations in the same house (n=10), suggesting that sources of FRs are widespread indoors and mixing between rooms. The concentrations of FRs in air, dust, and window film were significantly correlated, especially for PBDEs. We found a significant relationship between the concentrations in dust and window film and in the gas phase for FRs with log KOA values values >14. This hypothesis was confirmed by a large discrepancy between values predicted using a partitioning model and the measured values for FRs with log KOA values >14. PMID:27248661

  8. Brominated flame retardants in Chinese air before and after the phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Qi, Hong; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zhi; Mohammed, Mohammed O. A.; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zifeng; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel non-BDE flame retardants (NBFRs), were analyzed in Chinese air during China's POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program Phase I (SAMP-I) and Phase II (SAMP-II). The levels of Σ12PBDEs and Σ6NBFRs in urban sites were significantly higher than those in rural sites and background sites. The higher detection rate and concentrations of high molecular weight PBDEs and NBFRs in Phase II indicated the changing of the commercial pattern of BFRs after the phase out of PBDEs in China. Temperature was the major factor affecting the seasonal variations of molecular weight BFRs in atmosphere. A significant correlation between BFRs concentration and gross domestic product (GDP) was observed, with the GDP parameter explained 59.4% and 72.7% of the total variability for Octa-BDEs and low molecular weight NBFRs, respectively. Our findings indicated an evolving commercial usage of BFRs from SAMP-I to SAMP-II, i.e. shifting from lower molecular weight to higher molecular weight congeners in China.

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F

    2009-01-01

    Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...

  10. Occurrence of PBDEs and other alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggyu; Song, Geum-Ju; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Studies on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other alternative brominated flame retardants in the environment are scarce. In this study, PBDEs and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), were measured in sludge collected from three types of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs (∑PBDE) in sludge ranged from 298 to 48,000 (mean: 3240) ng/g dry weight. Among 10 NBFRs analyzed, DBDPE and BTBPE were the only ones detected in sludge samples. Concentrations of DBDPE and BTBPE ranged from parametric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that congener profiles of PBDEs in sludge are dependent on the types of WWTPs. Almost all sludge samples contained a low ratio (mean: 0.18) of DBDPE/BDE 209, indicating an on-going contamination by PBDEs in Korea. However, the high ratios (>1) of DBDPE/BDE 209 were found in sludge from I-WWTPs, reflecting a shift in the usage pattern of BFRs by the Korean industry. The nationwide annual emission fluxes of ∑PBDE, DBDPE and BTBPE via WWTPs to the environment were estimated to be 7400, 480, and 3.7 kg/year, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from Korea. PMID:23993837

  11. Scientific Opinion on Emerging and Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on brominated flame retardants (BFRs other than PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDDs, TBBPA and brominated phenols and their derivatives. The BFRs that are the subject of the current opinion, were classified in groups termed ‘emerging’ and ‘novel’ BFRs. Information on 17 emerging and 10 novel BFRs was collected. The information varied widely for these BFRs. There is a lack of experimental data on physico-chemical characteristics, stability/reactivity and current use and production volume of all the emerging and novel BFRs. Due to the very limited information on occurrence, exposure and toxicity, the CONTAM Panel could not perform a risk characterisation for any of the BFRs considered. Instead, an attempt was made to identify those BFRs that could be a potential health concern and should be considered first for future investigations. For this purpose the Panel first evaluated the available experimental data on occurrence in food, behaviour in the environment and toxicity. Secondly, a modelling exercise was performed focussing on the potential of the emerging and novel BFRs for persistence in the environment and for their possible bioaccumulation potential. There is convincing evidence that tris(2,3-dibromopropyl phosphate (TDBPP and dibromoneopentyl glycol (DBNPG are genotoxic and carcinogenic, warranting further surveillance of their occurrence in the environment and in food. Based on the limited experimental data on environmental behaviour, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE and hexabromobenzene (HBB were identified as compounds that could raise a concern for bioaccumulation. For the modelling exercise, the CONTAM Panel selected two environmental characteristics, overall persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, as being most relevant to provide insight into the possibility that emerging or novel BFRs might accumulate in the food chain, and thus might appear in food intended for human

  12. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H. [Inst. for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonneveld, E. [BioDetection Systems (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Murk, A.J. [Wageningen Univ., Toxicology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P. [Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands); Brouwer, A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Substantial evidence is recently becoming available that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are potential endocrine disruptors. The toxicological profile of BFRs, however, is too incomplete and insufficient to perform human and ecological risk assessment. To fill these gaps, the EU funded research program FIRE was started in December 2002. This program aims at the identification and toxicological characterization of the most potent and environmentally relevant BFRs and their possible risk for human and wildlife health. As part of a hazard identification approach, twenty seven BFRs have been selected within the framework of FIRE for pre-screening their endocrinedisrupting potencies. Selection of test compounds was based on a maximal variation in physicochemical characteristics of BFRs within the test set, allowing the establishment of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In addition, environmental relevance (e.g. high production volumes and persistence) and availability for testing were used as selection criteria. BFRs were tested in seven different in vitro bioassays for their potency to interfere via estrogenic, thyroidal, androgenic, progestagenic, and Ah-receptor mediated pathways. Metabolisation rates of BFRs were determined using phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Finally, the endocrine disrupting potency of the metabolites was determined in the same in vitro bio-assays and compared to the potency of the parent compounds.

  13. Photochemical transformation of five novel brominated flame retardants: Kinetics and photoproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Qing; Li, Yingjie; Zhou, Chengzhi

    2016-05-01

    Many novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) are used as substitutes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in recent years. However, little is known about their phototransformation behavior, which may influence the environmental fate of these chemicals. In this study, photochemical behavior of five NBFRs, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ) was investigated. Results show all the five NBFRs can undergo photochemical transformation under simulated sunlight irradiation. Quantum yields (Φ) of the five NBFRs varied from 0.012 of TTBP-TAZ in hexane to 0.091 of BTBPE in methanol. Half-lives (t1/2) relevant with solar irradiation of these NBFRs were estimated using the determined Φ, and the values are 1.5-12.0 d in summer and 17.1-165.0 d in winter. Debrominated and ether bond cleavage products were identified in the phototransformation of DPTE and BTBPE. Debromination on the phenyl is a main phototransformation pathway for DPTE, and both debromination and ether bond cleavage are main phototransformation pathways for BTBPE. This study is helpful to better understand the phototransformation behavior of the NBFRs. PMID:26796587

  14. A study of the presence of brominated flame retardants in Australian fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R.; Burniston, D.; Piro, N.; Stevenson, G.; Yates, A. [Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants, in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) gained prominence in the late nineties when Noren et al. reported an exponential increase in PBDE levels found in Swedish mothers milk over a quarter of a century period with an associated decrease in levels of dioxin-like compounds. PBDEs have since become exceptionally widely studied being detected in most environmental compartments and food as well as human tissues. Only limited information on the distribution if PBDEs is available for the Southern Hemisphere, however, elevated levels of PBDEs in pork fat were detected during the routine screening for organochlorine pesticide residues. More recently an investigation of breast milk for PBDE levels also demonstrated that levels were comparable with those in the Northern Hemisphere. BFRs are not manufactured in Australia but it has been estimated that over 500 tonnes are imported yearly of which 340 tonnes are PBDEs. In addition, the amount of PBDEs that are contained in imported articles used both in domestic and industrial applications is unknown. In this paper, we report levels of PBDEs in a range of different Australian fauna that show that these POPs have indeed become widely distributed both in terms of the types of the fauna but also the levels determined.

  15. Chicago's Sanitary and Ship Canal sediment: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverly, Angela A; O'Sullivan, Colin; Liu, Liang-Ying; Venier, Marta; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-09-01

    The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) links the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River starting in downtown Chicago. In addition to storm water, the CSSC receives water from Chicago's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Such effluents are known to be sources of organic pollutants to water and sediment. Therefore in 2013, we collected 10 sediment samples from the CSSC and measured the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Geometric mean concentrations of the summed concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 11,000 to 420,000 ng/g dw, with the highest concentrations located at each end of the canal. Total PCB concentrations had a geometric mean of 1,400 ± 500 ng/g dw. Brominated flame retardants were separated into two groups: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-PBDEs. Concentrations of PBDEs and those of the non-PBDE flame retardants had a geometric average of 83 ± 19 and 7.0 ± 5.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The summed concentrations of 8 OPEs ranged from 470 to 2,800 ng/g dw, with the highest concentration detected at a site located downstream of the Stickney water reclamation plant. Using ANOVA results, some hypotheses on sources to the CSSC could be formulated: downtown Chicago is probably a source of PAHs, the Cal-Sag Channel may be a source of PCBs, and neither the WWTP nor the Cal-Sag Channel seem to be significant sources of brominated flame retardants or OPEs. PMID:25981316

  16. Fabric phase sorptive extraction: Two practical sample pretreatment techniques for brominated flame retardants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guiqi; Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Mengfei; Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin

    2016-09-15

    Sample pretreatment is the critical section for residue monitoring of hazardous pollutants. In this paper, using the cellulose fabric as host matrix, three extraction sorbents such as poly (tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) (PDMDPS), were prepared on the surface of the cellulose fabric. Two practical extraction techniques including stir bar fabric phase sorptive extraction (stir bar-FPSE) and magnetic stir fabric phase sorptive extraction (magnetic stir-FPSE) have been designed, which allow stirring of fabric phase sorbent during the whole extraction process. In the meantime, three brominated flame retardants (BFRs) [tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bisallylether (TBBPA-BAE), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)ether (TBBPA-BDBPE)] in the water sample were selected as model analytes for the practical evaluation of the proposed two techniques using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, various experimental conditions affecting extraction process such as the type of fabric phase, extraction time, the amount of salt and elution conditions were also investigated. Due to the large sorbent loading capacity and unique stirring performance, both techniques possessed high extraction capability and fast extraction equilibrium. Under the optimized conditions, high recoveries (90-99%) and low limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.05 μg L(-1)) were achieved. In addition, the reproducibility was obtained by evaluating the intraday and interday precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The results indicated that two pretreatment techniques were promising and practical for monitoring of hazardous pollutants in the water sample. Due to low solvent consumption and high repeated use performance, proposed techniques also could meet green analytical criteria. PMID:27300591

  17. Leaching characteristics of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants from waste printed circuit boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cu and Pb were the most leachable heavy metals in WPCBs according to TCLP and SPLP. ► Penta-BDE congeners were dominated in all extracts. ► High dissolved organic matter condition promoted the BFRs leaching rate. ► Leaching from WPCBs was a significant emission source of BFRs in landfill. -- Abstract: Leaching assessment on five heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, nickel and cadmium) and two brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) were conducted using various leaching methods. The mean leaching concentrations of copper were the highest in both toxicity characteristic leaching procedures (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedures (SPLP) tests at 8.6 mg/L and 1.1 mg/L, while only lead (6.2 mg/L) exceeded the TCLP criteria and Chinese EPA regulatory limit (both 5.0 mg/L). However, PBDEs and TBBPA were not detected in TCLP and SPLP tests. Then the BFRs leaching trends and potential leachabilities were further investigated in actual landfill leachates using a modified method. Leaching characteristics that fast-leaching initially followed by slow-desorption over time were generally observed. In landfill leachate tests, the highest leaching concentrations of PBDEs and TBBPA were determined at 30.39 and 12.27 μg/L. Meanwhile, the highest leaching rates were estimated to reach 0.08% and 1.00%, respectively, which were significantly influenced by the dissolved organic carbon contents of extracts, the hydrophobicities of target BFRs and the specific surface areas of WPCBs materials. These results proved that leaching from WPCBs was a significant emission source of BFRs in landfill and electronic waste recycling dumpsite

  18. Fate and metabolism of the brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in rice cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songfeng; Cao, Siqi; Wang, Yongfeng; Jiang, Bingqi; Wang, Lianhong; Sun, Feifei; Ji, Rong

    2016-07-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the brominated flame retardant with the highest production volume and its bioaccumulation in environment has caused both human health and environmental concerns, however the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in plants is unknown. We studied the fate, metabolites, and transformation of (14)C-labeled TBBPA in rice cell suspension culture. During the incubation for 14 days, TBBPA degradation occurred continuously in the culture, accompanied by formation of one anisolic metabolite [2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(2-hydroxy)-propyl)-anisole] (DBHPA) (50% of the degraded TBBPA) and cellular debris-bound residues (46.4%) as well as mineralization (3.6%). The cells continuously accumulated TBBPA in the cytoplasm, while a small amount of DBHPA (2.1% of the initially applied TBBPA) was detectable inside the cells only at the end of incubation. The majority of the accumulated residues in the cells was attributed to the cellular debris-bound residues, accounting for 70-79% of the accumulation after the first incubation day. About 5.4% of the accumulation was associated with cell organelles, which contributed 7.5% to the cellular debris-bound residues. Based on the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in the rice cell suspension culture, a type II ipso-substitution pathway was proposed to describe the initial step for TBBPA degradation in the culture and balance the fate of TBBPA in the cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study provides for the first time the insights into the fate and metabolism of TBBPA in plants and points out the potential role of type II ipso-hydroxylation substitution in degradation of alkylphenols in plants. Further studies are required to reveal the mechanisms for the bound-residue formation (e.g., binding of residues to specific cell wall components), nature of the binding, and toxicological effects of the bound residues and DBHPA. PMID:27105166

  19. Brominated flame retardants - Exposure and risk assessment for the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Becher, G; Hilger, B; Völkel, W

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of different substances used in numerous products to prevent fire hazards. Some of them are persistent in the environment, accumulate in the food chain and are of toxicological concern, while for others current data are limited. Meanwhile, BFRs have been found in many environmental media, foods, and biota including humans. This review presents recent findings obtained from monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure, as well as dietary exposure. In this context, concentrations in indoor and ambient air and in house dust are outlined. Furthermore, we summarize human biomonitoring data on BFR levels in blood and breast milk. Current estimates of the overall exposure of the general population using different relevant subsets are also addressed. All of these data are discussed in relation to currently available toxicological reference values used for risk assessment purposes. Obviously, the exposure of the general population varies considerably in different parts of the world and even within countries. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) show the highest intake during infancy. While the highest intake for BDE 47 for all groups was observed in the US, the total BDE 209 and HBCD intake was highest in the UK. For HBCD and all PBDEs except BDE 209, diet accounts for a large proportion of the total intake during infancy in all countries. With regard to toddlers and adults, the contribution of diet to total intake is high in Germany and the UK, while in the US, the high concentrations of PBDE in dust resulted in a notably smaller proportion of the intake being attributed to diet. PMID:26412400

  20. Brominated flame retardants in the surrounding soil of two manufacturing plants in China: Occurrence, composition profiles and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Huo, Chun-Yan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Surface soil samples were collected surrounding two brominated flame retardants (BFRs) manufacturing plants in China in August 2014 and analyzed for 23 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 8 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). BDE209 and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the predominant compounds in soil with the median levels of 1600 and 560 ng/g dw, respectively. The PBDEs profiles in soil samples were consistent with that of commercial product (comDecaBDE). The percentage contributions to total PBDEs decreased from higher to lower brominated homologues. Lower concentrations of NBFRs (excluding DBDPE) were detected in soil surrounding the two plants, suggesting they are byproducts or degradation products of the manufacturing activities. The concentrations of most BFRs dropped exponentially within 3-5 km of the manufacturing plants, suggesting recent deposition of these compounds to the soil. Directional distribution indicated that PBDEs and DBDPE concentrations were highest in the north direction of Plants 1. Three-day air parcel forward trajectories confirmed that the air parcel was responsible for the higher concentration of BFRs in the soil of north direction of the plant. PMID:26874313

  1. Maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in European eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sühring, Roxana, E-mail: roxana.suehring@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Freese, Marko [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, Mandy [Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Schubert, Sophia; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Alaee, Mehran [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, L7R4A6 Canada (Canada); Wolschke, Hendrik [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Hanel, Reinhold [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Ebinghaus, Ralf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Marohn, Lasse [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is regarded as a critically endangered species. Scientists are in agreement that the “quality of spawners” is a vital factor for the survival of the species. This quality can be impaired by parasites, disease and pollution. Especially endocrine disrupting organic chemicals pose a potential threat to reproduction and development of offspring. To our knowledge, the findings in this publication for the first time describe maternal transfer of contaminants in eels. We analysed the concentrations of in total 53 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their halogenated substitutes in muscle, gonads and eggs of artificially matured European eels and in muscle and gonads of untreated European eels that were used for comparison. We found evidence that persistent organic pollutants such as PBDEs, as well as their brominated and chlorinated substitutes are redistributed from muscle tissue to gonads and eggs. Concentrations ranged from 0.001 ng g{sup −1} ww for sum Dechlorane metabolites (DPMA, aCL{sub 10}DP, aCl{sub 11}DP) to 2.1 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in eggs, 0.001 ng g{sup −1} ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 9.4 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in gonads and 0.002 ng g{sup −1} ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 54 ng g{sup −1} ww for TBA in muscle tissue. Average egg muscle ratios (EMRs) for compounds detectable in artificially matured eels from both Schlei Fjord and Ems River ranged from 0.01 for Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) to 10.4 for PBEB. Strong correlations were found between flame retardant concentrations and lipid content in the analysed tissue types, as well as transfer rates and octanol–water partitioning coefficient, indicating that these parameters were the driving factors for the observed maternal transfer. Furthermore, indications were found, that TBP-DBPE, TBP-AE, BATE and TBA have a significant uptake from the surrounding water, rather than just food and might additionally be formed by metabolism or

  2. Maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in European eels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is regarded as a critically endangered species. Scientists are in agreement that the “quality of spawners” is a vital factor for the survival of the species. This quality can be impaired by parasites, disease and pollution. Especially endocrine disrupting organic chemicals pose a potential threat to reproduction and development of offspring. To our knowledge, the findings in this publication for the first time describe maternal transfer of contaminants in eels. We analysed the concentrations of in total 53 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their halogenated substitutes in muscle, gonads and eggs of artificially matured European eels and in muscle and gonads of untreated European eels that were used for comparison. We found evidence that persistent organic pollutants such as PBDEs, as well as their brominated and chlorinated substitutes are redistributed from muscle tissue to gonads and eggs. Concentrations ranged from 0.001 ng g−1 ww for sum Dechlorane metabolites (DPMA, aCL10DP, aCl11DP) to 2.1 ng g−1 ww for TBA in eggs, 0.001 ng g−1 ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 9.4 ng g−1 ww for TBA in gonads and 0.002 ng g−1 ww for Dechlorane metabolites to 54 ng g−1 ww for TBA in muscle tissue. Average egg muscle ratios (EMRs) for compounds detectable in artificially matured eels from both Schlei Fjord and Ems River ranged from 0.01 for Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) to 10.4 for PBEB. Strong correlations were found between flame retardant concentrations and lipid content in the analysed tissue types, as well as transfer rates and octanol–water partitioning coefficient, indicating that these parameters were the driving factors for the observed maternal transfer. Furthermore, indications were found, that TBP-DBPE, TBP-AE, BATE and TBA have a significant uptake from the surrounding water, rather than just food and might additionally be formed by metabolism or biotransformation processes. Dechloranes seem to be of

  3. Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiciński Michał

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. Although the first reports of detrimental neurobehavioral effects in rodents appeared more than ten years ago, human data are sparse. Methods As a part of a biomonitoring program for environmental health surveillance in Flanders, Belgium, we assessed the neurobehavioral function with the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES-3, and collected blood samples in a group of high school students. Cross-sectional data on 515 adolescents (13.6-17 years of age was available for the analysis. Multiple regression models accounting for potential confounders were used to investigate the associations between biomarkers of internal exposure to brominated flame retardants [serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA] and cognitive performance. In addition, we investigated the association between brominated flame retardants and serum levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. Results A two-fold increase of the sum of serum PBDE’s was associated with a decrease of the number of taps with the preferred-hand in the Finger Tapping test by 5.31 (95% CI: 0.56 to 10.05, p = 0.029. The effects of the individual PBDE congeners on the motor speed were consistent. Serum levels above the level of quantification were associated with an average decrease of FT3 level by 0.18 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.020 for PBDE-99 and by 0.15 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.29, p = 0.045 for PBDE-100, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. PBDE-47 level above the level of quantification was associated with an average increase of TSH levels by 10.1% (95% CI: 0.8% to 20.2%, p = 0.033, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. We did not

  4. Phosphate flame retardants and novel brominated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an e-waste recycling region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP)) were measured in free-range chicken eggs from three e-waste recycling sites and a negative control site located in Guangdong province, Southern China. BEH-TEBP, tris-(chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris-(chloropropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP, two isomers) and tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP) were detected in more than 50% of eggs samples with low concentrations. The median values of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs were 0.17-0.46 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 1.62-2.59 ng/g ww in eggs from the e-waste sites, respectively. The results indicate that EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PFRs are less persistent and bioaccumulative than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs, and possibly also in other bio-matrices. Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were identified in albumen with higher frequencies, but at similar concentrations compared to yolk, while BEH-TEBP was mainly detected in yolk. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs from consumption of chicken eggs ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 and 0.32-0.52 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.20-0.54 and 1.89-3.02 ng/kg bw/day for children in e-waste sites, respectively. Indoor dust ingestion seems to be a more important pathway for the intake of these FRs, while egg consumption is probably a more important exposure pathway for PBDEs. PMID:26460270

  5. A comparison of the in vitro cyto- and neurotoxicity of brominated and halogen-free flame retardants : prioritization in search for safe(r) alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Meijer, Marieke; Muilwijk, Mirthe; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are abundant persistent organic pollutants with well-studied toxicity. The toxicological and ecological concerns associated with BFRs argue for replacement by safe(r) alternatives. Though previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ f

  6. Brominated flame retardant levels in human milk and serum from MAMA study participants: Correlations over time, matrix, and with questionnaire results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic, lipophilic, and bioaccumulative compounds used to prevent the combustion of a variety of items including electronics and furniture. There are 75 classes of BFRs, two of which are the polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and the polybrom...

  7. Variation in concentrations of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants among eggs in abandoned clutches of a terrestrial raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Bird eggs are often used to measure various pollutants in monitoring programs. In protected species, however, it might only be possible to collect eggs abandoned by the parent birds. In order to assess the appropriateness of abandoned eggs for contaminant monitoring we examined intra-clutch variation in concentrations of 24 halogenated organic pollutants (16 organochlorines [OCs] and 8 brominated flame retardants) in six abandoned tawny owl (Strix aluco) clutches from central Norway. The variation among eggs within a clutch was low for nearly all compounds (intra-class correlation >0.9 both for lipid- and wet weight). This study suggests that abandoned eggs provide a relatively reliable measurement of lipophilic pollutants in clutches of terrestrial raptors such as the tawny owl. PMID:25463262

  8. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Malarvannan, Govindan; Kadi, Mohammad W; Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem; Rehan, Mohammad; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Different flame retardants (FRs) namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging brominated/chlorinated flame retardants (Br/Cl FRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) were analyzed in cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and floor dust of different households from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To the best of our knowledge, this is first study in literature reporting emerging Br/Cl FRs and OPFRs in AC filter dust and also first to report on their occurrence in dust from KSA. Chlorinated alkyl phosphate, penta-BDEs, BDE-209, and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the major chemicals in dust samples from all microenvironments. ΣOPFRs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g dust) of 15,400, 10,500, and 3750 in AC filter, car and house floor dust, respectively. For all analyzed chemicals, relatively lower levels were observed in floor dust than car and AC filter dust. The profiles of FRs in car dust were different from AC filter and floor dust, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticizer in variety of household and commercial products. For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values. PMID:27343946

  9. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: → Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. → Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). → Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. → Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. → Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  10. In vitro effects of brominated flame retardants and metabolites on CYP17 catalytic activity: A novel mechanism of action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire incidents have decreased significantly over the last 20 years due, in part, to regulations requiring addition of flame retardants (FRs) to consumer products. Five major classes of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and three commercial mixtures of penta-, octa- and deca-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, which are used extensively as commercial FR additives. Furthermore, concentrations of PBDEs have been rapidly increasing during the 1999s in human breast milk and a number of endocrine effects have been reported. We used the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line to assess possible effects of some of these BFRs (PBDEs and several of their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (CH3O) metabolites or analogues), TBBPA and brominated phenols (BPs) on the combined 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities of CYP17. CYP17 enzyme catalyzes an important step in sex steroidogenesis and is responsible for the biosynthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione in the adrenals. In order to study possible interactions with BFRs, a novel enzymatic method was developed. The precursor substrate of CYP17, pregnenolone, was added to control and exposed H295R cells, and enzymatic production of DHEA was measured using a radioimmunoassay. In order to avoid pregnenolone metabolism via different pathways, specific chemical inhibitor compounds were used. None of the parent/precursor BFRs had a significant effect (P 3O group eliminated this cytotoxic effect, but CYP17 activity measured as DHEA production was still significantly inhibited. Other OH- or CH3O-PBDE analogues were used to elucidate possible structural properties behind this CYP17 inhibition and associated cytotoxicity, but no distinct structure activity relationship could be determined. These in vitro results indicate that OH and CH3O-PBDEs have potential to interfere with CYP17 activity for which the in vivo

  11. Accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine food chains: field measurements and model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Hendriks, Jan; Huijbregts, Mark; Leonards, Pim; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; Vethaak, Dick

    2005-10-01

    Food chain accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine environments is compared to model estimations and fresh water field data. The food chain consists of herbivores, detritivores and primary and secondary carnivores i.e. fish, fish-eating birds and marine mammals. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls is predicted well by OMEGA for herbi-detritivores and primary and secondary carnivorous fish. Ratios are similar to those found for fresh water species. Accumulation ratios for fish-eating birds and mammals are overestimated by the model, which is attributed partly to biotransformation of meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Additionally, birds may feed in other less polluted areas. For brominated diphenylethers (BDE) accumulation patterns are highly species and congener specific. Accumulation depends on both K(ow) and metabolization capacities. BDE47 is the predominant congener in lower trophic levels. For marine birds and mammals accumulation ratios of BDE99 and 100 are similar to or higher than ratios of persistent PCBs. PMID:15893330

  12. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor and outdoor air in a community in Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan; Wang, Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yu, Mei; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-05-01

    Indoor environments contribute a significant portion of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) because of their extensive use in various household products. This study investigates the occurrence of a number of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air in a megacity in southern China, in which little information on indoor BFRs contamination is available. The estimated total PBDE concentrations ranged from 1.43 to 57 pg/m(3) indoors and from 1.21 to 1522 pg/m(3) outdoors. The indoor concentrations of lower brominated PBDEs that are mainly derived from the technical penta- and octa-BDE mixtures were higher than or comparable to the outdoors, while the indoor levels of DecaBDEs and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were apparently lower than the outdoors. The seasonal variations of BFR concentrations indicated that evaporation from old indoor products is the primary source of Penta- and OctaBDEs in the air, whereas most DecaBDEs and DBDPE concentrations showing weak temperature-dependence are largely released from industrial activities. The PBDE congener profiles in the air were generally similar, which were dominated by BDE209, 28, and 47; whereas the appreciable indoor-outdoor differences in the compositions are possibly due to emission sources, photochemical degradation, or congener-specific transport of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air. Significant correlations between the indoor and outdoor BFRs were observed suggesting the exchange of BFRs between the two compartments, which are more noticeable for PentaBDEs and DecaBDEs with strong indoor and outdoor emission sources, respectively. This study provides significant insights into the sources of BFRs in urban air in China. PMID:26952274

  13. Emissions of brominated flame retardants in Asia: consideration of its potential risk form the view point of the Norwegian regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu; Gorbacheva, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    Flame retardants can be divided into two broad categories: additive or reactive, which can be further more divided into brominated or non-brominated sub-categories. These retardants are found in many commercial products such as computers, television sets, furniture, carpets, etc. They are of environmental concern due to their persistence, potential for bioaccumulation and widespread distribution via atmospheric transport, and possible adverse effects in wildlife and humans. Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is mainly used in electrical and electronic appliances (circuit board in particular), and the application of TBBPA accounts for about two thirds of the global production of brominated flame retardant (BFR). The European Union Risk Assessment does not support the restriction of TBBPA: i.e. no risk is identified for the reactive use of TBBPA such as in epoxy resin used in circuit boards. By contrast, in 2007 Norway notified the World Trade Organization of its intention to prohibit 18 substances from consumer goods (Notification No. 2007/9016/N), called the Prohibition on Certain Hazardous Substances in Consumer Products (PoHS). TBBPA is listed in this prohibition list. Marine conservation is recognized as a key issue in Norwegian fishery management e.g. wastewater management in the framework of the North Sea Declarations. TBBPA is very water-soluble, and dimethyl-TBBPA is lipophilic and may accumulate in fat. TBBPA is not readily biodegradable and can have long-term effects in the aquatic environment. Norwegian examples are summarized: TBBPA was found in marine sediment samples from Tromsø harbor (northern Norway) and in Atlantic cod from Lofoten and Varanger; TBBPA has been detected in Norwegian peregrine falcon and golden eagle eggs; and TBBPA has been detected in the blood in the general population of Norway. From these viewpoints, it can be considered that Norway needs to strictly control TBBPA emissions. In recent times, Asia has emerged as one of the leading

  14. Occurrences and inventories of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in wastes from printed circuit board production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Peng; Deng, Jingjing; Lin, Kuangfei

    2014-09-01

    Pollutants including heavy metals and brominated flame retardant were detected in 10 types of production wastes from a typical printed circuit board manufacturing plant, and their inventories were estimated. Rinsing water from etching process had the highest concentrations of copper (665.51 mg/L), lead (1.02 mg/L), nickel (3.60 mg/L), chromium (0.97 mg/L), and tin (1.79 mg/L). Powdered solid waste (SW) from the cut lamination process contained the highest tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) levels (49.86 mg/kg). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were absent in this plant, in agreement with the international regulations of PBDE phase out. The pollutant inventories in the wastes exhibited in the order of copper > > zinc > tin ≈ nickel > lead > chromium > > TBBPA. The potential environmental impact of pollutants in SW during production and disposal were further investigated. A high partitioning of pollutant concentration between the total suspended particle and SW (-0.10 leaching procedure, drilling powder with the smallest particle diameter still showed high leachabilities of lead and tin which may lead to a negative environmental impact during disposal. PMID:24777328

  15. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, Laurence [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); D' Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Reynders, Hans; Van Campenhout, Karen [Environment and Health Unit, Department of Environment, Nature and Energy, Flemish Government - Koning Albert II-laan 20, Bus 8, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Cornelis, Christa; Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Koppen, Gudrun [Unit Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.b [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  16. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 2: brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Drimmie, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Significant linear increases were found for sum polybrominated diphenyl ether (ΣPBDE), BDE100, BDE153, and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Average increases of 5.0% per year (range: 2.9-7.6%/year) were found for the subadult polar bears. BDE47 and BDE99 concentrations did not show a significant linear trend over time, but rather a significant non-linear trend peaking between 2000 and 2004. The average ΣPBDE concentrations increased 2.3 fold from 25.0ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 15.3-34.7ng/g lw) in 1983-1986 to 58.5ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 43.6-73.4ng/g lw) in 2006-2010. Similar but fewer statistically significant trends were found for adult females and adult males likely due to smaller sample size and years. Analyses of δ(15)N and δ(13)C stable isotopes in hair revealed no clear linear temporal trends in trophic level or carbon source, respectively, and non-linear trends differed among sex and age groups. These increasing concentrations of organobromine contaminants contribute to complex organohalogen mixture, already causing health effects to the East Greenland polar bears. PMID:23137556

  17. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Lie, E; Løken, K B; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk in the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five colostrum samples from healthy, primiparous mothers at Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether (DPTE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene (PBT). The Ʃ7PBDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) ranged from below level of detection (

  18. Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the dermal bioavailability of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This is further complicated by increasing restrictions on the use of animals in toxicity testing, and the uncertainties associated with extrapolating data from animal studies to humans due to inter-species variations. To overcome these difficulties, we evaluate 3D-human skin equivalents (3D-HSE) as a novel in vitro alternative to human and animal testing for assessment of dermal absorption of BFRs. The percutaneous penetration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) through two commercially available 3D-HSE models was studied and compared to data obtained for human ex vivo skin according to a standard protocol. No statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using 3D-HSE and human ex vivo skin at two exposure levels. The absorbed dose was low (less than 7%) and was significantly correlated with log Kow of the tested BFR. Permeability coefficient values showed increasing dermal resistance to the penetration of γ-HBCD>β-HBCD>α-HBCD>TBBPA. The estimated long lag times (>30 min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact. PMID:26232142

  19. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjørnøya (Bear Island) freshwater biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-08-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjørnøya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjøen. In Lake Øyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjøen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. delta(15)N-values were 7-10 per thousand higher in organisms from Ellasjøen as compared to Øyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjøen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. PMID:15862396

  20. Trophodynamics of hexabromocyclododecanes and several other non-PBDE brominated flame retardants in a freshwater food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Guan, Yun-Tao; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhi, Hui; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-07-15

    Several currently used non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are examined in the components of a freshwater food web from an electronic waste recycling site, South China. All these BFRs are detectable in the food web, with average concentrations of 13.9-868, 1.71-518, Food web magnification is observed for (+)-alpha-, (-)-alpha-, (+/-)-alpha-, and total HBCDs, and HBB, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of 2.22, 2.18, 2.19, 1.82, and 1.46, respectively; whereas there is trophic dilution of BTBPE and PBT through the food web. The TMFs for (+)-alpha-, (-)-alpha-, and (+/-)-alpha-HBCDs are comparable to those of PBDEs detected previously in the same food web. Biota samples show a shift from gamma- toward alpha-HBCD compared with the suspended particles, sediment, and HBCD technical mixtures, with a significant increase of alpha-HBCD on ascending trophic levels. Except for alpha-HBCD in suspended particles and sediment, all the HBCD enantiomers detected are nonracemic in the environmental matrix. In biota, nonracemic residues of alpha-HBCD were observed in mud carp and crucian carp; beta-HBCD in prawn, mud carp, and crucian carp; and gamma-HBCD in water snake, with preferences for (+)-alpha-, (-)-beta-, and (+)-gamma-HBCDs. PMID:20575536

  1. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  2. METABOLISM OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS IN HUMAN ASTROCYTES AND EFFECTS ON THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this proposed study, hydroxylated PBDEs and brominated phenols likely will be formed in astrocytes as a result of cytochrome p450-mediated metabolism. Previous studies have shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect the regulation of thyroid hormones at the bloo...

  3. Emissions and fate of brominated flame retardants in the indoor environment: A critical review of modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review explores the existing understanding and the available approaches to estimating the emissions and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and in particular focuses on the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Volatilisation, an important emission mechanism for the more volatile compounds can be well described using current emission models. More research is needed, however, to better characterise alternative release mechanisms such as direct material–particle partitioning and material abrasion. These two particle-mediated emissions are likely to result in an increased chemical release from the source than can be accounted for by volatilisation, especially for low volatile compounds, and emission models need to be updated in order to account for these. Air–surface partitioning is an important fate process for SVOCs such as BFRs however it is still not well characterised indoors. In addition, the assumption of an instantaneous air–particle equilibrium adopted by current indoor fate models might not be valid for high-molecular weight, strongly sorbing compounds. A better description of indoor particle dynamics is required to assess the effect of particle-associated transport as this will control the fate of low volatile BFRs. We suggest further research steps that will improve modelling precision and increase our understanding of the factors that govern the indoor fate of a wide range of SVOCs. It is also considered that the appropriateness of the selected model for a given study relies on the individual characteristics of the study environment and scope of the study. - Highlights: • Current emission models likely underestimate the release of low volatile BFRs from products. • Material abrasion and direct material–dust partitioning are important, yet understudied emission mechanisms. • Indoor surfaces can be significant sinks, but the mechanism is poorly understood. • Indoor fate of low volatile BFRs is strongly associated with particle

  4. Brominated flame retardant emissions from the open burning of five plastic wastes and implications for environmental exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Lu, Shao-You; Mo, Ting; Zeng, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Based on the most widely used plastics in China, five plastic wastes were selected for investigation of brominated flame retardant (BFR) emission behaviors during open burning. Considerable variations were observed in the emission factors (EF) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) from the combustion of different plastic wastes. Distribution of BFR output mass showed that ΣPBDE was emitted mainly by the airborne particle (51%), followed by residual ash (44%) and the gas phase (5.1%); these values for ΣHBCD were 62%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. A lack of mass balance after the burning of the plastic wastes for some congeners (output/input mass ratios>1) suggested that formation and survival exceeded PBDE decomposition during the burns. However, that was not the case for HBCD. A comparison with literature data showed that the open burning of plastic waste is major source of PBDE compared to regulated combustion activities. Even for state-of-the-art waste incinerators equipped with sophisticated complex air pollution control technologies, BFRs are released on a small scale to the environment. According to our estimate, ΣPBDE release to the air and land from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants in China in 2015 were 105 kg/year and 7124 kg/year. These data for ΣHBCD were 25.5 and 71.7 kg/year, respectively. Considering the fact that a growing number of cities in China are switching to incineration as the preferred method for MSW treatment, our estimate is especially important. This study provides the first data on the environmental exposure of BFRs emitted from MSW incineration in China. PMID:27064612

  5. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: Concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m3 and 180 pg/m3, respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logKp) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logKp) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logPLo). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas–particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. - Highlights: • Both PBDEs and alternative BFRs were analyzed in the atmosphere of Northeast China. • Partial pressure of BFRs was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature. • A strong temperature dependence of gas-particle partitioning was found. • Absorption into organic matter was the control mechanism for G-P partitioning

  6. Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms underlying enhanced in vitro adipocyte differentiation by the brominated flame retardant BDE-47

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstra, Jorke H; Hruba, Eva; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) may play a role in the development of obesity. EDCs such as the flame retardant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) have been shown to enhance adipocyte differentiation in the murine 3T3-L1 model. The mech...

  7. Identification of a group of brominated flame retardants as novel androgen receptor antagonists and potential neuronal and endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Pradhan, Ajay; Asnake, Solomon; Walstad, Anders; Ivarsson, Per; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used in industrial products to reduce the risk of fire. However, their continuous release into the environment is a concern as they are often persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic. Information on the impact these compounds have on human health and wildlife is limited and only a few of them have been identified to disrupt hormone receptor functions. In the present study we used in silico modeling to determine the interactions of selected BFRs with the human androgen receptor (AR). Three compounds were found to dock into the ligand-binding domain of the human AR and these were further tested using in vitro analysis. Allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) were observed to act as AR antagonists. These BFRs have recently been detected in the environment, in house dust and in aquatic animals. The compounds have been detected at high concentrations in both blubber and brain of seals and we therefore also assessed their impact on the expression of L-type amino acid transporter system (LAT) genes, that are needed for amino acid uptake across the blood-brain barrier, as disruption of LAT gene function has been implicated in several brain disorders. The three BFRs down-regulated the expression of AR target genes that encode for prostate specific antigen (PSA), 5α-reductases and β-microseminoprotein. The potency of PSA inhibition was of the same magnitude as the common prostate cancer drugs, demonstrating that these compounds are strong AR antagonists. Western blot analysis of AR protein showed that ATE, BATE and DPTE decreased the 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR protein levels, further confirming that these BFRs act as AR antagonists. The transcription of the LAT genes was altered by the three BFRs, indicating an effect on amino-acid uptake across cellular membranes and blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrated that ATE, BATE

  8. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  9. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  10. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  11. Optimization and development of analytical methods for the determination of new brominated flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and suspended particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P. [VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel (Belgium); Brandsma, S.A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, J. de [VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    With more stringent legislation on brominated flame retardants, it is expected that increasing amounts of substitutes would replace polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Therefore, the development and optimization of analytical methodologies that allow their identification and quantification are of paramount relevance. This work describes the optimization of an analytical procedure to determine pentabromochlorocyclohexane, tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene, 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, tetrabromophthalic anhydride, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, decabromodiphenylethane and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane together with PBDEs in sediments and in suspended particulate matter. This method comprises a pressurized liquid extraction followed by three cleanup steps (gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction on Oasis trademark HLB and on silica cartridges). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using electron capture negative chemical ionization, is used for the final analysis. The proposed method provides recoveries >85%. The method was applied to sediment and suspended particulate matter samples from different locations in the Western Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the occurrence of the additive flame retardants 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromochlorocyclohexane is reported in the literature. The concentrations of these new flame retardants ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 {mu}g/kg dry weight. (orig.)

  12. Organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and mercury levels in six seabird species from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada): Relationships with feeding ecology, migration and molt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Raphael A., E-mail: lavoie.raphael@gmail.co [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Wildlife and Landscape Science, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 1 141 Route de l' Eglise, C.P. 10 100, Quebec, QC, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Rail, Jean-Francois [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada, 1 141 Route de l' Eglise, C.P. 10 100, Quebec, QC, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and mercury (Hg) were measured in eggs of six seabird species breeding in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Stable nitrogen (delta{sup 15}N) and carbon (delta{sup 13}C) isotopes were used as ecological tracers to measure trophic level and connectivity with benthos, respectively. Concentrations, patterns as well as ecological tracers varied significantly between species. The sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (SIGMAPCBs) was the most important group measured in all seabird species based on concentration followed generally by the sum of chlorinated pesticides (SIGMACPs), the sum of brominated flame retardants (SIGMABFRs) and finally total Hg (THg). SIGMAPCBs, SIGMACPs and SIGMABFRs increased with trophic level, whereas THg did not. Only SIGMABFRs increased with a higher connectivity with the benthos. Seabird species resident to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence ecosystem showed higher Hg and BFR levels than migratory species. Molt patterns were used to explain variations of contaminant levels. - Concentrations and patterns of contaminants in seabirds are highly species-specific and related to trophic position, migration and molt.

  13. Organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and mercury levels in six seabird species from the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada): Relationships with feeding ecology, migration and molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and mercury (Hg) were measured in eggs of six seabird species breeding in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes were used as ecological tracers to measure trophic level and connectivity with benthos, respectively. Concentrations, patterns as well as ecological tracers varied significantly between species. The sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs) was the most important group measured in all seabird species based on concentration followed generally by the sum of chlorinated pesticides (ΣCPs), the sum of brominated flame retardants (ΣBFRs) and finally total Hg (THg). ΣPCBs, ΣCPs and ΣBFRs increased with trophic level, whereas THg did not. Only ΣBFRs increased with a higher connectivity with the benthos. Seabird species resident to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence ecosystem showed higher Hg and BFR levels than migratory species. Molt patterns were used to explain variations of contaminant levels. - Concentrations and patterns of contaminants in seabirds are highly species-specific and related to trophic position, migration and molt.

  14. Physical–chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of ‘emerging’ and ‘novel’ brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liagkouridis, Ioannis, E-mail: ioannis.liagkouridis@aces.su.se [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 21060, SE 100 31 Stockholm (Sweden); Cousins, Anna Palm [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 21060, SE 100 31 Stockholm (Sweden); Cousins, Ian T. [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical–chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical–chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called ‘novel’ and ‘emerging’ brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical–chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (P{sub ov}), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on P{sub ov} and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy. - Highlights: • ‘Best-estimates’ of physical–chemical properties of alternative FRs are proposed. • The ‘SMURF’ model and the OECD ‘The Tool’ are used to estimate the environmental fate. • Many alternative BFRs and HOPFRs have similar environmental fate to PBDEs. • Among alternative FRs, certain low MW

  15. Physical–chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of ‘emerging’ and ‘novel’ brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical–chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical–chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called ‘novel’ and ‘emerging’ brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical–chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (Pov), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on Pov and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy. - Highlights: • ‘Best-estimates’ of physical–chemical properties of alternative FRs are proposed. • The ‘SMURF’ model and the OECD ‘The Tool’ are used to estimate the environmental fate. • Many alternative BFRs and HOPFRs have similar environmental fate to PBDEs. • Among alternative FRs, certain low MW NHOPFRs are the

  16. Preparation of poly(trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith and its application in solid phase microextraction of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Zhou, Lin-feng; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2013-05-24

    A capillary poly(trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith was in situ synthesized by thermally initiated free radical co-polymerization using trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride (MATE) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. N,N-dimethylformamide and polyethylene glycol 6000 were used as solvent and porogen, respectively. The morphology and porous structure of the resulting monoliths were assessed by scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare practically useful poly(MATE-co-EGDMA) monoliths with low flow resistance and good mechanical strength, some parameters such as PEG-6000 to DMF ratio, total monomer to porogen ratio, and crosslinker to monomer ratio were optimized systematically. Moreover, the extraction mechanism was evaluated using two series of compounds, alkylbenzenes and weak acids, as model compounds on poly(MATE-co-EGDMA) monoliths as liquid chromatographic stationary phase. Finally, the monoliths were applied as the solid phase microextraction medium, and a simple off-line method for simultaneous determination of three brominated flame retardants, 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and 4,4'-dibrominated diphenyl ether (DBDPE), in environmental waters was developed by coupling the polymer monolith microextraction to HPLC with UV detection. The regression equations for these three brominated flame retardants showed good linearity from their limit of quantification to 5000ng/mL. The limits of detection were 0.20, 0.15 and 0.10ng/mL for TBP, TBBPA and DBDPE, respectively. The recovery of the proposed method was 78.7-106.1% with intra-day relative standard deviation of 1.3-4.4%. PMID:23602644

  17. In vitro effects of selected brominated flame retardants on the adreno cortical enzyme (CYP17). A novel endocrine mechanism of action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Canton, R.; Sanderson, T.; Nijmeijer, S.; Berg, M. van den [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS); Berkman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Fire incidents have decreased over the last 20 years partly due to regulations requiring addition of flame retardants (FRs) to materials. These compounds can be divided into different chemical classes: inorganic, nitrogen, phosphorus and halogen containing flame retardants (usually brominated or chlorinated). Not surprisingly, the use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in a variety of commercial and household products has increased over the years due to their low cost and high effectiveness. Consequence of the high production of BFRs is that these compounds are now readily detectable in air, water, birds, fish, marine mammals, and in human adipose tissue and blood. The five major BFRs are hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (penta, octa, deca), which are extensively used as FRs at high production volume levels. In addition, concentrations of PBDEs concentration have been rapidly increasing during the last 10 years in human breast milk from European and American women and a number of endocrine (in vitro) effects have been reported. Consequently, the concern about BFRs and their metabolites with respect to their potential as endocrine disruptors (EDs) has been growing. Studies in our laboratory are focused on potential interactions of a wide range of BFRs with sex hormone synthesis and metabolism. Previous results from our research group, showed inhibitory and inductive effects on aromatase (CYP19) (the key enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens) by certain BFRs, in particular the hydroxylated PBDEs and several bromophenols. In the present study, the effects of ten of these BFRs on CYP17 activity were investigated. This enzyme also catalyzes an important step in the sex steroidogenesis and is responsible for the biosynthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA, produced in the adrenal gland, is the most abundant sex steroid hormone in human blood and has been

  18. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger;

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental contaminants found in human and animal tissues worldwide. Neonatal exposure to the flame retardant 2,2', 4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) disrupts normal brain development in mice, and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior in the...... adult. The mechanisms underlying the late effects of early exposure are not clear. To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice, and the......-3 activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex....

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to hydoxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitenhuis, C.; Cenijn, P.C.; Velzen, M. van; Gutleb, A.C.; Legler, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lilienthal, H. [Heinrich Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. Neurobehavioural Toxicology, Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene; Malmberg, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Brouwer, A.

    2004-09-15

    Possible human health effects from low-level exposure to environmental chemicals are an issue that has attracted much attention. Environmental compounds that may play a role are those that may disrupt endocrine function. Organohalogen compounds, and in particular their hydroxylated metabolites, show a striking resemblance to steroid hormones.The main objective of this research is to investigate comparative pathways of early life-stage exposure and long-term effects for several classes of organohalogens, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and flame retardants, polybrominated bisphenols and -diphenylethers, and their hydroxylated metabolites. Due to their prevalence in human plasma, the hydroxylated PCB metabolites 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187, as well as 6-OH-BDE47 and 2,4,6- tribromophenol, were selected as test compounds. BDE 47 has been included as a test compound due to its relatively high levels in the environment and biota, whereas tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was selected because of its high volume production. The in vivo studies involved prenatal exposure of rats to test compounds during critical stages of gonadal development and were focussed on low dose effects. Several endpoints were investigated, including endocrine (thyroid and sex steroid hormones) effects, developmental landmarks, sexual and neurobehavioural development. Blood plasma and tissue levels of test compounds were analysed to determine transplacental transfer of (hydroxylated) organohalogens.

  20. Levels and sources of brominated flame retardants in human hair from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hair and indoor dust from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in south China were collected and analyzed for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFRs concentrations in hair from occupational e-waste recycling workers were higher than those from non-occupational exposed residents in other sampling areas. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two major BFRs in hair samples. The PBDE congener profiles in hair from the e-waste area are different from those from urban and rural areas with relatively higher contribution of lower brominated congeners. DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. Significant correlations were found between hair level and dust level for DBDPE and BTBPE but not for PBDEs. The different PBDE congener profiles between dust and hair may suggest that exogenous exposure to the PBDE adsorbed on dust is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - Highlights: → In this study we examine BFRs in human hair and indoor dust from the South China. → We find that the composition of BFR in the e-waste area is different from other areas. → DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. → The PBDE congener pattern in hair is different from those in indoor dust. → In this study we conclude that exogenous exposure to the PBDE is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - BFR levels in hair from different areas in South China were determined and endogenous pathway was found to be the major source of hair BFRs.

  1. Novel analytical approach for brominated flame retardants based on the use of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with emphasis in highly brominated congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, Tania; Sales, Carlos; Gómara, Belén; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Beltrán, Joaquim; Herrero, Laura; González, María José; Hernández, Félix

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly relies on the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in electron ionization (EI) and electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) modes using quadrupole, triple quadrupole, ion trap, and magnetic sector analyzers. However, these brominated contaminants are examples of compounds for which a soft and robust ionization technique might be favorable since they show high fragmentation in EI and low specificity in ECNI. In addition, the low limits of quantification (0.01 ng/g) required by European Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on the monitoring of traces of BFRs in food put stress on the use of highly sensitive techniques/methods. In this work, a new approach for the extremely sensitive determination of BFRs taking profit of the potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) combined with GC and triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer is proposed. The objective was to explore the potential of this approach for the BFRs determination in samples at pg/g levels, taking marine samples and a cream sample as a model. Ionization and fragmentation behavior of 14 PBDEs (congeners 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, and 209) and two novel BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), in the GC-APCI-MS system has been investigated. The formation of highly abundant (quasi) molecular ion was the main advantage observed in relation to EI. Thus, a notable improvement in sensitivity and specificity was observed when using it as precursor ion in tandem MS. The improved detectability (LODs < 10 fg) achieved when using APCI compared to EI has been demonstrated, which is especially relevant for highly brominated congeners. Analysis of samples from an intercomparison exercise and samples from the marine field showed the potential of this approach for the reliable identification and quantification at very low

  2. Flame retardant tarpaulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Saiji; Takahashi, Yutaka; Uehara, Hiroshi

    1998-07-28

    A flame retardant tarpaulin is used for protecting equipments upon periodical repairing in places for handling radioactive materials such as a nuclear power plant. It is formed by coating a woven fabric, a knitted fabric or a non-woven fabric with from 100 to 1000% by weight of a composition formed by blending from 3 to 10 parts by weight of red phosphorus and from 7 to 25 parts by weight of melamine sulfate to 100 parts by weight of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer having a vinyl acetate content of from 8 to 28% by weight. Further, it comprises metal hydroxides such as Mg hydroxide and Al hydroxide. Aids such as plasticizers, stabilizers, lubricants and colorants can optionally be blended so long as they do not inhibit the flame retardant effect. It has an excellent flame retardancy, and does not produce poisonous gases or a great amount of ashes when burnt and discarded. It can be processed with satisfactory dimensional accuracy upon cutting and stitching, and has flame-proofness as specified by the fire laws. (T.M.)

  3. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  4. The brominated flame retardants TBP-AE and TBP-DBPE antagonize the chicken androgen receptor and act as potential endocrine disrupters in chicken LMH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnake, Solomon; Pradhan, Ajay; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-12-01

    Increased exposure of birds to endocrine disrupting compounds has resulted in developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. We have recently identified the flame retardants, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), 2-3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and the TBP-DBPE metabolite 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-BAE) as antagonists to both the human androgen receptor (AR) and the zebrafish AR. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether these compounds also interact with the chicken AR. In silico modeling studies showed that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE were able to dock into to the chicken AR ligand-binding pocket. In vitro transfection assays revealed that all three brominated compounds acted as chicken AR antagonists, inhibiting testosterone induced AR activation. In addition, qRT-PCR studies confirmed that they act as AR antagonists and demonstrated that they also alter gene expression patterns of apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, drug metabolizing and amino acid transporter genes. These studies, using chicken LMH cells, suggest that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE are potential endocrine disrupters in chicken. PMID:26318274

  5. Concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel brominated flame retardants in tree bark and human hair from Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haodong; Jin, Jun; Bai, Yao; Li, Qiuxu; Wang, Ying; Hu, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in tree bark and hair samples from the same area in Yunnan Province, China, were determined. The total PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the tree bark samples were 3.8 ng/g lipid weight to 91 ng/g lipid weight and 0.23 ng/g lipid weight to 5.0 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The total PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the hair samples were 2.1 ng/g dry weight to 14 ng/g dry weight and 0.083 ng/g dry weight to 0.29 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether had similar distributions in the tree bark and hair samples, but other PBDE congeners and NBFRs had different distributions in the tree bark and hair samples. External exposure was found to be mainly responsible for the total PBDE and pentabromotoluene concentrations in hair, but both external and internal exposure were responsible for the pentabromophenyl and hexabromobenzene concentrations in hair. PMID:27060640

  6. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of brominated flame retardants from environmental waters with graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Qiao, Jun-qin; Cui, Shi-hai; Li, Jia-yuan; Zhu, Jin-jin; Yin, He-xing; Zhan, Cheng-yan; Lian, Hong-zhen

    2015-06-01

    Graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites were prepared by a solvothermal reaction of an iron source with graphene. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This nanomaterial has been used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent to extract trace brominated flame retardants from environmental waters. Various extraction parameters were optimized including dosage and reusability of the nanocomposites, and pH of sample matrix. The reliability of the magnetic solid-phase extraction protocol based on graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites was evaluated by investigating the recoveries of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether in water samples. Good recoveries (85.0-105.0%) were achieved with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.1-7.1%. Moreover, it is speculated from characterization and magnetic solid-phase extraction experiment that there is not only π-π stacking but also possible hydrophobic interaction between the graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites and analytes. PMID:25820830

  7. Brominated flame retardants, hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A, affect proinflammatory protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells via disruption of intracellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are widely used as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in consumer products. Because humans can be exposed to BFRs mainly through air or dust, the effects of the BFRs on the respiratory system and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. HBCD exposure significantly increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and -8 in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). TBBPA exposure significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6, but not IL-8. HBCD and TBBPA stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) production and EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. Inhibitors of EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase and the subsequent mitogen-activated protein kinase effectively blocked the increase in the expression of proinflammatory proteins. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (p50, p65) and activator protein 1 (c-Jun) was also observed following HBCD exposure. Furthermore, the modulation for nuclear receptors was investigated. TBBPA but not HBCD showed ligand activity for thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and TR antagonist significantly suppressed the TBBPA-induced increase of the expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, HBCD and TBBPA can disrupt the expression of proinflammatory proteins in bronchial epithelial cells, possibly via the modulation of EGFR-related pathways and/or nuclear receptors. PMID:26718265

  8. Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of the brominated flame retardant 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and enantiomer fractions in seal blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Recke, Roland von der; Ostrowicz, Patrizia; Rosenfelder, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective analyses of the chiral brominated flame retardant 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) are the focus of this work. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a column that had a chiral stationary phase consisting of a modified cellulose derivative allowed for the fractionation of the enantiomers of DPTE. The enantiomeric excess was 98.2% for enantiomer 1 and 99% for enantiomer 2. Polarimetric measurements verified that the first eluting enantiomer originated from (-)-DPTE and the second peak originated from (+)-DPTE. Two gas chromatographic columns allowed for the direct enantioresolution of DPTE. The elution order of DPTE enantiomers was the same as observed in the chiral HPLC system ((-)-DPTE before (+)-DPTE). The best enantioseparation was achieved on a Chirasil-DEX CB column, which was used to analyze the enantiomer fractions of DPTE in blubber and brain samples of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from the Barents and Greenland Seas. Analyses were carried out by means of gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion monitoring (GC/ECNI-MS-SIM) mode. In both matrices, only minute deviations from the racemate were observed (maximum +/-3% excess of (-)-DPTE). However, the samples from the Barents Sea were either racemic or showed a slight excess of (+)-DPTE (up to 2.5%), whereas all samples from the Greenland Sea contained a slight excess (up to 4%) of (-)-DPTE. PMID:19863996

  9. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine contaminants in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Eric W; Letcher, Robert J; Reddy, Christopher M; Moore, Michael J; Rubinstein, Belinda; Hahn, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Various brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, as well as organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in winter flounder, harp and hooded seals, and North Atlantic right whales from the Eastern United States and Canada. The concentrations of PBDEs in winter flounder and right whales were similar in magnitude to the levels of PCBs, which was unlike the pattern observed in seals. In these marine mammals, the levels of PBDEs were orders of magnitude lower than the levels of OCs and PCBs detected. Evidence existed for the accumulation of methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs of natural origin in seals and right whales. Current-use, non-PBDE BFRs (including hexabromocyclododecane, pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene) were detected in winter flounder and marine mammals. Future research should focus on monitoring PBDEs, current-use, non-PBDE BFRs, and MeO-BDEs of natural origin in marine organisms from Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays. PMID:20434733

  10. Use of the SPARC software program to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for the polymeric brominated flame retardants BC-58 and FR-1025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-05-11

    The SPARC software program was used to estimate the acid-catalyzed, neutral, and base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants for the polymeric brominated flame retardants BC-58 and FR-1025. Relatively rapid hydrolysis of BC-58, producing 2,4,6-tribromophenol-and ultimately tetrabromobisphenol A-as the hydrolytically stable end products from all potential hydrolysis reactions, is expected in both environmental and biological systems with starting material hydrolytic half-lives (t1/2,hydr) ranging from less than 1 h in marine systems, several hours in cellular environments, and up to several weeks in slightly acid fresh waters. Hydrolysis of FR-1025 to give 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzyl alcohol is expected to be slower (t1/2,hydr less than 0.5 years in marine systems up to several years in fresh waters) than BC-58, but is also expected to occur at rates that will contribute significantly to environmental and in vivo loadings of this compound. PMID:26889790

  11. Simultaneous determination of 16 brominated flame retardants in food and feed of animal origin by fast gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichon, E; Guiffard, I; Vénisseau, A; Lesquin, E; Vaccher, V; Brosseaud, A; Marchand, P; Le Bizec, B

    2016-08-12

    A gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation was developed for the monitoring of 16 brominated flame retardants (7 usually monitored polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) and BDE #209 and 8 additional emerging and novel BFRs) in food and feed of animal origin. The developed analytical method has decreased the run time by three compared to conventional strategies, using a 2.5m column length (5% phenyl stationary phase, 0.1mm i.d., 0.1μmf.t.), a pulsed split injection (1:5) with carrier gas helium flow rate at 0.48mLmin(-1) in one run of 20 min. For most BFRs, analytical data were compared with the current analytical strategy relying on GC/EI/HRMS (double sector, R=10000 at 10% valley). Performances in terms of sensitivity were found to meet the Commission recommendation (118/2014/EC) for nBFRs. GC/APCI/MS/MS represents a promising alternative for multi-BFRs analysis in complex matrices, in that it allows the monitoring of a wider list of contaminants in a single injection and a shorter run time. PMID:27425757

  12. Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe

    2001-01-01

    Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education. We provide information on the nature of flame retardants in general and the mechanisms of flame retardation. In addition, we offer a complete pedagogical presentation of the topic, including the use of video and some simple laboratory experiments, that was developed and successfully implemented in both countries. Featured on the Cover

  13. Development of Flame Retardants for Engineering Polymers and Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Anantha

    2013-03-01

    With a broad portfolio of brominated, organophosphorus and inorganic flame retardants, ICL Industrial Products (ICL-IP) is engaged in the development of new flame retardants by exploiting the synergism between bromine based, phosphorus based and other halogen-free flame retardants. ICL-IP is also focusing on the development of polymeric and reactive flame retardants. This presentation will give examples of existing and new polymeric and reactive products for applications in thermoplastics, thermosets and polyurethane foam. This presentation will also show examples of phosphorus-bromine synergism allowing partial or complete elimination of antimony trioxide in many thermoplastics for electronic applications. New synergistic combinations of magnesium hydroxide with phosphorus and other halogen-free FRs will be presented. Work done in collaboration with S. Levchik, ICL-IP America, 430 Saw Mill Rriver Rd., Ardsley, NY, 10502, USA and M. Leifer, ICL-IP, P. O. Box 180, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel.

  14. Occurrence of brominated flame retardants in black thermo cups and selected kitchen utensils purchased on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonek, J; Puype, F

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen for the presence of a recycled polymer waste stream from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), a market survey was conducted on black plastic food-contact articles (FCA). An analytical method was applied combining X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) with thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (thermal desorption GC-MS). Firstly, XRF spectrometry was applied to distinguish bromine-positive samples. Secondly, bromine-positive samples were submitted for identification by thermal desorption GC-MS. Generally, the bromine-positive samples contained mainly technical decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). Newer types of BFRs such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl), ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), replacing the polybrominated diphenyleters (PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyls (PBBs), were also identified. In none of the tested samples were PBBs or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) found. Polymer identification was carried out using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy measurement (FTIR) on all samples. The results indicate that polypropylene-polyethylene copolymers (PP-PE) and mainly styrene-based food-contact materials, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) have the highest risk of containing BFRs. PMID:24040839

  15. Magnetic solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants and pentachlorophenol from environmental waters with carbon doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Jia-yuan; Qiao, Jun-qin; Cui, Shi-hai; Lian, Hong-zhen; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Carbon doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/C) prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction of glucose with iron resource have been applied as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, for the first time, to extract trace brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) from environmental waters. Various MSPE parameters were optimized including amount of Fe3O4/C nanoparticles, pH of sample solution, enrichment factor of analytes and reusability of Fe3O4/C sorbent. The reliability of the MSPE method was evaluated by the recoveries of BFRs and PCP in spiked water samples. Good recoveries (80.0-110.0%) were achieved with the relative standard deviations range from 0.3% to 6.8%. In this paper, the extraction characteristics of Fe3O4/C sorbent were further elucidated. It is found that the adsorption process of Fe3O4/C to analytes predominates the MSPE efficiency. There is hybrid hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding or dipole-dipole attraction between Fe3O4/C and analytes. Notably, the chemical components of carbon layer on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry, and in consequence the covalent bonds between Fe3O4 and the coated carbon have been observed. In addition, the straight influence of synthesis condition of Fe3O4/C nanoparticles including glucose concentration and hydrothermal reaction time on extraction performance for BFRs and PCP has been investigated. It is confirmed that the existence of organic carbon containing functional groups over Fe3O4/C sorbent is responsible for the MSPE extraction.

  16. Dioxins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and brominated flame retardants in free-range chicken eggs from peri-urban areas in Arusha, Tanzania: Levels and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Brynildsrud, O B; de Boer, J; Hamers, T; Kamstra, J H; Lie, E; Mdegela, R H; Moberg, H; Nonga, H E; Sandvik, M; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-05-01

    The environment in the northern part of Tanzania is influenced by rapid population growth, and increased urbanization. Urban agriculture is common and of economic value for low income families. In Arusha, many households sell eggs from free-ranging backyard chicken. In 2011, 159 eggs from different households in five different locations in Arusha were collected, homogenized, pooled into 28 composite samples and analyzed for a wide selection of POPs. Levels of POPs varied widely within and between the locations. The levels of dieldrin and ΣDDT ranged between 2 and 98,791 and 2 and 324ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively. EU MRLs of 0.02mg/kg dieldrin for eggs were exceeded in 4/28 samples. PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes, toxaphenes and endosulfanes were found at lower frequency and levels. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), e.g polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromphenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) were present in 100%, 60% and 46% of the composite samples, respectively. Octa-and deca-BDEs were the dominating PBDEs and BDE 209 levels ranged between toxicity reference values (TRVs) such as the provisional tolerable intake (PTDI) or Reference Doses (RfDs). In one sample dieldrin exceeded the PTDI (100ng/kgbw/day). Correlation was found between bio-TEQs and lipid adjusted levels of ΣPBDEs, suggesting similar sources. Open fires in backyards may be one of the sources for contamination of eggs with BFRs and dioxins. PMID:26897409

  17. Test chamber and forensic microscopy investigation of the transfer of brominated flame retardants into indoor dust via abrasion of source materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauert, C; Harrad, S; Suzuki, G; Takigami, H; Uchida, N; Takata, K

    2014-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been detected in indoor dust in many studies, at concentrations spanning several orders of magnitude. Limited information is available on the pathways via which BFRs migrate from treated products into dust, yet the different mechanisms hypothesized to date may provide an explanation for the range of reported concentrations. In particular, transfer of BFRs to dust via abrasion of particles or fibers from treated products may explain elevated concentrations (up to 210 mg g(-1)) of low volatility BFRs like decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). In this study, an indoor dust sample containing a low concentration of hexabromocyclododecane, or HBCD, (110 ng g(-1) ΣHBCDs) was placed on the floor of an in-house test chamber. A fabric curtain treated with HBCDs was placed on a mesh shelf 3 cm above the chamber floor and abrasion induced using a stirrer bar. This induced abrasion generated fibers of the curtain, which contaminated the dust, and ΣHBCD concentrations in the dust increased to between 4020 and 52 500 ng g(-1) for four different abrasion experiment times. The highly contaminated dust (ΣHBCD at 52 500 ng g(-1)) together with three archived dust samples from various UK microenvironments, were investigated with forensic microscopy techniques. These techniques included Micro X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, scanning emission microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with further BFR analysis on LC-MS/MS. Using these techniques, fibers or particles abraded from a product treated with BFRs were identified in all dust samples, thereby accounting for the elevated concentrations detected in the original dust (3500 to 88 800 ng g(-1) ΣHBCD and 24 000 to 1,438 000 ng g(-1) for BDE-209). This study shows how test chamber experiments alongside forensic microscopy techniques, can provide valuable insights into the pathways via which BFRs contaminate indoor dust. PMID:24984234

  18. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  19. Optimization and Simultaneous Determination of Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates and Brominated Flame Retardants in Water after SPE and Heptafluorobutyric Anhydride Derivatization followed by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokwe, Tlou B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Sibali, Linda L; Ncube, Esper J

    2012-10-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was investigated for the simultaneous analysis of two types of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), i.e., alkylphenol ethoxylates and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), by extraction and derivatization followed by GC-MS. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Cleanert PestiCarb, C18, Cleanert-SAX and Florosil), solvents (toluene, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate) and bases (NaHCO3, triethylamine and pyridine) were tested and the best chromatographic analysis was achieved by extraction with Strata-X (33 μm, Reverse Phase) cartridge and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 55 °C under Na2CO3 base in hexane. It was observed that APE together with lower substituted PBBs (PBB1, PBB10, PBB18 and PBB49), HBCD and TBBPA can be determined simultaneously under the same GC conditions. This simple and reliable analytical method was applied to determining trace amounts of these compounds from wastewater treatment plant samples. The recoveries of the target compounds from simulated water were above 60 %. The limit of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 μg L(-1) and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 μg L(-1). There were no appreciable differences between filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples from Leeuwkil treatment plant although concentration of target analytes in filtered influent was slightly lower than the concentration of target analytes in unfiltered influent water. The concentrations of the target compounds from the wastewater treatment were determined from LOQ upwards. PMID:23864736

  20. Improving the accuracy of hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometers as a tool for monitoring brominated flame retardants in waste polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzonato, A; Puype, F; Harrad, S J

    2016-09-01

    An optimised method for Br quantification as a metric of brominated flame retardant (BFR) concentrations present in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) polymers is proposed as an alternative to the sophisticated, yet time consuming GC-MS methods currently preferred. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer was validated with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Customized standard materials of specific BFRs in a styrenic polymer were used to perform an external calibration for hand-held XRF ranging from 0.08 to 12 wt% of Br, and cross-checking with LA-ICP-MS having similar LODs (0.0004 wt% for LA-ICP-MS and 0.0011 wt% for XRF). The "thickness calibration" developed here for hand-held XRF and the resulting correction, was applied to 28 real samples and showed excellent (R(2) = 0.9926) accordance with measurements obtained via LA-ICP-MS. This confirms the validity of hand-held XRF as an accurate technique for the determination of Br in WEEE plastics. This is the first use of solid standards to develop a thickness-corrected quantitative XRF measurement of Br in polymers using LA-ICP-MS for method evaluation. Thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to confirm the presence of specific BFRs in WEEE polymer samples. We propose that expressing limit values for BFRs in waste materials in terms of Br rather than BFR concentration (based on a conservative assumption about the BFR present), presents a practical solution to the need for an accurate, yet rapid and inexpensive technique capable of monitoring compliance with limit values in situ. PMID:27281541

  1. In vitro and in ovo effects of four brominated flame retardants on toxicity and hepatic mRNA expression in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Manning, Gillian; McLaren, Kristina K; Cassone, Cristina G; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2011-11-10

    Some currently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), are persistent organic contaminants detected in various environmental matrices, including wild birds. Data on potential toxicological and molecular responses to exposure of these BFRs are lacking for avian species. A combined in vitro/in ovo approach was used to determine the concentration-dependent effects of these BFRs on overt toxicity and hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 11 transcripts in (1) primary cultures of chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH; all four BFRs) and (2) chicken embryos (HCDBCO and BTBPE only). Neither hepatocyte viability nor embryonic pipping success were affected by the BFRs at any of the administered concentrations (CEH: 0.001-30 μM, egg injection: 0.1-10 μg/g nominal dose). In CEH, 10 μM HCDBCO induced cytochrome P450 2H1 (CYP2H1) and CYP3A37, while CYP1A4/5 were down-regulated at all tested concentrations. In contrast, only transthyretin was down-regulated by HCDBCO in embryonic liver. There was concordance between the BTBPE-induced transcriptional responses in vitro and in ovo for CYP1A4/5 (up-regulated) and type III iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (DIO3; down-regulated). DBDPE induced CYP1A4/5 29- and 59-fold at 0.2 μM in CEH and increased DIO1. None of the gene targets were responsive to BEHTBP exposure in CEH. The multi-tiered in vitro/in ovo screening approach was effective for assessing toxicological and molecular biological effects of these BFRs in an avian species. PMID:21893176

  2. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  3. Magnetic solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants and pentachlorophenol from environmental waters with carbon doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic Fe3O4/C nanospheres were used in MSPE of BFRs and PCP from water samples. • The method shows merits of simpleness, reliableness and environmental friendliness. • The bonding between Fe3O4 and coated organic carbon has been demonstrated in Fe3O4/C. • The straight influences of synthesis conditions of Fe3O4/C on MSPE were investigated. • The extraction characteristics of Fe3O4/C nanoparticles were further elucidated. - Abstract: Carbon doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/C) prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction of glucose with iron resource have been applied as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, for the first time, to extract trace brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) from environmental waters. Various MSPE parameters were optimized including amount of Fe3O4/C nanoparticles, pH of sample solution, enrichment factor of analytes and reusability of Fe3O4/C sorbent. The reliability of the MSPE method was evaluated by the recoveries of BFRs and PCP in spiked water samples. Good recoveries (80.0–110.0%) were achieved with the relative standard deviations range from 0.3% to 6.8%. In this paper, the extraction characteristics of Fe3O4/C sorbent were further elucidated. It is found that the adsorption process of Fe3O4/C to analytes predominates the MSPE efficiency. There is hybrid hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding or dipole–dipole attraction between Fe3O4/C and analytes. Notably, the chemical components of carbon layer on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry, and in consequence the covalent bonds between Fe3O4 and the coated carbon have been observed. In addition, the straight influence of synthesis condition of Fe3O4/C nanoparticles including glucose concentration and hydrothermal reaction time on extraction performance for BFRs and PCP has been investigated. It is confirmed

  4. Magnetic solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants and pentachlorophenol from environmental waters with carbon doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023 (China); Li, Jia-yuan; Qiao, Jun-qin [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui, Shi-hai [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023 (China); Lian, Hong-zhen, E-mail: hzlian@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Hong-yuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanospheres were used in MSPE of BFRs and PCP from water samples. • The method shows merits of simpleness, reliableness and environmental friendliness. • The bonding between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and coated organic carbon has been demonstrated in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C. • The straight influences of synthesis conditions of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C on MSPE were investigated. • The extraction characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanoparticles were further elucidated. - Abstract: Carbon doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C) prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction of glucose with iron resource have been applied as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, for the first time, to extract trace brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) from environmental waters. Various MSPE parameters were optimized including amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanoparticles, pH of sample solution, enrichment factor of analytes and reusability of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C sorbent. The reliability of the MSPE method was evaluated by the recoveries of BFRs and PCP in spiked water samples. Good recoveries (80.0–110.0%) were achieved with the relative standard deviations range from 0.3% to 6.8%. In this paper, the extraction characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C sorbent were further elucidated. It is found that the adsorption process of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C to analytes predominates the MSPE efficiency. There is hybrid hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding or dipole–dipole attraction between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C and analytes. Notably, the chemical components of carbon layer on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry, and in consequence the covalent bonds between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the coated carbon have been observed. In addition, the straight influence of synthesis condition of Fe

  5. Distribution pattern of legacy and "novel" brominated flame retardants in different particle size fractions of indoor dust in Birmingham, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omran, Layla Salih; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the particle size distribution of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and five "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in settled house dust. Elevated surface dust (ESD) and floor dust (FD) were collected from 5 homes in Birmingham, UK, yielding a total of 10 samples. Each sample was fractionated into three different particle sizes: 125-250 μm (P1), 63-125 μm (P2) and 25-63 μm (P3). Non-fractionated bulk dust samples (BD) were also analysed. BDE-209 predominated, comprising an average 74.3%, 77.3%, 69.2%, and 62.7% ΣBFRs of BD, P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Σ5NBFRs contributed 24.2%, 21.5%, 29.0% and 35.3% ΣBFRs, while Σ7tri-hepta-BDEs represented 1.5%, 1.2%, 1.7%, and 2.0% ΣBFRs. BEH-TEBP was the predominant NBFR contributing 76.9%, 75.1%, 83.1%, and 83.9% ΣNBFRs in BD, P1, P2 and P3 respectively; followed by DBDPE which contributed 20.1%, 21.9%, 14.1% and 13.9% ΣNBFRs. EH-TBB, BTBPE and PBEB were the least abundant NBFRs. Concentrations of Σ7tri-hepta-BDEs and BEH-TEBP in P3 exceeded significantly (P P1. In contrast, no significant differences were found between concentrations of BDE-209, EH-TBB, BTBPE, and DBDPE in different particle size fractions. Concentrations of Σ7tri-hepta-BDEs, BDE-209, and BEH-TEBP in ESD exceeded significantly those in FD (P < 0.05). Normalising BFR concentrations to organic carbon content, did not alter these findings. This suggests that differences in BFR concentrations between different particle size fractions are caused by variations in particle surface area to volume ratio, rather than by variations in organic carbon content. PMID:27213241

  6. Synthesis of Novel Flame Retardant Organophosphorus Compounds for the Application to Cotton Textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy of textiles is an important property in apparel, bedding, curtains, and other household items. Chemical treatment is one method to increase flame retardancy of textile such as cotton, linenes, and silks. Halogenated compounds (containing chlorine or bromine atoms) have been shown to...

  7. Flame retardant polyphosphazenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Karle, D. W.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Six polyphosphazene compositions were prepared by reaction of three bis-tertiary phosphines with two phenyl-s-triazine derived diazides. All six polyphosphazenes produced were completely characterized, four of them were furthermore subjected to isothermal gravimetric analysis, smoke density measurements, flammability and oxidative thermal degradation testing. The results of the characterization studies indicate that only low molecular weight oligomers, possibly of a cyclic structure, were obtained in the polymerization reactions. Despite this, however, two of the materials showed no weight loss after 96 hr at 200 C, one did not autoignite at 500 C in air, and all four self extinguished when exposed to a flame as soon as contact between flame and resin was lost. The only toxic decomposition products to be concerned about were found to be hydrogen cyanide and benzene. Under the conditions employed it was proven, however, that the quantities of toxic products are greatly reduced if no ignition takes place, e.g., if thermal decomposition proceeds at a sufficiently low rate.

  8. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. -- Highlights: •We exposed zebra finches nestlings to BDE-99 and raised them to sexual maturity. •Found no effects on physiology, chick growth, survival, or reproductive success. •As BDE-99 dose increased, laying interval increased. •Passerine birds possibly less sensitive to BDE-99 than mammals or other bird species. -- Nestling exposure to BDE-99 affects timing of breeding in zebra finches, but overall passerines appear to be less sensitive to PBDEs than mammals or other bird species

  9. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, 35 E. 12th Street, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); DeYoung, Paul A. [Department of Physics, Hope College, 27 Graves Place, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); Blum, Arlene [Green Science Policy Institute, Box 5455, Berkeley, CA 94705 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, LSRC Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Peaslee, Graham F., E-mail: peaslee@hope.edu [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, 35 E. 12th Street, Holland, MI 49423 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC–MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  10. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Blum, Arlene; Stapleton, Heather M.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2015-09-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC-MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  11. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC–MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams

  12. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  13. Brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings: Bioaccumulation and associations with dietary proxies (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity have been made. We investigated the accumulation of BFRs and PFRs, and their associations with dietary proxies (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S), in plasma and feathers of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings from Trøndelag, Norway. In addition to accumulation of a wide range of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in both plasma and feathers, all non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs could be measured in feathers, while in plasma only two of six PFRs, i.e. tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were detected. PFR concentrations in feathers (0.95–3000 ng g−1) were much higher than selected organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153; 2.3–15 ng g−1) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE; 2.3–21 ng g−1), PBDEs (0.03–2.3 ng g−1) and non-PBDE BFRs (0.03–1.5 ng g−1). Non-significant associations of PFR concentrations in feathers with those in plasma (P ≥ 0.74), and their similarity to reported atmospheric PFR concentrations, may suggest atmospheric PFR deposition on feathers. Most OCs and PBDEs, as well as tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) and tri-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were associated to δ15N and/or δ13C (all P ≤ 0.02). Besides δ15N enrichment, δ34S was depleted in nestlings from fjords, inherently close to an urbanised centre. As such, both may have been a spatial proxy for anthropogenic disturbance, possible confounding their use as dietary proxy. - Highlights: • Non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs were highly detected in feathers, but poorly in plasma. • PFR levels in feathers were up to 100-fold those of BFRs and selected OCs. • δ15N and δ13C explained intra-specific variation in OC, PBDE and

  14. Brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings: Bioaccumulation and associations with dietary proxies (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulaers, Igor, E-mail: igor.eulaers@uantwerpen.be [Ethology Group, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Jaspers, Veerle L.B., E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ntnu.no [Ethology Group, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Halley, Duncan J., E-mail: duncan.halley@nina.no [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Postboks 5685 Sluppen, 7485 Trondheim (Norway); Lepoint, Gilles, E-mail: G.Lepoint@ulg.ac.be [MARE Centre, Oceanology, University of Liège, Allée de la Chimie 3, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Nygård, Torgeir, E-mail: Torgeir.Nygard@nina.no [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Postboks 5685 Sluppen, 7485 Trondheim (Norway); Pinxten, Rianne, E-mail: annie.pinxten@uantwerpen.be [Ethology Group, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@uantwerpen.be [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Eens, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.eens@uantwerpen.be [Ethology Group, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    Very little is known on the exposure of high trophic level species to current-use brominated (BFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), although observations on their persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity have been made. We investigated the accumulation of BFRs and PFRs, and their associations with dietary proxies (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S), in plasma and feathers of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla nestlings from Trøndelag, Norway. In addition to accumulation of a wide range of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in both plasma and feathers, all non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs could be measured in feathers, while in plasma only two of six PFRs, i.e. tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were detected. PFR concentrations in feathers (0.95–3000 ng g{sup −1}) were much higher than selected organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (CB 153; 2.3–15 ng g{sup −1}) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE; 2.3–21 ng g{sup −1}), PBDEs (0.03–2.3 ng g{sup −1}) and non-PBDE BFRs (0.03–1.5 ng g{sup −1}). Non-significant associations of PFR concentrations in feathers with those in plasma (P ≥ 0.74), and their similarity to reported atmospheric PFR concentrations, may suggest atmospheric PFR deposition on feathers. Most OCs and PBDEs, as well as tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP) and tri-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were associated to δ{sup 15}N and/or δ{sup 13}C (all P ≤ 0.02). Besides δ{sup 15}N enrichment, δ{sup 34}S was depleted in nestlings from fjords, inherently close to an urbanised centre. As such, both may have been a spatial proxy for anthropogenic disturbance, possible confounding their use as dietary proxy. - Highlights: • Non-PBDE BFRs and PFRs were highly detected in feathers, but poorly in plasma. • PFR levels in feathers were up to 100-fold those of BFRs and selected OCs.

  15. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  16. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive...

  17. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  18. Occurrence and fate of emerging and legacy flame retardants : from indoor environments to remote areas

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals that can be found in various matrices in all corners of the planet, including remote areas such as the Arctic.  Several POPs are known and monitored but given the abundance of new chemicals in commerce about which little is known, chemicals that may be new POPs are constantly being screened for. The use of flame retardants, particularly brominated flame retardants (BFRs), has been increasing for decades. PBDEs and HBCDDs are two types o...

  19. 快速溶剂萃取-固相萃取-液相色谱-串联质谱法同时检测小型家用电器中溴代阻燃剂%Determination of Brominated Flame Retardants in the Household Appliances by ASE-SPE-RRLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓宇; 张敬轩; 李挥; 张岩

    2013-01-01

    建立了快速溶剂萃取-固相萃取-超快速液相色谱-串联质谱(ASE-SPE-RRLC-MS/MS)测定小型家用电器中溴代阻燃剂残留(六溴环十二烷(HBCDs)、四溴双酚A(TBBP-A))的方法.试样经冷冻粉碎后,以V(丙酮)∶V(正己烷)=1∶1的溶液为萃取液,采用快速溶剂萃取法,萃取液经C18固相萃取柱富集净化,以水-甲醇为流动相,经C18柱分离后,以快速液相色谱-串联质谱法多反应监测扫描模式进行定性和定量分析.方法的线性相关系数r大于0.998,检出限为0.05~0.2 mg/kg,在0.05~800mg/kg等浓度添加水平下,平均回收率为87.72%~95.71%;相对标准偏差(RSD)为4.42%~8.38%.该方法灵敏度高、重现性好、定性定量准确,适用小型家用电器的复杂基质样品检测,可为相关国家标准制定提供参考依据.%A accelerated solvent extraction-solid phase extraction-rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-SPE-RRLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of brominated flame retardants (HBCDs,TBBP-A)in the household appliance was developed. V(acetone) : V(hexane)= 1 : 1 as an extraction solvent and accelerated solvent extraction method were been adopted. The brominated flame retardants in sample solution were separated and enriched by solid phase extraction (SPE) on C18 column. The brominated flame retardants residue was separated by HPLC using methanol-water as the mobile phase, and was detective using electrospray ionization (ESI) on a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reactions monitoring mode. The detection limits are 0. 05-0. 2 mg/kg,and the correlation coefficient is larger than 0. 998. At the spiked level of 0. 05-800μg/kg, the recoveries are 87. 72%-95. 71%, and the relative standard deviations are in the range of 4. 42% and 8. 38%(n = 10). This method is sensitive, recurrent and accurate. It can be used for the determination of brominated flame retardants in the household appliances, and can provide

  20. 溴化蓖麻油多元醇合成及其制备的阻燃聚氨酯硬泡性能%The Synthesis of Bromine-containing Castor Oil Polyol and the Flame-retardant Polyurethane Foam Prooerties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明; 罗振扬; 史以俊; 顾晓利; 张银萍

    2011-01-01

    A novel bromine-containing castor oil based polyol was prepared via the reaction of glycerin-exchanged castor oil and bromine.Structure of bromation product was analyzed by FT-IR.The basic characters of the polyol, such as viscosity, hydroxyl value and acid value were investigated.The effects of bromine-containing castor oil based polyols on properties of the rigid polyurethane foams, especially on their resistance to combustion, were studied by foam experiment, oxygen index, smoke density and horizontal burning experiments.It was compared with the foam prepared by RB-79 of Albemarle Corporation.It was found that the bromine-containing castor oil based polyols were effective for improving the resistance to combustion of rigid polyurethane foams, having the same effects with the commercial flame retardant RB-79 of Albemarle Corporation.%采用可再生的醇解蓖麻油多元醇为原料,与液溴进行加成反应制备溴化蓖麻油多元醇,通过红外光谱证实发生了溴化反应,并测定了产物粘度、羟值、酸值.通过发泡实验和氧指数、烟密度、水平燃烧等测试手段,考察了溴化蓖麻油基聚氨酯硬泡发泡参数和阻燃性质,并与工业级阻燃荆雅保RB-79制备的聚氨酯硬泡进行比较.结果表明,由溴化蓖麻油多元醇制备的泡沫体现出较好阻燃性能,与RB-79的阻燃效果相当.

  1. Research on Alkaline Filler Flame-Retarded Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; ZHANG Houji; WANG Jiaolan

    2006-01-01

    Used as flame retardant of tunnel asphalt pavement, organic bromides produce a large amount of poisons and smoke in construction and flame retardation stage. The alkaline filler was found to replace mineral filler, and the flame-retarded asphalt mixtures were produced. Experimental results show that these asphalt mixtures are smoke restrained; the performances and construction technology of asphalt pavement are not influenced; also the alkaline filler is of low-price. So this kind of flame-retarded asphalt mixtures is suitable for tunnel pavement.

  2. New hybrid halogen-free flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowska, Dorota; Jankowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of this work were researches concerning the methods of the in-situ modification of silicate layer-tubular mineral (SL-TM) halloysite, using the salts of melamine, i.e. melamine cyanurate. The modified mineral was used as flame retardant to thermoplastic polymers. In the case of the application of halloysite modified by melamine cyanurate to polyamide 6 (PA6) the highest parameters of vertical and horizontal flammability were achieved. The mechanical properties of filled polyamide 6 have been improved.

  3. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  4. Assessment of flame retardants in river water using a ceramic dosimeter passive sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel brominated (BFRs) and organophosphorus (OPFRs) flame retardants were monitored in river water using the ceramic dosimeter passive sampling device with HLB (hydrophilic–lipophilic balance) as sorbent. Laboratory calibrations were performed to determine sampling rates for each compound using the Archie's law exponent. The passive sampling device was used to determine the presence of 6 BFRs in the River Aire (United Kingdom), selected according to their ubiquitous presence in the River Aire. Passive sampling integrated river water concentrations ranged from 0.010 to 5.6 μg L−1 for all OPFRs, while BFRs were not detected with this specific passive sampler configuration. Decreased sampling rates were evidenced after 3 weeks of deployment, probably due to fouling. Good agreement between integrated and snapshot water concentrations was obtained, indicating the efficiency of the passive sampler for the monitoring of OPFRs in river water. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Ceramic dosimeter used for the first time with HLB as sorbent. ► Good agreement observed between active and passive sampling water concentrations. ► Organophosphorous flame retardants occur in high concentrations in UK Rivers. - Ceramic dosimeter using HLB as sorbent can be an efficient river-water passive sampler for organophosphorous and brominated flame retardants.

  5. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aroha [Department of Applied Biology, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elliott, John E., E-mail: John.Elliott@ec.gc.ca [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Elliott, Kyle H.; Guigueno, Mélanie F. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wilson, Laurie K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Lee, Sandi [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Idrissi, Abde [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003–2012). Dietary tracers (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. - Highlights: • Seabird eggs have been used to monitor POPs on the west coast of Canada since 1979. • Samples of these eggs were analysed retrospectively for PBDEs and HBCDD. • Regulations exist in North America to control PBDEs, but not HBCDD. • PBDEs decreased significantly since regulations were applied. • HBCDD was not detected pre-2003, but is now found in low concentrations.

  6. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003–2012). Dietary tracers (δ13C and δ15N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. - Highlights: • Seabird eggs have been used to monitor POPs on the west coast of Canada since 1979. • Samples of these eggs were analysed retrospectively for PBDEs and HBCDD. • Regulations exist in North America to control PBDEs, but not HBCDD. • PBDEs decreased significantly since regulations were applied. • HBCDD was not detected pre-2003, but is now found in low concentrations

  7. Flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with organophosphorus polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Okeil, A; El-Sawy, S M; Abdel-Mohdy, F A

    2013-02-15

    Organo-phosphorus compounds was prepared and applied onto cotton fabrics as flame retarding agent. methacryloloxyethylorthophoshor tetraethyl diamidate (MPD) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. Pyrovatex as commercial flame retardant was used for comparative study. Impregnation method was used as coating for the application of the organophosphorus compounds to cotton fabrics. The major factors affecting the reaction were studied. The results show that the prepared organophosphorus compound can be successfully used as flame retardant for cotton fabrics. PMID:23399290

  8. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  9. Environmental fate & effects of new generation flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Voogt, de, P.; Admiraal, W; Parsons, J.R.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Waaijers, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for substituting several halogenated flame retardants, given the human and environmental health concerns of many of these compounds. Halogen Free Flame Retardants (HFFRs) have been suggested as alternatives and are already being marketed, although their potential impact on the environment cannot be properly assessed because of a lack of information regarding their environmental and ecotoxicological properties. The aim of this study was to determine the aquatic fate an...

  10. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun

    2008-01-01

    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  11. Upgrading of recycled polypropylene by preparing flame retarded layered composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ronkay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upgrading of polypropylene waste was performed by different composite technologies, in order to improve the flame retardancy combined with preserved or improved mechanical properties. The polymer waste of density below 900 kg/m3 is originated from end-of-life vehicles (ELV after comminution, density separation and comprehensive analysis. Intumescent flame retardant system was used for reducing the flammability; while chopped glass fibre reinforcement was used to compensate the deterioration of mechanical properties caused by flame retardant additives. In mixed composite beside of flame retardants, the reinforcement effect of glass fibre can not be realized; therefore with modification of composite structure (but maintaining the composition a multilayer composite was developed, which contains 65.5% of recycled polymer, where the core is reinforced with glass fibre covered by flame retarded shell layers. Enhanced flame retardancy (4 min longer time to escape was achieved by using this layered composite compared to the mixed composite, thus the time to escape could be extended only with modification of composite structure.

  12. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  13. Synthesis and application of amino resinous intumescent flame retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming GAO; Rongjie YANG

    2009-01-01

    A kind of amino resinous intumescent flame retardants (IFR) was firstly synthesized, and the structure of the main composition was determined to be a caged bicyclic macromolecule containing phosphorus. The 30% weight of IFR was added into the flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) to get retardant FPUF which has 26.5% of the limiting oxygen index. The date of CONE show that the heat release, smoke and gas of the flame retardant FPUF are much decreased and the activation energy decreases by 54kJ-mor1. It shows that the IFR can catalyze decomposition and carbonization of FPUF.

  14. Flame-retardant additives for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Yoo E.; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    To enhance the resistance of lithium-ion battery components to ignition and to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte with minimal effect on performance, we added flame-retardant additives to the electrolyte. The flame retardants were selected from a group of organic phosphate compounds, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and tributylphosphate (TBP), to provide superior thermal safety in lithium-ion cells at the fully charged state. The cycling characteristics of the lithium-ion cells containing flame-retardant additives were found to be similar or superior to the cells that contained no additives. Horizontal burning tests of electrolytes were carried out in a flame test chamber referenced by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) test standard 94 (UL 94) and ASTM D4986-98 to evaluate the electrolyes' flammability characteristics. The thermal stability characteristics of the electrodes and electrolytes with and without flame-retardant additives were investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Negative electrode samples with electrolytes containing flame-retardant additives revealed less heat generation and higher-onset decomposition temperatures. The results disclose that the thermal safety of lithium-ion cells can be improved by incorporating small amounts of suitable additives such as triphenylphosphate and tributylphosphate to the electrolyte.

  15. Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Ike; de Boer, Jacob

    2012-08-01

    Since the ban on some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), which were responsible for 20% of the flame retardant (FR) consumption in 2006 in Europe, are often proposed as alternatives for BFRs. PFRs can be divided in three main groups, inorganic, organic and halogen containing PFRs. Most of the PFRs have a mechanism of action in the solid phase of burning materials (char formation), but some may also be active in the gas phase. Some PFRs are reactive FRs, which means they are chemically bound to a polymer, whereas others are additive and mixed into the polymer. The focus of this report is limited to the PFRs mentioned in the literature as potential substitutes for BFRs. The physico-chemical properties, applications and production volumes of PFRs are given. Non-halogenated PFRs are often used as plasticisers as well. Limited information is available on the occurrence of PFRs in the environment. For triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), tricresylphosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), and tetrekis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6) a number of studies have been performed on their occurrence in air, water and sediment, but limited data were found on their occurrence in biota. Concentrations found for these PFRs in air were up to 47 μg m(-3), in sediment levels up to 24 mg kg(-1) were found, and in surface water concentrations up to 379 ng L(-1). In all these matrices TCPP was dominant. Concentrations found in dust were up to 67 mg kg(-1), with TDCPP being the dominant PFR. PFR concentrations reported were often higher than polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) concentrations, and the human exposure due to PFR concentrations in indoor air appears to be higher than exposure due to PBDE concentrations in indoor air. Only the Cl-containing PFRs are carcinogenic. Other negative human health effects were found for Cl-containing PFRs as well as

  16. Exposure assessment of French women and their newborn to brominated flame retardants: Determination of tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in maternal adipose tissue, serum, breast milk and cord serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: antignac@vet-nantes.fr; Cariou, Ronan [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zalko, Daniel [UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques, INRA, 31931 Toulouse (France); Berrebi, Alain [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Hopital Paule de Viguier, Service de gynecologie-obstetrique, Toulouse (France); Cravedi, Jean-Pierre [UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques, INRA, 31931 Toulouse (France); Maume, Daniel; Marchand, Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Riu, Anne [Unite Signalisation Hormonale, Environnement et Cancer, U824 INSERM, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Andre, Francois; Le Bizec, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Etude des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 2013, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (ENVN), Route de Gachet, BP 50707, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-01-15

    In the frame of a French monitoring program, tri- to deca- polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) have been measured in maternal and cord serum, adipose tissue, and breast milk samples, collected from 93 volunteer women during caesarean deliveries. The seven major tri- to heptaBDE (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were detected in adipose tissue and breast milk with cumulated median values of 2.59 and 2.51 ng g{sup -1} l w. Nine highly brominated octa- to decaBDE (BDE-196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209) was performed in the same samples, with cumulated median values of 2.73 and 3.39 ng g{sup -1} l w in adipose tissue and breast milk, respectively. At this opposite, median levels of octa- to decaBDE in maternal and cord serum appeared significantly higher than the levels of tri- to heptaBDE in the same matrices, i.e. 8.85 and 12.34 versus 0.98 and 0.69 ng g{sup -1} l w, respectively. - This study provides the first data at the French level regarding the occurrence of PBDE in human, and demonstrates the exposure of both human foetus at late stage of pregnancy and newborn at early stages of life through breastfeeding with special emphasis on the presence of highly brominated compounds.

  17. Rapid methodology to screen flame retardants in upholstered furniture for compliance with new California labeling law (SB 1019).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreas, Myrto; Gill, Ranjit; Takaku-Pugh, Sayaka; Lytle, Eric; Parry, Emily; Wang, Miaomiao; Quinn, John; Park, June-Soo

    2016-06-01

    In response to concerns regarding the widespread use of flame retardants, the California Legislature passed a law (SB1019) requiring labels on furniture products to indicate whether they do or do not contain flame retardants. To support the enforcement of the new law, our laboratory developed a step-wise, screening approach to test for brominated (BFR) and phosphorus-based flame retardants (OPFRs) in several types of furniture components (foam, fabric, batting, plumage, etc.). We used X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to screen for the presence of Br (and other elements) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) to identify and measure the concentration of P (and other elements). The same samples were also extracted by dichloromethane using sonication and analyzed by a single injection into a Gas Chromatograph - Tandem Mass Spectrometer to obtain concentrations of specific BFRs and OPFRs. Our approach showed excellent screening potential for Br and Sb by XRF and for P by ICP-OES, with both tests having predictive values of a negative equal to 1. To explore and screen for flame retardants in products not included in our current list of target chemicals, we used Liquid Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry operated with electrospray ionization, to identify additional flame retardants to be incorporated in quantitative methods. We are making all our methodologies public to facilitate simple and low cost methods that can help manufacturers and suppliers have their products tested and correctly labeled, ultimately benefitting the consumer. PMID:26991383

  18. Improvements of natural rubber for flame resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orasa Patarapaiboolchai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present invention provides a process for treating natural rubber to increase its flame retardant capability. Theprocess comprises a mixture of a natural rubber with, (a halogenated free flame retardant agent (zinc hydroxystannate;STORFLAM ZHS and (b halogenated flame retardant agent (decabromodiphenyl; Great Lake DE-83R and chlorinatedparaffins; Plastoil 152 and another material like antimony trioxide and aluminium hydroxide in appropriate amount, with ratio of halogenated flame retardant agent: antimony trioxide 3:1. In the resulting product with halogen flame retardant showed a more efficient flame retardant property than halogen free flame retardant, i.e. brominated flame retardant provide higher efficiency than chlorinated and ZHS, respectively. The minimum requirement ratio for being flame retardant of antimonytrioxide: brominated or chlorinated agent is 7:21 or 10:30 phr while aluminium hydroxide: ZHS is 10: 150 phr. It was found thatburning rate was zero for brominated and chlorinated agent used but not for zinc hydroxyl stannate system. Average time of burning (ATB was 135, 118 and 41 second for brominated, chlorinated and ZHS flame retardant, respectively. Average extent of burning (AEB was 24, 19 and 14 millimeters, respectively. An advantage of this invention is that chemicals (antimony trioxide and either brominated or chlorinated agent added to natural rubber have the effect of rendering the natural rubber flame-resistant like synthetic rubbers, chloroprene.

  19. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  20. Analysis of Flame Retardancy in Polymer Blends by Synchrotron X-ray K-edge Tomography and Interferometric Phase Contrast Movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Mutairu B; Ham, Kyungmin; McCarney, Jonathan; Marathe, Shashidhara; Ge, Jinghua; Knapp, Gerry; Butler, Leslie G

    2016-03-10

    Underwriters Laboratories 94 test bars have been imaged with X-ray K-edge tomography between 12 and 32 keV to assess the bromine and antimony concentration gradient across char layers of partially burnt samples. Phase contrast tomography on partially burnt samples showed gas bubbles and dark-field scattering ascribed to residual blend inhomogeneity. In addition, single-shot grating interferometry was used to record X-ray movies of test samples during heating (IR and flame) intended to mimic the UL 94 plastics flammability test. The UL 94 test bars were formulated with varying concentrations of a brominated flame retardant, Saytex 8010, and a synergist, Sb2O3, blended into high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). Depending on the sample composition, samples will pass or fail the UL 94 plastics flammability test. Tomography and interferometry imaging show differences that correlate with UL 94 performance. Key features such as char layer, gas bubble formation, microcracks, and dissolution of the flame retardant in the char layer regions are used in understanding the efficiency of the flame retardant and synergist. The samples that pass the UL 94 test have a thick, highly visible char layer as well as an interior rich in gas bubbles. Growth of gas bubbles from flame-retardant thermal decomposition is noted in the X-ray phase contrast movies. Also noteworthy is an absence of bubbles near the burning surface of the polymer; dark-field images after burning suggest a microcrack structure between interior bubbles and the surface. The accepted mechanism for flame retardant activity includes free radical quenching in the flame by bromine and antimony species. The imaging supports this as well as provides a fast inspection of other parameters, such as viscosity and surface tension. PMID:26846254

  1. Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

  2. Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Urpi Bertran, Raquel; Latza, Andreas; Andörfer-Lang, Katrin; Hügelschäffer, Claudia; Pöhlein, Manfred; Puchta, Ralph; Placht, Christian; Maid, Harald; Bauer, Walter; van Eldik, Rudi

    2015-04-01

    Candidate reference materials (RM) for the analysis of phosphorus-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers were prepared using a self-made mini-extruder. Due to legal requirements of the current restriction for the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, focus now is placed on phosphorus-based flame retardants instead of the brominated kind. Newly developed analytical methods for the first-mentioned substances also require RMs similar to industrial samples for validation and verification purposes. Hence, the prepared candidate RMs contained resorcinol-bis-(diphenyl phosphate), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphine oxide as phosphorus-based flame retardants. Blends of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene as well as blends of high-impact polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide were chosen as carrier polymers. Homogeneity and thermal stability of the candidate RMs were investigated. Results showed that the candidate RMs were comparable to the available industrial materials. Measurements by ICP/OES, FTIR and NMR confirmed the expected concentrations of the flame retardants and proved that analyte loss and degradation, respectively, was below the uncertainty of measurement during the extrusion process. Thus, the candidate RMs were found to be suitable for laboratory use. PMID:25410641

  3. Effects of TiO₂ and curing temperatures on flame retardant finishing of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chin-Kuen; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-05-01

    The performance of flame retardancy of cotton cellulose can be influenced by curing conditions. In this study, cotton cellulose was imparted durable flame retardant properties by a reaction between a flame retardant agent (Pyrovatex CP New) and a cross linking agent (Knittex CHN), in the presence of catalysts phosphoric acid and titanium dioxide (TiO2). After treating cotton fabrics at different curing temperatures for different curing time, its flame retardant performance was evaluated by 45° fabric flammability standard test method. For cotton fabrics cured at 150 and 170°C, good flame retardant characteristics were retained even after three home laundering cycles. The use of TiO2 as a co-catalyst in the treatment improved the flame retardant properties and reduced the loss of tearing strength of cotton fabrics. No significant negative effect in the whiteness index was observed, as compared with conventional flame retardant treatment. PMID:25659721

  4. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  5. Developmental exposure of zebrafish larvae to organophosphate flame retardants causes neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liwei; Xu, Wenbin; Peng, Tao; Chen, Haigang; Ren, Lin; Tan, Hana; Xiao, Dan; Qian, Haifeng; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    With the gradual ban on brominated flame retardants (FRs), the application of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased remarkably. Considering the structural similarity between OPFRs and organophosphate pesticides, hypotheses that OPFRs may interfere with neurodevelopment as organophosphate pesticides are reasonable. In this study, the neurotoxicity of three OPFRs, including tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), was evaluated in zebrafish larvae and then compared with the neurotoxicity of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). The results showed that similar to CPF, exposure to OPFRs for 5days resulted in significant changes in locomotor behavior, either in free swimming or in photomotor response. However, given the transcriptional changes that occur in nervous system genes in response to OPFRs and CPF, as well as the altered enzyme activity of AChE and its mRNA level, the underlying mechanisms for neurotoxicity among these organophosphate chemicals might be varied. In summary, the results confirm the potential neurodevelopmental toxicity of OPFRs and underscore the importance of identifying the mechanistic targets of the OPFRs with specific moieties. Furthermore, as the neurobehavioral responses are well conserved among vertebrates and the exposure of children to OPFRs is significant, a thorough assessment of the risk of OPFRs exposure during early development should be highly emphasized in future studies. PMID:27018022

  6. Spatial distribution of old and emerging flame retardants in Chinese forest soils: sources, trends and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qian; Nizzetto, Luca; Li, Jun; Mulder, Marie D; Sáňka, Ondřej; Lammel, Gerhard; Bing, Haijian; Liu, Xin; Jiang, Yishan; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2015-03-01

    The levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) in soils and their dependence on environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in 159 soil samples from 30 background forested mountain sites across China. Decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) was the most abundant flame retardant (25-18,000 pg g(-1) and 5-13,000 pg g(-1) in O-horizon and A-horizon, respectively), followed by BDE 209 (nd-5900 pg g(-1) and nd-2400 pg g(-1) in O-horizon and A-horizon, respectively). FRs distributions were primarily controlled by source distribution. The distributions of most phasing-out PBDEs, DP isomers and TBPH were in fact correlated to a population density-based index used as proxy of areas with elevated usage and waste of FR containing products. High concentrations of some NBFRs were however observed in industrialized regions and FR manufacturing plants. Strongly positive correlations were observed between PBDEs and their replacement products suggesting similar emission pattern and environmental behavior. Exposure of mineral subsoils depended on precipitations driving leaching of FRs into the soil core. This was especially evident for some emerging BFRs (TBE, TBPH, and TBB etc.) possibly indicating potential for diffuse groundwater contamination. PMID:25661400

  7. Graphene phosphonic acid as an efficient flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jung; Jeon, In-Yup; Seo, Jeong-Min; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2014-03-25

    We report the preparation of graphene phosphonic acid (GPA) via a simple and versatile method and its use as an efficient flame retardant. In order to covalently attach phosphorus to the edges of graphene nanoplatelets, graphite was ball-milled with red phosphorus. The cleavage of graphitic C-C bonds during mechanochemical ball-milling generates reactive carbon species, which react with phosphorus in a sealed ball-mill crusher to form graphene phosphorus. Subsequent opening of the crusher in air moisture leads to violent oxidation of graphene phosphorus into GPA (highest oxidation state). The GPA is readily dispersible in many polar solvents, including neutral water, allowing for solution (spray) coating for high-performance, nontoxic flame-retardant applications. PMID:24575902

  8. Void-Free Flame Retardant Phenolic Networks: Properties and Processability

    OpenAIRE

    Tyberg, Christy Sensenich

    2000-01-01

    Phenolic resins are important components of the composite industry because of their excellent flame retardance and cost effectiveness. However, the common procedure for curing phenolic novolac resins uses hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and releases volatiles during the cure, which produce networks with numerous voids. This results in materials that lack the toughness necessary for structural applications. An alternative to curing with HMTA is to crosslink the pendant phenolic groups in the ...

  9. Hyperbranched Polyurethane Acrylate Applied to UV Curable Flame Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ UV curable hyperbranched prepolymers based on amine-ester, ester-amide and ether-amide started with AB2-type monomers have been prepared by the authors[1~3]. A se-ries of work on allyl ether maleate hyperbranched polyesters for UV curing coatings by Hult and his colleagues has been reported[4]. However, the UV cured films from those materials are all flammable when attached to fire without addition of flame retardants.

  10. Synthesis of Antistatic Composite Based on Reaction Flame Retarding Unsaturated Polyester Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shui-ping; GONG Wen-hua; ZENG Jia

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis of reaction flame retarding unsaturated polyester resin and the flame retarding mechanism are investigated. By taking the synthesis flame retarding unsaturated polyester resin as a base material,glass fibers as reinforced material, under the condition of adding graphite or carbon black respectively, the composites were manufactured. The flame retarding and antistatic properties are also studied. In the experiment, bromidebearing flame retarding resin decomposed under a high temperature. Compound HBr was set out and retarded or stopped the flame. High concentration of HBr gas wall was formed between gas and solid phrases, which decreased flame. The results show that antistatic property of carbon black is higher than that of graphite. Adding a threshed value of 1% carbon black into composite, the antistatic property is at its highest value.

  11. Study of the Synergistic Effect of Nanoporous Nickel Phosphates on Novel Intumescent Flame Retardant Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A char forming agent (CFA and silica-gel microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (Si-MCAPP were selected to form novel intumescent flame retardant system to prepare flame retardant polypropylene (PP composites, and then the influences of nanoporous nickel phosphates (NiP on the thermal and flame retardant properties of flame retardant PP composites were studied by the real time FTIR (RTFTIR spectra, limited oxygen index (LOI test, and the scanning electron microscopy. RTFTIR shows the addition of NiP can improve the thermal stability of flame retardant PP composites. LOI test shows LOI value is increased with the increase of the content of NiP, and the optimized concentration of NiP is 1.0%. Furthermore, smoke toxicity of the novel flame retardant PP composites was studied by mice experiment. The upper limit of the no death smoke concentration of the composite is 12.37 mg/L.

  12. Intumescent Biobased-Polylactide Films to Flame Retard Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Reti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the development of a newprocess to flame retard nonwovens, using films basedon renewable resources. Films consist in intumescentformulations of polylactic acid (PLA, ammoniumpolyphosphate (APP blended with lignin or starchand are coated on hemp or wool nonwovens. Theobjective of this study was to investigate the fireretardant and mechanical properties of textilesprotected by FR PLA films for potential use inbuilding applications. Horizontal and vertical flamespread tests as well as cone calorimetry tests showthat flammability properties of nonwovens aresignificantly improved. Better mechanical propertiesare also obtained with coated nonwovens.

  13. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sludge from a WWTP was treated in a fungal slurry reactor with Trametes versicolor. ► Twenty-four pharmaceuticals were removed at important extents. ► UV-filters and brominated flame retardants were also degraded. ► Overall toxicity of sludge increased despite the pollutant removal. - Abstract: Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16–53% and 22–100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase.

  14. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E. [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Baron, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jelic, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farre, Marinella; Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Petrovic, Mira [Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: Gloria.Caminal@uab.cat [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); King Saud University (KSU), P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); and others

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge from a WWTP was treated in a fungal slurry reactor with Trametes versicolor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twenty-four pharmaceuticals were removed at important extents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-filters and brominated flame retardants were also degraded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall toxicity of sludge increased despite the pollutant removal. - Abstract: Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16-53% and 22-100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase.

  15. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results

  16. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei, E-mail: jiaochm@qust.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results.

  17. Global Consumption of Flame Retardants and Related Environmental Concerns: A Study on Possible Mechanical Recycling of Flame Retardant Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Yasin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardants (FRs have been around us for decades to increase the chances of survival against fire or flame by limiting its propagation. The FR textiles, irrespective of their atmospheric presence are used in baby clothing, pushchairs, car seats, etc. The overall FR market in Asia, Europe, and the United States in 2007 was around 1.8 million metric tonnes. It is estimated that the worldwide consumption of FRs will reach 2.8 million tonnes in 2018. Unfortunately, a sustainable approach for textile waste, especially in the case of FR textiles, is absent. Incineration and landfill of FR textiles are hindered by various toxic outcomes. To address the need for sustainable methods of discarding FR textiles, the mechanical recycling of cotton curtains was evaluated.

  18. Understanding the mechanism of action of triazine-phosphonate derivatives as flame retardants for cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countless hours of research and studies on triazine, phosphonate and their combination have provided insightful information into their flame retardant properties on polymeric systems. However, only limited number of studies shed light on the mechanism of flame retardant cotton fabrics. The purpose...

  19. Flame-retardant Cotton Fabric Through Graft Copolymerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Kaur

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to impart flame-retarding properties to the cotton fabric, post-graftingphosphorylation reactions on grafted cotton fabric were carried out. Photochemical graftcopolymerisation of 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP onto cotton fabric using benzophenone asphotosensitiser was carried out. Maximum percentage of grafting Pg, (18.50 % was obtainedunder optimum  conditions; irradiation time 75 min, 0.5 ml of  benzophenone,  [4-VP]=748.71 x10-2 mole/l and 5 ml of water in the reaction mixture. Aliphatic alcohols of varying chain lengthdecreased percentage of grafting. The pendant pyridine rings of the 4-VP grafted cotton fabricwere converted to pyridinium chloride followed by the reaction with acrylamide to give 2-amido-ethylpyridiniumchloride. This was subjected to phosphorylation reaction with PCl3/petroleumether. The phosphorylated grafted cotton fabric burns only in the presence of flame with veryslow propagation of the flame (only 3.8 cm2 was found to burn of the total area of 147 cm2 with0.12 g of the ash content. Characterisation of gray cotton fabric and modified cotton fabric wascarried out by FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis, crease recovery, and moisture absorption studies.

  20. Effect of Halogen-antimony Flame Retardant System on Thermoplastic Polyester Elastomer%卤-锑阻燃体系对热塑性聚酯弹性体性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚溪; 张群朝; 赵辉; 蒋涛

    2013-01-01

      采用高分子型溴系阻燃剂溴化环氧树脂(EP-B)、溴化聚苯乙烯(PS-B)及小分子型溴系阻燃剂十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)协同Sb2O3作为卤–锑阻燃体系,研究卤–锑阻燃体系对热塑性聚酯弹性体(TPEE)性能的影响。研究表明,当溴系阻燃剂的质量分数为18%时,均能使TPEE达到UL94 V–0级别,极限氧指数达到27%以上,EP-B, PS-B分别与DBDPE复配使用时的阻燃效果优于EP-B,PS-B单独使用时的阻燃效果;EP-B和PS-B与TPEE具有较好的相容性,两者分别与DBDPE复配时可改善DBDPE与TPEE的相容性;当溴系阻燃剂的质量分数为18%时, EP-B和PS-B分别与DBDPE复配使用,可减少单独使用DBDPE阻燃TPEE力学性能的下降程度;添加阻燃剂改变了TPEE的热失重过程,与EP-B,PS-B阻燃TPEE的残炭率相比,两者分别与DBDPE复配后,阻燃TPEE的残炭率下降约20%。%  With two polymeric brominated flame retardants brominated epoxy resin(EP-B) and brominated polystyrene(PS-B) and a new type of low molecular weight brominated flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane(DBDPE) synchronized with antimony trioxide(Sb2O3) respectively as three halogen–antimony flame retardant systems,the effects of halogen–antimony flame retardant systems on thermoplastic polyester elastomer(TPEE) were discussed. The results show that when the mass fraction of brominated flame retardants is 18%,UL94 vertical burning of TPEE could reach V–0 level,the limit oxygen index could reach more than 27%,when EP-B and PS-B were compound with DBDPE respectively,the flame retardant efficiencies are better than that of the systems when they were used in TPEE alone. EP-B and PS-B had preferable compatibility with TPEE,when they were compound with DBDPE,the compatibility of DBDPE and TPEE could be improved. When the mass fraction of brominated flame retardants is 18%,EP-B and PS-B were compound with DBDPE respectively,the decline degree of

  1. [ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS - TOXICITY AND INFLUENCE ON HUMAN HEALTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchajzer, Elżbieta; Frydrych, Barbara; Szymańska, Jadwiga Anna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs) have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-phosphonium chloride (THPC), tributyl phosphate (TBP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCP) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate (THPS). In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP). They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs. PMID:26294315

  2. Organophosphorus flame retardants – Toxicity and influence on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bruchajzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs – persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexylphosphate (TEHP, tris(2-butoxyethylphosphate (TBEP, triphenyl phosphate (TPP, tris(2-chloroethylphosphate (TCEP, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl-phosphonium chloride (THPC, tributyl phosphate (TBP, tricresyl phosphate (TCP, tris(2-chloroisopropylphosphate (TCPP, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropylphosphate (TDCP and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate (THPS. In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP. They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(2:235–264

  3. Probing the debromination of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether in sediments of a boreal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihel, Diane M; Bisbicos, Tommy; Darling, Colin T R; Dupuis, Alain P; Williamson, Mary; Muir, Derek C G

    2016-03-01

    After decades of use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants, a large reservoir of these toxins has accumulated in ecosystems worldwide. The present study used an innovative approach to examine whether the fully brominated PBDE decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) degrades to more toxic congeners in aquatic environments. The authors incubated intact sediment microcosms with high-purity [(13)C]decaBDE in a remote boreal lake to assess its debromination under ambient conditions. Although the addition of [(13)C]decaBDE increased total PBDE concentrations in sediment more than 10-fold, the relative amount of [(13)C]decaBDE in sediment did not change significantly over a 1-mo incubation. However, observation of small quantities of lower-brominated [(13)C]BDEs lent support to the hypothesis that decaBDE is slowly debrominated. The authors observed a significant increase in octaBDEs and nonaBDEs in profundal, but not littoral, sediment over 30 d. A second experiment in which sediment was incubated under different light and oxygen regimes yielded a surprising result-oxygen significantly stimulated the formation of octaBDEs and nonaBDEs. The authors also conducted a large-scale in situ enclosure experiment in which they followed the fate of experimentally added decaBDE in sediment over 26 mo, but that study yielded little evidence of decaBDE debromination. Overall, the authors suggest that the debromination of decaBDE occurs very slowly, if at all, in natural sediment of boreal lakes, in contrast to the rapid degradation kinetics reported by most laboratory-based studies, which are usually conducted by dissolving decaBDE in organic solvents. The findings reinforce the need for field studies on contaminant fate to inform environmental policy decisions. PMID:26332257

  4. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy

  5. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Hu, Wei-Zhao; Wang, Bi-Bo; Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy.

  6. Bromine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2. Weinheim : WileyVCH, 2004 - (Merian, E.; Anke, M.; Ihnat, M.; Stoeppler, M.), s. 1445-1455 ISBN 3-527-30459-2. - (3) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : bromine * analysis * biological relevance Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  7. Improve the flame retardancy of cellulose fibers by grafting zinc ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, KeKe; Zong, Lu; Tan, Yeqiang; Ji, Quan; Yun, Weicai; Shi, Ran; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-01-20

    Zinc ion as the only flame retardant of cellulose fibers was successfully grafted onto cellulose fibers. Grafting maleic anhydride onto cellulose fibers via homogeneous acylation reaction between N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the first step. Then, graft zinc ion onto the formed cellulose fibers was conducted with zinc carbonate. The resulting copolymers were characterized by FTIR. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of zinc-ion-modified cellulose fibers (cellulose-Zn fibers) was investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), cone calorimeter (CONE), XRD, TG and SEM. Zinc ion could effectively improve flame retardancy and thermal degradation when its content increases up to 4.96 wt%. PMID:26572337

  8. STUDIES ON FLAME-RETARDANT PC/ABS MULTIPLE-ELEMENT ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Quan; Ming-shah Yang; Qing Yah

    2001-01-01

    The preparation technology of flame-retardant PC/ABS alloys was studied in this paper. Using a high-efficiency flame retardant system and by means of multiple-ingredient compatibilizing, PC/ABS alloys with excellent impact strength and flame retardant property were prepared. The experimental results showed that by using PS-g-MAH and SMA as synergistic compatibilizers, the notched Izod impact strength and flammability of PC/ABS alloy obtained in the present work can be up to 175 J/m and UL-94 V0, respectively.

  9. Organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in human placenta in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinjian; Xu, Zemin; Huang, Wei; Feng, Limin; Yang, Fangxing

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been widely used in various products as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. Although widespread OPE exposure is expected in humans, the accumulation of OPEs has seldom been studied in the human body. In this study, 12 OPE analogs were analyzed in 50 human placentas collected in Eastern China. The concentrations of the 9 most frequently detected OPEs (Σ9OPEs) ranged from 34.4 to 862ng/g lipid weight (lw), with a median of 301ng/g lw. Tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was identified as the most abundant analog, with a median concentration of 142ng/g lw, followed by tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP). Statistical analysis showed no analog of OPEs or Σ9OPEs was positively correlated with the lipid content of the placentas. There were no correlations observed between the OPE concentrations and maternal characteristics. Food consumption habits exhibited weak effects on OPE levels in the placentas. Further investigation is required to determine the effects of OPEs on fetuses due to the expected increase in maternal exposure to these esters. PMID:26950635

  10. Bioavailability of classical and novel flame retardants: Effect of fullerene presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Giselle; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2016-09-15

    To understand the behavior of some emerging flame retardants (FRs) in the environment, a nonexhaustive extraction using Tenax was applied to study their behavior in aquatic ecosystems. Desorption of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 methoxylated PBDEs, 3 emerging brominated FRs and 6 halogenated norbornenes from sediments spiked in the laboratory was studied. Results showed that emerging FRs have a similar bioavailability than that of legacy FRs, already banned. In addition, some parameters such as sediment total organic carbon (TOC), aging or nanomaterial (NMs) presence in the sediment were modified in order to study their effects on the bioavailability of FRs. Bioavailability increases with a diminution of sediment TOC, while diminishes with an increase of aging. The study of effect of NM presence was performed at three different pH (acidic, neutral and basic), and for the three scenarios, FR bioavailability decreased with NM presence. The retention of pollutants in the sediment seems to be favoured by NM presence, minimizing their impact on living organisms. PMID:27177136

  11. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2014-02-15

    This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results. PMID:24389005

  12. Influence of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A on the expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germer, S.; Schmitz, H.J.; Schrenk, D. [Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Piersma, A.H.; Ven, L. van der [Lab. for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Inst. for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    As one of the major brominated flame retardants (BFRs) tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is widely used in flammable plastic materials. There, it is incorporated either as covalently binding BFR or as an additive leading to likely leaching out of goods. Indeed, TBBPA was found in indoor air, environmental and human samples, i.e. mother's milk. Thus a certain degree of risk for human has to be considered. Some BFRs have been suspected to act as endocrine disrupters and/or affect the development of the unborn. Induction of drug metabolism may play a role in such effects by changing the body's homeostasis of hormones, such as steroids, thyroxine, and others. BFRs are prospected to lead to thyroid hormone deficiencies, neurodevelopmental deficiencies, cancer. Furthermore a variety of inducing agents have been described as tumor promoters in rodent liver. Herein the induction of enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYP) plays a major role.

  13. Development of Non-Halogen Flame Retardant Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazunori; Tanaka; Kaoru; Okuno; Tomoyuki; Hattori; Kiyoaki; Moriuchi; Hiroshi; Hayami; Wataru; Katsurashima; Yoshikyo; Tamekuni

    2003-01-01

    A non-halogen highly flame-retardant 0.9mm optical fiber and 2.0mm simplex optical cord, which are harmonized with the ecosystem, have been developed. The characteristics of them are presented in this paper.

  14. Migration of Organophorus Flame Retardants From Closed cell form to Settled Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industrial and consumer products, such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building materials are manufactured with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). OPFRs can leach or diffuse out of the products and are released to the surround...

  15. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better understanding the transport mechanisms of organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) in the residential environment is important to more accurately estimate their indoor exposure and develop risk management strategies that protect human health. This study describes an impro...

  16. Thermal and mechanical behavior of flame retardant epoxy-polyesterurethane blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Hirani, A. V.; Kachhia, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    Polyesterurethanes are used in different applications due to their unique combination of the properties like toughness, flexibility, solvent resistance, etc. Nowadays flame retardant properties of polymers are of commercial interest because of their potential use in high performance applications. In the present study attempts have been taken to improve the flame retardant properties of conventional epoxy resin by incorporating phosphorus based polyesterurethane. Polyesterurethane has been synthesized in the laboratory and characterized by chemical and instrumental analysis techniques. Thermal stability and char value of the blends have been determined using thermogravimetric analysis technique. Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) and UL-94 test methods have been used to determine the flame retardant properties of neat polymer and their blends in film form. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation and impact resistance of the blends have been found out. Polyblend of epoxy resin with phosphorus based polyesterurethane has improved flame retardant properties compare to neat epoxy resin.

  17. Preparation of flame retardant wool using zirconium acetate optimized by CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We investigate effect of ZrAc and formic acid on the flame retardancy of wool fabric. → The response surface methodology uses for the experimental plan. → The thermal degradation studies by thermal analysis, LOI and vertical flame test. → The fabric surfaces observe by SEM. → Results show an increase in the decomposition temperature, residual mass and LOI. - Abstract: The thermal degradation of wool treated with the flame retardant synergistic system, zirconium acetate, citric acid and formic acid, was studied by thermal analysis, mass loss, limited oxygen index (LOI) and vertical flame test. The surfaces of the wool samples were observed by SEM. The treated wool samples show an increase in the temperature of decomposition, residual mass and LOI in comparison with the untreated wool. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the experimental plan with four variables on the results of flame retardancy. Statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results.

  18. Priority and emerging flame retardants in the aquatic environment: analytical development, occurrence and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cristale, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    [spa]The presence of priority and emerging flame retardants (FR) in the environment deserve attention since many of these substances are toxic and persistent. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the occurrence and impact of priority and emerging flame retardants in the aquatic environment. To accomplish this main objective, the present thesis involved the development of multiresidue methods for the analysis of different FR families in water, sediment, dust and sewage sludge and the applica...

  19. Influence of hydrophobic substance on enhancing washing durability of water soluble flame-retardant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flame-retardant textiles are used in many consumer products. Among halogen-free flame retardant substances, inorganic flame retardants are mainly based on phosphorus, antimony, aluminum and boron-containing compounds. These coatings are soluble in water and therefore are not subjected to washing. In this study, washing durability of the inorganic flame retardant has been improved by incorporation of the hydrophobic substance to the coating. Composition of the coating which is the flame-retardant, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and the hydrophobic substances, poly(methylhydrogen siloxane) (PMHS) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)), were varied to find the optimum coating solution. The results of SEM and TGA analysis, as well as the burning and washing tests, revealed that the coating solution consisting of MAP:PMHS:PDMS = 5:2:1 wt.% was the optimum condition. It showed the increased residue on the TGA profile compared to the uncoated sample, and self-extinguish after removal of the ignition source. The flame-retardant property can be maintained after washing, making it feasible for variety of applications.

  20. PROMOTION EFFECT OF MELAMINE ON FLAME RETARDANCY OF EPOXY RESINS CONTAINING CAGED BICYCLIC PHOSPHATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Caged bicyclic phosphate (CBP) and its dimelamine salt (PDS) were synthesized and added to epoxy resins to obtain the flame retarded epoxy resin composites. The flammability of the composites was characterized by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter tests. The LOI values of flame retarded composites increase consistently with the increase of flame retardant amounts, and they are almost the same when the loading of CBP is the same as that of PDS,although the phosphorus content of PDS is much lower than that of CBP. The total heat release increases in the order of CBP30/ER < PDS30/ER < PDS15/ER < CBP15/ER, whereas that of specific extinction area is CBP15/ER > CBP30/ER > PDS30/ER ≌ PDS15/ER. PDS exhibits more effective inhibition of oxidation of combustible gases. In the tests of thermogravimetric analyses (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), it is found that the degradation of the composites is influenced greatly by the addition of flame retardants. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a thick and tight char-layer is observed for PDS30/ER, resulting from the interaction of nitrogen species with phosphorus species.Therefore, the combination of CBP with melamine in the flame retarded system can improve the flame retardancy greatly.

  1. [Concentration and emission fluxes of halogenated flame retardants in sewage from sewage outlet in Dongjiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    Fourteen sewage samples from sewage outlets in Dongjiang River were collected. Halogented flame retardants were extracted and purified using dichloromethane and alumina/silica-gel column, respectively. The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants were measured utilizing GC/MS, and the emission fluxes were estimated. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant halogenated pollutant (accounting for 64%) in sewage with the concentration ranging from 9.1 ng/L to 990 ng/L. The concentrations of polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDEs), dominated by BDE209, in the sewage ranged from 6.9 ng/L to 470 ng/L, accounting for 30% of total halogenated flame retardants. The concentrations of other flame retardants, such as dechlorane plus (DP), 1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were ranged within 0.17-23.6, nd-26.3, nd-1.45 and nd-0.45 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in sewage of Dongjiang River were comparable to those in influent wastewater of sewage treatment plants of Guangzhou, suggesting that the wastewater was discharged directly into Dongjiang River without any treatment. The emission flux of halogenated flame retardants from sewage was 191 kg. Emission from industrial wastewater, contributed to 48%-91% of total emission, was the main source of halogenated flame retardants. PMID:22279897

  2. Effect of Amino alcohol functionalized polyethylene as compatibilizer for LDPE/EVA/clay/flame-retardant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujan-Acosta, R. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Blvd Enrique Reyna 140, Saltillo, Coahuila 25294 (Mexico); Sánchez-Valdes, S., E-mail: saul.sanchez@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Blvd Enrique Reyna 140, Saltillo, Coahuila 25294 (Mexico); Ramírez-Vargas, E., E-mail: eduardo.ramirez@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Blvd Enrique Reyna 140, Saltillo, Coahuila 25294 (Mexico); Ramos-DeValle, L.F.; Espinoza-Martinez, A.B.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, O.S. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Blvd Enrique Reyna 140, Saltillo, Coahuila 25294 (Mexico); Lozano-Ramirez, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Cd. Madero, Juventino Rosas Col. Los Mangos, Cd. Madero, Tamaulipas 89440 (Mexico); Lafleur, P.G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Chemical Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6079, Stn Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2014-08-01

    The synergistic effect of organo-modified montmorillonite (Nanomer I28E and Cloisite 20A) and metal hydroxides (magnesium hydroxide MH and alumina trihydrate ATH) as flame retardants in LDPE/EVA nanocomposites compatibilized with amino alcohol grafted polyethylene (PEgDMAE) was studied. Morphological characterization of nanocomposites was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Flame-retardant properties of nanocomposites were evaluated by the UL-94 horizontal burning and cone calorimeter tests and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Thermal degradation behavior was analyzed with a Fourier transform infrared coupled with the thermogravimetric analyzer (TG-FTIR). The XRD analysis showed a displacement of the d{sub 001} plane characteristic peak of clay to lower angles, which indicates an intercalated–exfoliated morphology. From STEM images it was observed a good dispersion of flame retardants (MH and ATH) throughout the polymer matrix which was reflected in flame-retardant properties. TG-FTIR showed a better thermal stability of nanocomposites and the gases evolved during combustion showed an important reduction. Based on thermal stability and thermal degradation results, the flame-retardant mechanism of LDPE/PEgDMAE/EVA/Clay/MH nanocomposites was proposed. - Highlights: • We evaluated the synergistic effect of MMT clay and nano-metallic hydroxides for wire coating applications. • We analyzed the using of a new type of polymer-inorganic compatibilizer. • We proposed a new flame-retardant mechanism for polymer blends/Clay/MH nanocomposites.

  3. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Sagerup, Kjetil; Evenset, Anita; Kovacs, Kit M; Leonards, Pim; Fuglei, Eva; Routti, Heli; Aars, Jon; Strøm, Hallvard; Lydersen, Christian; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2015-12-15

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP); 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP); tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP); tritolyl phosphate (TCrP); triisobutyl phosphate (TIBP); tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP); and butyl diphenyl phosphate (DPhBP). The greatest number of different PFR compounds, and the highest detection frequency were measured in capelin (Mallotus villotus), and the lowest in Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia). The highest concentrations of ΣPFR, as well as the highest concentration of a single PFR compound, TBOEP, were measured in arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The presence of PFR compounds in arctic biota indicates that these compounds can undergo long-range transport and are, to some degree, persistent and bioaccumulated. The potential for biomagnification from fish to higher trophic levels seems to be limited. PMID:26453403

  4. Flame Retardant Effect of Aerogel and Nanosilica on Engineered Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.; Roberson, Luke B.; Yang, Feng; Nelson, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels are typically manufactured vIa high temperature and pressure-critical-point drying of a colloidal metal oxide gel filled with solvents. Aerogel materials derived from silica materials represent a structural morphology (amorphous, open-celled nanofoams) rather than a particular chemical constituency. Aerogel is not like conventional foams in that it is a porous material with extreme microporosity and composed of individual features only a few nanometers in length with a highly porous dendriticlike structure. This unique substance has unusual properties such as low thermal conductivity, refractive index and sound suppression; in addition to its exceptional ability to capture fast moving dust. The highly porous nature of the aerogel's structure provides large amounts of surface area per unit weight. For instance, a silica aerogel material with a density of 100 kilograms per cubic meters can have surface areas of around 800 to 1500 square meters per gram depending on the precursors and process utilized to produce it. To take advantage of the unique properties of silica aerogels, especially the ultra light weight and low thermal conductivity, their composites with various engineering polymers were prepared and their flammability was investigated by Cone Calorimetry. The flammability of various polystyrene/silica aerogel nanocomposites were measured. The combination of these nanocomposites with a NASA patented flame retardant SINK were also studied. The results were compared with the base polymer to show the differences between composites with different forms of silica.

  5. Synthesis, structural and flammability studies of novel phosphonates triazine derivative as economic flame retardant for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphorous flame retardants have been known to be more effective when used in conjunction with nitrogen-containing systems. Their mixture produces incombustible non-toxic gases which can dilute the concentration of the oxygen near the flame, and the charred layers become protective barriers t...

  6. Flame retardancy and thermal properties of epoxy acrylate resin/alpha-zirconium phosphate nanocomposites used for UV-curing flame retardant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reported the UV-curing flame retardant film, which consisted of epoxy acrylate resin (EA) used as an oligomer, tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) used as flame retardant (FR). The flame retardancy and thermal properties of films were reinforced by using alpha-zirconium phosphate (α-Zr (HPO4)2H2O, α-ZrP). The morphology of nanocomposite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the organophilic α-ZrP (OZrP) layers were dispersed well in epoxy acrylate resin. Microscale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR) were used to characterize the flame retardant property and thermal stability. It was found that the incorporation of TAEP and TGICA can reduce the flammability of EA. Moreover, further reductions were observed due to the addition of OZrP. The char residue for systems with or without OZrP was also explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Flame retardation of cellulose-rich fabrics via a simplified layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Chi; Liao, Wang; Deng, Shi-Bi; Cao, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2016-10-20

    Due to the high cellulose content of cotton (88.0-96.5%), the flame retardation of cotton fabrics can be achieved via an approach for the flame retardation of cellulose. In this work, a facile water-based flame retardant coating was deposited on cotton fabrics by a 'simplified' layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The novel coating solution was based on a mild reaction between ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI), and the reaction mechanism was studied. TGA results showed that the char residues of coated fabrics were remarkably increased. The fabric with only 5wt% coating showed self-extinguishing in the horizontal flame test, and the peak heat release rate (pHRR) in cone calorimeter test decreased by 51%. Furthermore, this coating overcame a general drawback of flame-retardant LbL assembly which was easily washed away. Therefore, the simplified LbL method provides a fast, low-cost, eco-friendly and wash-durable flame-retardant finishing for the cellulose-rich cotton fabrics. PMID:27474586

  8. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC, molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS, are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency.

  9. Preparation and flame retardancy of intumescent flame-retarded amino resins%膨胀型阻燃氨基树脂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海龙; 吴玉章; 孙伟圣

    2012-01-01

    The intumescent flame-retarded melamine modified u-rea-formaldehyde resin (1FR-MUF) was prepared by adding the intumescent flame retardant (IFR)to the melamine modified u-rea-formaldehyde resin (MUF) in this experiment, the flame retardancy of it was evaluated with cone calorimeter (CONE) when coated on the surface of medium density fiberboard (MDF), and effects of the mole ratio of M/U and F/(M+U) on the flame retardancy of the IFR-MUF were studied. The Cone calorimeter data showed that the time to ignition (TTI) was significantly prolonged, in addition, heat release rate (HRR), total heat released(THR), effective heat of combus-tion(HOC) and the average mass loss rate were all decreased significantly when the MDF was coated with the IFR-MUF, which showed that the IFR-MUF had more effective in retarding flame for the MDF. The analysis results showed that the flame retardancy of IFR-MUF has relation to the F/(M + U) and M/U, namely the flame retardancy under the condition of the high M/U molar ratio and low F/(M+U) molar ratio was not ideal.%在三聚氰胺脲醛树脂(MUF)中添加膨胀型阻燃剂制备膨胀型阻燃三聚氰胺脲醛树脂(IFR-MUF),将其涂覆于中密度纤维板(MDF)表面,利用锥形量热仪(CONE)评价其阻燃性能,并分析MUF树脂中M/U和F/(M+U)摩尔比对IFR-MUF阻燃性能的影响.锥形量热仪评价结果表明:表面涂覆IFR-MUF后,MDF的引燃时间显著延长,释热速率、释热总量、有效燃烧热、平均质量损失速率等均显著降低,说明IFR-MUF对MDF具有良好的阻燃作用.分析结果表明,IFR-MUF的阻燃性能与MUF中三聚氰胺与尿素摩尔比(M/U)、甲醛与三聚氰胺和尿素摩尔比(F/(M+U))有一定关系,即表现为在M/U高摩尔比以及F/(M+U)低摩尔比情况下的阻燃性能不理想.

  10. Flame Retardant Effects of Nano-Clinoptilolite on AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS Nano-Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, intumescent technology has found a place in polymer science as a method of providing flame retardance to polymeric materials. On heating, fire-retardant intumescent material restricts the action of the heat flux or flame. The proposed mechanism is based on charred layer acting as physical barrier, which slows down heat and mass transfer between the gas and the condensed phases. In this paper, the flammability of intumescent fire-retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS matrix composites consisting of hydromagnesite (HMg as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Kansar Shargh as a synergistic agent were examined. The flammability of composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement and horizontal burning tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with HMg and PER.

  11. EFFECT OF OXYGEN PLASMA PRETREATMENT AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE OVERLAY COATING ON FLAME RETARDANT FINISHED COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Ling Lam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Flammability properties of plasma pretreated cotton fabrics subjected to flame-retardant treatment were studied. Plasma pretreatment, using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ, was applied to cotton fabrics to enhance material properties, while retaining inherent advantages of the substrates. An organic phosphorus compound (flame-retardant agent, FR together with a melamine resin (crosslinking agent, CL and phosphoric acid (catalyst, PA were used. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 or nano-TiO2 was used as a co-catalyst for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness and minimize side effects. Surface morphology of plasma pretreated cotton specimens subjected to flame-retardant treatment showed a roughened and wrinkled fabric surface with high deposition of the finishing agent, caused by an etching effect of plasma and attack of acidic FR. Combustibility of FR-CL-PA-TiO2 and FR-CL-PA-Nano-TiO2 treated fabrics was evaluated by a 45° flammability test. FR-CL-PA-treated specimens showed superior flame-retardancy, which was further improved by plasma pretreatment and addition of metal oxide as a co-catalyst. However, in comparison with the control sample, flame-retardant-treated cotton specimens had lower breaking load and tearing strength, resulting from side effects of the crosslinking agent used, while plasma pretreatment might compensate for the reduction in tensile strength caused by flame-retardant agents. In addition, both plasma pretreatment and metal oxide co-catalyst added in the flame-retardant finishing improved the crosslinking process between FR and cotton fabric, minimizing formation of free formaldehyde and allowing the use of FR in industry.

  12. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jianjun Zhang; Liping Yue; Qingshan Kong; Zhihong Liu; Xinhong Zhou; Chuanjian Zhang; Quan Xu; Bo Zhang; Guoliang Ding; Bingsheng Qin; Yulong Duan; Qingfu Wang; Jianhua Yao; Guanglei Cui; Liquan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented impro...

  13. Piloted Ignition to Flaming in Smoldering Fire-Retarded Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeys, O.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Urban, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in the fire-retarded polyurethane foam Pyrell . The samples are small rectangular blocks with a square cross section, vertically placed in the wall of a vertical wind tunnel. Three of the vertical sample sides are insulated and the fourth side is exposed to an upward oxidizer flow of variable oxygen concentration and to a variable radiant heat flux. The gases emitted from the smoldering reaction pass upwards through a pilot, which consists of a coiled resistance heating wire. In order to compensate for the solid-phase and gas-phase effects of the fire retardants on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in Pyrell, it was necessary to assist the process by increasing the power supplied to the smolder igniter and the pilot (compared to that used for non-fire retarded foam). The experiments indicate that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming occurs when the gaseous mixture at the pilot passes the lean flammability limit. It was found that increasing the oxygen concentration or the external heat flux increases the likelihood of a piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, and generally decreases the time delay to transition. The piloted transition to flaming is observed in oxygen concentrations of 23% and above in both low-density and high-density Pyrell. Comparisons with previous experiments show that the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming is possible under a wider range of external conditions (i.e. lower oxygen concentration) than the spontaneous transition from smoldering to flaming. The results show that the fire retardants in Pyrell are very effective in preventing the piloted transition to flaming in normal air, but Pyrell is susceptible to smoldering and the piloted transition to flaming in oxygen-enriched environments. Therefore, precautions should be taken in the design of applications of Pyrell in oxygen-enriched environments to reduce

  14. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose

  15. Synergistic effects of iron powder on intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of iron powder as a synergistic agent on the flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene composites (IFR-PP were studied. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and cone calorimeter (CONE were used to evaluate the synergistic effects of iron powder (Fe. The TGA data showed that Fe could enhance the thermal stability of the IFR-PP systems at high temperature and effectively increase the char residue formation. The CONE results revealed that Fe and IFR could clearly change the decomposition behavior of PP and form a char layer on the surface of the composites, consequently resulting in efficient reduction of the flammability parameters, such as heat release rate (HRR, mass loss (ML, Mass loss rate (MLR, total heat release (THR, carbon monoxide and so on. Thus, a suitable amount of Fe plays a synergistic effect in the flame retardancy of IFR composites.

  16. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  17. Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant of Fe-Organophilic Montmorillonite in Polyvinyl Chloride Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG,Qing-Hong; ZHANG,Jun-Hao; MA,Jing-Jun; YI,Cheng-Wu; LI,Fu-Cai; LIU,He; LU,Wei-Liang

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/organophilic montmorillonite (OMT) nanocomposites are prepared by melt intercalation method. This study has been designed to determine if the presence of iron and zinc ions in the structure of montmorillonite (MMT) lattice can affect thermal, flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties. The information about the morphological structure of PVC/OMT nanocomposites was obtained using X-ray diffrac-tion and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal and flame retardant properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, limiting oxygen index and smoke density. The nanocomposites based on Fe-OMT exhibit better thermal, flame retardant properties and lower degradation degree than those of pure PVC. The degradation mechanism was studied by pyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS).

  18. Radiation grafting of flame retardants onto polyester/cotton blend fabric by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the various flame retardants were grafted onto polyester/cotton(65/35) blend fabric at room temperature, the graft % was increased with the increase of radiation dosages. The great % of flame retardants at low dose rate is higher than that of flame retardants at high dose rate. It is the suitable method for the high grafting efficiency that the samples were irradiated by mutual method and then were cured 1200C for 10 minutes. In the case of fyral 76 mixture solution, the rate of grafting(%/sec) was proportional to the power 0.75 for dose intensity and in 2-bromoethyl acrylate/bis(2-chloroethyl) vinyl phosphonate (40/60) the rate of grafting was proportional to the power 0.96 for dose intensity. (author)

  19. Thermal oxidative degradation behaviours of flame-retardant thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester/PET blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flame retardancy and the thermal oxidative degradation behaviors of the blend of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with a kind of phosphorus-containing thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester (TLCP) with high flame retardancy (limited oxygen index, 70%) have been investigated by oxygen index test (LOI), UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. The results show that TLCP can dramatically improve the flame retardancy and the melt dripping behavior of PET. Moreover, the apparent activation energies of thermal oxidative degradation of the blends were evaluated using Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. It is found that addition of TLCP improve thermal stability and restrain thermal decomposition of PET in air, especially at the primary degradation stage. Py-GC/MS analysis shows that there are remarkable changes in the pyrolysis products when TLCP are blended into PET. The interaction between TLCP and PET has changed their thermal oxidative degradation mechanism

  20. Studies on Flame Retardants on Malaysian Coir Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Elwaleed Awad Khidir; Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor; Rozli Zulkifli; Mohd Faizal Mat Tahir; Zulkarnain Ali Leman

    2011-01-01

    In this study to the effect of the utilization of urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant on Malaysian coir fiber was evaluated. Flammability and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were used to evaluate the fire retardancy. Weight loss and percentage of mass residue were used as a measure from the results of flammability and TGA, respectively. The results revealed the effectiveness of using urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant for Malaysian coir fiber. However, for the ...

  1. DISPERSION OF GRAPHENE OXIDE AND ITS FLAME RETARDANCY EFFECT ON EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wang; Xiu-zhi Tang; Zhong-zhen Yu; Peng Guo; Huai-he Song; Xu-sheng Du

    2011-01-01

    Grraphene oxide was prepared by ultrasonication of completely oxidized graphite and used to improve the flame retardancy of epoxy. The epoxy/graphene oxide nanocomposite was studied in terms of exfoliation/dispersion, thermal stability and flame retardancy. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the exfoliation of the graphene oxide nanosheets in epoxy matrix. Cone calorimeter measurements showed that the time to ignition of the epoxy/graphene oxide nanocomposite was longer than that of neat epoxy. The heat release rate curve of the nanocomposite was broadened compared to that of neat epoxy and the peak heat release rate decreased as well.

  2. Studies on Flame Retardants on Malaysian Coir Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwaleed Awad Khidir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study to the effect of the utilization of urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant on Malaysian coir fiber was evaluated. Flammability and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA tests were used to evaluate the fire retardancy. Weight loss and percentage of mass residue were used as a measure from the results of flammability and TGA, respectively. The results revealed the effectiveness of using urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant for Malaysian coir fiber. However, for the samples treated with retardant high concentration the weight loss is not significant with the time of dipping treatment. This indicates that the just dip application for the fire retardant of higher concentration is sufficient.

  3. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  4. Leaching and Transformation of Flame Retardants and Plasticizers under Simulated Landfill Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hörsing, Maritha

    2008-01-01

    Many products used in our everyday life contain chemicals added to give them specific properties. Flame retardants (FRs) are added to prevent or retard fires in textiles, plastics etc., while plasticizers are supplied to make plastics more flexible. Through their widespread applications chemicals from both groups are emitted and spread in the environment during usage and disposal. For a long time these products were mainly disposed of in landfills, and in many areas they still are. Thus, sinc...

  5. Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants at two remote locations: The Canadian High Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants (FRs) were monitored for approximately one year at two remote stations, namely Nam Co on the Tibetan Plateau and Alert in the Canadian High Arctic. BDE-47 and 99 were the dominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners at both sites. Atmospheric PBDE concentrations in Nam Co were generally lower than those at Alert. While significant seasonal variations were observed for PBDEs at Alert, the FR concentrations at Nam Co showed no significant seasonality, even though air masses originated from distinctly different regions during different seasons. This suggests that FRs in Tibet do not have regional sources, but are reflective of truly global background contamination. Three new FRs, namely 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 2-ethyl-1-hexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB) and bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) were detected at relatively high concentrations at both sites. This is the first report of these FRs in the remote global atmosphere and suggests significant potential for long-range atmospheric transport. - Highlights: ► First year-round measurements of FRs in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. ► PBDEs in Tibet are reflective of truly global background levels. ► Orographic precipitation limits the transport of particle-bound chemicals. ► First study of BTBPE, EHTeBB and TBPH in the Arctic and Tibetan air. ► These new FRs may have significant long-range atmospheric transport potential. - Several brominated flame retardants (BTBPE, EHTeBB, TBPH) were present in the atmosphere of the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau at levels similar to those of the PBDEs.

  6. Synthesis and thermal stability of a novel phosphorus-nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yu Ju; Yong Ye; Ru Yi Zou; Xin Cheng Liao; Yu Fen Zhao

    2008-01-01

    A novel phosphorus-nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant (P-N IFR) was prepared via the reaction of dichlor-opentate with JV-methylaniline. The structure of the product was confirmed by 1H NMR, 31P NMR, MS and IR. TGA analysis showed it has effective thermal stability.

  7. Environmental Risk Limits for several phosphate esters, with possible application as flame retardant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; Rila JP; Traas TP; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Posthumus R; SEC

    2006-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC), Negligible Concentrations (NC) and Serious Risk Concentrations (SRCeco) are derived for a number of phosphate esters that are possibly used as flame retardant. These environmental risk limits were derived for the compartments water, soil, and sediment on bas

  8. Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Filled Polypropylene (PP) Containing Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as flame retardant and kenaf as fillers on flammability, thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were determined. Test specimens were prepared by using a co-rotating twin screw extruder for the compounding process followed by injection molding. The flame retardancy of the composites was determined by using limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Addition of flame retardant into kenaf-PP composites significantly increased the LOI values that indicated the improvement of flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis was done to examine the thermal stability of the composites. The addition of kenaf fiber in PP composites decreased the thermal stability significantly but the influence of APP on thermal properties of the kenaf-filled PP composites was not significant. The flexural strength and modulus of composites increased with the addition of APP into kenaf filled PP composite. The addition of APP into kenaf filled PP causes increase in the impact strength while increasing the APP content in the kenaf filled PP composite show decrease in impact strength. (author)

  9. Approach for achieving flame retardancy while retaining physical properties in a compatible polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides polymer blends containing polyhydroxyamide and one or more flammable polymers. The polymer blends are flame retardant and have improved durability and heat stability compared to the flammable polymer portion of the blends. Articles containing the polymer blends are also provided.

  10. Influence of N-P base fiber reactive organophosphorus flame retardant on cotton thermal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient synergistic effect between a nitrogen-containing organophosphorus compound in the presence of a catalytic amount of chlorine is proposed based on the cyanuric chloride-linked organophosphorus flame retardant, tetraethyl-2,2'-(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(ethane-2,1...

  11. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the atmosphere of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Axel, E-mail: axel.moeller@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Xie Zhiyong; Caba, Armando; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Air samples collected in the German part of the North Sea from March to July 2010 were investigated for organophosphorus compounds (OPs) being applied as flame retardants and plasticizers. The {Sigma}{sub 8}OPs concentration ranged from 110 to 1400 pg m{sup -3} while tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominated all samples with individual concentrations up to 1200 pg m{sup -3}. The highest concentrations were observed in continental air masses showing the high influence of industrialized regions including production sites on atmospheric emissions and concentrations. The occurrence of OPs even in oceanic/Arctic air masses shows that OPs can undergo long-range atmospheric transport. Dry particle-bound deposition fluxes from 9 to 240 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for {Sigma}{sub 8}OPs were estimated leading to a minimum annual flux of 710 {+-} 580 kg y{sup -1} OPs into the German North Sea. This study presents the first occurrence of OPs in the marine atmosphere together with important information on their long-range transport potential. - Highlights: > Organophosphorus flame retardants are detected for the first time in the marine atmosphere. > Organophosphorus compounds can undergo medium to long-range atmospheric transport. > Western Europe emits organophosphorus compounds to the marine atmosphere. > Marine air levels of organophosphorus flame retardants range up to 1 ng/m{sup 3}. - Organophosphorus flame retardants, in particular tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, are emitted into the North Sea atmosphere by Western European countries.

  12. Effects of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants on Spontaneous Activity in Neuronal Networks Grown on Microelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS GROWN ON MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS TJ Shafer1, K Wallace1, WR Mundy1, M Behl2,. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA, 2National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, RTP, NC...

  13. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the atmosphere of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air samples collected in the German part of the North Sea from March to July 2010 were investigated for organophosphorus compounds (OPs) being applied as flame retardants and plasticizers. The Σ8OPs concentration ranged from 110 to 1400 pg m-3 while tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominated all samples with individual concentrations up to 1200 pg m-3. The highest concentrations were observed in continental air masses showing the high influence of industrialized regions including production sites on atmospheric emissions and concentrations. The occurrence of OPs even in oceanic/Arctic air masses shows that OPs can undergo long-range atmospheric transport. Dry particle-bound deposition fluxes from 9 to 240 ng m-2 d-1 for Σ8OPs were estimated leading to a minimum annual flux of 710 ± 580 kg y-1 OPs into the German North Sea. This study presents the first occurrence of OPs in the marine atmosphere together with important information on their long-range transport potential. - Highlights: → Organophosphorus flame retardants are detected for the first time in the marine atmosphere. → Organophosphorus compounds can undergo medium to long-range atmospheric transport. → Western Europe emits organophosphorus compounds to the marine atmosphere. → Marine air levels of organophosphorus flame retardants range up to 1 ng/m3. - Organophosphorus flame retardants, in particular tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, are emitted into the North Sea atmosphere by Western European countries.

  14. Assessment of extrusion-sonication process on flame retardant polypropylene by rheological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Sanchez-Olivares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the rheological behavior of flame retardant polypropylene composites produced by two methods: 1 twin-screw extrusion and 2 ultrasound application combined with a static mixer die single-screw extrusion is analyzed in detail; results are related to the morphology of the composites. The flame retardant polymer composites are composed of a polypropylene matrix, an intumescent flame retardant system and functionalized clay. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the combination of the static mixer die and on-line sonication reduced particle size and improved the dispersion and distribution of the intumescent additives in the polypropylene matrix at the micrometric level. From linear viscoelastic properties, the Han, Cole-Cole and van Gurp-Palmen diagrams characterized the improved particle dispersion of the flame retardant additives. Two well-defined rheological behaviors were observed in these diagrams. These behaviors are independent on clay presence and concentration. In fact, the ultrasound device generates a 3D highly interconnected structure similar to a co-continuous pattern observed in polymer blends as evidenced by rheological measurements. This improvement in the dispersion and distribution of the additives is attributed to the combined effect of the static mixer die and on-line sonication that allowed reducing the additive content while achieving the optimum classification UL94-V0.

  15. Flame Retardant Behavior of Polyelectrolyte-Clay Thin Film Assemblies on Cotton Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fabric was treated with flame-retardant coatings composed of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) and sodium montmorillonite (MMT) clay, prepared via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Four coating recipes were created by exposing fabric to aqueous solutions of BPEI (pH 7 or 10) and MMT(0.2 or 1 wt. ...

  16. The Fabrication and Properties Characterization of Wood-Based Flame Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood-based flame retardant composites were fabricated based on vacuum-pressure impregnating method after high intensive microwave pretreatment. The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and modified nano-zinc borate (nZB addition on flame-retardation and smoke-suppression properties of wood were investigated by cone calorimeter method (CONE and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results show that the heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (pk-HRR, and total heat release (THR of APP-treated woods decreased greatly with increasing concentration of APP. However, mean yield of CO (Mean COY of APP-treated wood was much higher (3.5 times than that of untreated wood. Compared with wood treated with APP at a concentration of 15%, the total smoke product (TSP, Mean COY, and pk-HRR decreased by 78.4%, 71.43%, and 31.23%, when wood was treated with APP and nZB (both concentrations were at 15%. APP and nZB have synergistic effects of flame-retardation and smoke-suppression. Nano-zinc borate combined with APP would be used in wood-based composites to efficiently retard flame, reduce fire intensity, and decrease noxious (CO/smoke release.

  17. Statewide surveillance of halogenated flame retardants in fish in Illinois, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widelka, Margaret; Lydy, Michael J; Wu, Yan; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    In order to better understand the exposure of aquatic systems to halogenated flame retardant contaminants, the present study investigated a variety of legacy and emerging flame retardants in common carp and largemouth bass collected from 58 stations across Illinois (United States). The data revealed that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) generally dominated the flame retardant residues in Illinois fish. Concentrations of ΣPBDEs (including all detectable PBDE congeners) ranged from 24.7 to 8270 ng/g lipid weight (median: 135 ng/g lw) in common carp and 15-3870 ng/g lw (median: 360 ng/g lw) in largemouth bass. In addition to PBDEs, Dechlorane analogues (i.e. Dec-603, Dec-604, and Chlordane Plus) were also frequently detected. Median concentrations of ΣDechloranes (including all detected Dechlorane analogues) were 34.4 and 23.3 ng/g lw in common carp and largemouth bass, respectively. Other emerging flame retardants, including tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene (TBCT), hexabromobenzene (HBBZ), 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP), were also detected in 40-78% of the fish at the monitored stations. Spatial analysis revealed significantly greater PBDE concentrations in fish living in impaired urban streams and lakes compared to those from the impaired agricultural and unimpaired agricultural/urban waters, demonstrating a significant urban influence on PBDE contamination. Future studies and environmental monitoring are recommended to focus on temporal trends of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants, as well as human exposure risks via edible fishes, in the identified Areas of Concern within Illinois. PMID:27131823

  18. A novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) was successfully testified. A supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was applied to treat waste PCBs before they could be used as flame retardants of PVC. The results indicated that SCWO conditions had a significant effect on the flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of waste PCBs for PVC. Cu2O, CuO, and SnO2 were the main active ingredients in waste PCBs-derived flame retardants. A conversion of Cu elements (Cu(0)→Cu(+)→Cu(2+)) during SCWO process with the increase of reaction temperature was found to be the key influence factor for the flame retarding properties of SCWO-treated PCBs. The experiment results also showed that there was a synergistic effect of flame retardancy between Cu(+) and Cu(2+). After the optimized SCWO treatment, SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improved the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and char yield (CY) increased with increasing SCWO-treated PCBs content in PVC, while smoke density rating (SDR) and maximum smoke density (MSD) decreased markedly. The mechanical properties of PVC samples were influenced in different degree by adding different content SCWO-treated PCBs. PMID:27179704

  19. Application of Flame-Retardant Double-Layered Shell Microcapsules to Nonwoven Polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Butstraen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A microencapsulated flame retardant was used in order to produce a flame retardant nonwoven substrate. Melamine-formaldehyde polymer-shell microcapsules, containing Afflamit® PLF 280 (resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate as the core substance, were coated by an outer thermoplastic wall (polystyrene (PS or poly(methyl methacrylate, before being applied to a core/sheet-type bi-component PET/co-PET spunbond nonwoven substrate using impregnation. The outer wall of the microcapsules was heated to the softening temperature of the thermoplastic shell in order to be bonded onto the textile fibres. The thermal stability of the microcapsules was examined using thermogravimetric analysis. The textile samples were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the flame retardancy performance was evaluated using the NF P92-504 standard. The results show that the composition of the outer polymeric shell affected the thermal stability of the microcapsules, since the particles with a PS shell are more stable. Furthermore, the microcapsules were more located at the nonwoven surface without affecting the thickness of the samples. Based on the results of the NF P92-504 test, the flame spread rate was relatively low for all of the tested formulations. Only the formulation with a low content of PS was classified M2 while the others were M3.

  20. First insight into the levels and distribution of flame retardants in potable water in Pakistan: An underestimated problem with an associated health risk diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-15

    To date, very little is known about the occurrence of flame retardants (FRs) in potable water and its associated health risk to the exposed human population. The current study was designed to investigate the differences in the contamination levels of selected FRs in the potable water of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan. In addition, the health risk assessment for the exposed human population was estimated. For this purpose, the concentrations of the selected FRs: polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), were analyzed in a total of 39 samples of potable water from the above mentioned three zones. We found elevated concentrations of ∑OPFRs (BDL-71.05ng/L), ∑PBDEs (BDL-0.82pg/L), ∑NBFRs (BDL-1.39pg/L) and ∑DP (BDL-0.29pg/L) in the potable water samples from industrial zones, smaller concentrations in the samples from rural zones, and negligible concentrations in the samples from background zones. Among all the FRs analyzed, Tris-(2-chloroisopropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP), anti-DP, BDE-47 and 1.2-bis(pentabromodiphenyl)ethane (DBDPE) were the dominant compounds in all three selected zones. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that most of the FRs are associated with the industrial zones. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for all selected FRs was found to be higher in children than adults. However, both children and adults were found to be at low risk (i.e., Hazard quotient (HQ)water consumption. We predict that FRs might be leached out from wastewater bodies and subsequently mixed with nearby potable water facilities. FRs may also spill out from the aluminum or plastic pipes and tanks most commonly used for potable water storage in Pakistan. The present study suggests initiating measures to minimize human exposure to FRs in the future. PMID:27177141

  1. Flame retardancy and thermal stability of polyurethane foam composites containing carbon additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Geesoo; Han, San Wook; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Ki-Dong; Han, Joo-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. The goal of this work was the synthesis of flame-retarded PU foam with expandable graphite (EG) or commercial graphene. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the foams has been studied through cone calorimeter analysis, the limited oxygen index and thermal conductivity. The presence of expandable graphite brings an improvement in fire behavior. In particular, the limited oxygen index increases in a linear way and the highest limited oxygen index values are obtained for EG-PU foams. The results from the cone calorimeter are in agreement with those of oxygen index; EG filled foams show a considerable decrease of maximum-heat release rate (M-HRR) with respect to unfilled foams. The results of thermal conductivity show that an increase in expandable graphite amount in PU foams lead to an increased conductivity.

  2. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone.

  3. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion. PMID:24615890

  4. Preparation and properties of superfine Mg(OH)2 flame retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; DENG Xin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of superfine magnesium hydroxide with the bittern and ammonia was studied. The properties of the products were analyzed by laser granularity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, the limiting oxygen index and the wetting angle measurements. The results show that the mean particle size of the magnesium hydroxide is about 230 nm with a platelet shape and the specific surface area is about 48 m2/g when the temperature is 55 ℃, and the ammonia and bittern are instilled simultaneously during the reaction process. After the modification, the limiting oxygen index and physical chemistry performance of the magnesium hydroxide were examined. The results show that the contact angle of magnesium hydroxide is 132.5° and the limiting oxygen index is 31.5 %, indicating that the modified magnesium hydroxide is an effective flame retardant and can be applied as flame retardant additives of the macromolecule compounds such as plastic, synthetic rubber and synthetic fibre.

  5. Rapid Chromatographic Determination of Flame Retardants by HLPC and GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Pöhlein, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In the work at hand, questions of international concern about flame retardant analytics are discussed, which were brought up by the recent EU directives 2002/95/EC ("RoHS") and 2002/96/EC ("WEEE"). This also includes the question about reference materials. Development of the fastest chromatographic methods known to the author until then are described in detail, concerning identification and quantification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), and other brom...

  6. Environmental Risk Limits for several phosphate esters, with possible application as flame retardant

    OpenAIRE

    Verbruggen EMJ; Rila JP; Traas TP; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Posthumus R; SEC

    2006-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC), Negligible Concentrations (NC) and Serious Risk Concentrations (SRCeco) are derived for a number of phosphate esters that are possibly used as flame retardant. These environmental risk limits were derived for the compartments water, soil, and sediment on basis of ecotoxicological data for the aquatic environment in particular. The substances that were evaluated in this study were: TCEP (tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate), TCPP (tris(2-chloro-1-methylethy...

  7. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Jarema, Kimberly A; Hunter, Deborah L.; Shaffer, Rachel M.; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tr...

  8. Study of a novel phosphorus-containing flame retardant for cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W. W.; Lu, Y. H.; Xu, F.; Zhang, G. X.; Zhang, F. X.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a high efficiency FR named HPA was applied to treat cotton fabric. The results of LOI values and vertical flammability test showed that HPA treated cotton fabric had the best flame retardancy (LOI value was 36.0%), when the FR concentration is 50 g/L, and cured at 180°C for 7 min. During the process of holding back the combustion, HPA behaves the excellent properties of FR for cotton fabric.

  9. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola; John Russell Ebdon; Kawser Parveen Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester) and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin) to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly f...

  10. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  11. Flame Retardancy of PA6 Using a Guanidine Sulfamate/Melamine Polyphosphate Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Coquelle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 6 (PA6 is a widely-used polymer that could find applications in various sectors, including home textiles, transportation or construction. However, due to its organic nature, PA6 is flammable, and flame-retardant formulations have to be developed to comply with fire safety standards. Recently, it was proposed to use ammonium sulfamate as an effective flame retardant for PA6, even at low loading content. However, processing issues could occur with this additive considering large-scale production. This paper thus studies the use of another sulfamate salt—guanidine sulfamate (GAS—and evidences its high efficiency when combined with melamine polyphosphate (MPP as a flame retardant for PA6. A decrease of the peak of the heat release rate by 30% compared to pure PA6 was obtained using only 5 wt% of a GAS/MPP mixture in a microscale calorimeter. Moreover, PA6 containing the mixture GAS/MPP exhibits a Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI of 37 vol% and is rated V0 for the UL 94 test (Vertical Burning Test; ASTM D 3801. The mechanisms of degradation were investigated analyzing the gas phase and solid phase when the material degrades. It was proposed that MPP and GAS modify the degradation pathway of PA6, leading to the formation of nitrile end-group-containing molecules. Moreover, the formation of a polyaromatic structure by the reaction of MPP and PA6 was also shown.

  12. Structure–property relationships of synthetic organophosphorus flame retardant oligomers by thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oligomers with different chemical components in molecular chains were synthesized. • FP-3 containing three IFR components possessed high thermal stability. • FP-3 possessed lowest flammability. • FP-3 exhibited a synergistic interaction between gas and condensed phase. - Abstract: A series of flame retardant oligomers with different chemical components in molecular chains, designated as FP-1, FP-2 and FP-3, respectively, were successfully synthesized using solution polycondensation and well characterized. The thermal properties and flammability of these oligomers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). The results demonstrated that FP-3 had the lowest flammability in terms of the lowest maximum mass loss rate, and FP-1 possessed the highest thermal stability and char yield, due to its higher stable hexatomic ring structure of piperazine compared with the linear alkane chain structure of neopentyl glycol. The gases evolved during decomposition were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared coupled with the thermogravimetric analyzer (TG–IR) technique. The char residues of the flame retardant oligomers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that FP-3 exhibited a synergistic interaction between the gas phase and condensation phase, increasing its flame retardancy

  13. Rheological behaviors of nylon 6/silica modified melamine cyanurate non-halogen flame retardant composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shanshan; Yao, Feng; Xu, Xiangyang; Yang, Junming; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xianggang

    2013-03-01

    Nylon 6 (PA 6)/silica modified melamine cyanurate (MCA) flame retardant (FR) composites were prepared by melt blending method. The morphology and rheological behaviors of composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and capillary rheometer. The results show that the presence of silica can improve the dispersion of mMCA in PA 6. The rheological behaviors are significantly affected by temperature, shear rate and the structure of composites. With increase of temperature and shear rate the apparent viscosities of composites decrease. All composites are pesudoplastic fluids. At same temperature and shear rate PA 6 composites, which contain different flame retardants (FRs) and different loadings, exhibit different viscosities. The presence of MCA can enhance the non-Newtonian index of composites. The flow activation energies (E) of PA 6/silica modified MCA (S-mMCA) composites are larger than that of PA 6/pure MCA composites, and, with the increasing shear rate the flow activation energies of composites decrease. At a fixed FRs content, with the increase of silica loading, E of PA 6/S-mMCA composites increases firstly and then decreases. These results would be useful for the processing of FR PA 6 composites and for further understanding their flame retardant mechanisms. PMID:23755687

  14. Adsorption and Flame Retardant Properties of Bio-Based Phytic Acid on Wool Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Wei Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based phytic acid (PA as a nontoxic naturally occurring compound is a promising prospect for flame-retardant (FR modifications to polymers. In this work, PA was applied to wool fabric using an exhaustion technique, and the adsorption and FR properties of PA on wool fabric were studied. The flame retardancy of the treated wool fabrics depended greatly on the adsorption quantity of PA, which was related to the pH of treatment solution, immersing temperature and initial PA concentration. The Langmuir adsorption of PA took place due to electrostatic interactions between PA and wool fiber. The limiting oxygen index, vertical burning and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry tests revealed that the treated wool fabrics exhibited good flame retardancy. The measurements of the phosphorus content of the burned fabric residues and thermogravimetric analyses suggested that a significant condensed-phase FR action was applicable to the PA treated fabrics. PA treatment was found to have little adverse effect on the whiteness and mechanical performance of wool. Additionally, the washing resistance of the FR fabrics should be further improved.

  15. Structure–property relationships of synthetic organophosphorus flame retardant oligomers by thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Zhiman [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Centre, Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Wang, Xin; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Centre, Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Yuen, Richard K.K., E-mail: Richard.Yuen@cityu.edu.hk [USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Centre, Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-08-10

    Highlights: • Oligomers with different chemical components in molecular chains were synthesized. • FP-3 containing three IFR components possessed high thermal stability. • FP-3 possessed lowest flammability. • FP-3 exhibited a synergistic interaction between gas and condensed phase. - Abstract: A series of flame retardant oligomers with different chemical components in molecular chains, designated as FP-1, FP-2 and FP-3, respectively, were successfully synthesized using solution polycondensation and well characterized. The thermal properties and flammability of these oligomers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). The results demonstrated that FP-3 had the lowest flammability in terms of the lowest maximum mass loss rate, and FP-1 possessed the highest thermal stability and char yield, due to its higher stable hexatomic ring structure of piperazine compared with the linear alkane chain structure of neopentyl glycol. The gases evolved during decomposition were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared coupled with the thermogravimetric analyzer (TG–IR) technique. The char residues of the flame retardant oligomers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that FP-3 exhibited a synergistic interaction between the gas phase and condensation phase, increasing its flame retardancy.

  16. Recent Advances for Flame Retardancy of Textiles Based on Phosphorus Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at updating the progress on the phosphorus-based flame retardants specifically designed and developed for fibers and fabrics (particularly referring to cotton, polyester and their blends over the last five years. Indeed, as clearly depicted by Horrocks in a recent review, the world of flame retardants for textiles is still experiencing some changes that are focused on topics like the improvement of its effectiveness and the replacement of toxic chemical products with counterparts that have low environmental impact and, hence, are more sustainable. In this context, phosphorus-based compounds play a key role and may lead, possibly in combination with silicon- or nitrogen-containing structures, to the design of new, efficient flame retardants for fibers and fabrics. Therefore, this review thoroughly describes the advances and the potentialities offered by the phosphorus-based products recently developed at a lab-scale, highlighting the current limitations, open challenges and some perspectives toward their possible exploitation at a larger scale.

  17. Preparation and properties of novel epoxy/graphene oxide nanosheets (GON) composites functionalized with flame retardant containing phosphorus and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-(Diphenylphosphino)ethyltriethoxy silane (DPPES) was grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide nanosheets (GON) via a condensation reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy verify that DPPES did not only covalently bond to GON as a functionalization moiety, but partly restored its conjugated structure as a reducing agent. DPPES on graphene sheets oxide was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and contributed to the favorable dispersion of DPPES-GON in nonpolar toluene. Additionally, the flame retardancy and thermal stability of epoxy/DPPES-GON nanocomposites that contain various weight fractions of DPPES-GON were studied using the limiting oxygen index test, UL-94 test and by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen. The composites containing 10 wt% DPPES-GON can pass V-0 rating in UL-94 test. Adding 10 wt% DPPES-GON in epoxy greatly increased the char yield and LOI by 42% and 80%, respectively. Epoxy/DPPES-GON nanocomposites with phosphorus, silicon and graphene layer structures were found to exhibit much greater flame retardancy than neat epoxy. The synergistic effects among silicon, phosphorus and GON can improve the flame retardancy of epoxy resin. - Highlights: • Flame retardant was grafted on the surface of graphene oxide nanosheets (GON) by the condensation reaction. • The synergistic effect between silicon, phosphorus and GON improved the flame retardance of epoxy resin. • Epoxy composites have excellent flame retardance at low additive concentrations

  18. ABS树脂添加型阻燃的研究进展%The Development of Study on ABS Additive Type Flame Retardancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) flame retardancy technology mainly included of additive type flame retardant system, reaction type flame retardant system, and flame retardant polymer blend type flame retardant system, and additive type flame retardant system was widely applied in the field of ABS flame retardancy. The ABS additive type flame retardancy system containing halogenated and non halogenated flame retardaney was introduced, the advantages and problems of different flame retardaney systems were elaborated, and progress on different flame retardancy systems was ori- soeeted.%ABS阻燃技术主要包括:添加型阻燃体系、反应型阻燃体系、难燃聚物混合体系,添加型阻燃体系被广范的应用于ABS树脂阻燃领域。本文对ABS树脂添加型阻燃体系所包括卤化阻燃体系和非卤化阻燃体系进行了介绍,并阐述了不同阻燃体系的优势及所存在的问题,对不同阻燃体系的发展进行了展望。

  19. Flame-Retardant Paper from Wood Fibers Functionalized via Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklükaya, Oruç; Carosio, Federico; Grunlan, Jaime C; Wågberg, Lars

    2015-10-28

    The highly flammable character of cellulose-rich fibers from wood limits their use in some advanced materials. To suppress the flammability and introduce flame-retardant properties to individual pulp fibers, we deposited nanometer thin films consisting of cationic chitosan (CH) and anionic poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) on fibers using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The buildup of the multilayer film was investigated in the presence and absence of salt (NaCl) using model cellulose surfaces and a quartz crystal microbalance technique. Fibers were then treated with the same strategy, and the treated fibers were used to prepare paper sheets. A horizontal flame test (HFT) and cone calorimetry were conducted to evaluate the combustion behavior of paper sheets as a function of the number of bilayers deposited on fibers. In HFT, paper made of fibers coated with 20 CH/PVPA bilayers (BL), self-extinguished the flame, while uncoated fibers were completely consumed. Scanning electron microscopy of charred paper after HFT revealed that a thin shell of the charred polymeric multilayer remained after the cellulose fibers had been completely oxidized. Cone calorimetry demonstrated that the phosphorus-containing thin films (20 BL is ∼25 nm) reduced the peak heat release rate by 49%. This study identifies a unique and highly effective way to impart flame-retardant characteristic to pulp fibers and the papers made from these fibers. PMID:26457504

  20. [Phase transition behavior and thermodynamic analysis of hydrotalcite flame-retardant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-qing; Liao, Meng-chen; Zeng, Hong-yan; Xu, Sheng; Xu, Li-hua; Zhu, Pei-han; Yang, Yong-jie

    2015-01-01

    The hydrotalcite with the properties of flame-retardant, eliminating smoke, filling and thermostability is a new kind of inorganic flame retardant. In the work, the MgAl hydrotalcite as flame retardant with Mg/Al molar ratio of 4 (MgAl-LDH) was prepared by using urea as the precipitating agent. The thermolysis behavior of the MgAl-LDH flame retardant was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) as well as self deconvolution and curve-fitting analyses. Thermal phase transition of the MgAl-LDH was clarified, especially the characteristics of the hydroxyl groups (-OH) in the brucite-like layers and the changes in coordinate of the carbonate (CO3(2-)) from the interlayers. Based on thermodynamic data, thermal decomposition process was discussed. By.XRD analysis; it was found that the phase change took place when the decomposition temperature increased. The MgAl-LDH was decarbonated basically to MgAl mixed metal oxides (Mg-Al-O) at 500 °C, and impurity MgAl204 phase formed at 600 °C. According to the analyses of FT-IR, TG-DSC and curve-fitting technique, the hydroxyl groups (-OH) in the brucite-like layers possessed three the ligands such as [Al-OH-Al], [Al-OH-Mg] and [Mg-OH-Mg] modes. Dehydroxylation of the brucite-like layers based on the binding forces, where the [Mg-OH-Mg] among the three modes was the most difficult to be re- moved during the pyrolysis process. In the same way, the CO3(2-) ligands also possessed three modes such as H2O-bridged CO3(2-), monodentate and bidentate coordination modes. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the thermodynamic properties of the hydrotalcite as flame retardant were evaluated, and the expressions of the Gibbs free energy, (ΔrGθT), as a function of temperature, were derived for the Mg8Al2 (OH)20CO3 crystal. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the removal of -OH from the brucite-like layers was spontaneous process

  1. A review of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative brominated flame retardants in wildlife from China: Levels, trends, and bioaccumulation characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangping Wu; Ying Zhang; Xiaojun Luo; Yazhe She; Lehuan Yu; Shejun Chen; Bixian Mai

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated industrialization and urbanization,and unregulated disposal of waste of electric and electronic equipment (e-waste)in China have caused environmental pollution of brominated flame retardants (BFRs).This review summarized the levels,trends,and bioaccumulation characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other potential alternative BFRs including hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs),1,2-bis(2,4,6-dibromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) in wildlife from China.PBDE levels in wildlife from China were generally higher than those from other parts in Asia,and were comparable to those from Europe but were lower than those from North America.However,wildlife from the e-waste recycling sites in South China and East China contained much higher PBDEs compared to other reports around the world,suggesting the heavy contamination of PBDEs in these regions.The alternative BFRs were also detected in wildlife,revealing that the animals are exposed to these chemicals,in addition to PBDEs.Temporal trends indicated by levels in marine mammals from South China suggested that PBDE levels increased from the beginning of 1990s to 2000s,but decreased from the middle of 2000s,followed by relatively steady levels.In contrast,HBCDs were found to be continuously increasing from 1997 to 2007,indicating the increasing usage of HBCDs in China in recent years.Compared to PBDE profiles found in other parts,aquatic species and birds from China contained relatively higher contributions of BDE28 and 209,respectively,suggesting the possible different usage pattern of PBDEs.Future works including keeping monitoring at a reasonable scale and frequency to make sure levels near urban centers indicative of population do not increase are needed.Additionally,focus effort on e-waste recycling regions to look for impacts and to determine if regulation/controls are resulting in lower environmental contamination,and incorporation of sentinel species in monitoring

  2. Dynamic Mechanical Characterizations and Road Performances of Flame Retardant Asphalt Mortars and Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiantao; ZHU Siyue; LI Zuzhong; CHEN Shuanfa

    2015-01-01

    To research the dynamic mechanical properties and road performances of flame retardant asphalt mortars and mixtures, four different asphalt mortars/mixtures were prepared: a reference group and three asphalt mortars/mixtures containing composite lfame retardant materials (M-FRs) of different proportions. Temperature sweep, frequency sweep, repeated creep test, force ductility test and bending beam rheological test were carried out to research the dynamic mechanical properties of asphalt mortars containing M-FRs; wheel-tracking test, low-temperature bending test and freeze-thaw split test were used to study the road performances of asphalt mixtures containing M-FRs. The results show that high-temperature performances of the three lfame retardant asphalt mortars improve greatly, while low-temperature cracking resistances decline. Both high-temperature performances and water stabilities of asphalt mixtures containing M-FRs are quite good and exceed the speciifcation requirements. However, their low-temperature performances decline in different degrees. In summary, besides their good lfame retardancy, the lfame retardant asphalt mortars and mixtures also exhibit acceptable road performance.

  3. Novel routes in flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate/impact modifier/aryl phosphate blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawrzyn, Eliza

    2013-07-01

    The massive use of electronic engineering products accompanied by high demands on fire safety has led to increasing interest in environmentally friendly flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) based materials. In this work, novel routes for enhancing the flame retardancy of PC/Impact Modifier/Aryl phosphate were studied with respect to pyrolysis (TG, TG-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, NMR), flammability (LOI and UL 94) and fire behavior (cone calorimeter at different irradiations). To improve charring of PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, the exchange of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) with novel aryl phosphates was proposed. Two novel flame retardants were synthesized: 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylbisphenol-bis(diphenyl phosphate) (TMC-BDP) and bisphenol A-bis(diethylphosphate) (BEP). TMC-BDP was more stable than BDP, thus gave a potential to increase the chemical reactions between the components of the PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, whereas more reactive BEP was expected to increase the cross linking activity with the polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the corresponding blends did not enhance the flame retardancy compared to PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+BDP. BEP in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} preferred to cross-link with itself instead of with PC, thus it showed poor fire protection performance. TMC-BDP gave as good results as BDP in PC/ABS PTFE material. The results delivered evidence that BDP possesses a high degree of optimization in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} system. To provide a novel impact modifier improving not only mechanical properties but also the fire retardancy of PC/BDP material, the replacement of highly flammable acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with silicon acrylate rubber (SiR) with high content of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was studied. In PC/SiR{sub PTFE}/BDP the replacement of ABS is beneficial, but PDMS worsened the BDP gas phase and condensed phase action. PDMS reacted also with PC during combustion. PDMS-PC and PDMS-BDP interactions led to silicon dioxide. In fact, the

  4. Occurrence of chlorinated and brominated dioxins/furans, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants in blood of German adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Hilger, Bettina; Albrecht, Michael; Gries, Wolfgang; Leng, Gabriele; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are widespread in the environment, and are associated with a particular health and ecological concern. The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was determined. Blood samples were collected in Germany, originating from 42 randomly selected subjects between 20 and 68 years old. The median (95th percentile) concentrations, expressed as WHO2005-TEQ for PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, were 6.2 (19.1) pg/g l.w. and 4.1 (8.8) pg/g l.w., respectively. PBDDs/Fs were found with a median of 2.8 pgTEQ/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 8.7 pgTEQ/g l.w. (using similar interim TEF values as for PCDDs/Fs) On a median basis, the contribution of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PBDDs/Fs to total TEQ were 47%, 31%, and 21%, respectively. The sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs exhibited a median of 267ng/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 834ng/g l.w. The median value for the sum of six tetra- to hepta-PBDE congeners was 1.7ng/g l.w. (95th percentile: 4.9ng/g l.w.). BDE 209 was the most abundant congener with a median of 1.8ng/g l.w. HBCDs were only found in some samples, and concentrations ranged between the limit of detection (5ng/g l.w.) and the limit of quantification (16ng/g l.w.). Results for PBDEs and HBCDs are comparable to other European studies. Our study demonstrated that the body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs declined continously since the last three decades, but exposure may exceed precautionary guideline levels. PMID:27067547

  5. Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta, southern China: Comparison with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants were measured in surface sediments collected during 2009–2010 from the Pearl River Delta, southern China (a large manufacturing base for electronics/electrical products), to evaluate the influence of China's RoHS directive (adopted in 2006) on their environmental occurrence. The concentrations in sediments from different water systems ranged from 3.67 to 2520 ng/g (average of 17.1–588 ng/g) for PBDEs and from 0.22 to 5270 ng/g (average of 11.3–454 ng/g) for the alternative retardants. Although the PBDE levels have decreased significantly compared with those in sediments collected in 2002 in this region, the levels of alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) have exceeded those of BDE209 (two predominant halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in China) in the majority of sediments. This finding suggests a different contaminant pattern of HFRs in current sediments due to the replacement of the deca-BDE mixture with DBDPE in this region. In addition, sediment concentrations of discontinued PBDEs in the rural area are clearly elevated due to e-waste dismantling. The congener profiles of PBDEs in the current sediments (with more abundant lower-brominated congeners) differed substantially from those in 2002 and from the technical products, suggesting that biological or photolytic debromination of PBDEs may have occurred in the environment. - Highlights: ► PBDE levels in sediments have decreased substantially since China's RoHS directive. ► Contamination of novel DBDPE has exceeded that of deca-BDE in the PRD sediments. ► The congener profiles of PBDEs in the sediments have changed significantly. ► Significant biological or photolytic degradation of PBDEs may occur in the environment

  6. Effect of borates on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of epoxy resins using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane as a curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Flame retarded epoxy resins with borates were prepared using POSS as a curing agent. ► Borates and POSS exhibited a synergistic effect on flame retardancy of epoxy resins. ► Incorporation of borates and POSS significantly reduced the heat release rate. - Abstract: A series of flame-retardant epoxy resins containing boron and silicon were obtained through a crosslinking reaction, using tris (2-hydroxypropyl) borate (THPB) together with octaaminophenyl POSS (OapPOSS) as the curing agents. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) reached 30.5% when the contents of boron and silicon in the cured system were 1.5% and 0.5%, respectively, indicating that THPB and OapPOSS exhibited good flame retardant effect on epoxy resins (EP). Microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) results indicated that the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (THR) of the cured systems were reduced by 69% and 46%, respectively, compared to those of pure EP. Moreover, the thermal degradation process and flame retardant mechanism of the composites were investigated by TGA, real time FTIR and TG-FTIR. The chemical components of the char residues were explored by XPS.

  7. 复配阻燃聚乙烯体系的研究%Compounded Flame-retardant Polyethylene System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 吴洁

    2011-01-01

    In this study, organic silicon, EVA, silica and zinc borate were added into a compounded flame-retardant PE system of magnesium carbonate/aluminum hydroxide. The experiment results show that organic silicon is an efficient synergistic agent in the flame-retardant system, and zinc borate has synergistic effect on the flame-retardant system with organic silicon, but silica has barrier effect on the flame retardant property of the system. When PE is substituted by EVA partially, the flame-retardant property and the elongation at break of the system increase.%基于碳酸镁/氢氧化铝复配阻燃聚乙烯体系,将有机硅、乙烯-醋酸乙烯共聚物(EVA)、白炭黑和硼酸锌添加到阻燃体系中,结果表明:添加少量的有机硅就可以起到很好的阻燃增效作用,硼酸锌对有机硅阻燃体系具有协效作用,而白炭黑则对阻燃体系的阻燃性能具有阻碍作用.EVA替代部分PE后,可以使体系的氧指数和断裂伸长率都有所提高.

  8. Preparation of A New Composite Flame Retardant%一种新型复合阻燃剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治华; 曹京强; 杨秀国

    2013-01-01

    将蜜胺焦磷酸盐(MPP)与乙二胺二磷酸锌(EDAZP)及低水硼酸镁或低水硼酸铝组成的新型无卤复合阻燃抑烟剂用于聚烯烃树脂,具有优异的阻燃抑烟性能,一般添加量在20%~31%时极限氧指数超过30%,可达到UL94 V-0级阻燃效果,而且具有抑烟作用.%A new non-halogen composite flame retardant for poly olefin was prepared by mixed melamine phosphate (MPP),ethylendiamine zinc phosphate (EDAZP) and zinc borate or aluminum borate which is low hydrate.It has good flame retardant and smoke suppresion properties,when the content of it in flame retard polyolefine is 20%~31%,the flame retardancy of flame retardant polyolefin attains LOI>30 and UL 94 V-O,and it has suppression smoke property also.

  9. Aluminium trihydroxide in combination with ammonium polyphosphate as flame retardants for unsaturated polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and reaction to fire characteristics of a flame retardant unsaturated polyester (UP ternary system are presented here. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed an improved thermal stability between 200–600°C with the addition of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and aluminium trihydroxide (ATH formulation. Cone calorimetry tests indicated that ATH is more efficient than calcium carbonate at delaying the ignition time, lowering the carbon monoxide yield and lowering the peak heat release (PHRR. However the addition of APP and ATH to the formulation failed to demonstrate any significant synergistic effect at reducing the PHRR.

  10. Eco-friendly functionalized superhydrophobic recycled paper with enhanced flame-retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-09-01

    Recycled paper with superhydrophobicity and flame-retardancy has been demonstrated here due to the synergistic action of dopamine-silica trimethylsilyl modified gel powder and stearic acid modified Mg(OH)2. This multifunctional recycled paper displays great self-cleaning and anti-fouling ability and can be used for oil-water separation. Surprisingly, the absorbed organic can be reused as fuel via simple combustion method for multiple cycles. This work will not only expand the usable range of paper but also ease the energy and environment crisis. PMID:27244592

  11. Preparation of non-hologen flame retardant POE/EPDM/SR/MH insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insulation material of POE/EPDM/SR/MH with different composites were prepared under irradiation by electron accelerator. The effect of formulated components on the mechanical properties, flammability and dielectric properties along with the absorbed doses were investigated. It was found that there was no relation between the tensile strength and the gel content, but there was a better corresponding relationship between the yield strength and the gel content in a certain doses range. The additive with silicon rubber could promote the formation of char and there was flame retardant synergic efficiency between silicon rubber, MH and red phosphorus. (authors)

  12. 无卤阻燃ABS复合材料的制备与阻燃性能研究%Preparation and Flame Retardancy of No-halogen Flame-retardant ABS Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 李磊; 吴成旭; 朱雯; 杨雁玲

    2013-01-01

    采用酚醛树脂、磷酸酯、硼酸锌或聚硅氧烷组成复合阻燃剂,与丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯(ABS)树脂通过熔融挤出混合制备无卤阻燃ABS复合材料.分别研究磷酸酯、聚硅氧烷、硼酸锌用量对无卤阻燃ABS复合材料阻燃性能的影响,考察了阻燃ABS复合材料的热分解行为,观察了无卤阻燃ABS复合材料燃烧产物表面的炭层形貌.实验结果表明,酚醛树脂/磷酸酯复合成炭阻燃体系能有效提高ABS的阻燃性能;硼酸锌和聚硅氧烷对ABS/酚醛树脂/磷酸酯体系阻燃存在阻燃协同效应,提高成炭量;与聚硅氧烷相比,硼酸锌阻燃协同效果较好.%The composite flame retardant consisted of phenol aldehyde resin(PF),phosphate,zinc borate or polysiloxane with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS) resin was melted extrusion blending to prepare the no-halogen flame-retardant ABS composite.The influence of content of phosphate,polysiloxane and zinc borate on flame retardancy of flame-retardant ABS composite was studied respectively.The thermal decomposition behavior of flame-retardant ABS composite was studied and combustible surface carbon layer was observed.The results show that PF / phosphate composite charred system can elevate flame retardency of ABS composite effectively.Zinc borate and polysiloxane have flame-retardant synergistic effects and increase charred content for flameretardant ABS composite.Compared with polysiloxane,zinc borate has better flame retardant synergy effects.

  13. Construction of flame retardant nanocoating on ramie fabric via layer-by-layer assembly of carbon nanotube and ammonium polyphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Yan, Hongqiang; Peng, Mao; Wang, Lili; Ding, Hongliang; Fang, Zhengping

    2013-03-01

    A new flame retardant nanocoating has been constructed by the alternate adsorption of polyelectrolyte amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT-NH2) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) onto flexible and porous ramie fabric. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the adsorbed carbon nanotube coating is a randomly oriented and overlapped network structure, which is a promising candidate for flame retardancy applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirm that the APP is successfully incorporated into the multilayers sequentially. Assessment of the thermal and flammability properties for the pristine and nanocoated ramie fabrics shows that the thermal stability, flame retardancy and residual char are enhanced as the concentration of MWNT-NH2 suspension and number of deposition cycles increases. The enhancements are mostly attributed to the barrier effect of intumescent network structure, which is composed of MWNT-NH2 and the absorbed APP.

  14. Effect of Intumescent Flame Retardants on the Properties of Polyurethanes Based on Tall Oil Fatty Acids Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yakushin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The efficiency of using intumescent flame retardants in polyurethane coatings based on tall oil fatty acids esters was assessed. The influence of the content of each of the flame retardants (ammonium polyphosphate, melamine and pentaerythriol separately on the flammability parameters of wood samples with polyurethane coatings in a cone calorimeter test, as well as on the thermal and mechanical properties of the polyurethane itself, were investigated. the effect of the ratios of double and triple combinations of the mentioned flame retardants on the specified properties was studied. It has been found that, for the given type of polyester urethane, ammonium polyphosphate decreases the flammability of polyurethane to the greatest extent. Melamine, and melamine in combination with ammonium polyphosphate, decrease the smoke release upon polyurethane combustion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5784

  15. HORMONAL ACTIVITIES OF NOVEL BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS AND THEIR BIODEGRADATION BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2012), s. 233-233. ISSN 1843-3707. [ Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology. 10.04.2012-12.04.2012, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : white rot fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Occurrence and distribution of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, C; Drage, D; Kaserzon, S; Baduel, C; Gallen, M; Banks, A; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-07-15

    The levels of perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDDs) were studied in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids. Leachate was collected from 13 landfill sites and biosolids were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), across Australia. Perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (12-5700ng/L) was the most abundant investigated persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemical in leachate. With one exception, mean concentrations of PFASs were higher in leachate of operating landfills compared to closed landfills. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDDs) were detected typically at operating landfills in comparatively lower concentrations than the PFASs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (leachate discharged to WWTPs for treatment was small (leachate and biosolids. PMID:27016666

  17. New non-PBDE brominated flame retardants in sediment and plant samples from Jiaozhou Bay wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Quansheng; Zhao, Yanyan; Zheng, Minggang; Lou, Yinghua; Yang, Baijuan

    2015-08-15

    Seven non-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (non-PBDE) (TBB, TBX, PBT, PBEB, HBB, DBHCTD and BB153) were analyzed in sediment and plant samples which were collected from Xiaojianxi landfill to Dagu river estuary in Jiaozhou Bay wetland. The species of non-PBDE were different in sediment and plant samples with the concentration of 0.41-9.66ngg(-1) and 0.15-1.2ngg(-1), respectively. DBHCTD was the main non-PBDE compared with other target compounds and its concentration was 1.21-9.66ngg(-1)dw. Generally, the concentration of non-PBDE in sediment showed a decreasing tendency while discrete decline in plant has been revealed. Furthermore, DBHCTD, HBB, as well as other BFRs, might have a common BFRs degradation or similar accumulation potential in sediment, as their Pearson relationship p<0.05. Generally, the content of non-PBDE in Jiaozhou Bay wetland was higher than other published research. Therefore, more attention should be paid to non-PBDE on account of their persisting impact on human health and environment. PMID:25986656

  18. BROMINATED-FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS) IN CATS – POSSIBLE LINKAGE TO FELINE HYPERTHYROIDISM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coincident with global introduction of BFRs into house¬hold consumer products nearly 30 years ago, hyperthyroidism in cats has increased considerably. The etiopathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism remains unknown. We hypothesized that increasing exposure of pet cats to BFRs such...

  19. Characterizing Flame Retardant Applications and Potential Human Exposure in Backpacking Tents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Genna; Ward, Peyton; Lorenzo, Amelia; Hoffman, Kate; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-05-17

    Flame retardant (FR) chemicals are applied to products to meet flammability standards; however, exposure to some additive FRs has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. Previous research on FR exposure has primarily focused on chemicals applied to furniture and electronics; however, camping tents sold in the United States, which often meet flammability standard CPAI-84, remain largely unstudied in regards to their chemical treatments. In this study, FRs from five brands of CPAI-84-compliant, two-person backpacking tents were measured and potential exposure was assessed. Dermal and inhalation exposure levels were assessed by collecting hand wipes from 20 volunteers before and after tent setup and by using active air samplers placed inside assembled tents, respectively. Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were the most commonly detected FR in the tent materials and included triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP). Levels of OPFRS measured on hand wipes were significantly higher post-tent setup compared to pre setup, and in the case of TDCIPP, levels were 29 times higher post setup. OPFRs were also detected at measurable concentrations in the air inside of treated tents. Significant, positive correlations were found between FR levels in treated textiles and measures of dermal and inhalation exposure. These results demonstrate that dermal exposure to FRs occurs from handling camping tents and that inhalation exposure will likely occur while inside a tent. PMID:27082445

  20. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-08-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications.

  1. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications. PMID:27501762

  2. Synthesis and carbonization chemistry of a phosphorous–nitrogen based intumescent flame retardant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The carbonization chemistry and mechanism of a novel synthesized intumescent flame retardant. The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture. Highlights: ► The IFR synthesized is polymeric and has high molecular weight. ► The IFR has a higher thermal stability than most of the commercial IFRs. ► The final chars of IFR showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure. - Abstract: In this work, a polymeric phosphorous–nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant, named poly(diaminodiphenyl methane spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PDSPB), was synthesized. The carbonization chemistry was investigated. FTIR and 1H NMR were used to confirm the chemical structure of PDSPB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in situ FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to investigate and monitor the chemical structural changes during thermal degradation. PDSPB demonstrated a three-step degradation behavior. PDSPB oligomers continuously polymerized and generated a higher macromolecular weight during the first step (200–250 °C). The phosphate ester bonds were broken down and phosphoric acid was released which dehydrated the carbon source to form chars during the second step (280–320 °C). The residues will be further degraded and form final chars during the final weight loss step (400–450 °C). The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture.

  3. Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Muto, Mamoru; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Prudente, Maricar; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (pVietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries. PMID:24630247

  4. Intumescent multilayer nanocoating, made with renewable polyelectrolytes, for flame-retardant cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Galina; Kirkland, Christopher; Morgan, Alexander B; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2012-09-10

    Thin films of fully renewable and environmentally benign electrolytes, cationic chitosan (CH) and anionic phytic acid (PA), were deposited on cotton fabric via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in an effort to reduce flammability. Altering the pH of aqueous deposition solutions modifies the composition of the final nanocoating. CH-PA films created at pH 6 were thicker and had 48 wt % PA in the coating, while the thinnest films (with a PA content of 66 wt %) were created at pH 4. Each coating was evaluated at both 30 bilayers (BL) and at the same coating weight added to the fabric. In a vertical flame test, fabrics coated with high PA content multilayers completely extinguished the flame, while uncoated cotton was completely consumed. Microcombustion calorimetry confirmed that all coated fabric reduces peak heat release rate (pkHRR) by at least 50% relative to the uncoated control. Fabric coated with pH 4 solutions shows the greatest reduction in pkHRR and total heat release of 60% and 76%, respectively. This superior performance is believed to be due to high phosphorus content that enhances the intumescent behavior of these nanocoatings. These results demonstrate the first completely renewable intumescent LbL assembly, which conformally coats every fiber in cotton fabric and provides an effective alternative to current flame retardant treatments. PMID:22897635

  5. NSCFR木材阻燃剂阻燃抑烟特性及其作用机制%Study on flame-retardation and smoke-suppression characteristics and mechanisms of NSCFR flame retardant for wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义强; 姚春花; 胡云楚; 刘元; 向仕龙; 吕建雄

    2012-01-01

    NSCFR flame retardant is one of key factors of non-smoke combustible wood-based materials. Thermal analysis, cone calorimetry, Py-GC/MS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to investigate the flame-retardation and smoke-suppression characteristics and mechanisms of NSCFR flame-retardant. The results show that NSCFR flame-retardant could significantly shorten the combustion duration of wood-based materials and completely eliminate the second peak of heat release rate curve, greatly reduce heat release rate, total smoke release, mass loss rate, specific extinction area, and carbon monoxide production and carbon dioxide production, obviously enhance the mass of combustion char residue, effectively retarding the combustion and inhibiting smoke release of the wood-based material; NSCFR flame-retardant exhibits the ability of flame retardancy on wood by the conjunct mechanism of capturing free radical, diluting combustible gas, and catalyzing charring; NSCFR flame-retardant displays smoke suppression effects on wood by absorption action of nano alveolate structure together with the active catalyzing action of ironic molybdate.%NSCFR木材阻燃剂是实现木基复合材料无烟不燃的关键要素.采用热分析技术、锥形量热、Py-GC/MS分析、扫描电镜等方法研究了NSCFR木材阻燃剂的阻燃抑烟特性及其作用机制.结果表明:NSCFR阻燃剂能显著缩短木基复合材料持续燃烧时间,完全消除热释放曲线第二释热峰,大幅降低热释放速率和燃烧总热、质量损失速率、比消光面积和CO与CO2总生成量,提高燃烧残炭量,有效阻滞木材燃烧,抑制烟雾毒气释放;NSCFR阻燃剂通过自由基捕捉、可燃气体稀释以及化学催化成炭复合机理实现阻燃作用;NSCFR阻燃剂通过纳米蜂窝状结构吸附机理和钼酸铁活性催化分解机理实现抑烟减毒效果.

  6. Retrospective analysis of organophosphate flame retardants in herring gull eggs and relation to the aquatic food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Chen, Da; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Backus, Sean M

    2016-10-01

    With the phase-out and regulation of some flame retardant chemicals, the production and usage of organophosphate triester flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased in recent years. In the present study, 14 OPFRs (either chlorinated, brominated or non-halogenated) were analyzed in egg pools of 10-13 individual herring gull eggs from five colonial nesting sites for 11 years spanning 1990-2010, (for a total of n=55 egg pools) in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America (Chantry Island, Fighting Island, Agawa Rocks, Toronto Harbour and Gull Island). OPFR profiles varied slightly between colony sites and collection years. For all five sites tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were detected, while triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) was only quantifiable in eggs from Chantry Island and Gull Island collected in 2008 and 2010. For the 2010 egg pools, the ΣOPFR concentrations were generally low and ranged from 2.02 to 6.69 ng/g wet weight (ww). ΣOPFR concentrations in 2010 were significantly higher (pgull fish prey) and lake trout from western Lake Erie and Ontario, only contained TBOEP at low to sub ng/g ww concentrations. These results demonstrate that low to sub-ppb concentrations of at least three OPFRs, TCIPP, TCEP and TBOEP, have been persistent in herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes for at least the past 20 years, probably bioaccumulate mainly via the fish diet, and are transferred to the eggs of exposed herring gulls. PMID:27322497

  7. Advances in Intumescent Flame Retardation of Rubbers%橡胶膨胀型阻燃研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正洲; 孔清锋; 江平开

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,flame retardants commonly used in rubbers are mainly halogen-containing compounds and/or their combination with antimony oxides.Due to the environmental concern and increasing prices of halogen-containing compounds,halogen-free flame retardation of rubbers has aroused a great attention in recent years.Incorporation of one kind of halogen-free flame-retardants alone into rubbers,such as phosphorus-containing compounds,phosphorus and nitrogen-containing compounds,and metal hydroxides etc.cannot meet stringent flame retardant requirements of some rubber products,i.e.conveyer belts.Intumescent flame retardants(IFRs) are considered to be a promising flame retardant system.In this paper,it was introduced that the development and mechanism of IFRs,research achievements of intumescent flame retardation of rubbers(i.e.SBR,NBR,NR,SR,etc.),and some existing problems and developing trend of intumescent flame retarded rubbers.%目前,橡胶的阻燃主要是采用含卤阻燃剂与氧化锑复合体系。近年来,由于对一些含卤阻燃剂的使用限制及价格因素使得橡胶的无卤阻燃引起了人们的广泛关注。在一些对阻燃性能要求比较高的橡胶制品(如输送带)中,采用单一类型的无卤阻燃剂,如磷类化合物、磷氮类化合物、金属氢氧化物等,通常是难以满足严格的阻燃要求。膨胀型阻燃体系被认为是具有较好发展前景的阻燃体系之一。文中主要介绍膨胀型阻燃剂的发展、阻燃机理,橡胶(如丁苯橡胶、天然橡胶、乙丙橡胶、硅橡胶等)膨胀型阻燃方面的研究进展,以及膨胀型阻燃橡胶目前存在的问题及未来发展方向。

  8. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m−3 and < 0.5–68 μg kg−1. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and

  9. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  10. Flame Retardancy Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Membranes on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxian Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube/graphene nanoplatelet (MWCNT/GNP hybrid membranes with lower liquid permeability and better barrier effect compared to MWCNT membranes were successfully synthesized by vacuum filtering. Their morphologies, water permeability, and pore structures were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, MWCNT/GNP membranes were used to improve the flame retardancy of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites, and the influence of weight percentage of GNPs on the permeability and flame retardancy of MWCNT/GNP membranes was systematically investigated. Results show that incorporation of MWCNT/GNP membranes on CFRP composite plates can remarkably improve the flame retardancy of CFRP composites. Specifically, the incorporation of hierarchical MWCNT/GNP membrane with 7.5 wt% of GNP displays a 35% reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR for a CFRP composite plate with the epoxy as matrix and a 11% reduction in PHRR compared with the incorporation of MWCNT membrane only. A synergistic flame retarding mechanism is suggested to be attributed to these results, which includes controlling the pore size and penetrative network structure.

  11. Life-time estimation of cable insulation materials with inorganic flame-retardants under the radiation and heat environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-time of cable insulation materials with inorganic flame-retardants was estimated by the accelerated combined radiation and thermal aging. The estimated life-time was 34-40 years depending on same life-time with that by sequential aging. (author)

  12. Non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants in Canadian indoor house dust: sampling, analysis, and occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 18 novel halogenated flame retardants in house dust. Sample preparation was based on ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and clean up with solid phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) chemical ionization mode. Baseline data from 351 fresh (active) dust samples collected under the Canadian House Dust Study (CHDS) revealed that five out of 18 target chemicals were present with detection frequencies higher than 90 %. Median (range) concentrations for these five compounds were as follows: 104 (detection limits (MDLs). In addition, the method was also applied to the analysis of the targeted compounds in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). Results from the current study could contribute to the potential certification of target chemicals in SRM 2585. PMID:26780041

  13. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Phosphorous-Based, Flame-Retardant Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Smith, Kiah A.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    2010-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars, the Moon, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications. In addition, many of these applications will require improved safety, due to their use by humans. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion (Li-ion) system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, abuse conditions can often lead to cell rupture and fire. The nature of the electrolyte can greatly affect the propensity of the cell/battery to catch fire, given the flammability of the organic solvents used within. Li-ion electrolytes have been developed that contain a flame-retardant additive in conjunction with fluorinated co-solvents to provide a safe system with a wide operating temperature range. Previous work incorporated fluorinated esters into multi-component electrolyte formulations, which were demonstrated to cover a temperature range from 60 to +60 C. This work was described in Fluoroester Co-Solvents for Low-Temperature Li+ Cells (NPO-44626), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 9 (September 2009), p. 37; and Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Con tain ing Fluorinated Ester Co-Solvents (NPO-45824), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 48. Other previous work improved the safety characteristics of the electrolytes by adding flame-retardant additives such as triphenyl phosphate (TPhPh), tri-butyl phosphate (TBuPh), triethyl phosphate (TEtPh), and bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) methyl phosphonate (TFMPo). The current work involves further investigation of other types of flame-retardant additives, including tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphate, tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite, triphenylphosphite, diethyl ethylphosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate added to an electrolyte composition intended for wide operating temperatures. In general, many of the formulations investigated in this

  14. Development and characterization of new phosphorus based flame retardant tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites for aerospace application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Shree Meenakshi; E Pradeep Jaya Sudhan; S Ananda Kumar

    2012-04-01

    A study was made in the present investigation on the development and characterization of triphenyl phosphine oxide based phosphorus tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites denoted as ‘C’ and to find out its suitability for use in high performance applications. The synthesized resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT–IR) and 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Nanoclay and POSS-amine nanoreinforcements denoted as N1 and N2 were incorporated into the synthesized epoxy resin. Curing was done with diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) and bis(3-aminophenyl) phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO) curing agents denoted as and , respectively. Mechanical, thermal, flame retardant, water absorption behaviour and electrical properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were studied and the results are discussed.

  15. Classification and toxicity mechanisms of novel flame retardants (NFRs) based on whole genome expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Miao; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-02-01

    Recently some novel alternative flame retardants (NFRs), which have been widely applied to meet demands for mandated flame retardation of products, have been detected in various matrices of the environment. However, knowledge on toxic effects and associated molecular mechanisms of these chemicals was limited. Here, toxic mechanisms of action of six NFRs, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP), chlorendic acid (Het acid), 2,2-bis (bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP), tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), tributyl phosphate (TBP) were investigated by use of a library containing ∼1820 modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing promoter reporter vectors constructed from Escherichia coli K12(E.coli). BEHP, Het acid, BMP, TBEP, TEP, TBP inhibited growth of E. coli with 4 h 10%-inhibition concentrations of 53.0-3102.3 μM. A total of 119, 44, 26, 131, 62, 103 genes out of 336 genes selected during preliminary screening were significantly altered with fold-changes greater than 1.5 by BEHP, Het acid, BMP, TBEP, TEP and TBP, respectively. GO analyses of responsive genes suggested that RNA and primary metabolism process were involved in molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Chemical clustering based on expression of 62 multi-responsive genes showed that BEHP, TBP and TBEP were grouped together, which is consistent with similarity of their chemical structures, especially for BEHP and TBP. Clustering by molecular descriptors and molecular activity by use of the multivariate classification system ToxCast was consistent with that by profiles of multi-responsive genes. The results of this study demonstrated the utility of the E. coli, whole-cell assay for determining mechanisms of toxic action of chemicals. PMID:26588597

  16. Synthesis and carbonization chemistry of a phosphorous-nitrogen based intumescent flame retardant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Haiyun, E-mail: mahaiyun@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, HeBei University, Baoding, Hebei Province 071002 (China); Fang, Zhengping [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Institute of Polymer Composites, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Laboratory of Polymer Materials and Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2012-09-10

    Graphical abstract: The carbonization chemistry and mechanism of a novel synthesized intumescent flame retardant. The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IFR synthesized is polymeric and has high molecular weight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IFR has a higher thermal stability than most of the commercial IFRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final chars of IFR showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure. - Abstract: In this work, a polymeric phosphorous-nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant, named poly(diaminodiphenyl methane spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PDSPB), was synthesized. The carbonization chemistry was investigated. FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR were used to confirm the chemical structure of PDSPB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in situ FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to investigate and monitor the chemical structural changes during thermal degradation. PDSPB demonstrated a three-step degradation behavior. PDSPB oligomers continuously polymerized and generated a higher macromolecular weight during the first step (200-250 Degree-Sign C). The phosphate ester bonds were broken down and phosphoric acid was released which dehydrated the carbon source to form chars during the second step (280-320 Degree-Sign C). The residues will be further degraded and form final chars during the final weight loss step (400-450 Degree-Sign C). The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture.

  17. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  18. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of classical flame retardants, related halogenated natural compounds and alternative flame retardants in three delphinids from Southern European waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrence and behaviour of classical (PBDEs) and alternative (HNs, HBB, PBEB, DBDPE and HBCD) flame retardants, together with naturally produced MeO-PBDEs, were studied in short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) in two sampling locations from Southern European waters. PBDEs, Dec 602, Dec 603, DP, α-HBCD and two MeO-PBDEs were detected in all three species. ∑PBDEs were between 17 and 2680 ng/g lw; ∑HNs were between 1.1 and 59 ng/g lw; α-HBCD levels ranged between 3.2 and 641 ng/g lw; ∑MeO-PBDEs were between 34 and 1966 ng/g lw. Bottlenose dolphins were the most contaminated species and some individuals could present health risk for endocrine disruption since levels found were above the reported threshold (1500 ng/g lw). Stable isotope analysis was used to evaluate the biomagnification capacity of these compounds. PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and Dec 602 showed a significant positive correlation with trophic position. - Highlights: • Several FRs were detected in three dolphin species from Southern European waters. • Concentrations of classical FRs were higher than concentrations of alternative FRs. • MeO-PBDE concentrations were generally similar to PBDE concentrations. • Evidence of biomagnification capacity of some FRs was observed. • Some individuals were above the threshold level associated to endocrine disruption. - Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of halogenated compounds in dolphins

  19. Clay-chitosan nanobrick walls: completely renewable gas barrier and flame-retardant nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Galina; Kirkland, Christopher; Cain, Amanda A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2012-03-01

    Thin films prepared via a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of renewable materials exhibit exceptional oxygen barrier and flame-retardant properties. Positively charged chitosan (CH), at two different pH levels (pH 3 and pH 6), was paired with anionic montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanoplatelets. Thin-film assemblies prepared with CH at high pH are thicker, because if the low polymer charge density. A 30-bilayer (CH pH 6-MMT) nanocoating (~100 nm thick) reduces the oxygen permeability of a 0.5-mm-thick polylactic acid film by four orders of magnitude. This same coating system completely stops the melting of a flexible polyurethane foam, when exposed to direct flame from a butane torch, with just 10 bilayers (~30 nm thick). Cone calorimetry confirms that this coated foam exhibited a reduced peak heat-release rate, by as much as 52%, relative to the uncoated control. These environmentally benign nanocoatings could prove beneficial for new types of food packaging or a replacement for environmentally persistent antiflammable compounds. PMID:22339671

  20. Occurrence of bromine in fluidised bed combustion of solid recovered fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainikka, P.

    2011-12-15

    Corrosive ash species are the single most important factor limiting the electric efficiency of steam boiler plants fired with waste or biomass. Chlorine has been found to have a central role in the chemistry involved as it reduces the melting temperature of ash, forms corrosive vapour and gas species in the furnace and halogenated deposits on boiler heat transfer surfaces. In this context chlorine has been extensively researched. At the time of writing this thesis there was hardly any published data available on the occurrence of bromine (Br) in the aforementioned context. The objective of this work was to review the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels and characterise the behaviour of bromine in full-scale fluidised bed combustion. The review on the occurrence of bromine in solid fuels revealed that in anthropogenic wastes bromine is mainly found in connection to flame retarded substances. Several weight percentages of bromine can be found in plastics treated with brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Bromine is typically found some 100-200 mg kg-1 in mixed municipal solid wastes (MSW). Bromine may be enriched in fuels with high share of plastics, such as solid recovered fuel (SRF) or refuse derived fuel (RDF). Up to 2000 mg kg-1 was found as a monthly average in SRF, typical levels being 20-200 mg kg-1. Wastewater sludge from paper mills may contain bromine 20-100 mg kg-1 due the use of bromine based biocides. In other fuels bromine may be found in significant amounts in marine influenced coal deposits and peat as well as in biomass treated with brominated pesticides. In the experimental part SRF, spruce bark and wastewater sludge from a paper mill were co-fired in a full- scale bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler, and the collected fuels, aerosols and waterwall deposits were analysed with the focus on the fate of bromine. Bromine was mainly found to form water soluble high vapour pressure alkali metal halides in the furnace - in the form of KBr(g) and NaBr(g) as

  1. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Multifunctional Flame Retardant Based on Brucite, 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and Alginate and Its Applications in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiliang; Yang, Xiaomei; Peng, Hui; Wang, Fang; Liu, Xiu; Yang, Yunguo; Hao, Jianwei

    2016-04-20

    An efficient and multifunctional brucite/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/nickel alginate/APTES (B/A/Nia/A) hybrid flame retardant was fabricated via the layer-by-layer assembly technique with brucite, silane coupling agents, nickel chloride, and sodium alginate. The morphology, chemical composition, and structure of the hybrid flame retardant were characterized. The results confirmed the multilayer structure and indicated that the assembled driving forces were electrostatic interactions, dehydration condensation, hydrogen bonds, and coordination bonds. When used in ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resin, the multifunctional flame retardant had better performance than brucite in improving the flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and mechanical properties. With 130 phr loading, the multifunctional flame retardant achieved a limiting oxygen index value of 32.3% and a UL 94 V-0 rating, whereas the brucite achieved only 31.1% and a V-2 rating, respectively. The peak heat release rate and total heat released decreased by 41.5% and 8.9%, respectively. The multifunctional flame retardant had an excellent performance in reducing the smoke, CO, and CO2 production rates. These improvements could be attributed to the catalyzing carbonization of nickel compounds and the formation of more protective char layers. Moreover, the elongation at break increased by 97.5%, which benefited from the improved compatibility and the sacrificial bonds in the nickel alginate. The mechanism of flame retardant, smoke suppression, and toughening is proposed. PMID:27002922

  2. New flame-retardant composite separators based on metal hydroxides for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mg(OH)2-composite separators had superior flame-retardant properties. • Mg(OH)2-composite separators improved rate capability of unit cells. • Mg(OH)2-composite separators improved discharge capacity retention ability. - Abstract: In order to improve the safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), composite separators were developed using two typical metal hydroxides, aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). The composite separators were prepared by adding ceramic coating layers comprising one of the chosen metal hydroxides and a poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) binder to polyethylene (PE) separators. Both the metal hydroxide-composite separators exhibited promising fire-retardant properties, which resulted in a significant self-extinguishing time (SET) reduction and also helped to suppress any thermal dimensional changes in the PE separators that may occur at high temperatures. Due to the hydrophilic properties of metal hydroxides, unit cells employing the composite separators achieved significant improvements in rate capability that were closely associated with their improved wettability for liquid electrolytes. The electrochemical stability of the Mg(OH)2-composite separators was verified to be comparable to that of PE separators; however, the Al(OH)3-composite separators were electrochemically unstable over the same voltage range. This highlights the highly improved capacity retention of the developed unit cells that employ Mg(OH)2-composite separators

  3. Development of flame retardant PV module encapsulants: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galica, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    This Phase 1 final report covers the work performed by Springborn Testing and Research, Inc., for the period October 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998 under the Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC36-97GO10255, entitled Development of Flame Retardant PV Module Encapsulants. While use of roof-mounted arrays has always been an attractive means of deploying PV, only within recent years have such building integrated concepts (BIPV) found renewed interest among module makers and end-users. Prior to building integrated and rooftop applications, flammability requirements for modules have not been a great industry concern. However, with growing interest in BIPV and the requirement for building code requirements for commercial and industrial structures, flammability issues have become a barrier to entry for many module constructions into this potentially huge domestic market for PV. The overall goal of the 3 phase PV BONUS two project is to develop and commercialize a line of fire retardant encapsulation materials to serve the emerging building integrated and building mounted PV market. The objectives of the Phase 1 effort are limited to concept development and business planning activities.

  4. Tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane flame retardants in infant–mother paired serum samples, and their relationships with thyroid hormones and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and their correlations with thyroid hormones, were investigated in sera from 26 infants with congenital hypothyroidism, 12 healthy infants, and their mothers. The analyte concentrations were not significantly different in the two infant groups. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (measured in a previous study) were the dominant brominated flame retardants, contributing 42–87% of the total, and HBCDs contributed 5–18%. TBBPA concentrations were 2–5 times higher in the infants than in the mothers. The TBBPA concentrations decreased dramatically with age for 2–3 months after birth, which might be caused by its relatively high maternal transfer rate, short half-life, and fast excretion. Significant correlations were found between mothers and infants in the TBBPA and HBCD concentrations, implying that maternal transfer was important. TBBPA correlated weakly with thyroid hormones, showing a positive relationship with FT4 but a negative relationship with T3. -- Highlights: • TBBPA and HBCDs were analyzed in infant blood serum with congenital hypothyroidism. • Relative contribution of TBBPA and HBCDs in human blood was compared with PBDEs. • Correlation between BFRs and thyroid hormones level were assessed statistically. • Potential environmental factors for exposure to BFRs were investigated. • The maternal transfer and age distribution of BFRs were tried to be configured. -- TBBPA and HBCDs were analyzed in paired infant–mother serum samples and compared with PBDE concentrations, and the potential for them having harmful impacts on human thyroid function was assessed

  5. Structure, flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of Zn-Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ling; LI Dianqing; LI Sufeng; WANG Jianrong; Evans D. G.; DUAN Xue

    2005-01-01

    Zn-Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by a new method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. The Zn-Mg-Al-CO3 LDHs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, ICP and TG-DTA. The limiting oxygen index and smoke density of composites of the LDHs with EVA-28 were determined. Incorporation of Zn2+ in the layers of the LDHs was found promoting material charring and smoke suppression. The mechanism of flame retardation and smoke suppression is discussed. The results show that Zn-Mg-Al-CO3 LDHs have better flame retarding and smoke suppressing effects than Mg-Al-CO3 LDHs.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray tomography for 3D chemical diffusion measurement of a flame retardant in polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an on-going tomographic project, material properties of industrial polymer blends are being studied. This project uses 3D chemical analysis techniques to look at a polymer additive problem called blooming, related to the theory of aging and diffusion in glassy materials. The 3D images are acquired with synchrotron X-ray tomography because of its rapidity, good spatial resolution, large field-of-view, and elemental sensitivity. To investigate the chemical process of blooming, new procedures are developed to assess the flame retardant distribution as a function of annealing time in the sample. With the spatial chemical distribution we fit the concentrations to a diffusion equation to each time step in the annealing process. In this preliminary work, we study the dissolutions of a non-blooming flame retardant

  7. Synthesis and characterization of NaA zeolite particle as intumescent flame retardant in chloroprene rubber system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhui Yuan; Huarong Chen; Ranran Chang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    NaA zeolite with average particle size of 1 μm was successfully synthesized by microwave heating. Influences of pre-crystallization time, microwave power and microwave heating time on the synthesis of NaA zeolite were investigated. The as-synthesized sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution (PSD). Thermal and flame retardant properties as intumescent flame retardant (IFR) in chloroprene rubber (CR) system, such as thermogravimetry (TG), limiting oxygen index (LOI), burning rate (BR) and specific extinction area (SEA) were further investigated by adding NaA zeolite particles to CR. Experimental results show that the thermal stability and LOI value increased while BR and SEA decreased by adding 5 phr NaA zeolite into the 40 phr IFR filled CR system.

  8. Preparation and properties of flexible flame-retardant neutron shielding material based on methyl vinyl silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Hao [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Tang, Xiaobin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering (China); Ni, Minxuan; Chen, Feida; Zhang, Yun [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering (China); Qiu, Yunlong [ZhongXing Energy Equipment Co., LTD, Haimen Nantong (China)

    2015-09-15

    Flexible flame-retardant composites were prepared using high-functional methyl vinyl silicone rubber matrix with B{sub 4}C, hollow beads, and zinc borate (ZB) as filler materials. As filler content increased, the tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength of the composites initially increased and then decreased. The shore hardness of the composites increased with increasing filler content with a maximum value of 30 HA. The heat insulation properties of the composites with hollow beads were higher than that of the ordinary composites with the same filler mass fraction. When ZB content exceeded 12 wt%, the limit of oxygen index of the composites was higher than 27.1%. With Am–Be neutron as the test radiation source, the transmission of neutron for a 2 cm sample was only 47.8%. Powder surface modification improved the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, flame retardancy, and neutron shielding performance of the composites, but did not affect shore hardness.

  9. Preparation and properties of flexible flame-retardant neutron shielding material based on methyl vinyl silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible flame-retardant composites were prepared using high-functional methyl vinyl silicone rubber matrix with B4C, hollow beads, and zinc borate (ZB) as filler materials. As filler content increased, the tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength of the composites initially increased and then decreased. The shore hardness of the composites increased with increasing filler content with a maximum value of 30 HA. The heat insulation properties of the composites with hollow beads were higher than that of the ordinary composites with the same filler mass fraction. When ZB content exceeded 12 wt%, the limit of oxygen index of the composites was higher than 27.1%. With Am–Be neutron as the test radiation source, the transmission of neutron for a 2 cm sample was only 47.8%. Powder surface modification improved the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, flame retardancy, and neutron shielding performance of the composites, but did not affect shore hardness

  10. Preparation and properties of flexible flame-retardant neutron shielding material based on methyl vinyl silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hao; Tang, Xiaobin; Ni, Minxuan; Chen, Feida; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Da; Qiu, Yunlong

    2015-09-01

    Flexible flame-retardant composites were prepared using high-functional methyl vinyl silicone rubber matrix with B4C, hollow beads, and zinc borate (ZB) as filler materials. As filler content increased, the tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength of the composites initially increased and then decreased. The shore hardness of the composites increased with increasing filler content with a maximum value of 30 HA. The heat insulation properties of the composites with hollow beads were higher than that of the ordinary composites with the same filler mass fraction. When ZB content exceeded 12 wt%, the limit of oxygen index of the composites was higher than 27.1%. With Am-Be neutron as the test radiation source, the transmission of neutron for a 2 cm sample was only 47.8%. Powder surface modification improved the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, flame retardancy, and neutron shielding performance of the composites, but did not affect shore hardness.

  11. Low level exposure to the flame retardant BDE-209 reduces thyroid hormone levels and disrupts thyroid signaling in fathead minnows

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Lema, Sean C.; Macaulay, Laura J.; Douglas, Nora K.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation, neurodevelopment, and reproduction in some animals. However, effects of the most heavily used PBDE, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), on thyroid functioning remain unclear. This study examined low-dose effects of BDE-209 on thyroid hormone levels and signaling in fathead minnows. Adult males received dietary exposures of BDE-209 at a low dose (~3 ng/g bw-day) and high dose (~300 ng/g ...

  12. The Effect of Ultrafine Magnesium Hydroxide on the Tensile Properties and Flame Retardancy of Wood Plastic Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiping Wu; Na Hu; Yiqiang Wu; Shuyun Wu; Zu Qin

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide (UMH) and ordinary magnesium hydroxide (OMH) on the tensile properties and flame retardancy of wood plastic composites (WPC) were investigated by tensile test, oxygen index tester, cone calorimeter test, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that ultrafine magnesium hydroxide possesses strengthening and toughening effect of WPC. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of fracture section of samples provided the positive evidence that the ten...

  13. Developmental Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Elicits Overt Toxicity and Alters Behavior in Early Life Stage Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Hunter, Deborah L.; Padnos, Beth; Padilla, Stephanie; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect the developing nervous system. This study evaluated the overt toxicity, uptake, and neurobehavioral effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-p...

  14. Novel Novolac-Phthalonitrile and Siloxane-Phthalonitrile Resins cured with low melting Novolac Oligomers for Flame Retardant Structural Thermosets

    OpenAIRE

    Hardrict, Shauntrece Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Novel Novolac-Phthalonitrile and Siloxane-Phthalonitrile Resins cured with low melting Novolac Oligomers for Flame Retardant Structural Thermosets Shauntrece Nicole Hardrict Department of Chemistry Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ABSTRACT The chemical modification of low molecular weight novolac oligomers and siloxane/silane-containing monomers has led to novel phthalonitrile derivatives with low glass transition temperatures, ranging from -25 to 75 ºC...

  15. Preparation and characterization of flame retardant n-hexadecane/silicon dioxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flame retardant n-hexadecane/silicon dioxide (SiO2) composites as thermal energy storage materials were prepared using sol-gel methods. In the composites, n-hexadecane was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and SiO2 acted as the supporting material that is fire resistant. In order to further improve flame retardant property of the composites, the expanded graphite (EG) was added in the composites. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of flame retardant n-hexadecane/SiO2 composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA), respectively. The SEM results showed that the n-hexadecane was well dispersed in the porous network of the SiO2. The DSC results indicated that the melting and solidifying latent heats of the composites are 147.58 and 145.10 kJ/kg when the mass percentage of the n-hexadecane in the composites is 73.3%. The TGA results showed that the loading of the EG increased the charred residue amount of the composites at 700 deg. C, contributing to the improved thermal stability of the composites. It was observed from SEM photographs that the homogeneous and compact charred residue structure after combustion improved the flammability of the composites.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and new polybrominated flame retardants in tree bark from western areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuxu; Jin, Jun; Lu, Yao; Li, Guangyao; He, Chang; Wang, Ying; Li, Peng; Hu, Jicheng

    2016-06-01

    Tree bark samples were collected from 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and new polybrominated flame retardant (NBFR) concentrations in the samples were determined. The mean total PBDE concentration was 51.8 ng/g lipid weight, which was 85.2% to 99.4% lower than in Chinese eastern coastal areas and the E-waste recycling areas. The dominant PBDE congener was BDE209, and its mean concentration was 49 ng/g lipid weight. The mean 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and hexabromobenzene concentrations were 0.61 ng/g, 0.97 ng/g, 0.68 ng/g, and 0.68 ng/g lw, respectively. The PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the air at the sampling sites were estimated from the concentrations in the tree bark samples. The estimated mean total PBDE and total NBFR concentrations in air were 58.5 pg/m(3) and 2.76 pg/m(3) , respectively. The sources of NBFR emissions were found to be different from the sources of PBDE emissions, as no relationship was found between the NBFR and PBDE concentrations, and it appeared that sources of measured hexabromobenzene, pentabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene in tree bark in western China include industrial activity related to the aluminum industry. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1364-1370. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26492098

  17. Atmospheric occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizer at the German coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Sühring, Roxana; Mi, Wenying; Möller, Axel; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the occurrence and distribution of organophosphor esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizer, in the marine atmosphere of the German Coast. From August 2011 to October 2012, 58 high volume air samples (gas/particle phase separately) were collected at the German North Sea coast town Büsum. With the use of a GC-MS/MS System for instrumental analysis, detection limits for OPEs in air samples could be significantly improved compared to the previously used single GC-MS method. The concentration (gas + particle phase) of total OPEs was on average 5 pg/m3, with eight of the nine investigated compounds detectable in over 50% of the samples. A focus of this investigation concerned the partioning of OPEs between the particle and the gas phase. The observed partitioning of OPEs in this study was distinguished from previous studies. While previous studies reported OPEs exclusively in the particle phase, a significant part of the sum OPE concentration (55%) was detected in the gas phase. The contribution of the gas phase even reached up to as high as 88% for individual compounds such as tri-iso-butyl phosphate.

  18. Synergism of. gamma. -ray irradiation and temperature on the deterioration of flame-retardant cables, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Shinichi (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)); Katayama, Shiro; Takeya, Chikashi; Hayakawa, Tsutomu; Iwata, Seiji

    1982-03-01

    Following our previous paper, aging tests of two flame-retardant cables, C*V and P*N, were conducted under combined environment of heat (90 and 120/sup 0/C) and radiation (2.5 x 10/sup 7/ -- 2 x 10/sup 8/..gamma..) and characteristic changes were measured in order to study synergism at reduced temperature. As a result, synergism appeared in C* (RF-XL PE) and P* (FR-EPR) after heavier dosage at elevated temperature owing to their excellent resistance to heat and radiation. On the contrary, V (PVC) showed synergism after irradiation of 2.5 x 10/sup 7/..gamma.. at 90 and 120/sup 0/C, and N(Neoprene) showed synergism after irradiation of 2.5 x 10/sup 7/..gamma.. and less at 90/sup 0/C and over. It is clear that elongation is the best index of investigating the deterioration of characteristics because of its continuous and uniform change. Also, the degradation of electrical characteristics occured in C* and P* simultaneously with or later than that of mechanical ones.

  19. Size-dependent atmospheric deposition and inhalation exposure of particle-bound organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Guo, Ying; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric size-fractionated particles were collected at different heights in an e-waste recycling zone (QY) and urban Guangzhou (GZ), China and analyzed for organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total air concentrations of eight OPFRs were 130±130 and 138±127 ng m(-3) in QY and GZ, respectively. Compositional profiles of chlorinated OPFRs were different between QY and GZ, but the size distribution patterns of all OPFRs were not significantly different at different heights. Estimated atmospheric deposition fluxes of OPFRs were 51±67 and 55±13 μg m(-2) d(-1) in QY and GZ, respectively, and the coarse particles (Dp>1.8 μm) dominated both the dry and wet deposition fluxes. Moreover, not all particle-bound OPFRs were inhalable and deposited in the human respiratory tract. The calculated inhalation doses of OPFRs were much lower than the reference doses, suggesting that potential health risk due to inhalation exposure to particle-bound OPFRs in the e-waste recycling zone and urban site was low. PMID:26414926

  20. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of PMMA/clay nanocomposites: Study of oxygen permeation and flame retardant properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata K Patra; Gyanaranjan Prusty; Sarat K Swain

    2012-02-01

    PMMA/clay nanocomposites were synthesized by ultrasound assisted emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization technique. Ultrasound waves of different power and frequencies were applied to enhance the dispersion of the clay layers with polymer matrix. The structural information of the synthesized materials was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it was revealed that the interlayer spacing increased with clay loading. The magnitude of dispersion of the clay in the polymer matrix was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Young’s modulus, breaking stress, elongation at break, toughness, yield stress and yield strain of the nanocomposites as a function of different clay concentrations and ultrasonic power were measured. Particle diameter of the nanocomposites was measured by laser diffraction technique. Oxygen permeability of the samples was studied and it was found that the oxygen flow rate was reduced by the combined effect of clay loading and ultrasound. The flame retardant property of the nanocomposites due to clay dispersion was investigated by measurement of limiting oxygen index (LOI).

  1. Development of nonhalogen elastomers that withstand high radiation and are flame retarding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Onishi, Norihiro (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan)); Taketani, Chikashi; Tanaka, Takuo; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    1991-12-01

    For the electric wires and cables used for nuclear power stations, various polymer materials with excellent radiation resistance are used. Further in spent fuel reprocessing facilities and radioactive waste treatment facilities constructed recently, the materials having higher grade radiation resistance have become necessary. Furthermore, for ensuring safety at the time of fires, it has been examined to make covering materials incombustible and nonhalogen. In this study, attention was paied to cable sheath materials, and the selection of polymers and the examination on the kinds and amount of radiation resistant additives were carried out, as the result, the flame retarding, nonhalogen elastomer that has flexibility after the irradiation with gamma ray of 10 MGy, and maintains the elongation of more than 200% has been developed, therefore, it is reported in this paper. The samples, gamma ray irradiation, the test items and the test results of sheath materials, the effect of adding antiaging agent, the change of the antiaging agent due to gamma ray irradiation and so on are reported. AEM has the most excellent radiation resistance. (K.I.).

  2. Rice ingestion is a major pathway for human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingli; Zou, Wei; Mu, Li; Chen, Yuming; Ren, Chaoxiu; Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    Although organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, data about OPFRs concentrations in various foods are limited and are none in humans through diets. In this work, the concentrations of 6 typical OPFRs were investigated in 50 rice samples, 75 commonly consumed foods and 45 human hair samples from China. The dietary intakes of OPFRs for adult people via food ingestion were estimated. The concentrations of ΣOPFRs in foods ranged from 0.004ng/g to 287ng/g. OPFRs were detected in 53.3% of the human hair samples. The highest OPFRs concentrations were found in rice and vegetables. Tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate(TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate(TCIPP), and tri(2-ethyltexyl)phosphate(TEHP) were predominant in all food samples. OPFRs concentrations in foods were not significantly affected by the packaging materials. The mean dietary intakes of ΣOPFRs for adult males and females were 539 and 601ng/kg body weight/day, respectively. The greatest contribution to these values is from rice, accounting for approximately 60% of the total intake, particularly from rice protein. Rice ingestion was considered a potential major pathway for human exposure to OPFRs, and regional differences in the levels of OPFRs in foods and dietary differences should be given more attention in the future. PMID:27484948

  3. Exposure to organophosphate and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants via indoor dust and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, D; van Velzen, M J M; Hallner, E; Zwinderman, A H; Wickman, M; Leonards, P E G; van Ree, R; van Rijt, L S

    2016-06-01

    Although the ubiquitous detection of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust has raised health concerns, only very few epidemiological studies have assessed their impact on human health. Inhalation of dust is one of the exposure routes of FRs, especially in children and can be hazardous for the respiratory health. Moreover, PFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides, which have been associated with allergic asthma. Thus, we investigated whether the concentrations of PFRs and PBDEs in indoor dust are associated with the development of childhood asthma. We selected 110 children who developed asthma at 4 or at 8 years old and 110 matched controls from a large prospective birth cohort (BAMSE - Barn, Allergy, Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology). We analyzed the concentrations of 7 PFRs and 21 PBDEs in dust collected around 2 months after birth from the mother's mattress. The abundance rank in dust was as follows: TBOEP⪢TPHP>mmp-TMPP>EHDPHP~TDCIPP>TCEP~TCIPP~BDE-209⪢BDE-99>BDE-47>BDE-153>BDE-183>BDE-100. There was no positive association between the FRs in mattress dust and the development of childhood asthma. In contrast, dust collected from mattresses of the mothers of children who would develop asthma contained significant lower levels of TPHP and mmp-TMPP. This study provides data on a wide range of PFRs and PBDEs in dust samples and development of asthma in children. PMID:25952720

  4. The toxic effects of flame retardants: a gene expression study in elucidating their carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary; Al-Dhumani, Ali; Al-Dhumani, Sajaad; Mastro, Alexandra

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used in many commercial products, including building materials, electronics, furnishings, motor vehicles, airplanes, plastics, polyurethane foams, and textiles. Although the specific toxic action of these chemicals is not clear, it is reported that they can cause serious damage to the nervous, reproductive, and endocrine systems. These chemicals are branded as "probable carcinogens" by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, this study is taken up to investigate the expression of genes namely, TP-53, RAD1, CRADD, and ATM, which are involved in apoptosis, DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. For this study human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are exposed to 5 μM of BDE-85 (a penta-BDE) and BDE-209 (deca-BDE). The results of this report reveal significant alteration in all the genes under investigation in BDE-85 and BDE-209 exposed cells. The BDE-85 induced responses are significantly more than BDE-209. These results emphasize the congener specific action of PBDEs on the expression of genes relevant to DNA repair and cell division of HUVEC cells.

  5. Thermal properties and flame retardancy of an ether-type UV-cured polyurethane coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new UV-reactive monomer piperazine-N,N′-bis(acryloxyethylaryl-phosphoramidate (N-PBAAP containing phosphorus and nitrogen was synthesized and used as flame retardant for an ether-type UV-cured polyurethane acrylate (PUA coating. The thermal properties of the PUA films were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in air and nitrogen atmosphere. The TGA results showed that the incorporation of N-PBAAP can obviously enhance the char residue of the PUA coatings. From the TGA and real time Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR results, different degradation behaviors were observed in the PUA coatings with different N-PBAAP content. The combustibility of the PUA coatings was evaluated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC. The MCC results revealed that the addition of NPBAAP in the coatings can significantly reduce the peak Heat Release Rate (pHRR, Heat Release Capacity (HRC and the Total Heat Release (THR of the samples. Furthermore, dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMA was employed to examine the viscoelastic properties of the PUA films. It was found that the incorporation of N-PBAAP in the formulation can bring in more functional groups to the coatings, which results in an increase of the glass transition temperature (Tg and cross linking density (XLD of the films.

  6. Halogenated Natural Products in Dolphins: Brain-Blubber Distribution and Comparison with Halogenated Flame Retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, E; Hauler, C; Gallistl, C; Giménez, J; Gauffier, P; Castillo, J J; Fernández-Maldonado, C; de Stephanis, R; Vetter, W; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

    2015-08-01

    Halogenated natural products (MHC-1, TriBHD, TetraBHD, MeO-PBDEs, Q1, and related PMBPs) and halogenated flame retardants (PBDEs, HBB, Dec 602, Dec 603, and DP) in blubber and brain are reported from five Alboran Sea delphinids (Spain). Both HNPs and HFRs were detected in brain, implying that they are able to surpass the blood-brain barrier and reach the brain, which represents a new finding for some compounds, such as Q1 and PMBPs, MHC-1, TriBHD, TetraBHD, or Dec 603. Moreover, some compounds (TetraBHD, BDE-153, or HBB) presented higher levels in brain than in blubber. This study evidence the high concentrations of HNPs in the marine environment, especially in top predators. It shows the importance of further monitoring these natural compounds and evaluating their potential toxicity, when most studies focus on anthropogenic compounds only. While no bioaccumulation was found for ∑HNPs, ∑HFRs increased significantly with body size for both common and striped dolphins. Studies evaluating BBB permeation mechanisms of these compounds together with their potential neurotoxic effects in dolphins are recommended. PMID:26148182

  7. Particle size distribution of halogenated flame retardants and implications for atmospheric deposition and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonski, Krzysztof; Degrendele, Céline; Melymuk, Lisa; Landlová, Linda; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kohoutek, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and a group of novel flame retardants (NFRs) on atmospheric aerosols. Two high volume cascade impactors were used to collect particulate fractions of ambient air over a one year period at urban and rural sites. The majority of FRs were found on the finest aerosols (<0.95 μm). Concentrations of HBCD were higher than those of ΣPBDEs. Moreover, we noted seasonality and spatial differences in particle size distributions, yet a large portion of the observed differences were due to differences in particulate matter (PM) itself. When normalized by PM, the size distributions of the FRs exhibited much greater heterogeneity. Differences existed between the FR distributions by molecular weight, with the higher molecular weight FRs (e.g., BDE-209, Dechlorane Plus) distributed more uniformly across all particulate size fractions. The seasonal, spatial, and compound-specific differences are of crucial importance when estimating dry and wet deposition of FRs as smaller aerosols have longer atmospheric residence times. Estimated wet and dry deposition of four representative FRs (BDE-47, BDE-209, HBCD, and Dechlorane Plus) using size-segregated aerosol data resulted in lower deposition estimates than when bulk aerosol data were used. This has implications for estimates of long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric residence times, as it suggests that without size-specific distributions, these parameters could be underestimated for FRs. PMID:25380095

  8. Synthesis of hydrophobic zinc borate nanoflakes and its effect on flame retardant properties of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O) has relatively high dehydration on-set temperature which property permits processing in a wide range of polymer system. But zinc borate particles are hardly dispersed in a polymer matrix so that they prevent their using in industry. To address this problem, we synthesized hydrophobic zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O) nanoflakes by employing solid-liquid reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) in the presence of oleic acid. This method does not bring pollution. By conducting morphological and microscopic analyses, we found that this compound displayed nanoflake morphology with particle size of around 100-200 nm, thickness less than 100 nm and there were uniform mesopores with the diameter about 10 nm within the particles. Furthermore, our products had an effect on flame retardant of polyethylene, especially when the zinc borate was modified by oleic acid. - Graphical abstract: The contact angle of hydrophobic zinc borate nanoflakes is 129.02 deg. with added 2.0 wt% of oleic acid.

  9. Some of the properties of flame retardant medium density fiberboard made from rubberwood and recycled containers containing aluminum trihydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, R; How, L S; Kumar, R N; Sulaiman, O

    2005-11-01

    The flame retardancy of medium density fiberboard (MDF) made from mixture of rubberwood fibers and recycled old corrugated containers was studied. Aluminum trihydroxide (ATH) was used as a fire retardant additive and mixed with the fibers to manufacture experimental MDF panels using wet process. Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin in liquid, 2% based on oven dry weight of fibers, was used along with 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% of ATH. The flame retardant test was done using the limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. The other properties investigated include internal bond strength, thickness swelling and water absorption. The results showed that ATH loading increased as the LOI of MDF increased. This demonstrated that ATH could improved the fire retardant property of MDF at sufficient loading. An increase in concentration of ATH showed an increase in the IB values of MDF made without resin. MDF panels made without resin showed a progressive increase in internal bond as the composition of recycled old corrugated containers fiber increased. Addition of resin improved internal bond strength and reduced thickness swelling, and water absorption. Thickness swelling of panel increased as the composition of recycled old corrugated containers fiber increased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) showed that there is indication of ATH and resin filling the void space in between fibers. PMID:16051090

  10. Optimal Selection of Ferrous Sulfide Flame Retardant by Orthogonal Experiment and Study on Its Flame Retardant Mechanism%正交实验优选硫化亚铁阻燃剂及阻燃机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷丽丽; 杨扬; 宗封琪

    2009-01-01

    A fire retardant used for the hydrogenation catalyst recovery process is developed, whose main components are heavy oil, antioxidants and surfactants. The DSC/TGA thermal analyzer is used to inspect its flame retardant properties. This method has the advantage of convenient, accurate, and only needing a small amount of samples. The ratio of each component is discussed through orthogonal experiment, and the results indicate that the flame-resistant formula is best when the amount of RF09, RF10, RF11, BJ02 and BJ04 is 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% of heavy oil respectively. In addition, flame retardant mechanism of the fire retardant is discussed.%以重油、阻燃试剂和表面活性剂组成加氢催化剂回收过程使用的硫化亚铁阻燃剂,并采用DSC/TGA热分析仪考察其阻燃效果.此方法具有操作简单、样品用量少、结果准确等优点.通过正交实验设计,讨论了阻燃剂各组分的配比.实验结果表明,最佳阻燃配方为:RF09、RF10、RF11、BJ02和BJ04,用量依次为重油用量的0.2%、0.3%、0.3%、0.2%和0.1%.此外,深入探讨了阻燃剂阻燃机理.

  11. Research of Combustion Performance of IFR Flame Retardant EVAC%IFR阻燃EVAC燃烧性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雷; 祝岩婷; 王志伟; 陈冬梅; 李荣勋

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen intumescent flame retardant (IFR)was prepared by adding different ratio of quality of ammonium polyphosphate (APP),pentaerythritol (PER),melamine (MEL)which was used for flame retardant EVAC.The effect of component ratio on the flame retardant properties and mechanical properties of EVAC was tested.Tensile performance was used to evaluate mechanical properties of EVAC/IFR.The cone calorimeter (CONE)was used to evaluate the effect of IFR amount on the EVAC flame retardant properties and combustion fire performance parameters and flame retardant mechanism.The results show that the compatibility of PER and EVAC is better than APP and EVAC.While IFR content is 30%,APP∶PER=4∶1,the highest oxyphren index of the composites reach 28.5.The vertical combustion test of material can reach UL94 V-0 level,the level combustion test reach HB level.CONE test show that when IFR content is 30%,fire performance index of EVAC increase and smoke generation rate decrease.%采用不同质量配比的聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)、三聚氰胺(MEL)制备磷氮膨胀型阻燃剂(IFR)体系,用以阻燃乙烯-乙酸乙烯酯共聚物(EVAC),探讨了三种组分配比对EVAC阻燃性能和力学性能的影响。用拉伸性能评价IFR与EVAC相容性对力学性能的影响。利用锥形量热仪(CONE)评价IFR用量对EVAC阻燃性能和燃烧火灾性能参数的影响及阻燃机理。结果表明,PER与EVAC的相容性优于APP与EVAC的相容性;在IFR体系添加量为30份,APP∶PER=4∶1时氧指数最高,达到28.5%,材料的垂直燃烧测试可达UL-94 V-0级,水平燃烧测试达到HB级;CONE测试表明当阻燃剂IFR添加量为30%时,EVAC的火灾性能指数提高,生烟速率下降。

  12. Organophosphorus flame retardants and phthalate esters in indoor dust from different microenvironments: Bioaccessibility and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruiwen; Li, Yunzi; Xiang, Ping; Li, Chao; Zhou, Chunyang; Zhang, Shujun; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    Incidental ingestion of indoor dust is an important pathway for human exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). However, little is known about their bioaccessibility in indoor dust. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected from houses, offices, public microenvironments (PMEs), and university dorms, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to measure the bioaccessibility of OPFRs and PAEs in these dust samples. Total concentrations of OPFRs in dust samples ranged from 0.01 to 63.2 μg g(-1), with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (median = 0.30 μg g(-1)) than those in houses (3.12), offices (5.94), and PMEs (11.6). Total PAEs ranged from 5.49 to 2161 μg g(-1) with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (379 μg g(-1)) than those in the other three types of dust (767, 515, and 731 μg g(-1)). When subject to PBET, the bioaccessibility of OPFRs ranged from 8.18% (triphenyl phosphate) to 54.5% (Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) for OPFRs, and from 1.21% (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) to 81.1% (dimethyl phthalate) for PAEs. Estimated exposure doses for adults and infants to OPFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reference doses (RfD), but intake dose of DEHP for infants was higher than the RfD of 20 μg kg(-1) d(-1). However, the DEHP intake dose did not exceed the RfD after incorporating bioaccessibility into risk assessment. Our data indicated the importance of considering contaminant bioaccessibility during risk assessment of indoor dust. PMID:26585356

  13. Plastics additives in the indoor environment-flame retardants and plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalic acid esters and phosphororganic compounds (POC) are generally known as semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and are frequently utilized as plasticizers and flame retardants in commercial products. In the indoor environment, both compound groups are released from a number of sources under normal living conditions and accumulate in air and dust. Therefore, inhalation of air and ingestion of house dust have to be considered as important pathways for the assessment of exposure in living habitats. Especially in the case of very young children, the oral and dermal uptake from house dust might be of relevance for risk assessment. A critical evaluation of indoor exposure to phthalates and POC requires the determination of the target compounds in indoor air and house dust as well as emission studies. The latter are usually carried out under controlled conditions in emission test chambers or cells. Furthermore, chamber testing enables the determination of condensable compounds by fogging sampling. In the case of automobiles, specific scenarios have been developed to study material emissions on a test stand or to evaluate the exposure of users while the vehicle is driving. In this review, results from several studies are summarized and compared for seven phthalic esters and eight POC. The available data for room air and dust differ widely depending on investigated compound and compartment. Room air studies mostly include only a limited number of measurements, which makes a statistical evaluation difficult. The situation is much better for house dust measurements. However, the composition of house dust is very inhomogeneous and the result is strongly dependent on the particle size distribution used for analysis. Results of emission studies are presented for building products, electronic equipment, and automobiles. Daily rates for inhalation and dust ingestion of phthalic esters and POC were calculated from 95-percentiles or maximum values. A comparison of the data

  14. Eco-friendly Flame Retardant (FR Pet Fibers Through P – N Synergism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh K. Patel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyester forms a major constituent among the synthetic fiber industry. It is the most popular synthetic fiber because of its high strength and esthetic appeal. Polyester being highly crystalline, hydrophobic and devoid of reactive groups, it is difficult to introduce reactive phosphorus into the fiber structure through chemical reactions with the phosphorus compounds. Fairly large quantities of the FR chemicals have to be incorporated to achieve self-extinguishing behavior. Although not all Flame Retardant (FR chemicals are hazardous, it is advisable from an ecological point of view to introduce minimum quantities of FR substances in the fiber structure. The present Paper tries to address the said problems in a small way, so that the PET fiber could be better acceptable. Therefore, graft co-polymerization of nitrogenous vinyl monomers has been carried out on the fiber followed by its reaction with phosphorus chemicals, thereby incorporating reactive phosphorus in the grafted substrate. It has been shown that a very small amount of the FR chemical could impart fire resistance of very high order to polyester. Self-extinguishing characteristic was achieved for poly (ethylene terephthalate fibers with acrylamide-grafted-phosphorylated (AM-g-P PET fibers containing just 0.189% phosphorus on-weight-of-fiber (owf. Similar results were obtained for methacrylamide-grafted-phosphorylated (MAm-g-P polyester fibers at the 0.77% phosphorus content level. Efficiency of phosphorus in presence of nitrogen that was achieved was at 263% for acrylamide (AM system, while it was –12% for acrylonitrile (AN-phosphorus combination. This is attributed to P-N synergism in case of the FR polyester system when the nitrogen is in the amido form present in AM and MAm monomers.

  15. Levels of Blood Organophosphorus Flame Retardants and Association with Changes in Human Sphingolipid Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanrong; Wan, Yi; Zhao, Haoqi; Hu, Wenxin; Mu, Di; Webster, Thomas F; Hu, Jianying

    2016-08-16

    While a recent toxicological study has shown that organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) may disrupt sphingolipid homeostasis, epidemiologic evidence is currently lacking. In this study, a total of 257 participants were recruited from Shenzhen, China. Eleven OPFRs were for the first time simultaneously determined in the human blood samples by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Six OPFRs, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), and TPHP, were detectable in at least 90% of participants, with median concentrations of 37.8, 1.22, 0.71, 0.54, 0.49, and 0.43 ng/mL, respectively. Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the highest quartile of EHDPP, TPHP, TNBP, TBOEP, TEP, and TCIPP were 45.3% [95% confidence interval; 38.1%, 53.0%], 51.9% (45.5%, 58.6%), 153.6% (145.1%, 162.3%), 20.6% (14.5%, 27.0%), 59.0% (52.1%, 66.2%), and 62.8% (55.2%, 70.6%) higher than those in the lowest quartile, respectively, after adjusting for covariates. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the highest quartile of EHDPP, TPHP, and TNBP were 36% (-39%, -33%), 16% (-19%, -14%), and 36% (-38%, -33%) lower than those in the lowest quartile, respectively. A similar pattern emerged when exposures were modeled continuously. We for the first time found the associations between OPFRs and changes in human sphingolipid homeostasis. PMID:27434659

  16. Reproductive changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in relation to exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the ban of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a high-production-volume flame retardant, was announced in Europe and North America. However, the effects of HCBD remain understudied in birds. The objectives of the present comparative effects study were to determine whether exposure to an HBCD technical mixture (HBCD-TM) altered avian reproductive measures at an environmentally relevant concentration. American kestrels were exposed daily by food to HBCD-TM, i.e., 0.51 µg HBCD/g kestrel/d; exposed kestrels laid eggs that had α-HBCD concentrations (163.5 ± 75.1 ng/g wet wt) tenfold greater than β- and γ-HBCD isomers, an isomer profile and concentrations similar to those of eggs of wild peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Concentrations of HBCD were not detected in the control kestrel eggs. In comparison with controls, the kestrels exposed to HBCD began to lay their eggs 6 d earlier and laid larger clutches of smaller eggs. The size of the eggs was inversely correlated with the in ovo α-HBCD concentrations. The smaller eggs of the HBCD exposed kestrels also lost more weight by midincubation, suggesting increased eggshell porosity since eggshell thickness was comparable. Generally birds that lay more eggs and lay earlier in the breeding season gain the advantage of better hatching and fledging success, yet the kestrels exposed to HBCD failed to have better reproductive success than the control birds. These reproductive changes were a function of HBCD exposure, likely through changes in food consumption, with possible impacts on, for example, reproductive behavior and/or alterations in thyroid hormones. PMID:21898552

  17. In vitro endocrine disruption potential of organophosphate flame retardants via human nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nuclear receptor activities of OPFRs were studied by in vitro reporter gene assays. • TPhP and TCP acted as ERα/β and PXR agonists as well as AR and GR antagonists. • TDCPP was the most potent AR antagonist among the tested OPFRs. • None of the OPFRs had TRα/β, RARα, RXRα, or PPARα/γ activity. • Several OPFRs might be endocrine disruptors via ERα/β, AR, GR, or PXR. - Abstract: Various organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used in building materials, textiles and electric appliances, and have been reported to cause indoor environmental pollution in houses and office buildings. In this study, using cell-based transactivation assays, we characterized the agonistic and/or antagonistic activities of 11 OPFRs against human nuclear receptors; estrogen receptor α (ERα), ERβ, androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1), TRβ1, retinoic acid receptor α (RARα), retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and PPARγ. Of the 11 OPFRs tested, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and tricrecyl phosphate (TCP) showed ERα and/or ERβ agonistic activity. In addition, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), TPhP and TCP showed AR antagonistic activity, and TBP, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), TDCPP, TPhP and TCP showed GR antagonistic activity. Furthermore, we found that seven compounds, TBP, tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), TEHP, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), TDCPP, TPhP, and TCP, display PXR agonistic activity. However, none of test compounds showed agonistic or antagonistic activity against TRα/β, or agonistic activity against RARα, RXRα or PPARα/γ. Taken together, these results suggest that several OPFRs may have potential endocrine disrupting effects via ERα, ERβ, AR, GR and PXR

  18. Is the bone tissue of ring-billed gulls breeding in a pollution hotspot in the St. Lawrence River, Canada, impacted by halogenated flame retardant exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Stéphanie Pellerin; Moreau, Robert; Letcher, Robert J; Verreault, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Bone metabolism is a tightly regulated process that controls bone remodeling and repair in addition to maintaining circulating calcium and phosphate levels. It has been shown that certain organohalogen contaminants may adversely impact bone tissue metabolism and structure in wildlife species. However, exceedingly few studies have addressed the bone-related effects of organohalogen exposure in birds. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between markers of bone metabolism and structural integrity, and concentrations of established and current-use halogenated flame retardants (FRs) in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) nesting in a known FR hotspot area in the St. Lawrence River (Montreal, Canada). Bone metabolism was assessed using plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, and alkaline phophatase activity, while bone (tarsus; trabecular and cortical sections) structure quality was examined using the percentage of bone tissue comprised in the total bone volume (Bv/Tv) and bone mineral density (BMD). Bv/Tv and BMD of the tarsus tended (not significant) to be positively associated with circulating calcium levels in male ring-billed gulls. Moreover, concentrations of FRs in male bird liver (brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-154, -183, -201, and -209) and plasma (BDE-209) were negatively correlated with trabecular and cortical BMD of the tarsus. These correlative associations may suggest light demineralization of bone tissue associated with FR exposure in male ring-billed gulls. Present findings provide some evidence that bone (tarsus) metabolism and mineral composition may be impacted in high FR-exposed (mainly to PBDEs) ring-billed gulls breeding in the highly urbanized Montreal region. PMID:24016627

  19. Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingliang; Webster, Thomas F; Gooden, David; Cooper, Ellen M; McClean, Michael D; Carignan, Courtney; Makey, Colleen; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-05-01

    With the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, the use of new and alternate flame retardants has been increasing. 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate, known as V6, is a flame retardant applied to polyurethane foam commonly found in furniture and automobile foam. However, to the authors' knowledge, no research has been conducted on V6 levels in the environment. The intention of this study was to measure the concentration of V6 in foam collected from baby products where it was recently detected and measure levels in dust samples collected from homes and automobiles in the Boston, MA area. To accomplish this, a pure V6 commercial standard was purchased from a Chinese manufacturer and purified (>98%). An analytical method to measure V6 in dust samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed. Extraction was conducted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and extracts were purified using an ENVI-Florisil SPE column (500 mg, 3 mL). V6 was measured in foam samples collected from baby products with a concentration ranging from 24,500,000 to 59,500,000 ng/g of foam (n = 12, average ± sd: 46,500,000 ± 12,000,000 ng/g; i.e., on average, 4.6% of the foam mass was V6). V6 was also detected in 19 of 20 car dust samples and 14 of 20 house dust samples analyzed. The concentration of V6 in the house dust ranged from samples analyzed. A significant correlation was also observed between V6 and TCEP in the dust samples suggesting that the use of V6 is a significant source of TCEP in the indoor environment. PMID:23565680

  20. Molecular Design, Graft Polymerization and Performance Evaluation of Radiation Curable Flame Retardant Monomers Derived from Phosphorus-Nitrogen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian Tyndall

    The textile industry is constantly seeking new technologies to make its production more efficient, economical and environmentally friendly. An exciting new strategy to impart value-added functional finishes to textiles is the use of radiation, such as ultraviolet (UV) light, to drive the polymerization of monomers onto the surface of the substrates. These grafted polymeric layers provide the fiber or fabric with interesting new properties, such as antimicrobial behavior, water and oil repellency or flame retardancy. With the aid of a photoinitiator, UV curing can take place very rapidly and the process is waterless and uses less energy than traditional textile wet processing. With these thoughts in mind, this research explores the molecular design, synthesis, UV induced graft polymerization and performance evaluation of nine phosphorus-based flame retardant monomers for cellulosic cotton substrates. All monomers in this work were easily prepared using one-pot reactions procedures. With the assistance of Irgacure 819 photoinitiator, seven of the nine monomers were shown to simultaneously graft and polymerize onto the surface of cotton fabrics under UV radiation. JMPRTM Pro 10 software was used to explore the effect of variables, such as monomer concentration, photoinitiator concentration and UV exposure time, on the yield of the grafted polymeric layer. Burn testing of the treated fabrics in the vertical, 45° and horizontal orientations showed that all nine monomers were effective flame retardants that function via the condensed phase mechanism by encouraging the formation of nonflammable char. These burn test results were validated by thermogravimetric analysis, which demonstrated quantitatively that all nine monomers strongly promote the generation of a protective char. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the treated fabrics and visualize the grafted polymeric layer.

  1. Controllable fabrication of zinc borate hierarchical nanostructure on brucite surface for enhanced mechanical properties and flame retardant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Pang, Hongchang; Chen, Wendan; Lin, Yuan; Zong, Lishuai; Ning, Guiling

    2014-05-28

    A novel and efficient halogen-free composite flame retardant (CFR) consisting of a brucite core and a fine zinc borate [Zn6O(OH)(BO3)3] hierarchical nanostructure shell was designed and synthesized via a facile nanoengineering route. It had been demonstrated that this unique hybrid structure possessed a high BET specific surface area (65 m(2)/g) and could significantly enhance the interfacial interaction when mixing with ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). This improved the transfer of stress between CFR particles and EVA matrix and increased the viscosity of EVA/EVA blends, which was beneficial for droplet inhibition and char forming. The mechanical properties and flammability behaviors of the EVA/CFR blends had been compared with the EVA/physical mixture (PM, with the given proportion of brucite and Zn6O(OH)(BO3)3). The mechanical properties of EVA/CFR blends, especially the tensile strength (TS), presented a remarkable increase reaching at least a 20% increment. Meanwhile, with the same 45 wt % of fillers, the EVA/CFR formulation could achieve a limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 33 (37.5 % higher than that of EVA/PM blends) and UL-94 V-0 rating. Moreover, the heat release rate (HRR), peak heat release rate (PHRR), total heat released (THR), smoke production rate (SPR) and mass loss rate (MLR) were considerably reduced, especially PHRR and SPR for EVA/CFR blends were reduced to 32%. According to this study, the design of fine structure might pave the way for the future development of halogen-free flame retardants combining both enhanced mechanical properties and excellent flame retardant behaviors. PMID:24813539

  2. The Progress of Research and Application of Boron- Containing Flame Retardants%含硼阻燃剂的研究及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪帆; 隗兰华

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic, application and recent development of inorganic and organic boron - containing flame retardants were reviewed. The performance and modification of inorganic and organic boron - containing flame retardants in pratical use were detailed. The development should be nano - sizing and synergist effect for zinc borate and compositing for organic boron - containing flame retardants. Collaborative type boron - containing flame retardants had better hydrolysis stability and flame retardant.%综述了无机及有机含硼阻燃剂的特点、应用及近年来的进展,介绍了主要的无机及有机含硼阻燃剂的性能和实际应用方面的改进。提出硼酸锌的纳米化与协同作用、有机硼阻燃剂与其它阻燃剂的复配使用发展方向。协同型硼阻燃剂阻燃效果更好,且可提高产品的水解稳定性。

  3. Improvement of thermal properties and flame retardancy of epoxy-amine thermosets by introducing bisphenol containing azomethine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel bisphenol 1, 4'-bis{4-[(4-hydroxy phenyliminomethylidene] phenoxy} benzene (BHPB, which contains azomethine moiety and flexible aromatic ether linkage, was synthesized and introduced into the curing system composed of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and diamine. The curing behavior of DGEBA/diamine changed dramatically due to the introduction of BHPB. The resultant epoxy thermosets containing BHPB had high Tgs (127-160 °C, high Td, 5% (>=330°C and high integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT values (662-1230°C and good flame retardancy for their high Limited Oxygen Index (LOI values (above 29.5.

  4. Study on the Built-up Effect of Inorganic Compounds to Flame Retardant Containing Organophosphorus in Suppression of Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Miao; XIAN Chun-ying; YANG Yong

    2006-01-01

    The built-up effect of inorganic compounds containing more active metal ions, such as Ca2+ , Al3+ , Cu2+ , and Zn2+ , as additives adding to phosphorus-containing flame retarding systems in suppression of smoke was studied. The data presented herein suggested that the amount of smoke in the burning process can be better suppressed after the cotton fabric finishing with built- up system was burnt. Some general principles were identified, and the likely causes of the observed effects were analyzed according to test data.

  5. 膨胀型阻燃剂对热硫化硅橡胶阻燃性能的影响%Effect of intumescent flame retardants on flame-retarded properties of silicone rubber vulcanizates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建华; 曾幸荣; 李红强; 罗权焜

    2011-01-01

    研究了膨胀型阻燃剂聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)和三聚氰胺(MEL)对甲基乙烯基硅橡胶的硫化特性、力学性能和阻燃性能的影响,通过观察硅橡胶的燃烧灰烬,研究了硅橡胶的燃烧行为和膨胀型阻燃剂对硅橡胶的阻燃机理.结果表明,随着阻燃荆APP用量的增大,硅橡胶的正硫化时间延长,焦烧时间缩短,力学性能下降,阻燃性能提高.不加阻燃剂的硅橡胶的氧指数为27.4%,当APP用量为40份时,硅橡胶的氧指数为28.6%,垂直燃烧等级为FV-0级;随着膨胀型阻燃剂APP/PER/MEL用量的增大,硅橡胶的氧指数增加,当APP/PER/MEL用量分别为30/5/5份时,硅橡胶的氧指数为32%,垂直燃烧等级为FV-0级.硅橡胶的燃烧灰烬具有明显的“壳-芯”结构,表明燃烧过程中硅橡胶分子链和填料发生了相分离,其中壳层为白色致密物,随着膨胀型阻燃剂用量的增大,芯层颜色由半透明白色转变为黑色,表明膨胀型阻燃荆有利于成炭阻燃.%The effects of intumescent flame retardants(IFR) such as APP,PER and MEL on the curing characteristics, mechanical properties and flame-retarded properties of silicone rubber(MVQ) were investigated. The ignition residue of MVQ vulcanizates was observed to study combustion behavior and flame retardant mechanism of IFR. The results showed that the optimum time increases and scorch time decreases with the addition of APP,and the mechanical properties of MVQ decrease and the flame-retarded properties are enhanced by the incorporation of APP. The LOI of MVQ without any flame retardant is 27. 4%, and the LOI increases to 28. 6% with the addition of 40 phr APP and the vertical combustion can meet the requirement of FV-0 grade. When the IFR compounded with APP, PER and MEL with the dosages of 30/5/5 phr, individually, the LOI value of MVQ is 32% and the vertical combustion meets FV-0 grade. LOI values increase with the increasing level of IFR. The shell

  6. Bis(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) Ethylphosphonate as Novel High-efficient Flame Retardant Additive for Safer Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • PFMP was synthesized as a flame-retardant additive. • The SET value of the electrolyte containing 20% TFMP shows the reduction of 86%. • The 20% TFMP electrolyte exhibits excellent electrochemical compatibility on the anode and cathode. - Abstract: Bis(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl) ethylphosphonate (TFEP) is first synthesized as a flame retardant additive for conventional carbonate electrolyte to improve the safety of lithium ion batteries. The inflammability and electrochemical stability of the TFEP containing electrolyte are studied. The self-extinguishing time test shows that TFEP provides a significant suppression of the flammability of the electrolyte. When adding 20% TFEP, the electrolyte cannot be ignited, exhibiting superior flame retardancy. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical charge/discharge tests show that TFEP has insignificant impact on the electrodes’ electrochemical performance. The results demonstrate that TFEP can be used as a novel highly effective safety additive for lithium ion batteries

  7. Application of intumescent flame retardant in rubber%膨胀型阻燃剂在橡胶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 王雪飞; 王进

    2012-01-01

    The composition and functional modification of intumescent flame retardant were introduced briefly, and an overview of the application of intumescent flame retardant in natural rubber, ethyl-ene-propylene-diene monomer, styrene-butadiene rubber and chloroprene rubber was presented with 26 references, the developing trend of the flame retardant were proposed.%介绍了膨胀型阻燃剂的组成及功能改进,总结了膨胀型阻燃剂在天然橡胶、三元乙丙橡胶、丁苯橡胶及氯丁橡胶中的应用进展,并对膨胀型阻燃剂的发展方向做了展望.

  8. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  9. Preparation, Characterization, Thermal, and Flame-Retardant Properties of Green Silicon-Containing Epoxy/Functionalized Graphene Nanosheets Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, silane was grafted onto the surface of graphene nanosheets (GNSs through free radical reactions, to form Si-O-Et functional groups that can undergo the sol-gel reaction. To improve the compatibility between the polymer matrix and the fillers, epoxy monomer was modified using a silane coupling agent; then, the functionalized GNSs were added to the modified epoxy to improve the thermal stability and strengthen the flame-retardant character of the composites. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectrometry reveals that when the double bonds in VTES are grafted to the surfaces of GNSs. Solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance presents that the distribution of the signal associated with the T3 structure is wide and significant, indicating that the functionalization reaction of the silicone in the modified epoxy and VTES-GNSs increases the network-like character of the structures. Thermal gravimetric analysis, the integral procedure decomposition temperature, and limiting oxygen index demonstrate that the GNSs composites that contained silicon had a higher thermal stability and stronger flame-retardant character than pure epoxy. The dynamic storage modulus of all of the m-GNSs containing composites was significantly higher than that of the control epoxy, and the modulus of the composites increased with the concentration of m-GNSs.

  10. Preparation and characterization of flame retardant form-stable phase change materials composed by EPDM, paraffin and nano magnesium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraffin, one of the important thermal energy storage materials, possesses various desirable characteristics (e.g. high heat of fusion, variable phase change temperature, self-nucleating, no phase segregation and low cost), but has low thermal stability and is flammable. In the current study, form-stable phase change materials (PCMs) based on EPDM (supported material), paraffin (dispersed phase change material), nano structured magnesium hydroxide (nano-MH) and red phosphorus (RP) with various compositions were prepared. The self-synthesized nano-MH has a kind of lamellar structure with good dispersal as characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The constructional morphology, thermal stability, latent heat and flame retardant properties of as-prepared form-stable PCM blends were evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and limited oxygen index (LOI) tester, respectively. The SEM and DSC results show that addition of nano-MH and RP has no apparent negative effect on EPDM/paraffin three dimensional netted structures and latent heat. The TGA curves indicate that inducing the nano-MH into the form-stable PCM blends leads to the reinforcement of thermal stability, increasing the amount of char residuals at 700 oC thereby improving the flame retarding performance.

  11. Dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of ten flame retardants in a human skin ex vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Jensen, Niels Martin; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Sørensen, Lars S; Webster, Thomas F; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2016-11-01

    The dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of ten organic flame retardants was measured using an ex vivo human skin model. The studied compounds were DBDPE, BTBPE, TBP-DBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, α, β and γ-HBCDD as well as syn- and anti-DDC-CO. Little or none of the applied flame retardants was recovered in either type of the receptor fluids used (physiological and worst-case). However, significant fractions were recovered in the skin depot, particularly in the upper skin layers. The primary effect of the worst-case receptor fluid was deeper penetration into the skin. The recovered mass was used to calculate lower- and upper-bound permeability coefficients kp. Despite large structural variation between the studied compounds, a clear, significant decreasing trend of kp was observed with increasing log Kow. The results indicate that the dermis may provide a significant barrier for these highly lipophilic compounds. However, based on our results, dermal uptake should be considered in exposure assessments, though it may proceed in a time-lagged manner compared to less hydrophobic compounds. PMID:27513551

  12. Synergy of EG and DMMP on RPUF Flame Retardant%DMMP与EG在RPUF中的阻燃协效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李碧英; 仇兵; 陈和江; 郑海廷

    2011-01-01

    利用锥形量热仪研究了可膨胀型石墨(EG)和甲基麟酸二甲酯(DMMP)对硬质聚氨酯泡沫(RPUF)的阻燃协同作用.结果表明,当DMMP/EG质量比为2.5:7.5,RPUF中添加质量分数为10%的该复配阻燃剂时,其热释放速率(HRR)为51.8 kW/m2,热释放峰值(PHRR)为148.67 kW/m2,总烟释放(TSR)值为519.1m2/m2,表现出良好的协同阻燃效果.%This test studied the synergy between an intumescent type expandable graphite (EG) and dimethyl methylphosphonate(DMMP) on rigid polyurethane foams (RPUF) flame-retardant with cone calorimeter. The result showed that the heat release rate (HRR) was 51.8 kW/m2, peak heat release rate (PHRR) was 148.67 kW/m2,total smake release (TSR) value was 519.1 m2/m2, when the mass ratio of DMMP/EG was 2.5 :7.5, the compounding flame retardants mass fraction was 10% in RPUF. It showed perfect synergy.

  13. Bioaccumulation of emerging organic compounds (perfluoroalkyl substances and halogenated flame retardants) by earthworm in biosolid amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Irene; de la Torre, Adrián; Sanz, Paloma; Pro, Javier; Carbonell, Gregoria; Martínez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, the bioaccumulation behavior of 49 target emerging organic compounds (20 perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs, and 29 halogenated flame retardants, HFRs) was studied in soil invertebrates (Eisenia andrei). Multi species soil systems (MS·3) were used to assess the fate and the effects associated with the application of four biosolids in agricultural soil on terrestrial soil organisms. Biosolid amendment increased concentrations 1.5-14-fold for PFASs, 1.1-2.4-fold for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs, and 1.1-3.6-fold for chlorinated flame retardants, CFRs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS, (25%) and BDE-209 (60%) were the predominant PFAS and HFR compounds, respectively, in biosolids-amended soils. Total concentrations (ng/g dry weight) in earthworms from biosolid-amended soils ranged from 9.9 to 101 for PFASs, from 45 to 76 for PBDEs and 0.3-32 for CFRs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated to evaluate the degree of exposure of pollutants in earthworms. The mean BAF ranged from 2.2 to 198 for PFASs, 0.6-17 for PBDEs and 0.5-20 for CFRs. The relationship of PFAS and PBDE BAFs in earthworms and their log Kow were compared: PFAS BAFs increased while PBDE BAFs declined with increasing log Kow values. The effect of the aging (21 days) on the bioavailability of the pollutants in amended soils was also assessed: the residence time affected differently to the compounds studied. PMID:27174781

  14. Substituting environmentally relevant flame retardants: assessment fundamentals. Vol. 1: results and summary overview; Erarbeitung von Bewertungsgrundlagen zur Substitution umweltrelevanter Flammschutzmittel. Bd. 1: Ergebnisse und zusammenfassende Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisewitz, A.; Kruse, H.; Schramm, E.

    2001-04-01

    The study examines the status, trends and alternatives (substitution and reduction potentials) in the use of flame retardants in selected product sectors: construction; electronics and electrical engineering; rail vehicles; textiles/upholstery. In addition, the study characterises thirteen flame retardants in terms of material flows, applications and toxicology/ecotoxicology. Vol. I: Summary overview of flame retardant applications in Germany in 1999/2000; characterisation of 13 flame retardants in terms of substance properties and application-specific characteristics, range of applications and quantities; derivation of assessment fundamentals for flame retardants, focussing on toxicology/ecotoxicology, suitability for closed-loop substance management, and potential for substitution and reduction; summary assessment of 13 flame retardants; summary overview of flame retardant applications. Vol. II: Analysis of flame retardant applications (state of the art, trends, alternatives) in: unsaturated polyester (UP) resins (rail vehicles); polyurethane (PU) insulating foams and one component foams (OCF) (construction sector); plastics for generic uses in electronic and electrical equipment, in casings for electronic and electrical equipment and in printed circuit boards (electronics/electrical engineering); and in upholstery and mattresses (textile applications). Vol. III: Toxicological/ecotoxicological profiles of substances: Decabromodiphenyl oxide; Tetrabromobisphenol A; Bis[pentabromophenyl]ethane; Hexabromocyclodo-decane, Tris[chloropropyl]phosphate, Resorcinol-bis-diphenylphosphate; N-Hydroxymethyl-3-dimethylphosphonopropionamide, Red phosphorus, Ammonium polyphosphate, Melamin cyanurate, Aluminiumtrihydroxide, Sodium borate decahydrate, Antimony trioxide. (orig.) [German] Untersucht werden Stand, Trends und Alternativen (Substitutions- und Minderungspotentiale) beim Einsatz von Flammschutzmitteln (FSM) in ausgewaehlten Produkten aus: Baubereich, Elektrotechnik

  15. Novel chemical synthesis and characterization of copper pyrovanadate nanoparticles and its influence on the flame retardancy of polymeric nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiyasiyan-Arani, Maryam; Masjedi-Arani, Maryam; Ghanbari, Davood; Bagheri, Samira; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In this work, copper pyrovanadate (Cu3V2O7(OH)2(H2O)2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and rapid chemical precipitation method. Different copper-organic complexes were used to control the size and morphology of products. The morphology and structure of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The influence of copper pyrovanadate nanostructures on the flame retardancy of the polystyrene, poly vinyl alcohol and cellulose acetate was studied. Dispersed nanoparticles play the role of a magnetic barrier layer, which slows down product volatilization and prevents the flame and oxygen from the sample during decomposition of the polymer. Cu3V2O7(OH)2(H2O)2 is converted to Cu3V2O8 with an endothermic reaction which simultaneously releases water and decrease the temperature of the flame region. PMID:27143312

  16. Novel chemical synthesis and characterization of copper pyrovanadate nanoparticles and its influence on the flame retardancy of polymeric nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiyasiyan-Arani, Maryam; Masjedi-Arani, Maryam; Ghanbari, Davood; Bagheri, Samira; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-05-01

    In this work, copper pyrovanadate (Cu3V2O7(OH)2(H2O)2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple and rapid chemical precipitation method. Different copper-organic complexes were used to control the size and morphology of products. The morphology and structure of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The influence of copper pyrovanadate nanostructures on the flame retardancy of the polystyrene, poly vinyl alcohol and cellulose acetate was studied. Dispersed nanoparticles play the role of a magnetic barrier layer, which slows down product volatilization and prevents the flame and oxygen from the sample during decomposition of the polymer. Cu3V2O7(OH)2(H2O)2 is converted to Cu3V2O8 with an endothermic reaction which simultaneously releases water and decrease the temperature of the flame region.

  17. 膨胀阻燃聚乙烯的研究%Study on Intumescent Flame Retarded Polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志东; 吴泽; 单连伟; 马成国; 张显友

    2012-01-01

    将可膨胀石墨(EG)和传统的膨胀阻燃剂(IFR)用于制备膨胀阻燃聚乙烯(PE),采用极限氧指数对其阻燃性能进行了研究,探讨了2种阻燃剂之间的协同阻燃作用,并采用差示扫描量热仪和红外光谱对其热降解过程和炭层结构分别进行了分析。结果表明,EG和IFR对PE具有很好的协同阻燃作用,当其配比为1:1时,膨胀阻燃PE可获得较佳的阻燃性能,阻燃剂用量仅为30份就可使膨胀阻燃PE的极限氧指数达到31.5%,远高于单一阻燃体系;在热降解过程中,复合膨胀阻燃体系仍表现出EG和IFR的特征降解过程,热降解成炭由二者的热降解产物构成,证实了二者之间的物理作用机理,物理膨胀炭层和化学膨胀炭层的结合有效增加了炭层的隔热、隔氧作用,有利于阻燃性能的改善。%Expandable graphite (EG) and traditional intumescent flame retardants (IFR) were introduced into polyethylene (PE). The flame retardancy of the system was studied using differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and testing of limited oxygen index. A strong synergistic effect between EG and IFR was observed. As a result, a limited oxygen index value of 31.5 ~ was achieved by adding 30 phr EG/IFR in PE, which was much higher than that of PE/EG or PE/IFR. The physical interaction between EG and IFR during thermal degradation was proved by their individual degradation behavior and char structure of the composite. The char formed by thermal degradation of EG and IFR was integrated to form an efficient barrier to oxygen and heat, which was in favor of the flame retardancy.

  18. Halogenated flame-retardant concentrations in settled dust, respirable and inhalable particulates and polyurethane foam at gymnastic training facilities and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Halogenated flame-retardants (FRs) are used in a wide array of polymer-containing products. Animal studies and structure-activity modeling exercises suggest that FR exposure may result in detrimental toxicological effects. Workers with extended contact with such polymers (e.g., electronic dismantlers, carpet installers and aircraft personnel) have previously been observed to exhibit elevated body burdens of FRs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Recently, elevated PBDE blood levels were also reported in a non-occupational exposure group, gymnasts. These levels were hypothesized to be related to the large volumes of FR-treated polyurethane foam in gymnastics facilities. To further our understanding of workers' potential exposure, we analyzed FR concentrations in indoor dust and size-fractionated air particulates (respirable (4 μm)) from gymnastic studios. Values were compared to samples from the homes of coaches employed at these facilities. Polyurethane foam blocks (i.e., pit foam) were also analyzed to characterize potential FR sources. FRs examined included those used to flame-retard polyurethane foam: 8 PBDE congeners, two brominated components of Firemaster 550 (2-ethylhexyl 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH)) and three chlorinated organophosphates (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)). Several additional FRs not used in polyurethane were also evaluated. These have also been detected in indoor dust and air and may also lead to adverse health effects. These include: BDE-183 and its replacement product (1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), two congeners of the deca-BDE formulation (BDE-206, -209) and their replacement decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β-, γ-HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)). Pit foam contained multiple FRs at cumulative

  19. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants....mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated...

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Sphingobium sp. Strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. Strain TDK1, Haloalkyl Phosphate Flame Retardant- and Plasticizer-Degrading Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Katsumasa; Kasai, Daisuke; Fukuda, Masao; Takahashi, Shouji

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Sphingomonas sp. strain TDK1 are haloalkyl phosphate flame retardant- and plasticizer-degrading bacteria. We report here the draft genome sequences of these strains to provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying their degradation ability. PMID:27417843

  1. Adding the combination of CNTs and MoS2 into halogen-free flame retarding TPEE with enhanced the anti-dripping behavior and char forming properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Introduction the combination of the CNTs and MoS2 into P–N flame retarding TPEE. • Binary synergists for P–N flame retardants in TPEE. • Increase of char yield and form the stable carbonaceous char. - Abstract: In this paper, the nanocomposites thermoplastic polyester-ether elastomer (TPEE) with phosphorus–nitrogen (P–N) flame retardants, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) was prepared by melt blending. TPEE containing P–N flame retardant, CNTs and MoS2 achieved UL94 V-0 rating due to the better barrier effect of the special structure. The structure was supported by the result of rheological properties. The thermal stability was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and char residue characterization was investigated by SEM–EDX measurements. The results demonstrated that the combination of CNTs and MoS2 results in the increase of char yield and the formation of the thermally stable char which can effectively prevent in the dripping behavior during the burning process

  2. Determination of the brominated flame retardant, hexabroomcyclodocane in sediments and biota by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, S.; Bersuder, P.; Allchin, C.R.; Zegers, B.; Boon, J.P.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    A method involving reversed-phase, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was developed for separation, detection and quantitation of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To address the lack of environmental da

  3. AUTOMATED REMOVAL OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANT MATERIAL FROM A MIXED E-WASTE PLASTICS RECYCLING STREAM - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    p>Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing waste problems worldwide. Improper handling of e-waste results in vast amounts of toxic waste being sent to landfill and leaching into the water supply. Due to there concerns e-waste recycling is a rapidly growing...

  4. Persistent organic pollutants, brominated flame retardants and synthetic musks in fish from remote alpine lakes in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Gujer, Erika; Zennegg, Markus; Lanfranchi, Marco

    2007-04-01

    Remote alpine lakes do not receive any direct aquatic inputs from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, these ecosystems may receive persistent organic compounds (POPs) by direct atmospheric deposition, only. Consequently, fish dwelling in these ecosystems represent an excellent indicator for the long-term atmospheric input of bioaccumulating and persistent contaminants. In the present study, fish from seven remote alpine lakes, located between 2062 and 2637 m above sea level in south eastern Switzerland (Grisons), were investigated. Lipid-based fish tissue concentrations of pesticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its transformation products (2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), 4,4'-DDD, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), 4,4'-DDE), as well as dieldrin, heptachlor exo-epoxide (HPEX), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) were measured. In addition, seven synthetic musk compounds (Crysolide (ADBI), Phantolide (AHMI), Fixolide (AHTN), Traseolide (ATII), Galaxolide (HHCB), musk ketone (MK), and musk xylene (MX)) were determined. Concentrations of PCB, PCDD/F, and PBDE were in the same range as in fish from the major lakes situated in the Swiss plateau, indicating mainly atmospheric input of these persistent compounds. In contrast, concentrations of synthetic musks which are used as fragrances in laundry detergents and cosmetic products were distinctly lower than concentrations in fish from Swiss plateau lakes which receive inputs from waste water treatment plants. PMID:17207835

  5. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in sludge, sediment and fish from municipal dumpsite at Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Sudaryanto, Agus; Setiawan, Iwan E; Riyadi, Adi S; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs contamination in sludge, sediments and fish from various locations including raw leachate pond, leachate treatment plans (LTPs), control wells and reference site at open landfill of municipal dumpsite, Surabaya City, Indonesia. 62 PCBs and 14 PBDEs congeners, and 3 HBCDs isomers were identified and quantified using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Concentration ranges and median (value in parentheses) of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs were from not detected (ND) to 60 (3.9) ng g(-1) dw, 0.0075 to 45 (4.5) ng g(-1) dw and ND to 2.8 (0.052) ng g(-1) dw in sludge and sediments, respectively. While in two polled of fish samples were 30-55 ng g(-1) lw, 6.6-11 ng g(-1) lw and 1.6-3.3 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. Among the sampling sites, the highest level of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in sludge from raw leachate pond. However, PCBs and PBDEs levels were showing decreased in LTP-1 that could be due to the bacterial degradation but not in LTP-2, HBCDs were more stable in both LTPs. Levels of PCBs and BFRs in sludge at the present study were lower than those reported in sewage sludge reported from some other countries. PCBs profiles were mainly composed in that order by CB-138, -153, -180, -101, -118 and -28, while by BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -28 for PBDEs in sludge, sediments and fish. Profiles of HBCDs were predominantly composed by γ- and α-isomers in sludge and fish, respectively. Debromination, dechlorination, commercial formulations used and congener-specific accumulation of those contaminants are the factors influenced the profiles. PMID:24054131

  6. Self-Forming 3D Core-Shell Ceramic Nanostructures for Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Elena; Leret, Pilar; De La Mata, Maria J; Fernández, Jose F; De Aza, Antonio H; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Rubio-Marcos, Fernando

    2016-04-13

    The synthesis of aluminum phosphates-based composites has been widely studied during the past decade because of the promising industrial application of these materials. Here we show a simple one-pot heterogeneous precipitation approach to fabricate a sepiolite-phosphate (SepP) composite with adequate control of the size and dispersion of the phosphate nanoparticles. This coupling between aluminum phosphate and sepiolite nanofibers results in the development of a novel three-dimensional rigid supported phosphate structure, which is generated during the thermal treatment. According to our results, this phenomenon can be explained by a migration-coalescence mechanism of phosphate nanoparticles over the sepiolite support, assisted by a liquid phase. It is worth pointing out that this stimulant behavior observed here could have potential technological applications such as halogen-free flame retardant materials. PMID:27007184

  7. Contamination and distribution of heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative halogenated flame retardants in a pristine mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Peng, Yisheng; Guo, Pengran; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Geng, Xinhua; Miao, Shenyu

    2016-02-15

    Owing to the expanding metal and electronics industries, pollution in the Pearl River Estuary needs special concern. Given the hydrodynamic effect, the pristine mangrove in Qi'ao Island would be contaminated by tidal flushing. Thus, we examined (1) the contamination of pollutants in this mangrove, including heavy metals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs), and (2) how habitat characteristics and sediment properties affect their distribution. Results showed that the sediment in Qi'ao mangrove had higher concentrations of heavy metals, PBDEs and AHFRs than that in other pristine mangroves, and similar concentrations to those mangroves impacted by point sources. Heavy metal concentrations were lower in the vegetated areas than mudflat, while the opposite was found for PBDEs and AHFRs. The findings imply that tidal flushing was an important pollution source, while mangrove plants have the capacity to minimize the impact of heavy metals, but not PBDEs and AHFRs. PMID:26759186

  8. Flame Retardant: Cyberbullies Torment Their Victims 24/7: Here's How to Stop the Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Cyberbullying is the use of electronic information such as e-mail and other digital age tools to bully or harass individuals. Cyberbullies post angry and vulgar messages in online "flaming" wars or hack into a peer's e-mail account to wreak havoc, assaulting the reputations and already fragile egos of their young victims. The devastating effects…

  9. Functionalization of layered double hydroxides by intumescent flame retardant: Preparation, characterization, and application in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Guobo, E-mail: huangguobo@tzc.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Linhai 317000 (China); Fei Zhengdong [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Chen Xiaoying; Qiu Fangli [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Linhai 317000 (China); Wang Xu; Gao Jianrong [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LDHs were modified with compound PAHPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAHPA-LDHs improved the flame retardancy of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: A phosphorus-nitrogen containing compound, N-(2-(5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinyl-2-ylamino)-hexylacetamide-2-propyl acid (PAHPA), is synthesized and characterized. A novel flame retardant, namely layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with PAHPA (PAHPA-LDHs), is prepared by ion-exchange of LDHs with PAHPA. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis with a high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope show that PAHPA intercalated LDHs. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that PAHPA-LDHs achieve well dispersion in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and the EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites (i.e. EVA filled with 5 wt% PAHPA-LDHs) are formed by polymer melt intercalation. Thermal stability and flammability properties are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter tests. The results show that the addition of PAHPA-LDHs improves thermal stability and reduces obviously the flammability of EVA resin. Compared with pure EVA resin, the peak heat release rate of the EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites is reduced by about 43%. The results of scanning electron microscopy and TEM indicate that a compact and dense intumescent char is formed for the EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites after combustion.

  10. Trends in the levels of halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes atmosphere over the period 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Salamova, Amina; Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    Air (vapor and particle phase) samples were collected every 12days at five sites near the North American Great Lakes from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2013 as a part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN). The concentrations of 35 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eight other halogenated flame retardants were measured in each of the ~1,300 samples. The levels of almost all of these flame retardants, except for pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and Dechlorane Plus (DP), were significantly higher in Chicago, Cleveland, and Sturgeon Point. The concentrations of PBEB and HBB were relatively high at Eagle Harbor and Sturgeon Point, respectively, and the concentrations of DP were relatively high at Cleveland and Sturgeon Point, the two sites closest to this compound's production site. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model to determine significant temporal trends in these atmospheric concentrations. The concentrations of PBDEs were decreasing at the urban sites, Chicago and Cleveland, but were generally unchanging at the remote sites, Sleeping Bear Dunes and Eagle Harbor. The concentrations of PBEB were decreasing at almost all sites except for Eagle Harbor, where the highest PBEB levels were observed. HBB concentrations were decreasing at all sites except for Sturgeon Point, where HBB levels were the highest. DP concentrations were increasing with doubling times of 3-9years at all sites except those closest to its source (Cleveland and Sturgeon Point). The levels of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (TBE) were unchanging at the urban sites, Chicago and Cleveland, but decreasing at the suburban and remote sites, Sturgeon Point and Eagle Harbor. The atmospheric concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) were increasing at almost every site with doubling times of 3-6years. PMID:27160856

  11. The effect of mineral fillers on the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene/expandable graphite compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Hohenwarter, Dieter; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-05-01

    In many polyolefin applications, such as electrical cables or automotive applications, the fire protection is a very important task. Unfortunately flame-retardant polymeric materials are often halogenated and form toxic substances in case of fire, which explains the general requirement to reduce the halogen content to zero. Non-halogenated, state-of-the-art flame retardants must be incorporated into the polymer in very high grades (> 40 wt%) leading to massive decrease in mechanical properties and/or processability. In this research work halogen-free flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) /expandable graphite (EG) were filled with minerals fillers such as layered silicates (MMT), magnesium hydroxide (MgOH), zeolite (Z) and expanded perlite (EP) in order to enhance the flame-retardant effect. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were investigated to gain more fundamental knowledge about synergistic combinations of flame-retardants and other additives. The rheological properties were characterized with a rotational rheometer with plate-plate setup. The EG/EP/PP compound exhibited the highest increase in viscosity (˜ 37 %). As representative value for the mechanical properties the Young's modulus was chosen. The final Young's modulus values of the twofold systems gained higher values than the single ones. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was utilized to investigate the material with respect to volatile substances and combustion behavior. All materials decomposed in one-step degradation. The EG filled compounds showed a significant increase in sample weight due to the expansion of EG. The combustion behavior of these materials was characterized by cone calorimeter tests. Especially combinations of expandable graphite with mineral fillers exhibit a reduction of the peak heat release rate during cone calorimeter measurements of up to 87% compared to pure PP.

  12. Preparation and flame retardancy of intumescent flame-retardant polypropylene%新型无卤膨胀阻燃聚丙烯的制备及阻燃性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林刚; 徐晓楠; 王大为; 董希琳; 杨守生

    2013-01-01

    利用有机杂环磷酸酯1,2,3三(5,5-二甲基1,3-二氧杂环己内磷酸酯基)苯(FR)、聚磷酸铵(APP)和三聚氰胺(MEL)制备新型无卤三源膨胀阻燃聚丙烯(IFR/PP)材料,通过极限氧指数(LOI)、水平燃烧(UL-94)、热重分析法(TGA)、锥形量热(cone)等方法研究了IFR对聚丙烯阻燃性能影响.结果表明:当IFR总添加质量分数为30%(FR∶APP∶MEL质量比为4∶8∶3),阻燃IFR/PP的LOI达到36.2%,其热释放速率峰值(pk- HRR)、热释放速率平均值(av HRR)、有效燃烧热平均值(av EHC)、比消光面积平均值(av SEA)、质量损失速率平均值(av MLR)及一氧化碳释放率平均值(av - CO)相对未阻燃PP分别降低75.9%、71.7%0、76.4%、74.6%、58.3%和50.0%,300s时CO释放量接近0,呈现出良好的阻燃、抑烟和抑毒性能;SEM研究表明,IFR催化PP在燃烧初期形成了致密、坚硬的优质炭层.%Polypropylene(PP) was flame retarded with an intumescent flame rctardant(IFR) system containing 1, 2, 3-tri(5, 5-dibromomethyl-l, 3-dioxaphosphorinanyl-2-oxy)benzene(FR) , polyphosphate(APP ) and melamine (MEL). The effect of content on flame retarding properties such as limited oxygen index (LOI) measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), UL - 94 and cone tests was studied. The results demonstrate that IFR is effective on improving the flame retardancy of polypropylene. The limited oxygen index value could reach 36. 2% for the sample containing 30% IFR(FR : APP : MEL, 4 : 8 : 3, mass ratio). The cone experimental results show that the peak heat release rate(pk-HRR), average heat release rate(av-HRR), average effective heat of combustion (av-EHC), average specific extinction area(av-SEA) . average mass loss rate(av-MLR) and average CO release rate(av-CO) of the PP are reduced 75. 9%, 71.7%, 76.4% ,74.6%, 58.3% and 50. 0% respectively than those of the pure PP. The release rate of soot and poisonous gas are reduced, which reaches to about zero at burning

  13. Development of formulations of polyethylene-based flame retardant, radiation resistant wires and radiation-compatible polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formulations of fire retardant and heat resistant insulations have been developed using low density polyethylene (LDPE) as the base polymer and a cobalt facility as the irradiation source. Addition of suitable antioxidants, processing stabilisers, flame-retardant materials, lubricants and agents for catalysing the crosslinking process has been made to impart the desired properties to the insulation. Optimum radiation dose and ideal conditions for irradiation of batches of wires have been explored. TGA and DTA studies have been carried out to assess thermal stability imparted by the addition of the antioxidants to the formulation. As part of endeavours to develop radiation compatible formulations of (i) polypropylene, the influence of the nucleating agent p(t-butyl) benzoic aluminium on various crystallisation parameters, e.g. Tp, Tonset Δ H (heat of crystallisation) and Tm has been investigated. Clarity is adversely influenced on addition of the nucleating agents. Gains in thermal stability were found as determined by TGA and DTA of the blends of the nucleating agent with (i) polypropylene. (author)

  14. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char

  15. Analytical capabilities of high performance liquid chromatography - Atmospheric pressure photoionization - Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS) for the trace determination of novel and emerging flame retardants in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2015-10-22

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 27 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including so called "emerging" and "novel" BFRs (EBFRs and NBFRs) in fish samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the identification/quantitation of contaminants. HPLC-Orbitrap-MS analysis provided a fast separation of selected analytes within 14 min, thus demonstrating a high throughput processing of samples. The developed methodology was tested by intralaboratory validation in terms of recovery, repeatability, linear calibration ranges, instrumental and method limits of quantitation (i-LOQ and m-LOQ), and where possible, trueness was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs). Recoveries of analytes were between 80 and 119%, while the repeatability in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) was in the range from 1.2 to 15.5%. The measured values for both analyzed CRMs agreed with the provided consensus values, revealing the recovery of reference concentrations in 72-119% range. The elaborated method met the sensitivity criterion according to Commission Recommendation 2014/118/EU on monitoring of BFRs in food products for majority of the compounds. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in real samples determined by HPLC-APPI-Orbitrap-MS method and validated gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) method were found to be in a good agreement. PMID:26526911

  16. Functionalized layered double hydroxide-based epoxy nanocomposites with improved flame retardancy and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Naderi Kalali; Xin Wanga; De-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized layered double hydroxides (LDHs) based on a multi-modifier system composed of hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin sodium (sCD), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and taurine (T) have been designed and fabricated in this paper, aiming at developing high performance fire retardant epoxy nanocomposites. In this multi-modifier system, sCD was utilized to improve the char yield, DBS was used to enlarge the inter-layer distance of LDH and T was used to enhance the interaction betw...

  17. Efficient Flame Retardant Thin Films Synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure PECVD through the High Co-deposition Rate of Hexamethyldisiloxane and Triethylphosphate on Polycarbonate and Polyamide-6 Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Florian; Gherardi, Nicolas; Duday, David; Berné, Aurélien; Choquet, Patrick

    2016-05-18

    An innovative approach to produce high-performance and halogen-free flame-retardant thin films at atmospheric pressure is reported. PDMS-based coatings with embedded dopant-rich polyphosphates are elaborated thanks to a straightforward approach, using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD). Deposition conditions have been tailored to elaborate various thin films that can match the fire performance requirements. Morphology, chemical composition, and structure are investigated, and results show that the coatings performances are increased by taking advantage of the synergistic effect of P and Si flame retardant compounds. More specifically, this study relates the possibility to obtain flame retardant properties on PolyCarbonate and PolyAmide-6 thanks to their covering by a 5 μm thick coating, i.e. very thin films for this field of application, yet quite substantial for plasma processes. Hence, this approach enables deposition of flame retardant coatings onto different polymer substrates, providing a versatile fireproofing solution for different natures of polymer substrates. The presence of an expanded charred layer at the surface acts as a protective barrier limiting heat and mass transfer. This latter retains and consumes a part of the PC or PA-6 degradation byproducts and then minimizes the released flammable gases. It may also insulate the substrate from the flame and limit mass transfers of remaining volatile gases. Moreover, reactions in the condensed phase have also been highlighted despite the relatively thin thickness of the deposited layers. As a result of these phenomena, excellent performances are obtained, illustrated by a decrease of the peak of the heat release rate (pHRR) and an increase of the time to ignition (TTI). PMID:27115773

  18. Synthesis and Flame Retardance of a Silicon,Nitrogen, Phosphorus Synergistic Flame Retardant%硅氮磷协同阻燃剂的合成及其阻燃性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海军; 王彦林

    2015-01-01

    A multi-element synergistic flame retardant,1,3,5-tris{2-[dimethyl(1-oxo-1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octalkyl-4-methyloxy)siloxy]ethyl}isocyanurate(TPOSC), was synthesized from 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate,dimethyldichlorosilane and 1-oxo-1-phospha-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane(PEPA),and was characterized by means of FTIR,1H NMR,and TG/DTA. The effect of reaction temperature on the reaction time when HCl was completely released and the influence of raw material ratio on the product yield were investigated. It was showed that,under the optimal conditions of dioxane as solvent,n(1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)cyanurate)∶n(dimethyldichlorosilane)∶n(PEPA) 1.0∶3.0∶3.3,70℃ and 7 h for the first step reaction,and 90℃ and 8 h for the second step reaction,the product yield could reach 92.1%. The characterization results verified the structure of the product. The product has excellent thermal stability and high flame-retardance efficiency for polypropylene(PP). Besides,when it was mixed with melamine cyanurate and was applied to PP,high synergistic flame-retardance efficiency was found.%以三羟乙基异氰尿酸酯(赛克)、二甲基二氯硅烷(DMDCS)和1-氧代-1-磷杂-4-羟甲基-2,6,7-三氧杂双环[2.2.2]辛烷(PEPA)为原料,合成多元素协同阻燃剂异氰尿酸三{2-[二甲基(1-氧代-1-磷杂-2,6,7-三氧杂双环[2.2.2]辛烷基-4-甲氧基)硅氧基]乙基}酯(TPOSC),探讨反应温度对HCl气体放完所需时间的影响和反应物配比等对产物收率的影响。实验结果表明,以二氧六环为溶剂,在n(赛克)︰n(DMDCS)︰n(PEPA)=1.0︰3.0︰3.3、第一步在70℃反应7 h、第二步在90℃反应8 h的最优工艺条件下,收率可达92.1%。FTIR、1H NMR、热重分析等表征结果显示,合成的产物结构与目标产物一致,产物有较好的热稳定性,对聚丙烯阻燃成炭的效果好,且与三聚氰胺氰尿酸盐

  19. 无机填料对阻燃聚丙烯土工格栅阻燃性能的影响%Inlfuence of Fillers on Flame Retardancy of Flame Retarded Polypropylene Used for Geo-grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜龙; 徐志胜

    2014-01-01

    The influences of talc,calcium carbonate,zinc borate and carbon black on the flame retardancy of flame retarded polypropylene samples used for geo-grid were studied by using limited oxygen index (LOI),alcohol blow lamp test,cone calorimeter and thermo-gravimetric analyzer etc.. The correlations between the alcohol blow lamp test and other fire tests were analyzed. The results show that there are clearly Pearson correlations between LOI value,alcohol blow lamp rating and time to ignition (TTI),the addition of the four fillers reduces the LOI values and TTI of the samples while calcium carbonate and carbon black with high content reduce the LOI obviously and fail to pass the alcohol blow lamp test. Meanwhile,there are some differences during combustion of the samples with addition of different fillers by cone calorimeter technique. The addition of zinc borate reduces the peak heat release rate,total heat release and smoke production rate of the samples. The thermal stability of the samples filled with carbon black is improved and the heat release rate is decreased,but carbon black has a bad effect on the total heat release and smoke production rate. Talc and calcium carbonate show negative influence on the heat release rate and total heat release while they reduce the smoke production rate of the samples. The results of comprehensive considering these fire methods indicate that the samples filled with zinc borate acquires the best flame retardancy comparing to other fillers.%利用极限氧指数(LOI)、酒精喷灯燃烧实验、锥形量热仪,热重(TG)分析等方法对比研究了滑石粉、碳酸钙、硼酸锌和炭黑对阻燃聚丙烯(PP)土工格栅试样阻燃性能的影响,并分析了这几种阻燃性能测试结果之间的相关性。结果表明,LOI与酒精喷灯燃烧实验结果及点燃时间(TTI)之间的相关性较好,4种填料的加入都会降低试样的LOI和TTI,其中碳酸钙和炭黑含量较

  20. EVA在无卤阻燃ABS树脂中的应用%Application of EVA in Halogen-free Flame Retardant ABS Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟卫平; 苟凯; 栾国俊; 叶立军

    2012-01-01

    将不同醋酸乙烯(VA)含量的乙烯-醋酸乙烯共聚物(EVA)与聚磷酸铵(APP)、三聚氰胺氰尿酸盐(MCA)复配成膨胀型阻燃剂,探讨了不同VA含量、不同比例的EVA树脂对丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯共聚物(ABS)的阻燃性、悬臂梁缺口冲击强度、热变形温度的影响.结果表明,在ABS树脂中添加膨胀型阻燃剂EVA/APP/MCA,可显著提高其阻燃性能;随EVA含量增加,EVA/APP/MCA无卤阻燃ABS体系的阻燃性能和悬臂梁缺口冲击强度增加,热变形温度下降;随VA含量的增加,EVA/APP/MCA无卤阻燃ABS体系的阻燃性能和热变形温度增加,悬臂梁缺口冲击强度下降.%The EVA with different content of VA was compounded, with APP, MCA and generated to be flame retardant. The effect of different content of VA and different percentage of EVA on the flame retardance, Izod notched impact strength and heat distortion temperature of ABS was discussed. The results showed that adding ABS in expand flame retardant EVA/APP/MCA can improve the flame retardant performance obviously. With EVA content increased, flame retardant performance and Izod notched impact strength of EVA/APP/MCA halogen-free FR ABS system increased, and the heat distortion temperature decreased. With the increase of the content of VA, flame retardant performance and heat distortion temperature of EVA/APP/MCA halogen-free FR ABS system increased, and the Izod notched impact strength decreased.

  1. Implementation of thermal processes for feedstock recycling of bromine and antimony, with energy recovery, from plastics waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Phase 1. Literature survey/status update, evaluation, and ranking of combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis based technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerrigter, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-11-01

    The bromine industry wants to process plastic Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs), to recycle bromine, antimony, and other valuable metals, with energy recovery for sustainable production and closing the bromine loop at the End-of-Life. The motivation to perform the underlying study was that insufficient detailed information was available regarding the technical and economical feasibility of processing of WEEE with thermal processes (i.e. combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis-based technologies). The objective of the study was to make an inventory of available processes and evaluate them based on the following six criteria:Energy efficiency, Bromine and Antimony recovery, Emissions (legislation permits), General quality of residues/secondary products, Operational experience, and Profit expectations (ROI). 57 refs.

  2. Flame Retardance and Thermal Stability of Polysulfonamide Fiber%芳砜纶的阻燃性及热稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲; 汪晓峰

    2011-01-01

    Polysulfonamide(PSA) fiber is an innovated and developed by Shanghai Textile Research Institute and Shanghai Synthetic Fiber Research Institute. It is only the high temperature fiber investigated independently and manufactured commercially in China. The paper is focused on the flame retardance and heat resistance of the fiber. Compared with Dupont's Nomex ?, PSA fiber4 has excellent flame retardance and high temperature stability.%芳砜纶是一种由我国自主创新研发,并实现产业化的耐高温纤维.从纤维织物的阻燃及耐热性能出发,通过与美国杜邦公司同类竞争产品Nomex@的对比分析,得出芳砜纶具有优越的阻燃性及热稳定性的结论.

  3. 结构阻燃型腰果酚基硬质聚氨酯泡沫的制备及性能研究%Study on the Preparation and Properties of Cardanol-Based Flame Retardant Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 罗振扬; 李书龙; 周永红

    2014-01-01

    以三聚氰胺改性腰果酚基阻燃多元醇和异氰酸酯为主要原料,采用环戊烷为发泡剂,添加无卤阻燃膨胀型阻燃剂石墨( EG)、匀泡剂等制备无卤阻燃生物基硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料。探讨结构阻燃型聚醚多元醇、阻燃剂的添加对生物基硬质聚氨酯泡沫的热性能、燃烧性能和力学性能的影响。结果表明,随着阻燃剂的增加,导热系数和固化时间增加;添加相同阻燃剂的泡沫样品其阻燃性能随着添加量的增加而增加, EG 在提高氧指数方面优于聚磷酸铵( APP )和乙基膦酸二乙酯( DEEP),固体阻燃剂APP和EG在增加力学性能、热稳定性方面较液体阻燃剂DEEP效果好。%Biomass-based halogen-free flame-retardant rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized from mela-mine modified cardanol-based flame retardant polyol, isocyanate, blowing agent cyclopentane and halogen-free flame retardants expanded graphite ( EG ) , ammonium polyphosphate ( APP ) and diethyl ethylphosphonate ( DEEP) were analyzed. The main factors affecting the structure and mechanical, thermal stability and combustion properties of flame retardant rigid polyurethane foams were discussed, such as the structure of cardanol-based poly-ol, the amount and kind of flame retardants and so on. The results showed that the curing times and thermal con-ductivities of PUFs adding flame retardants DEEP, APP and EG were slightly increased, compared with non-flame retardant PUF. The flame retardant properties of the PUF samples increased with the amount of the same flame re-tardant. EG was better in improving limited oxygen index than DEEP and APP. The solid flame retardants APP and EG were better in increasing the mechanical properties, thermal stability than the liquid flame retardant DEEP.

  4. 阻燃杨木粉热解过程的红外谱图分析%Infrared spectrum analysis of flame retardant poplar powder in pyrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文瑞芝; 胡云楚; 袁莉萍

    2011-01-01

    利用红外光谱技术分析测定纯杨木粉与添加了阻燃剂(硼酸锌)的杨木粉之间的热解过程差异.对两种材料不同温度条件下的热解产物进行红外解析,结果表明:纯杨木粉在低于250℃的条件下热解缓慢,450℃条件下就已热解完全,而添加阻燃剂的杨木粉,其热解速率缓慢些,达到600℃条件才热解完全.在杨木粉中添加阻燃剂硼酸锌可以缓慢材料的热解,达到阻燃目的.%The pyrolysis process differences between the pure poplar powder and the appending flame retardant (zinc borate) poplar powder was determined by employing infrared spectroscopy analytical technique. The pyrolysis products of the two kinds of poplar powder under different temperature conditions were analyzed in the infrared spectrum. The results show that the pyrogenation of the pure poplar powder was slowness under 250 ℃ condition,and completeness under 450 ℃ condition, but the pyrolysis velocity of the appending flame retardant poplar powder was more slowness than without flame retardant, and the completeness pyrogenation occurred under 600 ℃ condition. The pyrolysis velocity of materials could be slowed down through appending flame retardant (zinc borate) in poplar powder, and the aim of obstructing combustion of the material can be realized.

  5. Brominated Dioxins: Little-Known New Health Hazards - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and dibenzofurans (PBDFs. Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.

  6. Studies on incorporation of exfoliated bentonitic clays in polyurethane foams for increasing flame retardancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution we report the results of studying the incorporation of exfoliated bentonitic clays into polyurethane foams. A suspension in water of a sodium bentonite from Argentine Patagonia was interchanged with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) for 4 h at 80°C, rendering an exfoliated clay, which is nanometric in only one dimension. This nanoclay, when dispersed in the polyurethane, resulted in the same fire retardancy rating (UL-94) than when polyurethane was treated with a commercial nanoclay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low augmentations of polyurethane samples treated with the synthethized nanoclay (2,5% w/w) showed no differences respect to untreated polyurethane, except for the irregularity of void edges.

  7. A process for imparting durable flame retardancy to fabric, fibres and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a process for grafting a fire-retarding additive including one or more phosphorus and/or halogen-rich compounds to fabrics, fibres and other flammable materials, the process comprising: applying to the material a solution of the additive and a copolymerization-grafting compound for effecting copolymerization with the additive; adjusting the solids content of the applied solution to correspond to a predetermined desired add-on level; at least partly drying the material; exposing the material so treated to an electron irradiating beam; and adjusting the electron irradiation within energy ranges of substantially 50 to 250 keV and dose levels of from substantially 2 to 5 megarads. (author)

  8. Flame retardancy mechanisms of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) in combination with zinc borate in bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) with and without bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) and 5 wt.% zinc borate (Znb) were investigated. The pyrolysis was studied by thermogravimetry (TG), TG-FTIR and NMR, the fire behaviour with a cone calorimeter applying different heat fluxes, LOI and UL 94. Fire residues were examined with NMR. BDP affects the decomposition of PC/ABS and acts as a flame retardant in the gas and condensed phases. The addition of Znb results in an additional hydrolysis of PC. The fire behaviour is similar to PC/ABS, aside from a slightly increased LOI and a reduced peak heat release rate, both caused by borates improving the barrier properties of the char. In PC/ABS + BDP + Znb, the addition of Znb yields a borate network and amorphous phosphates. Znb also reacts with BDP to form alpha-zinc phosphate and borophosphates that suppress the original flame retardancy mechanisms of BDP. The inorganic-organic residue formed provides more effective flame retardancy, in particular at low irradiation in the cone calorimeter, and a clear synergy in LOI, whereas for more developed fires BDP + Znb become less effective than BDP in PC/ABS with respect to the total heat evolved.

  9. Controlled synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with different morphological structures and related properties in flame retardant ethylene vinyl acetate blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianping; Qiu, Longzhen; Qu, Baojun

    2004-11-01

    Magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles with different morphological structures of needle-, lamellar- and rod-like nanocrystals have been synthesized by solution precipitation reactions of alkaline with magnesium chloride in the presence of complex dispersants and characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, crystal habits and thermal behaviour by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The sizes and morphologies of magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals can be controlled mainly by the reaction conditions of temperature, alkaline-injection rate and the concentrations of reactants. The data show that the needle-like morphology is of size 10 × 100 nm2, the lamellar shape 50 nm in diameter and estimated 10 nm in thickness, and the rod-like nanoparticles 4 µm in length and 95 nm in diameter, respectively. All three kinds of nanoparticles are of hexagonal structures. The needle- and lamellar-like nanoparticles can be obtained by the reactions of alkaline injected into magnesium chloride solution at about 2 and 20 °C, respectively, while the rod-like nanoparticles can be prepared by a slower alkaline-injection rate and lower aqueous ammonia concentration at about 10 °C. The results obtained from the ethylene-vinyl acetate nanocomposites blended with the lamellar-like nanoparticles show that magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals possess higher flame retardant efficiency and mechanical reinforcing effect by comparison with common micrometre grade magnesium hydroxide particles.

  10. Aquatic bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of tetrabromobisphenol-A flame retardant introduced from a typical e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Zi-He; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    While the flame retardant chemical, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), has been frequently detected in the environment, knowledge regarding its species-specific bioaccumulation and trophic transfer is limited, especially in the highly contaminated sites. In this study, the components of an aquatic food web, including two invertebrates, two prey fish, and one predator fish, collected from a natural pond at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China were analyzed for TBBP-A, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aquatic species had TBBP-A concentrations ranging from 350 to 1970 pg/g wet weight, with higher concentrations in the invertebrates relative to the fish species. Field-determined bioaccumulation factors of TBBP-A in the two aquatic invertebrates were nearly or greater than 5000, suggesting that TBBP-A is highly bioaccumulative in the two species. The lipid-normalized concentrations of TBBP-A in the aquatic species were negatively correlated with the trophic levels determined from stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) (r = -0.82, p = 0.09), indicating that this compound experienced trophic dilution in the current food web. PMID:27234832

  11. Synergism of γ-ray irradiation and temperature on the deterioration of flame-retardant cables, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following our previous paper, aging tests of two flame-retardant cables, C*V and P*N, were conducted under combined environment of heat (90 and 1200C) and radiation (2.5 x 107 -- 2 x 108γ) and characteristic changes were measured in order to study synergism at reduced temperature. As a result, synergism appeared in C* (RF-XL PE) and P* (FR-EPR) after heavier dosage at elevated temperature owing to their excellent resistance to heat and radiation. On the contrary, V (PVC) showed synergism after irradiation of 2.5 x 107γ at 90 and 1200C, and N(Neoprene) showed synergism after irradiation of 2.5 x 107γ and less at 900C and over. It is clear that elongation is the best index of investigating the deterioration of characteristics because of its continuous and uniform change. Also, the degradation of electrical characteristics occured in C* and P* simultaneously with or later than that of mechanical ones. (author)

  12. The cytotoxicity of organophosphate flame retardants on HepG2, A549 and Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Hu, Jingwen; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yufang; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-18

    In order to elucidate the cytotoxicity of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), three human in vitro models, namely the HepG2 hepatoma cells, the A549 lung cancer cells and the Caco-2 colon cancer cells, were chosen to investigate the toxicity of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tributylphosphate (TBP), tris(2-butoxyexthyl) phosphate (TBEP) and tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP). Cytotoxicity was assayed in terms of cell viability, DNA damage status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. The results showed that all these four OPFRs could inhibit cell viability, overproduce ROS level, induce DNA lesions and increase the LDH leakage. In addition, the toxic effects of OPFRs in Caco-2 cells were relatively severer than those in HepG2 and A549 cells, which might result from some possible mechanisms apart from oxidative stress pathway. In conclusion, TBP, TPP, TBEP and TCPP could induce cell toxicity in various cell lines at relatively high concentrations as evidenced by suppression of cell viability, overproduction of ROS, induction of DNA lesions and increase of LDH leakage. Different cell types seemed to have different sensitivities and responses to OPFRs exposure, as well as the underlying potential molecular mechanisms. PMID:27336727

  13. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the aquatic environment: A case study of the Elbe River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Sühring, Roxana; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPEs) in the Elbe and Rhine rivers. A special focus of this investigation concerns the potential impacts of a major flood event in 2013 on the OPE patterns and levels in the Elbe River. In this river, 6 of 13 OPEs were detected, with tris-ethyl-phosphate (TEP, 168 ± 44 ng/L), tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate (TDCPP, 155 ± 14 ng/L) and tris-1-chloro-2-propyl phosphate (TCPP, 126 ± 14 ng/L) identified as the dominant compounds. Relative to previous studies, an increase in the concentrations and relative contributions of TDCPP to the total level of OPEs was observed, which was likely caused by its increased use as a replacement for the technical pentaBDE formulation. During the flood event, the concentrations of OPEs were similar to the normal situation, but the mass fluxes increased by a factor of approximately ten (∼16 kg/d normal versus ∼160 kg/d flood peak). No input hotspots were identified along the transects of the Elbe and Rhine rivers, and the mass flux of OPEs appeared to be driven by water discharge. PMID:26284344

  14. Bioconcentration, metabolism and neurotoxicity of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro 2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) to zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Man, Yin-Chung; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Kwok, Karen Ying; Guo, Yong yong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants are ubiquitous environmental contaminants; however, knowledge is limited regarding their environmental health risks and toxicity. Here, we investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) to the nervous system of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos (2 h post-fertilization) were exposed to TDCPP (0-100 μg/L) for 6 months up until sexual maturation. Concentrations of TDCPP and its metabolic product (bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCPP) were measured in the tissues of 5 day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae. There was no effect on locomotion, acetylcholinesterase activity, levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and expression of mRNAs and proteins related to central nervous system development (e.g., myelin basic protein, α1-tubulin) in any exposure group. However, in adult fish, reductions of dopamine and serotonin levels were detected in the brains of females but not males. Downregulation of nervous system development genes was observed in both the male and female brain tissues. TDCPP concentrations were measured in adult fish tissues including the brain, and greater levels were detected in females. Our results showed that females are more sensitive to TDCPP stress than males in terms of TDCPP-induced neurotoxicity. We demonstrate that long-term exposure to lower concentrations of TDCPP in fish can lead to neurotoxicity. PMID:25461749

  15. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    With the intent of improving the safety characteristics of lithium ion cells, electrolytes containing flame retardant additives have been investigated. A number of triphenyl phosphate-containing electrolytes were evaluated in both coin cells and experimental three electrode lithium-ion cells (containing reference electrodes). A number of chemistries were investigated, including MCMB carbon/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 (NCO), graphite/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA), Li/Li(Li(0.17)Ni(0.25)Mn(0.58))O2, Li/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) and graphite/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), to study the effect that different electrolyte compositions have upon performance. A wide range of TPP-containing electrolytes were demonstrated to have good compatibility with the C/NCO, C/NCA, and Li/NMC systems, however, poor performance was initially observed with the high voltage C/NMC system. This necessitated the development of improved electrolytes with stabilizing additives, leading to formulations containing lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) that displayed substantially improved performance.

  16. Environmental occurrence, analysis and human exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A)-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    TBBP-A is a high production volume chemical applied widely as a flame retardant in printed circuit boards. Recent studies have raised concern over potential harmful implications of TBBP-A exposure in human and wildlife, leading to its classification under group 2A "Probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This article provides a comprehensive review of the available literature on TBBP-A analysis, environmental levels and human exposure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been identified as the method of choice for robust, accurate and sensitive analysis of TBBP-A in different matrices. TBBP-A has been detected in almost all environmental compartments all over the world, rendering it a ubiquitous contaminant. Human exposure studies revealed dust ingestion and diet as the major pathways of TBBP-A exposure in the general population. Toddlers are likely to be more exposed than adults via accidental indoor dust ingestion. Moreover, exposure to TBBP-A may occur prenatally and via breast milk. There are no current restrictions on the production of TBBP-A in the EU or worldwide. However, more research is required to characterise human exposure to TBBP-A in and around production facilities, as well as in e-waste recycling regions. PMID:27266836

  17. Versatility of a new bioinorganic catalyst: palladized cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and application to dehalogenation of flame retardant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplanche, K; Snape, T J; Hazrati, S; Harrad, S; Macaskie, L E

    2009-06-01

    The versatility and reaction specificity of a novel bioinorganic catalyst is demonstrated in various reactions. Palladized cells (bioPd) of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans showed an increased product selectivity and a catalytic activity comparable to a commercial Pd catalyst in several industrially relevant hydrogenations and hydrogenolyses (reductive dehalogenations). The ability of palladized cells to promote the reductive debromination of a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE #47) is demonstrated, although chemically reduced Pd(II) and commercial Pd(0) were more effective debromination agents. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are being supplanted as flame retardants by other compounds, e.g. tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP), the concentration of which was seen to increase approximately 10-fold in groundwater samples between 2000 and 2004. BioPd dechlorinated TCPP in groundwater samples with >90% recovery of free chloride ion, and was five times more effective than using commercial Pd(0) catalyst. Examination of the spent groundwater using 31P NMR showed a phosphorus species novel to the bioPd-treated solution, which was not evident in a commercial reference sample of TCPP. PMID:19705605

  18. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil. PMID:27203466

  19. Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47 on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina. PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain.

  20. Selective and Sensitive Sensing of Flame Retardant Chemicals Through Phage Display Discovered Recognition Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyo-Eon; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Wong, Winnie; Lee, Byung Yang; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2015-11-11

    We report a highly selective and sensitive biosensor for the detection of an environmentally toxic molecule, decabrominated diphenyl ether (DBDE), one of the most common congeners of the polybrominated frame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)), using newly discovered DBDE peptide receptors integrated with carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FET). The specific DBDE peptide receptor was identified using a high-throughput screening process of phage library display. The resulting binding peptide carries an interesting consensus binding pocket with two Trp-His/Asn-Trp repeats, which binds to the DBDE in a multivalent manner. We integrated the novel DBDE binding peptide onto the CNT-FET using polydiacetylene coating materials linked through cysteine-maleimide click chemistry. The resulting biosensor could detect the desired DBDE selectively with a 1 fM detection limit. Our combined approaches of selective receptor discovery, material nanocoating through click chemistry, and integration onto a sensitive CNT-FET electronic sensor for desired target chemicals will pave the way toward the rapid development of portable and easy-to-use biosensors for desired chemicals to protect our health and environment. PMID:26455834

  1. Synergism of #betta#-ray irradiation and temperature on the deterioration of flame-retardant cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic changes of frame-retardant cables, C*V and P*N having excellent resistance to heating and #betta#-ray irradiation for nuclear power generating stations, were studied under combined environments of #betta#-ray irradiation (2 x 10 sup(g) r and less) and elevated temperature (1500C and 1700C). They included the changes in appearance, elongation, insulation resistance, AC breakdown voltage, and power factor. The synergistic effects were observed in them. That is, the synergism of PVC (V) and Neoprene rubber (N) appeared after irradiation with 2.5 x 107 r at 1500C, while that of XLPE (C*) and EPR (P*) appeared under conditions of heavier exposure doses at higher temperature. These test conditions were more severe than normal service condition in the plant which was assumed as 40 years at 700C and total dosage of 70 mega-rads. The mechanism of deterioration in characteristics of the cables in this test may be different from that of aging in the plant. (author)

  2. Synergism of. gamma. -ray irradiation and temperature on the deterioration of flame-retardant cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Shinichi (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)); Katayama, Shiro; Takeya, Chikashi; Hayakawa, Tsutomu; Iwata, Seiji

    1981-03-01

    Characteristic changes of frame-retardant cables, C*V and P*N having excellent resistance to heating and ..gamma..-ray irradiation for nuclear power generating stations, were studied under combined environments of ..gamma..-ray irradiation (2 x 10 sup(g) r and less) and elevated temperature (150/sup 0/C and 170/sup 0/C). They included the changes in appearance, elongation, insulation resistance, AC breakdown voltage, and power factor. The synergistic effects were observed in them. That is, the synergism of PVC (V) and Neoprene rubber (N) appeared after irradiation with 2.5 x 10/sup 7/ r at 150/sup 0/C, while that of XLPE (C*) and EPR (P*) appeared under conditions of heavier exposure doses at higher temperature. These test conditions were more severe than normal service condition in the plant which was assumed as 40 years at 70/sup 0/C and total dosage of 70 mega-rads. The mechanism of deterioration in characteristics of the cables in this test may be different from that of aging in the plant.

  3. 阻燃防污闪涂料的研制%Preparation on Flame-retardant Anti-pollution Flashover Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘善棋; 黄晓青; 邓秀萍; 陈东建

    2015-01-01

    以107硅橡胶、气相法白炭黑和阻燃剂等为原料,配制成脱酮肟型室温硫化阻燃防污闪涂料。研究了氢氧化铝、十溴二苯醚、硼酸锌对防污闪涂料阻燃性能、力学性能及电性能的影响。结果表明,十溴二苯醚和氢氧化铝对防污闪涂料有一定的阻燃效果,两者配合少量的硼酸锌,可极大地提高防污闪涂料的阻燃效果。当100份107胶硅橡胶、16份气相法白炭黑中加入28份氢氧化铝、7.5份十溴二苯醚、1.5份硼酸锌时,防污闪涂料的垂直燃烧等级达到FV-0级,撕裂强度9.12 kN/m,拉伸强度4.06 MPa,拉断长率368.2%,电气强度23.4 MV/m,满足DL/T 627—2012 RTV-II型涂料的要求。%Ketonic oxime RTV-II flame-retardant anti-pollution flashover coatings were prepared with 107 silicone rubber, fumed silica and flame-retardant as the raw materials. The effects of aluminum hydroxide, de-cabromodiphenyl oxide, zinc borate on the flame retardancy, mechanical and electric properties of anti-pollu-tion flashover coatings was studied. Results indicated that decabromodiphenyl oxide and aluminum hydroxide had flame retardant property on the anti-pollution flashover coating, especially when both of the components was mixed with a small amount of zinc borate, it could greatly improve the flame retardance. When the coating was made by 100 phr of 107 silicone, 28 phr of aluminum hydroxide into 16 phr of fumed silica, 7. 5 phr of decabromodiphenyl oxide, 1. 5 phr of zinc borate, the vertical burning level of anti-pollution flashover coating reached to level FV-0, it could meet with the requirements of DL/T 627—2012 RTV-II coatings.

  4. Burning Behavior Test for Isolated Flame Retardant Cable%隔离型阻燃电缆燃烧性能检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春斌; 余维科; 陈万荣

    2015-01-01

    介绍隔离型阻燃电缆的结构及性能:采用创新型的阻燃材料填充及隔离,使得电缆线芯绝缘受到完整保护而难以参与燃烧反应,不仅可满足GB/T 18380.33-2008/IEC 60332-3-22:2000《电缆和光缆在火焰条件下的燃烧试验第33部分:垂直安装的成束电线电缆火焰垂直蔓延试验 A类》中成束阻燃A类每米试样非金属材料体积7L的要求,也能顺利通过国家标准GB 31247-2014《电缆及光缆燃烧性能分级》 B1级试验。%The paper introduces construction and performance of isolated flame retardant cable. The cable is filled and isolated with innovative flame retardant materials, which protects the cable core insulation from burning. It not only complies with the Tests on Electric and Optical Fiber Cables under Fire Conditions—Part 33: Test for Vertical Flame Spread of Vertically-mounted Bunched Wires or Cables —Category A (GB/T 18380. 33-2008/IEC 60332-3-22: 2000) which specifies that the volume of non-metallic materials of bunched flame retardant class A sample should be 7 L per meter, but also passes the B1 level test specified in Classification for Burning Behavior of Electrical and Optical Cables ( GB 31247-2014).

  5. Synthesis and application of a novel non-halogenated, triazine-linked organophosphorus flame retardant onto cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame resistant materials play an important role in the manufacture of clothes and household items such as curtains, carpets, bedding etc. However, natural fabrics such as cotton have low flame resistance, therefore requiring specialized chemical treatments to enhance their flame resistant propertie...

  6. Exposure of male mice to two kinds of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) induced oxidative stress and endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanliang; Jin, Yuanxiang; Wu, Yan; Liu, Ling; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) are two of the most common organophosphate flame retardants in the ecosystem. Effects of TPP and TCEP on the induction of oxidative stress and endocrine disruption were evaluated in five weeks old male mice. After receiving 100, 300 mg/kg/bodyweight oral exposure to TPP and TCEP for 35 days, the body and testis weights decreased in 300 mg/kg TPP and TCEP treated groups. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased significantly in both TPP treated groups, while the contents of glutathione (GSH) decreased significantly in 300 mg/kg TPP and both TCEP treated groups. In addition, the hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as their related gene expression were affected by TPP or TECP exposure. On the other hand, 300 mg/kg of TPP or TECP treatment resulted in histopathological damage and the decrease of testicular testosterone levels. Moreover, the expression of main genes related to testosterone synthesis including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P450-17α) in the testes also decreased after the exposure to 300 mg/kg TPP or TCEP for 35 days. Combined with the effects on physiology, histopathology and the expression of genes, TPP and TCEP can induce oxidative stress and endocrine disruption in mice. PMID:26183808

  7. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Jing; Lei, Wei-Xiang; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Mei-Huan; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, p<0.05), which may be due to the longer exposure time of the distal segments to external sources. The values of log (PFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (p<0.05, r=0.68), indicating that PFRs with a higher log KOA tend to accumulate in hair at a higher rate than PFRs with a lower log KOA. Using combined segments of female hair, significantly higher PFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs. PMID:27078091

  8. Sublethal effects of the flame retardant intermediate hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) on the gene transcription and protein activity of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Carter, Barbara; Douville, Mélanie

    2013-09-15

    Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) is a chlorinated chemical of high production volume used as an intermediate in the production of flame retardants. HCCPD may be released to the environment during production, use, and as a result of product degradation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sublethal effects of HCCPD exposure to Daphnia magna at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.0138-13.8 μg/L) using genomic tools (microarray and qPCR), enzyme activities, and life-history endpoints (survival, reproduction, and growth). In chronic exposures, no differences were observed in life-history endpoints (survival, time of first brood, time of first molt, molt frequency, number of neonates, and body length) between exposed organisms and controls. Microarray analyses indicated significant differential genomic transcription for 46 genes (p-value ≤ 0.05 and fold-change>2). Five identified genes were related to metabolic functions. Enzyme activities of α-amylase and trypsin, selected based on transcriptional responses, were evaluated in D. magna. Although trypsin activity was similar between treatments and controls, the activity of α-amylase significantly decreased with increasing HCCPD concentrations. On the chemical level, instability of HCCPD was observed in spiked culture media, most probably due to photolysis and biodegradation. HCCPD was not detected in surface water samples collected upstream and at the point of discharge of a major wastewater treatment plant effluent. Environmentally, rapid degradation of HCCPD could be outdone by its continuous release into aquatic ecosystems in specific areas of concern (e.g., vicinity of industries and hazardous sites). Toxicity results from this study highlight the use of genomics in the identification of biomarkers and help advance the science, and potential use, of multi-level biological approaches for environmental risk assessment. PMID:23820075

  9. Epigenetic effects of low perinatal doses of flame retardant BDE-47 on mitochondrial and nuclear genes in rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are known endocrine disrupting chemicals used commonly as flame retardants in everything from electronics to furniture. Exposure to PBDEs during early development has been linked to neurodevelopmental delays. Despite mounting evidence of neurological harm from PBDE exposure, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects on brain function remain unknown. We examined the effects of perinatal exposure to BDE-47, the most biologically active and prevalent BDE congener in North America, on epigenetic patterns in the frontal lobe of Wistar rats. Dams were gavaged with BDE-47 (0.002 and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) at gestation days 9 and 16, and postnatal days 1, 8, and 15. Frontal lobes from offspring at postnatal day 41 were collected to measure 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase genes (Mt-co1, Mt-co2, and Mt-co3), global nuclear 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content, 5mC in repetitive elements L1Rn, and 5mC in nuclear genes (Bdnf, Crhr1, Mc2r, Nr3c1, and Snca) related to behavioral and brain functions in the nuclear genome. We observed a significant decrease in %5mC in Mt-co2 (difference from control = −0.68%, p = 0.01 at the 0.2 mg/kg BDE-47). 5mC in repetitive elements L1Rn decreased at 0.002 mg/kg BDE-47 (difference = −1.23%, p = 0.02). Decreased nuclear 5mC was observed in Bdnf and Nr3c1 in BDE-47 exposed rats. However, we did not observe significant effects of PBDE toxicity on DNA methylation patterns for the majority of genes in the brain

  10. Short-term fasts increase levels of halogenated flame retardants in tissues of a wild incubating bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Drouillard, Ken G; Verreault, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Many species are adapted for fasting during parts of their life cycle. For species undergoing extreme fasts, lipid stores are mobilized and accumulated contaminants can be released to exert toxicological effects. However, it is unknown if short-term fasting events may have a similar effect. The objective of this study was to determine if short successive fasts are related to contaminant levels in liver and plasma of birds. In ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), both members of the pair alternate between incubating the nest for several hours (during which they fast) and foraging, making them a useful model for examining this question. Birds were equipped with miniature data loggers recording time and GPS position for two days to determine the proportion and duration of time birds spent in these two activities. Liver and plasma samples were collected, and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) (PBDEs and dechlorane plus) and organochlorines (OCs) (PCBs, DDTs, and chlordane-related compounds) were determined. Most birds (79%) exhibited plasma lipid content below 1%, indicating a likely fasted state, and plasma lipid percent declined with the number of hours spent at the nest site. The more time birds spent at their nest site, the higher were their plasma and liver concentrations of HFRs. However, body condition indices were unrelated to either the amount of time birds fasted at the nest site or contaminant levels, suggesting that lipid mobilization might not have been severe enough to affect overall body condition of birds and to explain the relationship between fasting and HFR concentrations. A similar relationship between fasting and OC levels was not observed, suggesting that different factors are affecting short-term temporal variations in concentrations of these two classes of contaminants. This study demonstrates that short fasts can be related to increased internal contaminant exposure in birds and that this may be a confounding factor in research and

  11. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and several alternative halogenated flame retardants in a small herbivorous food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the bioaccumulation behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in plants and in herbivores. In the present study, PBDEs and several alternative HFRs (AHFRs) were examined in a small herbivorous food chain (paddy soils–rice plant–apple snails) from an electronic waste recycling site in South China. Mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 40.5, 1.81, and 5.54 ng/g dry weight in the soils, rice plant, and apple snails, respectively. Levels of total AHFRs in the samples were comparable to or even higher than those of PBDEs. The calculated plant to soil concentration ratios for most AHFRs (0.05–3.40) were higher than those for PBDEs (0.02–0.23), indicating the greater bioavailability of the AHFRs in the rice plant. All PBDE congeners and Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were biomagnified from the rice plant to apple snails, with mean biomagnification factors (BMFs) of 1.1–5.0. -- Highlights: ► The paddy field ecosystem at the e-waste site has been contaminated by HFRs. ► Concentrations of total AHFRs were comparable to those of PBDEs. ► The AHFRs may have greater bioavailability compared with PBDEs. ► PBDEs and DP biomagnified in the herbivorous food chain. ► First report on bioaccumulation of the AHFRs in a herbivorous food chain. -- A modest biomagnification of PBDEs and DP occurred from rice plant to apple snails

  12. A novel reduced graphene oxide decorated with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-d-rGO hybrid composite and its flame-retardant application for polyamide 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Zhu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of flame-retardant properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 was achieved by using reduced graphene oxide decorated with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-d-rGO hybrid composite as the additive in PA6 matrix. The intimate integration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs through a three-step chemical functionalization, enabled the combination of their unique physical and chemical characteristics together. The nanostructure of HNTs-d-rGO was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A morphological study revealed that HNTs-d-rGO was dispersed uniformly in PA6 matrix. From the results of cone calorimetry measurements, the fire retardant properties of PA6 were further improved with the addition of HNTs-d-rGO when compared with that of either HNTs, or GO, or a mixture of HNTs and GO (HNTs-m-GO used in PA6 matrix. The results indicate clearly that higher flame-retardant activity of the integrated HNTs-d-rGO nanostructures than that of the simple mixture verifies the importance of the intimate integration between HNTs and rGO, which ascribe to the combination of the stable silica layer created by HNT and the barrier effect of rGO.

  13. Determination of hormones, a plasticizer, preservatives, perfluoroalkylated compounds, and a flame retardant in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) is a novel extraction technique commonly applied for the extraction on a specific group of compounds. In this paper, the applicability of ultrasound-assisted DLLME-SFO for multiresidue extraction has been evaluated. A method for the simultaneous extraction of four hormones (17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol and estrone), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), three preservatives (methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkylated compounds (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, from C4 to C8), and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane) has been developed and validated for their extraction from surface water and tap water. Determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Recoveries of the target compounds were highly dependent on their log K(ow) values. Linear relationship between recoveries and log K(ow) values was observed for compounds from the same group (hormones, preservatives and perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acids). The lowest recoveries were obtained for the less hydrophobic compounds (estriol (43%), methylparaben (32%), ethylparaben (45%) and the perfluorinated compounds of shorter alkyl chain (C4: 17%, C5: 41% and C6: 57%)). Recoveries of the other pollutants were higher than 80%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range from 1% to 16%. Method detection limits were in the range 0.001-1.126 µg L(-1), for surface water, and 0.001-1.446 µg L(-1) for tap water. No important matrix effect was observed. PMID:26078168

  14. Research progress in flame-retardant electrolyte for Li-ion battery%锂离子电池阻燃型电解液的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占孝云; 石桥; 毛玉华; 王希敏

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in safety electrolyte which composed by high boiling point, high flash point organic solvent, phosphorus flame retardant, halogen flame retardant, composite flame retardant and other flame retardants was summarized, the development trend was prospect. Replacing low boiling point, flash point organic solvent with high boiling point, flash point organic solvent could keep the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte and improve its safety performance; some flame retardant additives would not affect the performance of the battery.%概述了高沸点、高闪点的有机溶剂构成的安全型电解液,以及磷系阻燃剂、卤系阻燃剂、复合阻燃剂和其他阻燃剂的研究进展,并对发展方向进行了展望.以高沸点、高闪点的有机溶剂取代低沸点、低闪点的有机溶剂,可在保持电化学性能的同时提高电解液的安全性;某些阻燃添加剂的加入基本不会影响电池的性能.

  15. 全消光阻燃聚酯切片工业制造及性能表征%Study on Synthesis and Properties of Dull Flame-Retardant Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆慧良

    2012-01-01

    采用2-羧乙基苯基次磷酸(CEPPA)、[(6-氧(6H)-二苯并(c,e) (1,2)-氧磷杂己环-6-酮)甲基]-丁二酸(DDP),在连续化聚酯装置上工业化生产全消光阻燃聚酯切片.介绍了全消光阻燃聚酯切片的生产过程,并对产品性能进行了表征.结果表明:生产过程稳定,产品质量优异,全消光阻燃聚酯切片的结晶性能低于常规全消光切片,热稳定性能优于常规全消光切片,阻燃性能优良.%The phosphorus -containing flame -retardant polyesters from CEPPA and DDP in continuous polyester unit were produced. The production process of phosphorus-containing flame-retardant polyester and it's product properties were introduced. The results showed that the production process was steady and product quality was excellent. As compared with regular dull PET, the synthesized phosphorus-containing flame-retardant polyester had lower crystallization capacity, and better thermal stability. The synthesized phosphorus-containing flame-retardant polyester had excellent flame-retardant property.

  16. 磷硼复合阻燃剂BP-F的阻燃机理及其应用%Mechanism and application of phosphorus-boron composite flame retardant BP-F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小伟; 吴明华; 林鹤鸣

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism and application of the self-made flame retardant BP-F to flame retardant finish of cotton fabric are studied. The results show that the optimum flame retardant finishing process is BP-F 250 g/L with the solution pH value of 6 adjusted by soda ash, curing at 160 °C for 75 s. The finished cotton fabric features excellent flame retardancy, little strength loss and whiteness loss, and LOI of 30.9. The BP-F treaded cotton fabric has excellent flame retardancy in the condensed phase.%研究了自制阻燃剂BP-F在棉织物阻燃整理中的应用和阻燃机理,发现BP-F阻燃整理棉织物可以在凝聚相中起到优秀的阻燃作用.结果表明,该阻燃剂的优化阻燃整理工艺为:阻燃剂BP-F 250 g/L,用纯碱调节整理液pH值至6,160℃焙烘75 s;经过整理后的棉织物无续燃,极限氧指数可达30.9,具有良好的阻燃性,同时整理织物的白度和强力损失小.

  17. Study on Intumescent PEPA/MPP Flame Retardant on Properties of LGFPP%膨胀型阻燃剂PEPA/MPP阻燃LGFPP性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 何敏; 刘渝; 张丽; 田敏; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    Intumescent flame retardant(IFR) was prepared by using melamine polyphosphate(MPP) and 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phospha-bicyclo[2,2,2]octane(PEPA),which was used for flame-retardant long-glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene(LGFPP) systems. Effects of IFR component on the thermal stability,flame retardancy and mechanical properties of LGFPP/IFR samples were investigated by the limited oxygen index and UL 94 tests,scanning electron microscope,thermal gravimetry and mechanical tests. The results show that when the content of IFR is 20%,the mass ratio of PEPA and MPP was 3∶2, the flame retardancy of LGFPP/IFR is the best,the LOI value reaches 26.1%,and the vertical burning test reaches UL–94 V–0 rating;the more compact and stable carbon layer is formed during the combustion process. Also,LGFPP/IFR system shows good thermal stability and mechanical properties.%将季戊四醇磷酸酯(PEPA)和三聚氰胺聚磷酸盐(MPP)复配成一种膨胀型阻燃剂(IFR),用于对长玻纤增强聚丙烯(LGFPP)进行阻燃。采用极限氧指数测试、垂直燃烧测试、扫描电子显微镜观察、热重分析、力学性能测试等方法探讨了该IFR组成对LGFPP的阻燃性能、热稳定性能以及力学性能的影响。结果表明,IFR的总添加量为20%,当PEPA与MPP质量比为11∶9时,复配阻燃效果最佳,阻燃LGFPP的极限氧指数值为26.1%,UL–94燃烧等级达到V–0级;生成的炭层致密、连续性好且稳定;阻燃LGFPP表现出较好的热稳定性与力学性能。

  18. Research Progress on Flame Retardant Agent and Its Application in Leather%阻燃剂的研究进展及其在皮革中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲家乐; 王全杰; 张慧洁

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the development of the flame retardant agent was summarized. The sorts, characteristics and the flame-retardent principles were also introduced. The agents were applied in the processes of retanning, fatliquoring and finishing. In the end, some prospects of the development trend of the flame retardant agents were put forward.%简述了阻燃剂的发展历程,介绍了阻燃剂的分类、特点及其阻燃原理,概述了阻燃剂在制革的复鞣、加脂、涂饰等工段的应用,最后对阻燃剂的发展趋势提出一些展望.

  19. Study on water-oil repellent and flame retardant finish of cotton fabrics%棉织物拒水拒油阻燃复合整理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 张勤; 许国丽; 韩冲

    2011-01-01

    将不同结构的阻燃整理剂与自制含氟防水剂WR-1对棉织物进行同浴整理,研究同浴整理对拒水拒油、阻燃效果、游离甲醛释放量及织物物理机械性能的影响.结果表明:以N-羟甲基二甲氧基磷酸酯酰胺为有效成分的阻燃剂PEKOFLAM DPN具有优良的阻燃效果.与含氟防水剂WR-1同浴整理时对拒水拒油效果的影响较小,对织物物理机械性能有些影响,游离甲醛释放量减小,但阻燃性略有下降,阻燃耐久性也略有下降.%Flame-retardant agents with different structures and self-made fluorinated water-repellent agent WR-1 were applied on cotton fabrics in one bath.The effect of one-bath finish on water-oil repellence.flame-retardant performance, free formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of cotton fabrics were discussed.The results showed that flame-retardant agent PEKOFLAM DPN which mainly contained hydroxymeihyl-dimethoxy-phosphate amide had excellent flame-retardant property.In one-bath finishing, it had some effect on water- and oil-repellence of WR-1 and mechanical properties of cotton fabrics.The free formaldehyde emission was decreased, and the flame retardance was slightly decreased, while the durability of flame retardance slightly decreased.

  20. Graphene oxide based sol-gel stainless steel fiber for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of organophosphate ester flame retardants in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tingting; Cheng, Jing; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Min; Wu, Shiju; Zhou, Hongbin

    2016-07-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique and it was used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The prepared fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which displayed that the fiber had crinkled surface and porous structure The application of the fiber was evaluated through the headspace SPME of nine organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) with different characteristics in water samples followed by gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorous detector (GC/NPD). The major factors influencing the extraction efficiency, including the extraction and desorption conditions, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of organophosphate ester flame retardants in real environmental water samples. The results demonstrated the HS-SPME method based on GO sol-gel fiber had good linearity (R>0.9928), and limits of detection (1.4-135.6ngL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<9.8%) and good recovery (76.4-112.4%). The GO based sol-gel fiber displayed bigger extraction capability than the commercial PDMS fiber and the pure sol-gel fiber for both polar and apolar organophosphate esters, especially for the OPFRs containing benzene rings. PMID:27371020

  1. Preparation of microencapsulated flame retardant containing silicon and phosphorus and its application%含硅磷微胶囊阻燃剂的合成及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹永宝; 杨勇; 林苗

    2012-01-01

    采用正硅酸四乙酯(TEOS)水解、聚合生成的二氧化硅凝胶作为囊壁材料,阻燃剂DMMP作为囊芯材料,制备了二氧化硅包覆阻燃剂DMMP的含硅磷微胶囊阻燃剂.优化的合成工艺为:乳化剂质量分数不低于4%,乳化时间15 min,2 moL/L氯化钠溶液1 mL,7 mol/L氨水25 mL,制备的微胶囊粒度分布在0.2~6μm,阻燃效果良好.%The microcapsulated flame retardant is prepared with DMMP as core and SiO2 gel which is formed by hydrolysis and polymerization of tetraethyl silicate(TEOS) as shell. The optimal preparation process is confirmed as follows; the amount of e-mulsifier is not less than 4%, emulsification time 15 min, 2 mol/L sodium chloride 1 mL, 7 mol/L ammonia 25 mL. The particle size of microcapsuies distributes between 0.2 ~6 μm and the microcapsules have good flame retardancy.

  2. Impact of the flame retardant additive triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on the performance of graphite/LiFePO4 cells in high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek Högström, Katarzyna; Lundgren, Henrik; Wilken, Susanne; Zavalis, Tommy G.; Behm, Mårten; Edström, Kristina; Jacobsson, Per; Johansson, Patrik; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an extensive characterization of a standard Li-ion battery (LiB) electrolyte containing different concentrations of the flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPP) in the context of high power applications. Electrolyte characterization shows only a minor decrease in the electrolyte flammability for low TPP concentrations. The addition of TPP to the electrolyte leads to increased viscosity and decreased conductivity. The solvation of the lithium ion charge carriers seem to be directly affected by the TPP addition - as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and increased mass-transport resistivity. Graphite/LiFePO4 full cell tests show the energy efficiency to decrease with the addition of TPP. Specifically, diffusion resistivity is observed to be the main source of increased losses. Furthermore, TPP influences the interface chemistry on both the positive and the negative electrode. Higher concentrations of TPP lead to thicker interface layers on LiFePO4. Even though TPP is not electrochemically reduced on graphite, it does participate in SEI formation. TPP cannot be considered a suitable flame retardant for high power applications as there is only a minor impact of TPP on the flammability of the electrolyte for low concentrations of TPP, and a significant increase in polarization is observed for higher concentrations of TPP.

  3. 新型耐高温阻燃层压板的研制%New Laminate of Flame-Retardant and High Temperature Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜卫丽; 赵华鹏

    2011-01-01

    The phenolic resin was synthesized under catalytic agent, with phenol and formaldehyde. The phenolic resin was modified by zinc borate, and FB resin was obtained. The glass cloth laminate of the FB resin as the substrate resin was manufactured. The heat resistance of FB resin is higher than that of common phenolic resin. The FB resin glass cloth laminate has good heat resistance, flame-retardant, mechanical and electric performance, and the flame retardancy attains UL-94 vertical combustion method V-0 grade.%以苯酚、甲醛为原料,在催化剂的作用下合成酚醛树脂,然后用硼酸改性得到硼酚醛(FB)树脂.采用FB树脂作为基材树脂制作玻璃布层压板,FB树脂的耐热性比普通酚醛树脂高.FB树脂层压板具有好的耐热、阻燃、机械和电气性能,其阻燃性能达到了UL-94垂直燃烧法V-0级.

  4. 白炭黑改性膨胀阻燃剂对PP/POE燃烧及力学性能的影响%Effect of SiO2 Modified Intumescent Flame Retardant on Fire Retardancy and Mechanical Properties of PP/POE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承焕; 赵崇裕; 粟明; 吴正环; 文劲松

    2011-01-01

    PP/POE composite was flame retarded by intumescent flame retardani (IFR) and synergistlc flame retardant SiO,. The effects of SiO, content on flame retardancy and mechanical properties of the composite were studied. The results show that when SiO;/IFR/PP/POE=1/9/3.3/20. The flame retardancy of the composite is good, and the vertical burning test rating is up to UL 94 V-0. The tensile strength of the composite increases obviously, the impact strength decreases slightly, and the comprehensive properties are the best.%采用白炭黑(SiO2)作为协效阻燃剂,与膨胀阻燃剂(IFR)复配阻燃聚丙烯/乙烯-辛烯共聚物(PP/POE)复合材料,观察其用量对复合体系燃烧及力学性能的影响.结果表明:当SiO2/IFR/PP/POE为1/9/3.3/20时,体系的阻燃效果较好,垂直燃烧实验达到了UL 94 V-0级,拉伸强度提高很大,冲击强度略微降低,体系的综合性能最佳.

  5. Adding the combination of CNTs and MoS{sub 2} into halogen-free flame retarding TPEE with enhanced the anti-dripping behavior and char forming properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuhua; Li, Maolin; Zhang, Luchong; Zhang, Xuewei; Zhu, Songwei; Wu, Wei, E-mail: wuwei@ecust.edu.cn

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Introduction the combination of the CNTs and MoS{sub 2} into P–N flame retarding TPEE. • Binary synergists for P–N flame retardants in TPEE. • Increase of char yield and form the stable carbonaceous char. - Abstract: In this paper, the nanocomposites thermoplastic polyester-ether elastomer (TPEE) with phosphorus–nitrogen (P–N) flame retardants, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) was prepared by melt blending. TPEE containing P–N flame retardant, CNTs and MoS{sub 2} achieved UL94 V-0 rating due to the better barrier effect of the special structure. The structure was supported by the result of rheological properties. The thermal stability was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and char residue characterization was investigated by SEM–EDX measurements. The results demonstrated that the combination of CNTs and MoS{sub 2} results in the increase of char yield and the formation of the thermally stable char which can effectively prevent in the dripping behavior during the burning process.

  6. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 9 organophosphate flame retardants in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Few methods are available for comprehensive organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) detection in water and wastewater. Gas chromatography has been employed previously, but this approach is less selective, not amenable for use with deuterated standards and can suffer unfavorable fragmentation. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) has become the most promising platform, already applied successfully for analysis of selected PFRs in some environmental matrices like water and wastewater. However, the presence of some interferences from the dissolvent, the equipment and the used materials should be taken into account. The procedure involves: • The first determination of PFRs by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS using a trap column to distinguish the interferences coming from the instrument and mobile phases. • The optimization of the LC separation to distinguish all target compounds and their interferences. • This method coupled to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) improve the detection and quantification of PFRs.

  7. Effect of single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide and boric acid against inflammability and biodegradability of recycled PP/KF composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharty, Neng Sri; Dihardjo, Kuncoro; Handayani, Desi Suci; Firdaus, Maulidan

    2016-03-01

    Composites rPP/DVB/AA/KF had been reactively synthesized in melt using starting material: recycled polypropylene (rPP), kenaf fiber (KF), multifunctional compound acrylic acid (AA), compatibilizer divinyl benzene (DVB). To improve the inflammability of composites, single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH) and boric acid (BA) as an additive was added. The inflammability of the composites was tested according to ASTM D635. By using 20% ATH and 5% BA additive in the composites it is effectively inhibiting its time to ignition (TTI). Its burning rate (BR) can be reduced and its heat realease (%HR) decreases. The biodegradability of composites was quantified by its losing weight (LW) of composites after buried for 4 months in the media with rich cellulolytic bacteria. The result shows that the LW of composites in the presence 20% ATH and 5% BA is 6.3%.

  8. Regional variation and possible sources of brominated contaminants in breast milk from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the regional trends and possible sources of brominated organic contaminants accumulated in breast milk from mothers in southeastern (Okinawa) and northwestern (Hokkaido) areas of Japan. For persistent brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; major components, BDE-47 and BDE-153) were distributed at higher levels in mothers from Okinawa (mean, 2.1 ng/g lipid), while hexabromobenzene (HeBB) and its metabolite 1,2,4,5-tetrabromobenzene were more abundantly detected in mothers from Hokkaido (0.86 and 2.6 ng/g lipid), suggesting that there are regional differences in their exposure in Japan. We also detected naturally produced brominated compounds, one of which was identified as 2′-methoxy-2,3′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′-MeO-BDE68) at higher levels in mothers from Okinawa (0.39 ng/g lipid), while the other was identified as 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromo-5,5′-dichloro-2,2′-dimethyl-1,1′-bipyrrole in mothers from Hokkaido (0.45 ng/g lipid). The regional variation may be caused by source differences, i.e. southern seafood for MeO-PBDEs and northern biota for halogenated bipyrroles in the Japanese coastal water. - Highlights: ► In this study, we detected brominated organic contaminants in Japanese breast milk. ► Naturally produced brominated organic contaminants were also detected. ► Northern and southern Japan showed regional differences in these contaminants. ► Exposure to the contaminants is suggested to arise from different specific sources. - Brominated organic contaminants were detected in Japanese breast milk.

  9. 氨法制取氢氧化镁阻燃剂实验报告%PREPARATION OF FLAME RETARDANT MAGNESIUM HYDRATE BY AMMONIA METHOD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克民; 张莉

    2001-01-01

    以提钾母液作原料,以过量的氨与之反应,生成碱式氯化镁,进而加以水热处理,生成氢氧化镁阻燃剂,产品质量达到国外同类产品质量技术要求。实验证明,本工艺是合理的、可行的,属90年代先进水平。根据试验数据,氨法生产的原材料成本低,与石灰法相比有显著降低。可以期望,大规模工业化生产后将获得明显的经济效益。本文论述了试验工艺过程,试验结果,提出了见解,得出了结论。%The process test for the preparation of flame retardant magne sium hydrate by ammonia method is introduced. The mother liquid of extracted kalium as a raw material, reacts with excessive ammonia to form magnesium chloride(basic) and then which is treated with hot water, magnesium chloride (basic) is turned into flame retardant magnesium hydrate. The product quality can reach the same quality level of the products abroad. The technical process is reasonable and practical. According to the test data, the cost of raw material con sumed in the ammonia method is dramatically lower than that in lime method. Prospectively, considerable profit will emerge under large scale production.

  10. Sex-dependent accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge is limited on sex-related accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife. In the present study, DP isomers were examined in liver and eggs of two fish species, northern snakehead and crucian carp, from an electronic waste recycling site in China. Hepatic ∑DP (sum of syn- and anti-DP) concentrations ranged 260–1920 ng/g lipid in northern snakehead and 340–1670 ng/g in crucian carp, with significantly higher levels in males relative to females. ∑DP concentrations ranged 4.6–310 ng/g lipid in the eggs, demonstrating their maternal transfer in the female fish. The mean eggs to liver concentration ratios (E/L ratios) were 0.03 and 0.03 in northern snakehead, and 0.26 and 0.25 in crucian carp, for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. A significantly negative correlation between the E/L ratios and the hepatic DP concentrations was observed, indicating a dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers in the fish. -- Highlights: ► Male fish contained significantly higher DP residues than females. ► DP isomers can be maternally transferred to eggs in female fish. ► A dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers was observed. ► First report on sex-related bioaccumulation of DP isomers in wildlife. -- Sex-dependent accumulation and species-specific maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant was observed in two highly contaminated fish species

  11. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in 40 rivers draining into the Bohai Sea, north China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, often used as flame-retardants and plasticizers. There are few reports of OPEs in river water. This study focused on the occurrence and spatial distribution of 11 OPE congeners and one synthetic intermediate triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) in 40 major rivers entering into the Bohai Sea. Total OPEs ranged from 9.6 to 1549 ng L−1, with an average of 300 ng L−1. Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) (4.6–921 ng L−1, mean: 186 ng L−1) and tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (1.3–268 ng L−1, mean: 80.2 ng L−1) were the most abundant OPEs and their distribution patterns are similar, indicating the same source (r = 0.61, P < 0.05) and the influence of large production and consumption of chlorinated OPEs in the region. Priority should be given to TCPP, PCEP and TPPO due to their high concentrations in the rivers and potential threat to aquatic organisms. - Highlights: • High levels of OPEs have been determined in river waters around Bohai Sea. • Triphenylphosphine oxide presented very high concentrations in specific rivers. • The total riverine inputs of OPEs and TPPO were estimated. - Organophosphate ester flame-retardants and plasticizers are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and of concern as contaminants discharged into the coastal environment

  12. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifah A. Salmeia; Julien Fage; Shuyu Liang; Sabyasachi Gaan

    2015-01-01

    The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV) photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS), are d...

  13. 无卤阻燃三元乙丙橡胶燃烧性能的影响因素%Effect Factors of the Combustion Property of Halogen-free Flame-retardant EPDM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 张立群; 马晨; 田明; 吕庆; 庄澎

    2011-01-01

    使用锥形量热仪(Cone Calorimeter,简称CONE)系统地研究了无机氢氧化物的种类及用量、阻燃协效剂、炭黑和增塑剂等对三元乙丙橡胶燃烧特性的影响,并分析了燃烧产物的形貌,揭示了它们在EPDM燃烧过程中的作用.结果表明,高填充氢氧化物的 EPDM 胶料适用于制备低烟无卤阻燃橡胶材料;添加红磷和硼酸锌可促进胶料燃烧时的成炭行为,有助于提升阻燃性,但会增大发烟量;加入炭黑有助于提升胶料多项阻燃性能,加入增塑剂不利于胶料的阻燃性.%Effects of the types and content of inorganic hydroxides, synergistic flame retardants (red phosphorus and zinc borate), carbon black and plasticizing agent (paraffin oil) on the combustion characteristic of EPDM were systematically researched by using Cone Calorimeter, and the morphologies of combustion products were also analyzed to reveal their roles of the additives during the combustion process of EPDM. The results showed that the EPDM blends filled with a large amount of hydroxides were suited to prepare the halogen-free flame-retardant blends; The carbon-forming behavior of the blends during the combustion process and the flame proofness could be developed by adding red phosphorus and zinc borate, at the same time the more smoke was produced. The flame-retardant properties were developed by adding carbon black. The flame retardant were not developed by adding the plasticizing agent.

  14. Study on Expandable Graphite/Ammonium Polyphosphate Synergistic Flame Retardant Polyurethane-Imide%可膨胀石墨/聚磷酸铵协效阻燃PUI泡沫塑料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白静兰; 张琪; 孙立婧; 桑晓明

    2015-01-01

    Flame retardant systems of polyurethane-imide(PUI) were prepared by filling single or composite components of expandable graphite(EG) and ammonium polyphosphate(APP),the flame retardant properties,thermal degradation,morphology of surface layers after burning and mechanical performance were investigated. The results show that the LOI value of compound flame retardant system is higher than that of single flame retardant PUI in the same amount of flame retardant,the LOI value of PUI/EG/APP increases from 18.6%to 30.9%. Thermal gravimetric analysis indicates that the thermal degradation rate reduces at high temperature and the amount of residue significantly increases due to the interaction between EG and APP. SEM analysis shows that PUI/EG/APP system generates more continuous and dense carbon layer after burning. Under the same addition amount of flame retardant,the combination of EG and APP reduces damage on the compressive property of PUI compared to use EG or APP individually.%通过添加可膨胀石墨(EG)和聚磷酸铵(APP)单组分阻燃剂及其复配阻燃剂,制备了聚氨酯–酰亚胺(PUI)泡沫塑料阻燃体系,并对其阻燃性能、热性能、表面碳层形貌及力学性能等进行了研究。结果表明,在相同阻燃剂添加量下,复配阻燃体系的极限氧指数(LOI)值高于单一阻燃剂阻燃体系,PUI/EG/APP体系的LOI值由18.6%提高至30.9%。热失重分析表明EG和APP间的相互作用导致了PUI/EG/APP体系在高温阶段的热降解速率下降,残炭率显著上升。扫描电镜分析表明PUI/EG/APP体系在燃烧后能生成更加连续和致密的炭层。在相同阻燃剂添加量的情况下,EG/APP复配使用能够减少EG对PUI压缩性能的损害。

  15. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  16. Application of Fly Ash Based Flame Retardant in Compound of Conveyor Belt%粉煤灰基阻燃剂在阻燃输送带胶料中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立东; 肖建斌

    2015-01-01

    研究粉煤灰基阻燃剂替代硼酸锌、季戊四醇、聚磷酸铵和磷酸三甲苯酯在丁腈橡胶(NBR)/氯化聚乙烯(CM)阻燃输送带胶料中的应用。结果表明:粉煤灰基阻燃剂可以替代或部分替代硼酸锌、季戊四醇和聚磷酸铵,胶料的加工性能、物理性能和阻燃性能变化不大,热稳定性显著提高,燃烧前期抑烟效果较好。%The application of lfy ash based lfame retardant in compound of conveyor belt was investigated. The fly ash based flame retardant was used to replace conventional flame retardants, for example, zinc borate, pentaerythritol, ammonium polyphosphate and tricresyl phosphate, in NBR/chlorinated polyethylene (CM) blends. The results showed that lfy ash based lfame retardant could replace or partially replace zinc borate, pentaerythritol and ammonium polyphosphate. The processing properties of compound, the physical properties and lfame retardant properties of the vulcanizates were kept unchanged, and the thermal stability and smoke suppression in early combustion stage were improved.

  17. Flame-retardant properties of SBA-15/PDCPD composites%SBA-15/PDCPD复合材料的阻燃性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆昶; 刘继纯; 刘宪俊; 张玉清

    2011-01-01

    The mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15/polydicyclopentadiene(PDCPD) composites were prepared by in-situ polymerization (method 1) and in-situ polymerization with SBA-15 supported catalyst tungsten hexachloride (method 2) methods. The flame-retardant properties of SBA - 15/PDCPD composites were studied. The results show that the polymerization of dicyclopentadiene(DCPD) monomer is difficult to occur in the pores of SBA-15 by method 1 and SBA-15 particles congregate, resulting in the minor improvement of the flame-retardant performances of composite. Method 2 is beneficial to the formation of PDCPD molecular chains in the pores of SBA-15. The thermal insulation property of SBA - 15 hole walls can delay the pyrolysis process of PDCPD molecular chains located in the hole, resulting in the effective improvement of the heat-resistance of the composite and the decrease of horizontal burning rate. The limiting oxygen index of composite improves from 20. 1 to 21. 7 when the mass ratio of SBA-15 to PDCPD is 3: 100, indicating that SBA-15 can improve the flame-retardant of PDCPD.%分别采用介孔分子筛SBA-15原位聚合及SBA-15负载催化剂六氯化钨原位聚合的方法制备了SBA-15/聚双环戊二烯(PDCPD)复合材料,研究了SBA-15/PDCPD复合材料的阻燃性能.研究结果表明:采用原位聚合方法制备的复合材料,SBA-15孔道中的双环戊二烯(DCPD)单体难以发生聚合反应生成PDCPD分子链,SBA-15易团聚,导致复合材料的阻燃性能没有明显改善;采用SBA-15负载催化剂原位聚合的方法制备的复合材料,在SBA-15孔道中大量生成PDCPD分子链.SBA-15的孔壁起到隔热作用,延缓介孔内聚合物分子链的热分解,使复合材料的热稳定性明显提高,水平燃烧速率下降,SBA-15与PDCPD的质量比为3:100时,复合材料的极限氧指数由PDCPD的20.1增至21.7,表明SBA-15可提高PDCPD的阻燃性能.

  18. A multi-biomarker risk assessment of the impact of brominated flame retardant-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Chen, Lei; Lin, Kuangfei; Fu, Rongbing

    2014-07-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is the major contaminant at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs), and its potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts of BDE209 on the antioxidant defense system in terrestrial organisms remain vague. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed systematically on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of BDE209 on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all treated groups were elevated significantly after 21 and 28 days exposure; catalase (CAT) activities were much higher in all tests during the entire exposure period; peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities generally decreased and indicated contrary response trend; the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) after exposure to low level of BDE209 (1 mg kg(-1)) was induced, whereas at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) concentrations it showed suppression status; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggested that hydroxyl radicals (OH) in earthworms were significantly induced by BDE209; the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation in earthworms. The results of these observations suggested that severe oxidative stress occurred in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. PMID:25016100

  19. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramu, Karri [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Isobe, Tomohiko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kim, Eun-Young [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Min, Byung-Yoon [Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, 449 Wolyoung-dong, Kyungnam 631-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); We, Sung-Ug [Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, 449 Wolyoung-dong, Kyungnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-15

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. - Mussels are good bioindicators for monitoring organohalogen contaminants.

  20. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. - Mussels are good bioindicators for monitoring organohalogen contaminants

  1. Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Iacovella, Nicola; Abate, Vittorio; Aronica, Vincenzo; Di Marco, Vincenzo; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    An observational study was designed to assess the bioaccumulation of polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCB), and 13 selected polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in autochthonous pigs reared in the Nebrodi Park of Sicily (Italy). Perirenal fat and liver samples were drawn from animals representative of three different outdoor farming systems and from wild pigs and then analyzed for the chemicals mentioned previously. The highest concentrations of PCDD + PCDF and DL-PCB were detected in the fat (0.45 and 0.35 pg World Health Organization toxicity equivalents [WHO-TE] per g of fat base [FB], respectively) and livers (12.7 and 3.28 pg WHO-TE per g FB) of the wild group, whereas the free-ranging group showed the lowest levels (0.05 and 0.03 pg WHO-TE per g FB in fat and 0.78 and 0.27 pg WHO-TE per g FB in livers). The sum of PBDE congeners was highest in wild pigs (0.52 ng/g FB in fat and 5.64 ng/g FB in livers) and lowest in the farmed group (0.14 ng/g FB in fat and 0.28 ng/g FB in livers). The contamination levels in fat and livers of outdoor pigs had mean concentration values lower than those levels reported for intensively indoor-farmed animals. In wild pigs, bioaccumulation was associated with their free grazing in areas characterized by bush fires. The results of this study aid to emphasize the quality of the environment as a factor to guarantee food safety in typical processed pig meat products, specifically from outdoor and extensive Nebrodi farming systems. PMID:21333146

  2. Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: Environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6–14000 ng/g-dry, < 2–1500 ng/g-dry, 11–3300 ng/g-dry, < 5–2900 ng/g-dry, and 67–9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4–78 ng/g-dry, < 2–20 ng/g-dry, 7.3–38 ng/g-dry, 6.0–44 ng/g-dry and 100–350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of < 2–190 ng/g-dry, < 2–69 ng/g-dry, < 3–51 ng/g-dry and 1.7–67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling. - Highlights: • Open storage and burning of e-waste contributed to emission of FRs. • Types of FRs currently in emission are shifting in response to regulations of PBDEs. • Emerging PFRs were detected in soils and sediments around e

  3. Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: Environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Tue, Nguyen Minh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Suzuki, Go [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Someya, Masayuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna Koto, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung [Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6–14000 ng/g-dry, < 2–1500 ng/g-dry, 11–3300 ng/g-dry, < 5–2900 ng/g-dry, and 67–9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4–78 ng/g-dry, < 2–20 ng/g-dry, 7.3–38 ng/g-dry, 6.0–44 ng/g-dry and 100–350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of < 2–190 ng/g-dry, < 2–69 ng/g-dry, < 3–51 ng/g-dry and 1.7–67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling. - Highlights: • Open storage and burning of e-waste contributed to emission of FRs. • Types of FRs currently in emission are shifting in response to regulations of PBDEs. • Emerging PFRs were detected in soils and sediments around e

  4. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND ALTERNATIVE FLAME RETARDANTS IN HOUSE DUST IN DENMARK – LEVELS, PATTERNS AND CHANGES OVER TIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Nielsen, Jesper Bo;

    2016-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as a source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular for children [1]. Since the EU ban of the commercial PBDE Penta- and OctaBDE mixtures in 2004 and the regulation of DecaBDE through the EU Restriction of Hazardous Substances (Ro......HS) Directive, replacements might have been in use [2]. Building on our previous results on PBDEs in house dust from Denmark and associations with perinatal exposure [3], the present study addresses i) PBDE levels in dust sampled in 2014 in comparison with 2007, ii) the occurrence of alternative flame...... previously observed for PBDEs, distributions were skewed with arithmetic means clearly higher than medians, suggesting that exposure might be much above average for certain individuals. Likewise, the FR composition in dust varied, with individual dust samples containing more BEHT-TEBP or BTBPE than DBDPE...

  5. Synthesis of phosphorous-containig flame-retardant copolyester andits properties and application%含磷阻燃共聚酯的合成、性能及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波; 张培华

    2001-01-01

    阐述了含磷阻燃共聚酯的合成过程及物化性能和结晶性能.通过纺丝、织造试验表明,合成的阻燃聚酯切片具有良好的可纺性能,其织物的LOI值达34 %,具有广阔的应用前景.%The synthesis process,physical and chemical properties and crystallization properties of phosphonium flame-retardant copolymerization PET were described.Through spinning,weaving experiment,the results showed that the synthetic flame-retardant PET chip had good spinability,and its LOI value can reach 34%,the application prospect were wide.

  6. 云母粉与磺酸盐协效阻燃聚碳酸酯的研究%Study on the Synergistic Flame Retardant of Mica and Sulfonate on the PCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓亮; 孙东海; 刘贤文; 郑一泉

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同含量的云母粉填充磺酸盐阻燃聚碳酸酯(PC).通过燃烧测试仪、锥形量热仪、热失重分析仪、差示扫描量热仪等手段研究了云母粉填充磺酸盐阻燃PC的阻燃性、燃烧特性、耐热性和力学性能等性能.结果表明,云母粉与磺酸盐能协效阻燃PC.云母粉与聚碳酸酯分子链之间存在有一定的氢键作用,添加云母粉虽不能提高PC燃烧时的成炭率,但能使其燃烧时的热释放速率明显降低,减缓热传导速度;另一方面,云母粉也可能使得全氟丁基磺酸钾(PFBS)在PC中分散更均匀,从而提高PC的阻燃性.除此之外,云母粉对PC的力学性能和加工性能也有一定的影响.%Different contents of mica were filled in sulfonate flame retardant polycarbonate ( PC ). The Performance of flame resistance, combustion characteristics, heat resistance and mechanical properties of mica filled sulfonate flame retardant PC were studied by burning tester, cone calorimeter, thermal gravimetric analyzer, and differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the flame retardant property of PC was improved with mica. The interaction between mica and PC was proposed to be hydrogen bonding and verified. Although the weight of residual char of PC after burning wasn't increased compared with PC, however, the heat release rate and heat conduction were decreased. On the other hand, sulfonate flame retardant could be dispersed more uniform in PC because of mica which was also responsible for improving flame-retardant of PC. In addition, the mechanical properties and processability of PC were influenced by mica.

  7. 可瓷化阻燃耐火硅橡胶研究进展%Development ofceramificable silicone rubber for flame retardancy and fire-resisting materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季辰焘; 王金合; 宋佳男; 杨明瑾; 施利毅

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic silicone rubber fire-resisting material had been proved to be a new fireproof composite.The new type of flame retardant material consists of silicone rubber as the base polymer,to which inorganic clay mineraloid powder filler,dispersant agent and other additives were added.The behaviors of ceramifiable com-posite are similar with common polymer in normal temperature while in high temperature or in flame it converts into a rigid ceramic protective layer.This protective layer plays an important role in cutting off the flame and temperature,thus ensures normal transmission of power and message under fire conditions.The paper system-atically introduces pyrolysis mechanism of silicone rubber matrix,fire-resisting mechanism of ceramifiable com-posites,functions of inorganic fillers like mica,calcium carbonate,aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hy-droxide in the ceramic process and their influence on the ceramifiable silicone rubber composite.On this basis, the paper gives an outlook of the ceramifiable silicone composite.%可瓷化阻燃耐火硅橡胶复合材料是一种新型的防火材料,是在硅橡胶基体中加入无机矿物粉末填料,结构控制剂和其它助剂等制备而成的耐火、阻燃材料。这种材料在常温下具有一般聚合物的优良性能,在遇到高温或是火焰烧蚀时,硅橡胶复合材料可形成坚硬的陶瓷保护层,起到隔绝火焰和防火的作用,从而保证了在火灾情况下电力和通信的正常工作。系统的介绍了硅橡胶基体的分解机理,可瓷化耐火硅橡胶的耐火机理和阻燃机理,总结了包括云母、碳酸钙、氢氧化铝、氢氧化镁在内的无机填料在陶瓷化过程中的作用和对复合材料的影响,且在这些基础上对可瓷化耐火硅橡胶今后的发展方向做了展望。

  8. Screening of selected metals and new organic contaminants 2007. Phosphorus flame retardents, polyfluorinated organic compounds, nitro-PAHs, silver, platinum and sucralose in air, wastewater treatment falcilities, and freshwater and marine recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Green, N; M. Schlabach; Bakke, T.; E. Brevik; C. Dye; Herzke, D.; Huber, S.; Plosz, B.; Remberger, M; Schøyen, M.; Uggerud, H.T.; Vogelsang, C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation take accound of phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs), nitro-PAHs, silver, platinum, and sucralose in air, samples from wastewater treatment facilities, seawater, marine and freshwater sediment, blue mussel and cod liver taken in 2007 (with the exception of 2 sediment samples from 2003). The survey covers 54 individual compounds and 2 metals from 59 sites, of which 5 are for air sampling, 22 for wastewater treatment facilities, 3 for f...

  9. Recent Progress on Flame Retardance of Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites%聚合物/层状硅酸盐纳米复合材料阻燃性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阁谷; 关莹; 亓宪明; 彭锋; 姚春丽; 孙润仓

    2015-01-01

    The preparation methods of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites were summarized , based on the research progress on the flame retardance of layer silicate(clay) reinforced polymer nano‐composites .It is pointed out that melt intercalation is a highly effective and environmental friendly production method .The flame retardance mechanism of layered silicates in nanocomposites was dis‐cussed in details from three aspects ,including barrier effect ,network structure and radical trapping , which produced by silicates in nanocomposites .At last ,it is pointed out that there are still problems existing in the current flame retardance research of polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites ,and the future development of flame retarded polymer nanocomposites is prospected .%根据层状硅酸盐(黏土)可增强聚合物纳米复合材料阻燃性能的研究进展,本文综述了聚合物/层状硅酸盐纳米复合材料的制备方法,指出熔融插层是一种高效可行、环境友好的制备方法;从硅酸盐在纳米复合材料中产生的阻碍效应、自由基诱导效应,网状结构三个方面详细讨论了层状硅酸盐在纳米复合材料中的阻燃机理;最后,指出目前聚合物/层状硅酸盐纳米复合材料在阻燃研究中尚存在的问题,并对其开发应用前景进行了展望。

  10. Bromine Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  11. 一种导热阻燃有机硅灌封胶的制备与性能研究%Research on Preparation and Performance of A Kind of Flame Retardant and Thermal Conductive Organosilicone Pouring Sealant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钒

    2015-01-01

    高度集成的电路会产生大量的热量,不利于电子元器件的保护,为此制备了一种加成型双组份有机硅灌封胶,利用新型有机硅系阻燃剂和Al (OH)3 复配出一种新的复合阻燃填料,并且研究了导热填料Al2 O3 和复合阻燃填料对胶体导热性能、阻燃性能和电气性能的影响.%Highly integrated circuit generates lots of heat which is harmful to the protection of the electronic devices.Therefore,the preparation for an addition double quantity organosilicone pouring sealant is required.We use the new organosilicone pouring sealant and AL (OH) 3 to produce a new kind of compound flame retardant stuffing and research the effects on the performance of colloids ' ther-mal conductivity,flame retardant and electric function that produced by thermal conductive stuffing Al2O3 and compound flame retardant stuffing.

  12. Influence of Zinc Borates(ZB)on Property of Halogen-free Flame-Retarded Poly(Vinyl Chloride)%ZB对无卤阻燃PVC体系性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏方明; 王庭慰; 邵海彬

    2011-01-01

    研究氢氧化铝(ATH)对聚氯乙烯力学性能的影响,并在此基础上研究硼酸锌(ZB)对无卤阻燃聚氯乙烯体系的力学性能、阻燃性能以及电学性能的影响.结果表明:随着硼酸锌的加入,体系的力学性能先提高后降低,硼酸锌与ATH有协同阻燃抑烟作用,体积电阻率在整个过程中呈下降的趋势.%Influence of aluminium hydroxide (ATH) on properties for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) were studied, on which basis the effects of zinc borates (ZB) on mechanical, flame retardant and electrical properties of halogen-free flameretarded poly (vinyl chloride) were researched. The results showed that as ZB content increasing, the mechanical property of halogen-free flame-retarded system increased but declined after, ZB could be used as synergistic flame retardant agents with ATH, and volume resistance presented declining trend with ZB content increasing.

  13. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  14. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  15. Impact of Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Clay-Based Nanocoating on Flame Retardant Properties of Sisal Fiber Cellulose Microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewable cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CH and anionic nanomontmorillonite (MMT layers were alternately deposited on the surface of sisal fiber cellulose microcrystals (SFCM via layer-by-layer (LBL self-assembly method. The structure and properties of the composites were characterized by zeta potential, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, microcalorimeter (MCC, and so forth. The zeta potential results show that the cellulose microcrystalline surface charge reversed due to the adsorption of CH and MMT nanoplatelets during multilayer deposition. MMT characteristic diffraction peaks appear in XRD patterns of SFCM(CH/MMT5 and SFCM(CH/MMT10 composites. Additionally, FESEM reveals that the SFCM(CH/MMT10 surface is covered with a layer of material containing Si, which has been verified by elemental analysis. TGA results show that the initial decomposition (weight loss of 5% temperature of SFCM(CH/MMT5 is increased by 4°C compared to that of pure SFCM. On the other hand, carbon residue percentage of SFCM(CH/MMT10 is 25.1%, higher than that of pure SFCM (5.4% by 19.7%. Eventually, it is testified by MCC measurement that CH/MMT coating can significantly reinforce the flame retardant performance of SFCM.

  16. Determination of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in sediment samples using microwave-assisted extraction and gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M; Rodríguez, I; Cela, R; Kroening, K K; Caruso, J A

    2009-08-15

    A procedure for the determination of 10 organophosphates, used as flame retardants and plasticizers, in sediment samples is presented. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) were used for sample preparation and analytes determination, respectively. Influence of different variables on the performance of extraction and determination processes is thoroughly discussed. Temperature, type and amount of organic solvent showed a major effect on the yield of MAE. Regarding GC-ICP-MS detection, the combination of pulsed splitless injection with low radio frequency (rf) power, hard extraction conditions (referred to lens voltage) and addition of nitrogen (0.03 L min(-1)) to the argon plasma provided the best sensitivity. Under final working conditions, recoveries between 78% and 105%, for samples spiked at different concentration levels, and limits of quantification from 2 to 4 ng g(-1) were achieved. Analysis of unspiked sediments confirmed the excellent selectivity of the proposed method for real-life polluted sample analysis. PMID:19576451

  17. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: the influences of biological and chemical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater fanti values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the fanti values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. PMID:25666277

  18. Bioconcentration and transfer of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-04-21

    Organophosphate flame retardants are emerging environmental contaminants, although knowledge of their health risks is limited. Here, thyroid hormone homeostasis and neuronal development was studied in the progeny of adult zebrafish exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP). Adult zebrafish were exposed to TDCPP (0, 4, 20, and 100 μg/L) for 3 months. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced survival rates was observed in exposed F1 larvae. We also observed a significant decrease in plasma thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in F0 females and F1 eggs/larvae. The mRNA and protein expression of factors associated with neuronal development (e.g., α1-tubulin, myelin basic protein, and synapsin IIa) were significantly downregulated in exposed F1 larvae, as was the level of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, gamma amino butyric acid, and histamine. Larval locomotion was significantly decreased in exposed fish, but there was no effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. Bioconcentration of TDCPP was observed in F0 fish. TDCPP was also detected in F1 eggs following parental exposure, indicating maternal transfer of this compound. This study uniquely shows that TDCPP can be transferred to the offspring of exposed adults, causing thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:25826601

  19. Thermal Analysis and Flame-Retarded Mechanism of Composites Composed of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Layered Double Hydroxides Containing Transition Metals (Mn, Co, Cu, Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of transition metals on the hydrophobicity of nano–structured layered double hydroxides (LDHs and the compatibility of LDHs/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA composites have seldom been reported. NiMgAl–LDHs slightly surface–modified with stearate and doped with transition metal cations (Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ are investigated. Compared to the pure EVA, not only were the maximal degradation–rate temperatures (Tmax of the ethylene–based chains enhanced, but also the smoke production rate (SPR and the production rate of CO (COP were sharply decreased for all the composites. Most importantly, a new flame retardant mechanism was found, namely the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR time, which directly depends on the peak production rate of CO2 (pk-CO2 time for EVA and all composites by cone calorimeter test. Moreover, the Mn–doped LDH S–NiMgAl–Mn shows more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in the EVA matrix. The cone calorimetric residue of S–NiMgAl–Mn/EVA has the intumescent char layer and the compact metal oxide layer. Therefore, S–NiMgAl–Mn/EVA shows the lowest pk-HRR and the longest pk-HRR time among all the composites.

  20. Determination of phenolic flame-retardants in human plasma using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron-capture mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, C; Janák, K; Lundanes, E; Becher, G

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of phenolic flame-retardants in human plasma utilizing solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography with electron-capture mass spectrometric detection (GC-ECMS), has been developed. The plasma lipids were decomposed by application of concentrated sulphuric acid directly on the polystyrene-divinylbenzene SPE column. The method has been validated for 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), pentabromophenol (PeBP), tetrachlorobisphenol-A (TCBP-A) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) in the concentration range 1.2-25, 0.4-40, 4-200 and 4-200 pg g(-1) plasma, respectively. The average absolute recovery of the analytes ranged from 51 to 85%. Tetrabromo-o-cresol and chlorotribromobisphenol-A were found suitable as internal standards, and the average recovery of the analytes relative to the internal standards was in the range 93-107%. The repeatability of the method was in the range 4-30% relative standard deviation. The estimated detection limits of TriBP, PeBP, TCBP-A and TBBP-A were 0.3, 0.4, 3.0 and 0.8 pg g(-1) plasma, respectively. The method has been used for analysis of plasma samples from potentially occupationally exposed human individuals. PMID:11204209

  1. A real-time immuno-PCR assay for the flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate using a probe DNA conjugated to gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an improved real-time immuno-PCR assay for the flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC). For establishing this immunoassay, two kinds of TBC antigen (TBC-OVA and TBC-BSA) were prepared by coupling TBC hapten to ovalbumin and to bovine serum, respectively. The anti-TBC polyclonal antibody was obtained via immunization of rabbits. Subsequently, a bio-functionalized probe was synthesized by conjugating thiol-capped DNA and goat anti-rabbit IgG to gold nanoparticles. This immunoassay involves the follow steps: (a) fixing the coating antigen (TBC-OVA) onto the surface of PCR tubes, and blocking the unbound sites; (b) adding anti-TBC antibody and sample solutions, upon which the TBC analyte in sample and TBC-OVA fixed on the tube well competitively combine with anti-TBC antibody; (c) adding bio-functionalized probe to specifically recognize anti-TBC antibody and release template DNA during PCR amplification. The fluorescence signal was detected via SYBR Green at excitation/emission wavelengths of 497/520 nm. Under optimized conditions, TBC could be detected in the 0.1 pg∙L−1 to 0.1 ng∙L−1 concentration range, with a detection limit as low as 0.97 pg∙L−1. To our knowledge, this immunoassay is the most sensitive one at present and – in our perception – has a large potential for trace detection of TBC in environmental samples. (author)

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide

  3. 阻燃耐寒涤纶牛津遮光布的涂层整理%Coating finish of light-shielding polyester oxford fabric with flame retardancy and cold resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘云芳

    2012-01-01

    为提高高档帐篷面料的防寒抗冻及阻燃功能,采用阻燃整理剂、耐寒整理剂及遮光涂料对染色涤纶牛津布进行涂层整理,以赋予织物遮光、耐寒及阻燃等功能.结果表明,将稳定性好、价格合适的耐寒剂加入到阳离子水性聚氨酯阻燃剂(即耐寒树脂)中,对疏水性聚酯、丙烯基类纤维具有良好的覆盖性.采用多次涂层加工,解决了阻燃耐寒涤纶牛津遮光布遮光、阻燃和柔韧的持久性问题.%In order to improve the cold resistance and fire retardancy of high grade tent fabric, coating of dyed polyester oxford fabric is carried out with flame retardant agent, cold resistant agent and opaque pigment. The results show that adding cold resistant agent into cationic water-based polyurethane flame retardant agent can get good covering performance on hydrophobic polyester and acrylic fibers. Multi-coating can impart polyester oxford product good durability of light shading, fire retardancy and softness.

  4. Effect of phosphorous-containing modified poly(vinyl alcohol on the mechanical and flame retardant properties of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sauca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blends of polypropylene (PP and different phosphorous-modified poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA derivatives synthesized on purpose, were prepared by both solvent and melt mixing, and fully characterized. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of the phosphorous-modified PVAs significantly increased thermal stability and charring of PP, probably due to their dehydration and the subsequent formation of a protective layer onto PP. SEM analysis demonstrated poor phase compatibility between PP and the polymeric additives, however acceptable dispersion of the polymeric additives was obtained. It was also observed that grafting of the modified PVA on PP occurred due to radical reactions arising during melt processing. Mechanical characterization showed that the elastic behavior of the blends was not altered with respect to neat PP, while ductility was reduced; on the other hand, impact resistance was considerably improved by blending. Slightly higher LOI values were obtained for the blends even with phosphorous content as small as 1 wt%; reduced dripping was also observed during the burning tests for the blend samples. Moreover, cone calorimeter test results showed that heat release rate, total heat release, and fire growth rate decreased compared with PP, in particular for the blends containing residual –OH groups on the PVA backbone. Therefore, these blends can find application where the combination of toughness and fire retardancy is required, such as in the automotive industry.

  5. Preparation and characterization of compound halogen-free flame retardant polyurethane foams%复配无卤阻燃聚氨酯泡沫塑料的制备与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵义平; 阎家建; 陈丁猛; 陈莉; 董知之; 付维贵

    2013-01-01

    通过添加N,N’-二(2-硫代-5,5--甲基-1,3,2-二氧磷杂环己基)乙二胺(DDPSN)、三聚氰胺(MA)、聚磷酸铵(APP)单组份阻燃剂及其复配阻燃剂,制得无卤阻燃聚氨酯泡沫塑料,并对其阻燃性能、力学性能、密度、吸水率以及热性能等进行了研究.研究结果表明,单组份阻燃剂中DDPSN阻燃效果较好,复配阻燃体系中,DDPSN与MA以及DDPSN与APP均具有良好的协同阻燃效果,其中DDPSN与APP协同效果最好.拉伸测试表明,单组份阻燃剂中APP表现较好,DDPSN/APP复配对聚氨酯泡沫的力学性能提高较大.DDPSN/APP复配阻燃体系对聚氨酯泡沫塑料的表观密度和孔结构影响不大,但使泡沫塑料的降解温度提高.%Halogen-free flame retardant polyurethane foams (PUFs) were prepared by filling single or composite components of N,N'-bis( 2-thio-5 , 5-dimethyl-l, 3, 2-dioxaphosphorinane) ethane (DDPSN), melamine (MA) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). The results of limiting oxygen index (LOI) revealed that in the single component flame retardants DDPSN had the best flame retardancy for PUFs. In the two compound flame re-tardants, DDPSN/MA and DDPSN/APP had excellent synergistic effect, especially DDPSN/APP. The results of tensile test indicated that APP had the best reinforcing effect for PUFs. In the two component flame retardants, DDPSN/APP was the best.

  6. Thyroid disruption by triphenyl phosphate, an organophosphate flame retardant, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae, and in GH3 and FRTL-5 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Jung, Joeun; Lee, Inae; Jung, Dawoon; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-03-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), one of the most widely used organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), has frequently been detected in the environment and biota. However, knowledge of its toxicological effects is limited. The present study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of TPP on the thyroid endocrine system of embryonic/larval zebrafish, and the underlying mechanisms for these effects were studied using rat pituitary (GH3) and thyroid follicular (FRTL-5) cell lines. In the GH3 cells, TPP up-regulated the expression of the tshβ, trα, and trβ genes, while T3, a positive control, down-regulated the expression of these genes. In the FRTL-5 cells, the expression of the nis and tpo genes was significantly up-regulated, suggesting that TPP stimulates thyroid hormone synthesis in the thyroid gland. In zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf), TPP exposure led to significant increases in both T3 and T4 concentrations and expression of the genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Exposure to TPP also significantly up-regulated the expression of the genes related to the metabolism (dio1), transport (ttr), and elimination (ugt1ab) of thyroid hormones. The down-regulation of the crh and tshβ genes in the zebrafish larvae suggests the activation of a central regulatory feedback mechanism induced by the increased T3 levels in vivo. Taken together, our observations show that TPP could increase the thyroid hormone concentrations in the early life stages of zebrafish by disrupting the central regulation and hormone synthesis pathways. PMID:25646720

  7. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  8. Current levels and composition profiles of emerging halogenated flame retardants and dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Haidong; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Yawei; Lam, Paul K S; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-11-01

    Occurrence of new toxic chemicals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is of concern for the environment and human health. Alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a group of potentially harmful organic contaminants in the environment. In this study, a nationwide survey was carried out to identify the occurrence of HFRs and their potential dehalogenated products in sewage sludge from 62 WWTPs in China. Of all 20 target chemicals analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1, 2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE) were detected in all sludge samples, and the concentrations were in the range of 0.82-215, 0.09-65.8, and 0.10-2.26 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Dechlorane Plus (DP) was found in 60 of 62 samples, and the concentration ranged from nd-298 ng g(-1) with a mean of 18.9 ng g(-1) d.w. The anti-DP fractional abundance fanti (0.79) in the samples was much higher than the commercial DP composition (fanti=0.59), indicating a stereoselective degradation. Comparison with global sludge concentrations of HFRs indicate that China is at the medium pollution level in the world. Principal components analysis revealed that strong correlations existed between ln-transformed concentrations (natural logarithm) of the dominant BFRs and total organic carbon (TOC) as well as industrial wastewater proportion, influent volume and serving population. Significant linear relationships (R=0.360-0.893, penvironment. Two kinds of dehalogenated products, pentabromocyclododecane (PBCD) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Cl11-DP), derived from HBCD and DP, were also identified in sewage sludge for the first time. PMID:25286358

  9. In Ovo effects of two organophosphate flame retardants--TCPP and TDCPP--on pipping success, development, mRNA expression, and thyroid hormone levels in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Amani; Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-07-01

    Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) are organic flame retardants detected in the environment and biota for which avian toxicological data are limited. In this study, domestic chicken eggs were injected with TCPP or TDCPP (maximum dose = 51,600 and 45,000ng/g egg, respectively) to determine dose-dependent effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) pathway, and TH levels following 20-22 days of incubation. Neither compound reduced pipping success; however, TCPP significantly delayed pipping at 9240 and 51,600ng/g and reduced tarsus length at 51,600ng/g. TDCPP exposure resulted in significant decreases in head plus bill length, embryo mass, and gallbladder size at 45,000ng/g and reduced plasma free T4 levels at 7640ng/g. Type I deiodinase, liver fatty acid-binding protein, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A37 mRNA levels were significantly induced by TCPP, whereas TDCPP induced CYP3A37 and CYP2H1. Chemical analysis of egg contents at incubation days 0, 5, 11, 18, and 19 revealed that > 92% of the injected TCPP or TDCPP concentration was detectable up to day 5; however, < 1% was detected by day 19. The observed phenotypic responses to TCPP and TDCPP exposure may be associated with disruption of the TH axis, which is critical for normal growth and development in birds. The effects of TDCPP on the gallbladder indicate that the disturbance of lipid metabolism is a likely mechanism of toxicity. PMID:23629516

  10. Occurrence, distribution, and potential affecting factors of organophosphate flame retardants in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in Henan Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Yuan, Yiting; He, Han; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Hongzhong; Zhao, Jihong

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of six OPEs were investigated in sewage sludge from 24 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 18 cities of Henan province, Central China. The results indicated that all target OPEs were detected in the sludge samples with the detection rate of 95.8%, except tris(dichloropropyl)phosphate (TDCP). The total concentration of the six OPEs ranged from 38.6 to 508 μg kg(-1). Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), and tris(2-chloroiso-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) were found to be predominant, with concentrations ranging from 2.50 to 203, 1.60 to 383, and 6.70-161 μg kg(-1), respectively. The potential factors affecting OPE levels in sewage sludge, such as wastewater source, sludge characteristics, operational conditions, treatment techniques, and total organic carbon (TOC) of sludge in WWTPs were investigated. The results indicated that the total concentration of OPEs in sewage sludge has no significant relationship with the individual parameters (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations were found between triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) level and treatment capacity (R = 0.484, p < 0.05), processing volume (R = 0.495, p < 0.05), and serving population (R = 0.591, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the relationship between treatment techniques and the total concentration of OPEs in sewage sludge was also investigated in this study, and the results illustrated that the levels of OPEs in sludge were independent of the solid retention time (SRT). PMID:26974479

  11. Efficiency of Different Classes of Flame Retardants for Epoxy Resins Designed for Coating Applications%不同种类阻燃剂对涂层用环氧树脂的阻燃效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirumal Mariappan; Charles A Wilkie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the efficiency of different classes of flame retardants for epoxy resins designed for coating applications.The thermal stability and fire retardant properties of the amine (JeffamineT403) cured epoxy resin,diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A,have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere and cone calorimetry.In this study,an extensive series of flame retarded epoxy resins were prepared with commercially available flame retardant additives,including halogens,phosphorus,minerals,melamine derivative and intumescent additives.The range of flame retardant materials used in epoxy formulations of commercial interest was investigated.The amount of FR additives is maintained at 15 % (except mineral fillers 30 %,mass fraction) to avoid impairment of the mechanical properties of epoxy resin.%主要研究了不同种类阻燃剂对涂层用环氧树脂的阻燃效率的影响.该环氧树脂由双酚A的二环氧丙醚经胺类固化剂固化而得,用氮气氛下的热重分析(TGA)和锥形量热研究了其热稳定性和阻燃性.本研究中,所用的阻燃剂都是商业化应用的阻燃添加剂,包括卤素、磷、无机物、三聚氰胺衍生物和膨胀型添加剂.研究所选用的阻燃环氧体系都具有较高的商业化应用价值.研究发现,固化剂的种类对环氧树脂的阻燃性有较大影响,在阻燃和抑烟方面,溴系阻燃剂比氯系阻燃剂更有效.亚磷酸盐对于环氧树脂具有很好的阻燃作用.氢氧化镁、硼酸锌比氢氧化铝的阻燃效率高.三聚氰胺化合物能够赋予环氧树脂较好的阻燃和抑烟性,此外膨胀型添加剂也是一种有效的阻燃剂.

  12. Effect of additives on magnesium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide compound with flame-retardant polyethylene system%添加剂对阻燃聚乙烯体系性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 吴洁

    2011-01-01

    为提高碳酸镁/氢氧化铝复配阻燃聚乙烯体系的性能,将几种常用协效剂和两种偶联剂添加到阻燃体系中,测量其阻燃性能及力学性能.实验表明:几种添加剂对提高体系的氧指数贡献相当;白炭黑可以明显提高体系的拉伸强度,硼酸锌对体系的断裂伸长率影响最小.对于拉伸强度、使用铝酸酯偶联剂效果优于硅烷偶联剂.%To improve the property of magnesium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide compound with flame-retardant PE sys tem,several synergistic agents and two kind of eoupling agents were added into the flame-retardant PE system. The fire retard ant property and mechanical property were tested. It indicates that several synergistic agents have similar contribution to oxy gen index of the system, silica white can improve the tenslle strength evidently, and zinc borate has little influence on the e longation at break of the system. As far as the tensile strength is concerned , aluminate coupling agent is better than silane cou pling agent.

  13. Synthesis and thermal properties of cured materials of halogen-free flame-retardant epoxy resin%无卤阻燃环氧树脂固化物及其结构与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵玉勤; 华正江; 张兴宏

    2014-01-01

    环氧树脂固化物具有一系列性能优势,是重要的电子材料之一,但因其极易燃烧而存在火灾隐患。采用一类扭曲非对称结构的二氮杂萘酮型二胺和二酚型无卤阻燃固化剂,与双酚A型环氧树脂(E51)和含磷环氧树脂固化,所得固化物具有优异的热学和动态力学性能,T 可达157℃,热线胀系数低;与含磷树脂固化后所得g材料的阻燃性顺利通过UL94 V-0级测试。%The epoxy thermosets have a series of advantages,and are one of the most important electronic materials.However,the common epoxy materials are highly flammable.In this paper,two nitrogen-containing flame-retardant curing agents was synthesized by using phenolphthalein as the raw material.The bisphenol A epoxy resin E51 and the phosphorus-containing epoxy resin were cured with the diamine and diphenol halogen-free flame-retardant curing agents,which contain the phthalazinone moieties and have the twisty and unsymmetrical structural,and the cured exhibited excellent thermal and dynamic mechaincal properties,T of 157℃,and lower linear expansion coefficient.When curedg with the phosphorus-containing epoxy resin,it exhibited excellent flame retardant performance(UL 94 V-0).

  14. 蓖麻油多元醇在聚氨酯阻燃硬泡中的应用研究%Application of Castor Oil Polyol in the Flame-Retardant Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯月兰; 李其峰; 王军威; 亢茂青; 曹月领; 王心葵

    2013-01-01

    Castor oil polyol (COP) was prepared by the transesterification of castor oil with glycerin, and applied for the manufacture of inflaming retarding rigid polyurethane foam ( RPUF). The effect of flame-retardants type and content, COP dosage on the overall performance of RPUF was investigated. The results showed that COP affected the limiting oxygen index of RPUF slightly, except that the RPUF could shrink when the COP content exceeded 50%. Among the introduced flame-retardants, dimethyl methylphosphonate ( DMMP) exhibited highest flame resistance for RPUF. The further investigation confirmed that adding DMMP of about 20% ~ 30% of totel polyols weight should be more favorable for keeping overall performance of RPUF.%通过蓖麻油与甘油进行酯交换反应制备蓖麻油多元醇,并应用于聚氨酯阻燃硬泡的制备,研究了阻燃剂类型、添加量及蓖麻油多元醇的添加量对聚氨酯硬质泡沫(RPUF)综合性能的影响.结果表明,蓖麻油多元醇的添加量对阻燃RPUF氧指数影响不大,只是添加量大于50%时会导致泡沫收缩;添加不同阻燃剂后发现甲基磷酸二甲酯(DMMP)的阻燃效果好,DMMP合适用量为多元醇组分的20% ~ 30%.

  15. 基于环三磷腈/磷酸酯反应型磷-氮阻燃剂的合成、热降解及应用%Synthesis, properties and application of reactive nitrogen-phosphorus flame retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文田; 杨荣; 许亮; 宋艳; 李锦春

    2015-01-01

    以六氯环三磷腈(HCCP)、对羟基苯甲醛及亚磷酸二乙酯等为原料,成功合成了一种反应型磷-氮膨胀阻燃剂六(4-磷酸二乙酯羟甲基苯氧基)环三磷腈(HPHPCP),HPHPCP结构经傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)、核磁共振(NMR)证实。热失重(TG/DTG)表明HPHPCP具有较高的热稳定性及良好的成炭性,氮气氛下的起始分解温度为162.7℃,800℃时残炭量大于40%(质量分数);利用 HPHPCP 的羟基结构,应用于硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料中,可以显著提高聚氨酯硬泡的阻燃性能,添加30%的HPHPCP就可以使聚氨酯氧指数达到27%。%A novel reactive flame retardant named hexakis (4-diethyl phosphate hydroxymethyl phenoxy) cyclotriphosphazene (HPHPCP) was synthesized from hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP),p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and diethyl phosphite. Chemical structures of intermediate and HPHPCP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Thermal stability of the HPHPCP was determinedvia thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Halogen-free flame-retardant rigid polyurethane foams (RPU) were prepared by using HPHPCP as a reactive flame retardant. The effect of HPHPCP content on the thermal and flame-retardant properties of RPU was investigated with TGA, and limiting oxygen index (LOI). The temperatures of 5%(mass) loss (T5%) of HPHPCP in nitrogen and air were 162.7℃ and 153.0℃, and the residues at 800℃ of HPHPCP in nitrogen and air were 42.1% and 12.0%(mass), respectively. HPHPCP could enhance thermal stability of RPU. TheT5% of RPU-20%HPHPCP was 193.9℃, 20℃ higher than pure RPU. Moreover, limiting oxygen index (LOI) of RPU increased with increasing HPHPCP, and LOI of RPU-30%HPHPCP was 27%.

  16. Hydrophobic Modification of Ammonium Polyphosphate and Its Application in Flame Retardant Polypropylene Composites%聚磷酸铵的疏水改性及聚丙烯阻燃性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建超; 许苗军; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium polyphosphate ( APP ) surface was modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (KH550), then microencapsulated by silicone in situ polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS), finally surface-modified with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl)trimethoxysilane to prepare the hydrophobic APP ( M-APP) . The structure and surface elemental composition of M-APP were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ) , and the results indicated that M-APP was the target product. The wettability of the modified APP was measured by water contact angle( CA) test and the CA reached 134 ° , which demonstrate the modified APP possessed obviously hydrophobic proper-ty. The modified APP mixed with triazine char foaming agent( CFA) with the mass ratio of 4∶1 to prepare in-tumescent flame retardant( IFR) and afterwards IFR was incorporated into polypropylene( PP) to prepare flame retardant PP composites. The flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior of PP composites were evaluated by limiting oxygen index(LOI), vertical burning(UL-94) and thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) tests. The water resistant property of the flame retarded PP materials were evaluated by water resistant test, and the mechanical properties were measured by the tensile, flexural and impact strength test, the compatibili-ty between the flame retardant and polymer was investigated by scanning electron microscopy( SEM) . The re-sults indicated that the modified APP/CFA/PP composite reached UL-94 V-0 flammability rating when the loading amount of IFR was 23%, the PP composite after water resistance test still successfully passed UL-94 V-0 rating and the mass loss was only 0. 92%. Under the same experimental conditions, the APP/CFA/PP composite after water resistance test was no rating in vertical burning test and the mass loss was 2 . 45%. It can be deduced that hydrophobic modification of APP can greatly improve the water

  17. 六苯氧基环三磷腈的合成及其阻燃应用%Synthesis of hexaphenoxyl cyclotriphosphazene and its application in flame retardance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仿军; 武菊; 李亮; 刘志田; 喻湘华

    2013-01-01

    以六氯环三磷腈(HCCTP)、苯酚、碳酸钾为原料,四正丁基溴化铵(TBAB)为相转移催化剂,氯苯为溶剂,合成了六苯氧基环三磷腈(HPCTP).采用红外光谱技术对产物进行了表征,并将HPCTP首次应用于聚丙烯/聚烯烃弹性体/滑石粉复合体系,制备了无卤阻燃的聚丙烯改性塑料.结果表明,HPTCP对复合体系具有较好的阻燃作用.复合体系的缺口冲击强度和断裂伸长率随着阻燃剂用量的增加而下降,弯曲强度随着阻燃剂含量的增加而增加,拉伸强度随着阻燃剂含量的增加而先增后降.当HPCTP的质量分数为10%时,阻燃聚丙烯/聚烯烃弹性体/滑石粉复合体系的氧指数达到25.6%,冲击强度为15.1 kJ/m2,弯曲强度为34.2MPa,拉伸强度为23.9 MPa,断裂伸长率为59.1%,该材料的综合性能最佳.%Hexaphenoxyl cyclotriphosphazene (HPCTP) was synthesized by the reaction of hexachloro-cyclotriphosphazene (HCCTP) with phenol and potash, and using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as phase transfer catalyst and chlorobenzene as solvent. The product was characterized by infrared spectrum. The obtained HPCTP was firstly applied in the blend of Polypropylene (PP)/ Polyolefin etastomer(POE)/Talc as a halogen-free flame retardant to prepare polypropylene modified plastics. The results show that HPCTP has the ability of flame retardancey; the increase of the content of the HPCTP in the PP/POE/Talc blend leads to a decline in Izod impact strength and the rupture elongation, an increase in flexural strength, the tensile strength of the PP/POE/Talc blend firstly increasing then declining; when the content of HPCTP is 10%, the application performance of the blend reaches its optimum property. In this case the blend shows an oxygen index value of 25. 6% ,the notch impact strength is 15. 1 kJ/m2, the flexural strength is 34. 2 MPa,the tensile strength is 23. 9 MPa and the rupture elongation is 59. 1%.

  18. Development of Flame Retardant Surface Material for Protective Clothing with BIIR%阻燃溴化丁基橡胶防护服表面材料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶刚; 王月星

    2013-01-01

    The environmentally friendly lfame retardant surface material for protective clothing was developed based on BIIR. The results showed that, with the use of lfame retardant HT/antimony complex/zinc borate, the lfame-retardant property was good and the flame retardant rating reached UL-94 V-0. In addition, the material had good chemical resistance, and no penetration of mustard agent was detected in the 6 hour mustard gas permeability test on the 0.5 mm iflm.%介绍环保型阻燃溴化丁基橡胶防护服表面材料的研制。结果表明:采用阻燃剂HT/络合锑/硼酸锌并用,胶料的阻燃性能好,阻燃级别达到UL-94 V-0;胶料具有良好的耐化学介质性能,0.5 mm胶膜抗芥子气渗透时间超过6 h。

  19. A high-throughput method for determination of metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants in urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cequier, Enrique; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine

    2014-10-01

    Organophosphate triesters are common flame retardants used in a wide variety of consumer products from which they can migrate and pollute the indoor environment. Humans may thus be continuously exposed to several organophosphate triesters which might be a risk for human health. An analytical method based on direct injection of 5 μL urine into an ultra performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed and validated to monitor exposure to organophosphate triesters through their respective dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites (DAPs). The targeted analytes were: di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCPP) and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP). Separation was achieved in less than 3 min on a short column with narrow diameter and small particle size (50 mm × 2.1 mm × 1.7 μm). Different mobile phases were explored to obtain optimal sensitivity. Acetonitrile/water buffered with 5mM of ammonium hydroxide/ammonium formate (pH 9.2) was the preferred mobile phase. Quantification of DAPs was performed using deuterated analogues as internal standards in synthetic urine (averaged DAP accuracy was 101%; RSD 3%). Low method limits of quantification (MLQ) were obtained for DNBP (0.40 ng mL(-1)), DPHP (0.10 ng mL(-1)), BDCIPP (0.40 ng mL(-1)) and BBOEP (0.60 ng mL(-1)), but not for the most polar DAPs, BCEP (∼12 ng mL(-1)) and BCPP (∼25 ng mL(-1)). The feasibility of the method was tested on 84 morning urine samples from 42 mother and child pairs. Only DPHP was found above the MLQ in the urine samples with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 1.1 ng mL(-1) and 0.57 ng mL(-1) for mothers and children respectively. BDCIPP was however, detected above the method limit of detection (MLD) with GM of 0.13 ng mL(-1) and 0.20 ng mL(-1). While occasionally detected, the GM of DNBP and

  20. Flame-retardant composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; BMI, a bismaleimide; and phenolic and PSP, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that VPSP/BMI with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  1. Enhanced flame retardant polymer nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Elbasuney, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to life and property. The total annual UK fire loss is estimated to be 0.25% of its gross domestic product (GDP) (Goddard, 1995). According to fire statistics, more than 12 million fires break out every year in the United States, Europe, Russia, and China killing about 166,000 people and injuring several hundreds of thousands (Morgan and Wilkie, 2007). Polymers which take up 80% of the organic chemical industry, are known for their high flammability with the produc...

  2. 隧道沥青路面专用养护剂的阻燃性和路用性能研究%Study on Flame Retardance and Pavement Performance of Special Maintenance Agent for Tunnel Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春飞

    2013-01-01

    In connection with a new flame-retardant maintenance agent for tunnel asphalt pavement, study is carried out to the extent that the flame retardance and the function of aging resistance or slowing are evaluated, and then the effect of the agent on waterproofness and sliding resistance of tunnel asphalt pavement is inspected. The result shows that the maintenance agent can effectively improve the oxygen index of asphalt and, at the premise of the sliding resistance almost not decreased, improve the waterproofness of tunnel asphalt pavement.%对具有阻燃作用的隧道沥青路面专用养护剂进行了研究,对该养护剂的阻燃性和在防止或减缓沥青老化方面的功能进行评价,着重考察其对隧道沥青路面不透水性和抗滑性能的影响.研究结果表明:专用养护剂能有效提高沥青的氧指数,且在几乎不降低抗滑性能的前提下提高隧道沥青路面的不透水性.

  3. Preparation and application of modified and terminated water-borne polyurethane emulsion flame-retardant coating agent%改性封端型水性聚氨酯阻燃涂层胶的制备及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田呈呈; 徐恒宇; 徐成书; 邢建伟

    2013-01-01

    以聚碳酸亚丙酯多元醇(PPC-2660)、甲苯二异氰酸酯(T口DI)为原料,咪唑为封端剂,环氧树脂为改性剂,合成改性封端型水性聚氨酯,采用外添加法制备水性聚氨酯阻燃涂层胶,应用于涤纶织物.探讨了R直、封端系数、封端温度和时间以及环氧树脂用量对合成产品性能的影响,优化了合成改性封端型水性聚氨酯阻燃涂层胶的工艺条件.%The modified and terminated water-borne polyurethane emulsion was synthesized using polypropylene carbonate polyols (PPC-2660) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) as raw materials,imidazole as terminating agent and epoxy resin as modifying agent.And then water-borne polyurethane emulsion flame-retardant coating agent was prepared by external addition method and applied to polyester fabric.The influences of R value,terminating coefficient,reaction temperature and time,and dosage of epoxy resin on the properties of product were investigated.The synthesis process of the modified and terminated water-borne polyurethane emulsion flame-retardant coating agent was optimized.

  4. 六苯氧基环三磷腈与四溴双酚A对聚丙烯的协同阻燃作用%Synergistic Flame Retardancy of Phenoxycycloposphazene and Tetrabromobisphenol A in Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐林生; 郝秋芬; 李莉; 袁志刚

    2013-01-01

    通过极限氧指数测定(LOI)、垂直燃烧实验和锥型量热仪分析研究了六苯氧基环三磷腈(HPTCP)与四溴双酚A (TBA)对聚丙烯(PP)的协同阻燃作用.结果表明,在阻燃剂添加量为12.5%时,TBA阻燃PP和HPTCP阻燃PP的LOI分别为25.0%和20.8%,垂直燃烧均无阻燃等级,而二者以质量比1∶1复合阻燃PP的LOI为28.2%,阻燃等级达到FV-2级,且后者的点燃时间较前两者长,热释放速率、质量损失率和累计热释放量均比前两者小,这说明两者之间具有很好的协同作用.热重分析和残炭分析结果表明,TBA/HPTCP是通过气相和凝聚相协同阻燃的,即TBA/HPTCP一方面协同加速PP的炭化,减少可燃挥发物的产生,另一方面TBA分解释放出的HBr捕获燃烧产生的自由基而抑制气相燃烧.%Synergistic flame retardancy of phenoxycycloposphazene ( HPTCP) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBA) in polypropylene was studied by limiting oxygen index ( LOI) measurement, vertical burning and cone calorimeter test (CCT). When the loading of the flame retardant was 12. 5 wt% , the LOI of the flame retarded PP ( TOP and HPP) with only TBA or HPTCP were respectively 25.0 and 20.8, and had no vertical flammability rating, while the LOI of the sample ( THP) with a combination of TBA and the same weight amount of HPTCP can be up to 28. 2% , vertical flammability class meet FV-2. The ignition time of THP was longer than of TBP and HPP, while the heat release rate, mass loss rate and total heat release of THP was smaller than those of TBP and HPP. The above results revealed that the synergistic flame retardancy of HPTCP and TBA in polypropylene was excellent. TGA and carbon residue analysis indicated that TBA/ HPTCP played a flame retardancy by gas and condensed phase mechanisms, where on the one hand, TBA/ HPTCP accelerated synergic the carbonization of PP, on the other hand, the HBr released from the decomposition of TBA inhibited combustion by capturing radicals

  5. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena, E-mail: yelena.sapozhnikova@ars.usda.gov [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States)

    2013-01-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS-MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS-MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72-119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1-0.5 ng g{sup -1} for PCBs, 0.5-10 ng g{sup -1} for PBDEs, 0.5-5 ng g{sup -1} for select pesticides and PAHs and 1-10 ng g{sup -1} for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples

  6. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. ► The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS–MS. ► The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. ► The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS–MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS–MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS–MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72–119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1–0.5 ng g−1 for PCBs, 0.5–10 ng g−1 for PBDEs, 0.5–5 ng g−1 for select pesticides and PAHs and 1–10 ng g−1 for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market.

  7. 高灼热丝阻燃增强回收PA6的制备%Preparation of High Glow-wire Reinforced Flame-retardant Recycling PA6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永兵; 苗立成; 姚洁璐; 杨廷海; 郝为强; 陈强

    2011-01-01

    The glass fiber reinforced flame-retardant PA6 recycling composites were prepared by using twin-screw extruder. The effects of red phosphorus, Mg ( OH) 2, MCA, ZnBO 3 and POE-g-MAH on mechanical property and glow-wire of reinforced flame-retardant PA6 composites were discussed. Glow-wire tester and mechanical test methods were used to measure the glow-wire temperature and mechanical properties of recycling PA6 composites. The results showed that; the effectiveness of compounding red phosphorus and MCA was better in glow-wire test, when the content of P/MCA (2:1) and POE-g-MAH were 2% and 5% , the tensile strength was 123.6 Mpa, the Izod impact strength was 10 kJ/m2, 1.6 mm the flame-retardant grade being UL94-V0 and the glow-wire temperature was up to 810 ℃ which met the requirement in electrical and electronic products with high glow-wire temperature.%利用双螺杆挤出机制备了玻纤阻燃增强回收聚酰胺6 (PA6)系列复合材料,探讨了红磷母粒(P)、氢氧化镁[Mg (OH)2]、三聚氰胺尿酸盐(MCA)、硼酸锌(ZnBO3)、增韧剂乙烯辛烯共聚物接枝马来酸酐(POE-g-MAH)对阻燃增强回收PA6力学性能及灼热丝温度的影响,采用力学测试方法、灼热丝试验仪研究了回收PA6复合材料的力学性能和灼热丝温度.结果表明:在阻燃增强回收PA6体系中,用P、MCA复配效果最好,当质量比为2/1的P/MCA和POE-g-MAH加入量(质量分数)分别为2%和5%时,材料的拉伸强度为123.6 MPa,缺口冲击强度为10 kJ/m2,1.6mm阻燃等级为V-0,灼热丝温度达到810℃,满足电子电气对材料高灼热丝温度的要求.

  8. Effects of Cobalt Complexes on the Combustion Process of Cottonwood with Ammonium Polyphosphate Flame Retardant%钴配合物与聚磷酸铵对杨木协同阻燃的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁利萍; 伍国云; 胡云楚

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic flame-retarded effects of a similar molecular sieve [Co5 (OH) 2 (tca) 2 (ina) 2 (H2O) 2]· 4 H2O (Co5) and ammonium polyphosphate(APP) on cottonwood was studied by cone calorimeter.The results showed that compared with APP added individually,the combination of Cos and APP was led to the reduction of total heat release(THR) to 18.3 %,the mass loss to 7.7 %,y(CO2) to 22.8 g/kg and y(CO) to 12.3 g/kg,respectively.The TGA and XRD analysis also showed that the generation of tricarballylic acid and isonicotinic acid ligands under high temperature.It can promote the decomposition of the APP and help to inhibit burning and lower the weightlessness rate.Thus,the flame retardancy of s-APP/Co5 was superior to s-APP.Co5 showed good effects on the APP flame retarded cottonwood.%研究了Co(NO3)2·6H2O与1,2,3-丙三酸(H3tca)、导烟酸(Hina)形成的类分子筛配合物[Co5(OH)2(tca)2 (ina)2(H2O)2],4H2O(简称为Co5)与聚磷酸铵(APP)对杨木的协同阻燃作用.锥形量热仪实验结果表明,Co5与APP协同阻燃试样的总热释放量(THR)比APP阻燃试样的THR降低了18.3%,燃烧过程的质量损失减少了7.7%,二氧化碳产率减少了22.8 g/kg,一氧化碳产率减少12.3 g/kg.结合热重分析(TGA)、X射线衍射(XRD),表明Co5或Co5在高温时产生的丙三酸(ri3tca)、异烟酸(Hina)配体等促进了APP的分解,有助于抑制燃烧,降低失重.APP/Co5对杨木的阻燃效果优于单一的APP.

  9. Combustion and inorganic bromine emission of waste printed circuit boards in a high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The combustion efficiency of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) depends on temperature, excess air factor, and high temperature zone residence time. Temperature has the most significant impact. Under the proposed condition, combustion of waste PCBs alone is quite complete within the furnace. ► High temperature prompts a more complete bromine release and conversion. When temperature is high enough, 99.9% organobrominated compounds, the potential precursors for brominated dixoins formation, are destroyed efficiently and convert to inorganic bromine in flue gas, as HBr and Br2. ► Temperature has crucial influence over the inhibition of HBr conversion to Br2, while the oxygen partial pressure plays a reverse role in the conversion to a very small extent. Increasing temperature will decrease the volume percentage ratio of Br2/HBr in flue gas greatly. ► The thermodynamic equilibrium approach of bromine conversion was investigated. The two forms of inorganic bromine in flue gas substantially reach thermodynamic equilibrium within 0.25 s. Under the proposed operating condition, the reaction of Br transfer and conversion finish. - Abstract: High temperature combustion experiments of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were conducted using a lab-scale system featuring a continuously-fed drop tube furnace. Combustion efficiency and the occurrence of inorganic bromine (HBr and Br2) were systematically studied by monitoring the main combustion products continuously. The influence of furnace temperature (T) was studied from 800 to 1400 °C, the excess air factor (EAF) was varied from 1.2 to 1.9 and the residence time in the high temperature zone (RTHT) was set at 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 s. Combustion efficiency depends on temperature, EAF and RTHT; temperature has the most significant effect. Conversion of organic bromine from flame retardants into HBr and Br2 depends on temperature and EAF. Temperature has crucial influence over the ratio of HBr to Br2

  10. 海水提溴技术的发展与研究现状%Research and development status of bromine extracting technique from sea water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林源; 王浩宇; 周亚蓉; 叶俊伟; 宁桂玲

    2012-01-01

    Bromine is one of the important chemical materials.lt has been widely used in the fields of flame retardants,oil exploration,fungicides,pesticides, photographic materials,and pharmaceutical etc..Bromine's preparation technology and potential value are highly attached by domestic and foreign scholars.The status of bromine production and extraction methods from sea water,including air stripping method,steam distillation method,ion exchange adsorption method,and membrane separation method at home and abroad were briefly introduced.The advantages and disadvantages of those methods were compared.Meanwhile, the preparation method of ultrapure bromine was briefly described.Finally, the future development direction of extracting bromine from sea water was suggested.%溴素是重要的化工原料之一,在阻燃剂、石油开采、杀菌剂、农药、感光材料及医药等领域广泛应用,其制备技术和应用价值受到国内外学者的高度重视.综述了国内外溴素生产现状和海水提溴的方法,介绍了空气吹出法、水蒸气蒸馏法、离子交换吸附法和膜分离法提溴技术的研究现状,分析了各种方法的优缺点.简述了超纯溴的制备方法.提出了海水提溴的未来发展方向.

  11. Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Elin; Lindqvist, Dennis; Dahlgren, Henrik; Asplund, Lillemor; Lehtilä, Kari

    2016-02-01

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels. PMID:26517387

  12. Relationships between polybrominated diphenyl ethers and transcription and activity of type 1 deiodinase in a gull highly exposed to flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Anthony; Técher, Romy; Houde, Magali; Spear, Philip; Verreault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Deca-brominated diphenyl ether (deca-BDE), composed mainly of BDE-209, is subject to usage restrictions in North America and Europe, although global action on its continued use has yet to be undertaken. Relatively large concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially BDE-209 and its higher brominated degradation products, have been reported in tissues of ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding near the densely populated city of Montreal (QC, Canada). There is limited knowledge of BDE-209 biotransformation and toxicokinetics in birds. Deiodinases, a class of enzymes catalyzing thyroid hormone conversion, have been suggested to be involved in BDE-209 debromination in birds. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PBDE concentrations and type 1 deiodinase (D1) transcription and in vitro activity (microsomes) in livers of Montreal-breeding ring-billed gulls. The ring-billed gulls exhibiting the highest D1 activity in liver microsomes accumulated the greatest liver concentrations of hepta-BDEs and octa-BDEs. Activity of D1 was inversely related to concentration ratios of BDE-209 to octa-BDEs and ∑hepta-BDE. An even stronger inverse relation was found between D1 activity and BDE-209 to ∑nona + octa + hepta-BDE concentration ratios. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of D1 in gull livers were inversely associated with liver concentrations of ∑octa-BDE. The present study's findings suggest that D1 is potentially involved in BDE-209 biotransformation and accumulation of higher brominated PBDEs in livers of ring-billed gulls. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2215-2222. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27336952

  13. Pilot study on the dietary habits and lifestyles of girls with idiopathic precocious puberty from the city of Rome: potential impact of exposure to flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Roberta; Mancini, Francesca R; Mantovani, Alberto; Busani, Luca; Maranghi, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    Puberty is regulated by the endocrine system, which when disrupted can affect reproductive health. Endocrine disrupters (ED) are involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are lipophilic, persistent ED used as flame retardants in several products; thus, human population is exposed through food and domestic dust. PBDE exposure during the peripubertal period is suspected to interfere with reproductive development. The study aimed to investigate PBDE serum concentration in 31 girls with ICPP as well as describe their dietary habits and lifestyles. The PBDE median level was 59 ng/g of lipids, higher than in healthy girls in comparable studies. Interestingly, elder girls and girls with higher body mass index (BMI) showed higher PBDE serum levels. Considering the relevance of altered puberty onset as a risk factor for reproductive health, studies on food contribution to PBDE exposure in Italian children, and efforts to ameliorate risk assessment for emerging chemicals are suggested. PMID:26226124

  14. Study on nano-TiO2 for flame-retardant finishing of cotton fabric%纳米TiO2阻燃整理棉织物的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁苑; 邓桦; 余苹

    2012-01-01

    将纳米TiO2颗粒分别分散于水、TiO2溶胶以及六偏磷酸钠溶液中制备整理液用于棉织物的阻燃整理,探索TiO2的加入对织物阻燃性能的影响,并利用XRD、氧指数测试仪、SEM等测试手段对TiO2颗粒的性质、织物的阻燃性能和棉纤维的表面性质进行表征.结果表明:TiO2颗粒的加入,在织物的表面形成无机包覆层,阻碍了棉纤维的燃烧进程,织物的极限氧指数值(LOI)得到大幅提升.%The titanium dioxide are dispersed in water, the titania sol, as well as the solution of sodium hexametaphosphate in the preparation of finishing liquid. The impact of titanium dioxide on fabric flame retardant properties are explored after finishing. And X-ray diffractometry (XRD) are used to analyze the nanoparticles. Flame-retardant properties and surface properties of cotton fibers are studied hy the oxygen index measuring instrument and scanning electrical microscope (SEM) . The results show that: The inorganic coat of the fabric's surface that formed after adding titanium dioxide particles has hindered the process of combustion effectively, and LOI of the fabric increases significantly.

  15. 阻燃型铝塑复合板的防火安全性试验与材料应用研究%Flame Retardant Fire Security Testing and Materials Application Research for APCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 赵成刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper used some new methods, I.e. The ignition test method of intermediate-scale, multistory building (NFPA 285-2006) and the virtual test of the large-scale fires of high-rise buildings, to replace the traditional tests, such as the small-scale test for incombustibility ( GB/T 8625-2005 ) and the single burning item test SBI medium-scale ( GB/T 20284-2006 ) ; researched the difference of fireproof performance of replacing normal non flame-retardant PE with halogen-free high performance flame retardant filled material as the core material for fireproof APCP; made the evaluation and analysis on the influence to its combustion performance based on the parameters of the test results. Therefore, this paper had the guiding significance for the Fireproof APCP using as the high rise building curtain wall decoration materials selection.%采用中等尺寸多层建筑燃烧试验( NFPA 285-2006)和高层楼房大型实体火灾试验等新方法,取代传统的小型难燃级试验( GB/T 8625-2005)和中型SBI单体燃烧试验(GB/T 20284-2006)等方法,研究了无卤高阻燃填充芯料选作防火铝塑复合板芯材取代普通不阻燃聚乙烯芯材的防火特性差异,并从试验结果参数对其燃烧性能的影响进行了评价分析,因而对防火铝塑板在高层建筑幕墙装饰上的材料选用有一定的指导意义.

  16. Bromine and Chlorine in Aerosols and Fly Ash when Co-Firing Solid Recovered Fuel, Spruce Bark and Paper Mill Sludge in a 80MWth BFB Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, P.; Silvennoinen, J.; Yrjas, P.; Frantsi, A.; Hietanen, L.; Hupa, M.; Taipale, R.

    Aerosol and fly ash sampling was carried out at a 80MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler plant co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF), spruce bark and paper mill wastewater sludge in two experimental conditions. The SRF-Bark ratio in the fuel mix was kept constant at 50%-50% on dry mass basis in both experiments but two sludge proportions were used: 15% and 4% on dry mass basis. Aerosol samples were collected from the superheater region of the boiler furnace and fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Na, K, Cl and S were found to be in mainly water soluble compounds in the aerosols sampled by means of a Dekati type Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI). Bromine was found in several weight percentages in aerosols and it was amongst the main elements in some of the samples collected. Bromine is assumed to mainly originate from flame retarded plastics and textiles in the SRF. According to the measurements, the fate of Br seems to be analogous to the other main halogen, Cl, and its conversion from fuel to aerosols was high, indicating a strong tendency to form bromine salts.

  17. Effect of Additives on Properties of Flame Retardant LLDPE with Magnesium Carbonate/Aluminium Hydroxide Compound%助剂对氢氧化铝和碳酸镁复配阻燃LLDPE性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 吴洁

    2011-01-01

    将协效剂白炭黑、硼酸锌、低熔点玻璃和硅烷偶联剂、铝酸脂偶联剂分别添加到碳酸镁/氢氧化铝复配阻燃的线型低密度聚乙烯(LLDPE)体系中,考察了这些助剂对体系阻燃性能和力学性能的影响.结果表明:几种助剂对体系的氧指数影响较小;白炭黑可以明显提高体系的拉伸强度,硼酸锌对体系的断裂伸长率影响最小;对拉伸强度而言,使用铝酸脂偶联剂优于硅烷偶联剂.%Several synergistic agents and two kind of coupling agents were added into the fame-retardant LLDPE system with magnesium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide compound, and the effects of additives on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of LLDPE system were studied.The results show that several synergistic agents have slight effect on oxygen index of the system, silica can improve the tensile strength evidently, and zinc borate has little influence on the elongation at break of the system. As far as the tensille strength is concerned, aluminate coupling agent is better than silane coupling agent.